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QUARTER-TONE PRODUCTION Z ON THE SAXOPHONE, Presented by John William Fpulscn qo fulfill the thesis requirenent for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Music Education ‘Thesis Director: Dr. Donald J. Shetler Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester November, 1975 a Coy | “as 4426176 apr 4 “ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation of this thesis would not have been possible without the contributions of certain individuals, First, the writer is grateful for the guidance of Dr. Donald Shetler, his major advisor, His constructive eriticiams and suggestions were of considerable value. Acknowledgement is-also made to Dr, Paul Lehman and Mr, Everett Gates, as both were instru~ mental in the initial organization of this project. A special note of thanks is due Mr, William Osseck, Associate Professor of Saxophone, for his suggestions and cooperation. rte ABSTRACT ‘As the tonal resources of conventional instruments continue to be explored by contemporary composers, new performing techniques are being identified. These new techniques often require new skills of the musician, One such technique is the successful production of quarter— tones, This study investigates quarter-tone production as it pertains to the instruments of the saxophone family, It is primarily intended to serve as a source for composer, performer, and teacher. The first objective of this study is to present quarter-tone fingering charts for soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone saxophones, Although it is possible to play quarter-tones with good intonation throughout most of the saxophone range, sone difficulties are encountered An respect to inconsistent timbre. There are means, however, of coping with these difficulties available to both performer and composer. A chapter is devoted to the construction of the fingering charts and to the findings of the related research. The second objective of this study is to devise pedagogical materials for the production of quarter-tones on the saxophone. This includes designing a systematic learning sequence for the introduction of quarter-tone:production to the saxophonist. Chapter III presents Preparatory Exercises, Chromatic Exercises, Interval Exercises, and Quarter-Tone Etudes for Saxophone, saa CHAPTER II CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APYENDIX C° APPENDIX D BIBLIOGRAPHY... TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. ...++++ Purpose of the Study.....+.++ Related Literature and Resear QUARTER-TONE FINGERINGS.. Quarter-Tone Fingering Charts.....--.++++ Key to Fingering Charts. Soprano Saxophone Chart. Alto Saxophone Chart... Tenor Saxophone Chart... Baritone Saxophone Chart, QUARTER-TONE EXERCISES AND ETUDES... Preparatory Exercises......s+e++ Chromatic Exercises...... Interval Exercises Set III, Quarter-Tone SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS...... SELECTED LIST OF COMPOSITIONS FOR SAXOPHONE EMPLOYING QUARTER-TONE: SELECTED LIST OF COMPOSITIONS FOR SAXOPHONE IN ENSEMBLE EMPLOYING QUARTER-TONES.. QUARTER-TONE MEASUREMENT. . « RECORDING TAPE: TRIAL PERFORMANCES OF ETUDE I....2+++++75 av INTRODUCTION Since the publication of Bruno Bartolozzi's book, New Sounds for Woodwind, new technical parameters for woodwind performers have “been, explored. These new parameters have taken many directions and forms so that there are a myriad of techniques which contemporary composers are demanding of msicians. Some composers simply explore sound possibilities through uncon- ‘yentional use of conventional instruments, Kreysztof Penderecki, for Anstance, believes that all sounds which can be made by conventional instruments must be thoroughly investigated if these instruments are to yemain useful in an age of electronic msic, The result is that the amount of music employing these techniques is increasing significantly. There is general agreenent among musicians that research in both performance and pedagogy is needed.” This type of research is especially difficult due to the highly individualistic performance variables ident— ified with each instrument or family of instruments; consequently, very Little has been accomplished, The investigation of a’ specific perform ance technique of a single instrumental family performing contemporary ‘pruno Bartolozzi, New Sounds for Woodwind, transalated and edited by Reginald Smith Brindle (London: Oxford University Press, 1967). 