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ALDEHYDE AND KETONE

OBJECTIVE
To identify carbonyl compounds as aldehyde and ketone using qualitative analysis

APPARATUS
Stopper, test tubes, water bath, thermometer

CHEMICAL REAGENTS
Iodine solution or potassium iodide, Tollens reagent, Schiff reagent, Fehlings solution,
NaOH 10% solution, Dioxane or its equivalent, 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine, ethanal,
benzaldehyde, propanone, an unknown carbonyl compound (X compound), ammonia 5%
solution.

METHOD
A.

Fehlings Test
1. 2 ml of Fehlings solution was placed in each test tube. 1-2 drops of the
compound was added to be tested.
2. Tubes were shaked gently.
3. The mixture was heated in boiling water for 15-20 minutes and was determined
whether any precipitate has been formed.

B.

Tollens Test
1. 1 ml Tollens reagent was added to each test tube contains the compound to be
tested and tubes were shaked gently
2. The mixtures allowed to stand for 3 minutes and then the formation of any silver
formation was noted.
3. When there is no change, the mixture was warmed in a water bath at 65C-75C
for 3 minutes.
4. Observation was recorded.

C.

Schiffs Test
1. One drop of ethanal, benzaldehyde, propanone and an unknown carbonyl
compound was placed into 4 different test tubes respectively.
2. 1 ml of Schiffs reagent was added into each of test tube.
3. They were shaked slowly and noted whether there is any change in color.
4. When the compounds do not dissolve, the test tube was stopper and was shaked
vigorously until an emulsion is formed.
5. Observation was recorded.

D.

Iodoform Test
1. 5 drops of ethanal, benzaldehyde, propanone and an unknown compound was
placed into 4 different test tubes respectively.
2. 5 ml dioxane was added in each tube and shake to dissolve the compounds.
3. 1 ml 10% NaOH solution was added.
4. While shaking, iodine or potassium iodide solution was added one drop at a time
until the iodine color is retained.
5. The test tube was warmed in a water bath at 65C-75C for a minute. When
iodine color disappears, more iodine or potassium iodide solution was added. The
formation of precipitate was noted. Observation was recorded. The functional
group of the unknown carbonyl was suggested .

CONCLUSION
Hypothesis accepted. Fehlings n Tollens is used to test for aldehyde. Schiffs test used to
test aldehyde except benzenealdehyde and it will be negative result for ketone except
propanone. Iodoform test is used to test ethanal.