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Parenting Style
Your style of parenting can
affect your children.
Two key aspects of parenting
make a big difference:
1) Responsiveness (warmth
and supportiveness)
2) Demandingness
(behavioral control)

The Four Parenting Styles:

Temperament Style
Children are born with a
tendency toward responding to
people and events in a certain
way. This is called

Three Temperament Types:

Easy children
Described as calm,
happy adaptable, regular in
feeding and sleeping habits,
positive in mood and interested
in new experiences

Low in responsiveness
Low in demandingness
High in responsiveness
Low in demandingness
Low in responsiveness
High in demandingness
High in responsiveness
Moderate in
Research has shown that the
best adjusted children have
parents with an authoritative
parenting style. These parents
are characterized as being firm,
with kindness, warmth and love.
They set high standards and
encourage children to be

Difficult children
Described as fussy,
irregular in feeding and sleeping
habits, low in adaptability,
fearful of new people and
situations, easily upset, high
strung, and intense in their
Slow to warm up children
Described as relatively
inactive, reflective, tend to
withdraw or to react negatively
to novelty, but their reactions
gradually become more positive
with experience
Temperament is identifiable
even at an early age in infancy.
Temperament is measured by
observing reactivity and selfregulation. Reactivity refers to
quickness and intensity of
emotional arousal, attention and
motor activity. Self-regulation
refers to strategies that modify
that reactivity.

Temperament is an enduring
tendency, but it is not set in
stone over a lifespan. Genetics,
biology and environment

of Fit Model

Goodness of fit describes how

temperament and environment
together can produce favorable
outcomes in the harmony
between parent and child.
Parents who are sensitive to
their childs temperament style,
and can recognize the childs
unique strengths will make
family life smoother.
Example 1: Difficult Child
If the parent knows that
a new situation is going to affect
the difficult child, the parent
may choose to provide advance
notice to the difficult child so
that they can together rehearse
the expected behavior as a way
to help her deal with the new
Example 2: Slow to Warm Up
When faced with a new
situation, ta parent of a slow to
warm up child may need to be
patient and allow him more time
to assess a situation.
An effective match between
rearing conditions and child
temperament is best
accomplished early, before
unfavorable temperamentenvironment relationships
produce maladjustment.

The goodness of fit model

reminds us that infants have
unique dispositions that adults
must accept. Parents can turn an
environment that exaggerates a
childs problems into one that
builds on the childs

Tips for

9) Make them aware that

their opinions are
respected, but remain
firm in your decisions.
10) Respect each childs
individual strengths and
dont compare children.

1) Reflect on your own

parenting style
2) Think about how your
own temperament style
meshes with your childs
temperament style
3) Remember that you can
influence your childs
temperament style
4) An effective match
between rearing
conditions and child
temperament is best
accomplished early
5) Be attuned to your
childs temperament and
encourage her to
accomplish tasks at her
own pace
6) Make your expectations
clear. Setting limits will
help your child develop
7) Encourage children to
work with you on
generating solutions to
8) Make communication a
priority. Be open to
discussion; take time to
explain your decisions
and motives and listen to
your childrens point of

For More Information about

parenting styles, temperament
and ways to be successful in
rearing your child, please go to:

Parenting Styles
------------------Brian Mann

------------------Matching Your
Approach for