2pred Hemke, "New Directions in Saxophone Technique," Selmer Band~ wagon (Decenber, 1971). music was selected for the research reported in this study. One farily of instruments which lacks sufficient research in its capabilities of contemporary performing techniques is the saxophone. Nunerous compositions have been written for saxophone which require specific types of extended techniques. A technique which is becoming increasingly common in contemporary saxophone literature is the pro- duction of quarter-tones. Interest in such works also seems to be growing. This study includes appendices of selected works for solo saxophone and saxophone in ensemble in which quarter-tones appear. Most saxophonists who attempt to perform these contemporary works have probably experienced some frustration with quarter-tone production, ‘The absence of fingering charts, exercises, and related studies my account for mich of this frustration, Teachers and students alike are discouraged by a lack of available materials desigied to train performers in producing quarter-tones, This, of course, very likely results in reluctance of performers to program works requiring such techniques, Likewise, some composers are reluctant to incorporate passages including such demands since they might limit the study and performance of their works, An important step in overcoming the difficulties often associated with quarter-tone’ production on the saxophone, then, is for composers and performers to have available the necessary materials to help train’ sax- ophonists in producing quarter-tones, Purpose of the Study ‘The primary purpose of this study is to conduct detailed research in the production of quarter-tones as it pertains to the members of the saxophone family, It is intended to serve as a source for the composer, the performer, and the teacher. A secondary objective is the production of functional pedagogical materials, The second chapter of the thesis contains fingering charts which indicate quarter-tone fingerings for the principal menbers of the saxophone family: soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone. These charts indicate quarter-tone fingerings. between the semitones ranging from d! to £1'", Exceptions occur in those rare instances in which no fingering appears to be available, All pitch measurements were made with the Strobotuner ST-11 manufactured by C.G. Conn, Ltd, of Oak Brook, Illinois. ‘The objective in obtaining the measurements was to identify the fingering which produced the quarter-tone centered precisely between the adjacent semitones. When the best possible fingering was found to be somewhat sharp or flat, this discrepancy was indicated on the chart. Quarter-tone fingerings for the low end of the saxophone range do not appear on the charts because no satisfactory fingerings could be found. The altissimo range is also excluded but for a different reason; because of its difficulty, this range is generally mastered only by mature saxophonists, However, the pedagogical material's produced by this study are intended to be of moderate difficulty so as to be feasible for players of various levels, ‘The third chapter of this study contains preparatory exercises for quarter-tone production and ten etudes, The purpose of these materials is to assist performers to hear and play quarter-tones with accuracy, The exercises consist of sequential patterns which are in ‘tended to develop quarter-tone imagery and help the saxophonist gain confidence in performing quarter-tones, Each of the etudes is melodic and deals with one or more specific quarter-tone performance problems. ‘They are generally twenty-five measures in length and vary in difficulty from very easy to moderately difficult, ‘The player who lacks experience with saxophone quarter-tone pro- duction should be able to utilize these charts and etudes to 1) familiarize himself with most aspects of this kind of performance, and 2) develop the skills required by this type of performance. Related Jiterature and Research Research into microtonality is not new. It is, however, somewhat sparse with advancements being of an individualistic and experimental nature, Willian Austin, in Music in the Twentieth Century, lists on a chronological chart the various investigations and applications of micro- tones since 1849.3 Even with as long a history as this, use of intervals 3yi11iam Austin, Music in the Twentieth Century (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1966), pp. 381-3. | t i i smaller than a semitone has never become a common practice in Western music, Much of the recent growth of interest in these intervals seems to have been created by Bruno Bartolozzi. His research, though, did not include any menber of the saxophone family, The most significant work to date which deals specifically with saxophone quarter-tone production is Ronald Caravan's Extensions of Technique for Clarinet ‘and Saxophone. This study, although very thorough, is concerned only with the most common member of the saxophone family, the alto. There seems to be no research that is concerned with the saxophone as a family in terms of quarter-tone production, The present study, then, should be considered the next step in this one particular direction, a part of the necessary research for extending saxophone performance techniques. 4partoloszi, op. cit. 5Ronald Caravan, Extensions of Technique for Clarinet and Saxophone (D.M.A. Dissertation, Eastman, 197), a = Ir QUARTER-TONE FINGERINGS ‘The saxophone, from its invention by Adolphe Sax in 1840 to its modern construction, is designed to produce semitones, It is possible to produce quarter-tones on this instrunent, but only with limited success. The history of woodwinds in general has included the elimination of cross~ fingerings; the saxophone family has evolved similarly, Production of quarter-tones in contemporary music, however, has necessitated re-intro- duction of cross-fingerings. ; Cross-fingerings are defined as those fingerings which have one or more closed holes below an open hole, and then additional open holes below that, This type of fingering creates two problems, the first of which is mechanical, Moving smoothly from one note to another is more difficult if one or both of the notes require a cross-fingering. The other problem is the quality of sound produced by cross-fingerings. Acoustically, cross-fingerings create a longer section of tube below the first open hole. John Backus explains: ‘The effect of this greater length is to push the higher modes of the air colum even farther away from the harmonic frequencies than they are normally, so the harmonic content, of the tone is further reduced; this results in a poorer quality.! What Backus refers to as a “poorer quality" can be described as a darker or duller sound, This is as would be expected with any reduction John Backus, The Acoustical Foundations of Music (New York: W. Norton and Company, 1909), p. 207» of the upper partials in the sound's harmonic content. Cross-fingerings, then, tend to produce sounds inconsistent with the characteristic tinbre of the instrument, There seems to be no alternative to cross-fingerings, though, if quarter-tones are to be produced on the saxophone, Noticeable deviations in tinbre result with use of these fingerings. These deviations, however, can be minimized somewhat by both player and composer. If a performer is familiar with the nature and extent of the deviation resulting from a specific cross-fingering, he can make adjustments in the embouchure and oral cavity (similar to adjustments made for certain semitones with inconsistent timbre). . The performer is, of course, limited in the extent to which he can make adjustments. ‘The composer can be more effective in minimizing timbre deviation by carefully planning the incorporation of quarter-tones with cross-fingerings. Caravan has indicated two important considerations for the composer, One, the higher partials in a saxophone tone are less prominent when the saxophone is played at low volume levels. Since it is the absence of these partials which cause the tinbre deviation, less deviation results when quarter-tones with cross-fingerings are used in soft passages. Secondly, the higher partials are less prominent in the upper register of the saxophone, Thus quarter-tones with cross-fingerings in this register tend to be more uniform in tinbre than those in the lower registers.2 2caravan, op. cits, pe 123 It should be noted, however, that a composer may not wish to minimize these tinbre deviations, Indeed, he may wish to utilize then, If this is the case, it is useful to know that the greatest deviation in timbre occurs when cross-fingerings are employed in the middle and lower registers of the saxophone at high volume levels. Use of these quarter-tone fingerings for saxophone creates prob- lems of pitch as well as timbre. At best these fingerings are similar in pitch accuracy to the conventional semitone fingerings and, on the average, less accurate, Still, this is not an unsurmountable problem; ‘the performer must be prepared to temper the pitch often, Therefore, he must be able to identify the interval of a quarter-tone with enough discrimination to adjust the pitch for intonation purposes. In other words, he must accurately imagine the interval with his inner ear be— fore it has sounded. Then, once it has sounded, the performer subse~ quently adjusts the sound to match the pitch he had imagined, ‘Tempering quarter-tones would seem to demand highly refined pitch discrimination, ‘This is true to a degree, but identifying quarter-tone intervals is not as difficult as one inexperienced in their production might suspect. In the following chapter this aspect of quarter-tone performance is considered from a pedagogical view. Since the history of quarter-tone use in Western music consists of isolated, sporadic experimentation, no standard notational practice exists, In most cases the composer wishing to include quarter-tones in his music devises a unique notation for the performer, This seems to have served well enough in the past, but as the need for notation increases it appears that certain notational practices are more functional than others. One example of quarter-tone notation which seems to work well along with conventional notation is illustrated below. Example 1, Quarter-Tone Notation, Enharmonies CSS i + sharp sharp 2 flat z nat ‘This notational practice has been applied to the fingering charts at the end of this chapter because, as Caravan explains: sssthese quarter-tone accidentals are potentially most clear to the performer since their properties are de- rived from aspects of conventional notation. The use of the filled~in, or black flat to represent a quarter- tone, or half of a semitone (white flat) draws its re- lationship from the conventional use of a black note head to represent a quarter note and a white note head for a half note, The musician, already conditioned to the idea that the filled~in symbol is half the value of ‘the open one, will have no trouble adjusting to this system, Since the conventional synbol for a double flat As bb, it is logical that the flat symbols for the quarter-tone intervals be b, b, be, and bb, For the notation of sharps in quarter-tone increments, the conventional sharp symbol (#) is assumed and each vertical line is taken to represent one-quarter of a tone, Hence, the quarter sharp by # and three-quarters sharp is ##,” This further relates to a conventional, but less frequently used double sharp, ##f, which in- volves four verticals? - 3caravan, op. cit., pp. 127-8. 10 ‘These accidentals, then, indicate pitch at quarter-tone increments. No attempt has been made in this study to identify fingerings which create intervals smaller than the quarter-tone or which subdivide the whole-step differently. Some of the quarter-tone fingerings, though, have a notice- able tendency towards being sharp or flat. - When such a tendency has been detected, it has been noted on the charts with an arrow pointing up (7 ) for sharp and an arrow pointing down (|) for flat, Thus the symbols gfPindicate that the fingering produces a pitch just higher than gf This does not indicate that the fingering is useless or even particularly difficult to play in tune; it simply means that the performer probably will need to temper the pitch somewhat in the opposite direction of the arrow. Another notational practice utilized in this study is that in which the accidental affects only the note which it precedes, In music with many accidentals (which quarter-tone music tends to be), this practice avoids the cumbersome calligraphy resulting from frequent cancellations. The etudes presented in Chapter III of this study give exidence to this, If the traditional practice of the accidental remaining in effect through- out the measure had been used, notation of the etudes would have been more complex and less readily perceived. ‘The mechanical problens of producing quarter-tones on the saxophone need to be studied by composer as well as performer and teacher, Certain conventional fingering sequences on the saxophone are considered to be Ampractical because of the many changes of finger position, The like- Lihood of composers writing impractical fingering sequences is increased "1 with the introduction of quarter-tones, Hence, it is advisable for the composer to be knowledgeable of the relationship of notated pitches to fingering sequences, One instance of two notes which cannot be connected together is shown in Example 2, Example 2, This particular succession of notes is difficult because of the type of action required of the third finger, right hand, To produce the g* this finger mist depress the auxiliary f# key (also referred to as the "fork" ff key), To produce the next note, the a®, this same finger must depress the third finger pearl of the right-hand stack, This movement is not accomplished easily and is considered impossible Af the two notes are to be slurred. If the composer wishes to include this particular succession ‘of notes, it is probably best to do so in a slow moving line, or even with a rest indicated between the notes, As the composer becomes increasingly familiar with the use of quarter-tones, he will also become familiar with their use in swiftly: 12 moving lines, Rapid passages with quarter-tones are quite plausible 4f all of the fingering sequences are examined closely by the composer. Examples 3, 4, and 5 illustrate this point. Example 3. John Paulson, Etude X, mm, 12-13. Example 4. John Paulson, Etude VI, mm, I-5. Example 5, John Paulson, Etude V, mm. 15-16, 13 . It ds also possible for the composer to incorporate quarter-tones in a trill or tremolo, As in the aforementioned case with rapid passage 4t is important that the connection between the two notes involve a playable sequence of fingerings. Generally, a trill or tremolo between a conventional fingering and a quarter-tone fingering is not difficult. Example 6 lists several possibilities. Example 6, Quarter-Tone Trills. ‘The final pages of this chapter contain the quarter-tone fingering charts. There is a chart for each principal member of the saxophone family: soprano, alto, tenor, and baritone. All pitch measurements used to determine the accuracy of the fingerings were made on the Strobotuner $T-11 manufactured by C.G. Conn, Ltd. of Oak Brook, Illinois. “The saxophones employed in the testing were all Selmer Mark VI models, Fingerings indicated on the charts have proven successful in practice, They may need modification, however, when applied to other Acaravan, op. cit., pp. 139-h1. The quarter-tone fingering chart for alto saxophone in this study served as a model for the fingering charts presented in this chapter. 1h models of saxophones, Differences in performers' embouchures may also make modifications necessary. It is intended that performers begin their study of quarter-tone production with these charts, realizing that as they become more proficient they will devise variations of these fingerings to suit their personal needs. 15 QUARTER-TONE FINGERING CHARTS FOR: ‘SOPRANO SAXOPHONE ALTO SAXOPHONE, ‘TENOR SAXOPHONE BARITONE SAXOPHONE KEY TO FINGERING CHARTS amd eo re | | 17 ae, on, Os ) wee mee QUARTER-TONE FINGERINGS FOR THE SOPRANO SAXOPHONE ph » Oe xs S = aS = 2 iD = ee Soprano Saxophone Quarter-Tones--page 3. = 2%, & ) ee mee o 2 Oe: ) terse meee ee —_ ree oer r Soprano Saxophone Quarter-Tones——page ‘lt. Soprano Saxophone Quarter-Tones--page 5. QUARTER-TONE FINCERINGS FOR THE ALTO SAXOPHONE open nD 1 b> ag ee 1 22 enh 2 ) omit rove’ eos one 005 = = oe JE ) me 8 a oe Ze > ra = Bio: ) me 065 me os Alto Saxophone Quarter-Tones--page he ae == O- > ee _ oh ~ste, 3 = oll Alto Saxophone Quarter-Tones——page 5. _ sph os > = r = o> ae a 5 a as = zn ee aa a 1 ort - ») —_—_— Tenor Saxophone Quarter-Tones=-page be 3 ‘Tenor Saxophone Quarter~Tones-—page 5. | QUARTER-TONE FINGERINGS FOR THE BARITONE SAXOPHONE \ 4 : — ee O- » ra at ) =e oo mone > ss 33 + ot ont op aS ity | ed are eeatemeees Baritone Saxophone Quarter-Tones——page 2, | . ols DS moe on ) ot © a O- ) : ee DT opt errs et Baritone Saxophone Quarter-Tones--page he Baritone Saxophone Quarter-Tones—page 5. 2 ts : i) ~ 116 vey wy om Sar 36 Ir QUARTER-TONE EXERCISES AND ETUDES ‘The production of quarter-tones should be introduced to the sax- ophone performer in a systematic manner, Musicians unfamiliar with quarter-tone production tend to question their ability to hear and play intervals smaller than a semitone, This apprehensiveness can even exist to the degree that the musician is reluctant to attempt to play music employing quarter-tones. Hence, the introduction of quarter-tone pro- duction should include a systematic learning sequence which develops the performer's ability to hear these intervals as well as his confidence in performing then, This chapter presents such a learning sequence, It includes: Preparatory Exercises, Chromatic Exercises, Interval Exercises (Sets I, II, and III), and ten Quarter-Tone Etudes for Saxophone, These exercises and etudes appear at the end of this chapter and the specific objectives they are concerned with are discussed forthwith, The Preparatory Exercises are essential even though they are simple in principle. They represent the performer's first attempt to identify and play quarter-tones. Only three specific quarter-tones are introduced in these first exercises: cf, b¥, and cb, These three are utilized be- cause, with very few exceptions, the required fingerings are easily executed and well in tune; the performer will most likely have little concern with technical difficulties or excessive tempering of pitch. 37 Example 7 below is the first of the Preparatory Exercises, Example 7. Preparatory Exercise No. 1. ‘The manner in which this exercise introduces the c¢ is significant, Before the quarter-tone is attempted the performer plays its adjacent semitones, ¢ and db, This establishes not only an interval familiar to the performer, but also the two reference points by which he is able to measure the quarter-tone. The cf , when tuned properly, is centered between these two semitones, Thus the placing of the cf in the second bar of the exercise is simply a matter of creating equal intervals be- tween ¢ to cf and cf to d>, If the quarter-tone is not played in tune (in terms of equal temperament), the resulting two intervals will not be equal. For example, if the cf is flat it will be closer to the ¢ ‘than to the db, This can be detected because the interval ¢ to cf will sound smaller than the interval cf to db, The performer must be able ‘to determine if the two intervals are equal or not, and temper the pitch appropriately. He is able to do this readily if he has first established his points of pitch reference, the two adjacent semitones. It is in this type of chromatic context that quarter-tones can most easily be identified, This principle of establishing chronatic reference points 1s employed throughout the materials presented in 39 this chapter, The Chromatic Exercises consist of an abbreviated variation of the Preparatory Exercises and span the entire quarter-tone range of the saxophone. In each instance the quarter-tone being introduced can be measured in reference to its adjacent semitones, It is intended that these toro groups of exercises, the Preparatory Exercises and the Chromatic Ex- ercises, precede any attempt to perform the etudes, The performer mst be careful not to progress hastily beyond these initial exercises; repeated practice 1s necessary if he is to gain mastery of these new intervals. The Interval Exercises are intended to be used in conjunction with the first few etudes, ven though these exercises introduce quarter-tone intervals larger than a second, they still employ the principle of ident~ ification by chromatic reference points. Set I introduces the quarter tone intervals between a minor third and a perfect fourth, The first reference points established are those of the minor third. Once the per fomer has this faniliar interval in his ear, he is able to measure the next interval, the minor thind diminished one-quarter of a tone, Then, before continuing, the minor third is re-established so as to provide fa reference point by which to identify the larger intervals which follow. Subsequently, each introduction of a quarter-tone interval is preceded and followed by conventional intervals more familiar to the performer. Example 8 is the first of the Interval Exercises, Example 8, Interval Exercises, Set I, No. SS = 40 Each Set of the Interval Exercises spans the entire quarter-tone range of the saxophone. Set II introduces the quarter-tone intervals between the perfect fourth and the major sixth, Set III introduces the quarterstone intervals between the major sixth and the perfect octave, A quarter-tone chromatic scale is presented in conclusion to these exercises, : The etudes are also derived from the principle of identifying quarter-tones by chromatic reference points, ‘The first etudes especially give evidence to this. Here quarter-tones are included only in a chro- matic context which insures that they may be identified readily. Each quarter-tone is either preceded or followed by an adjacent semitone, In most instances the quarter-toné is placed in a context very similar to the Chromatic Exercises, The later etudes, however, progress away from this simple chromatic context and include more subtle incorporation of quarter-tones, In these etudes the performer is required to play quarter ‘tones which are not easily heard in relation to a near reference point, In some cases the quarter-tone is both approached and resolved by inter- vals larger than a ninth, It is in this context that the performer mst be confident of his ability to produce quarter-tones, He must be familiar enough with pitch tendencies of the fingerings and the exact size of the Antervals if he is to temper the pitch appropriately. “If the performer ie unable to do this confidently, more practice is required in the chro- matic context developed in the Interval Exercises. In addition to developing the performer's ability to identify quarter-tones, the etudes are also intended to develop his technical facility in performing them. Rapid passages including quarter-tones Mt are not uncommon in the etudes, Etudes V, VI, and X in particular are devoted to incorporating quarter-tones in swift moving lines requiring control and independence of fingers, These etudes often focus on two or three particular sequences of notes which involve coordination prob- lems likely to be new to the saxophone performer. ‘The etudes in general, though, are melodic in nature, They tend ‘to emphasize the use of quarter-tones in lyrical passages where they can be heard either as ornaments of the melody or motivie intervals which shape the melody. The performer, by playing these etudes, not only familiarizes himself with quarter-tone performance, but also with the music created by the use of quarter-tones. Informal Testing Procedure As is often the case with the construction of pedagogical materials, the validity, or effectiveness, of the materials is questionable until proven in practice. The writer was thus anxious to conduct some informal testing of the materials presented in this chapter, With the cooperation of three saxophonists from the class of William Osseck, Associate Professor of Saxophone at Eastman School of Music, an informal experiment was performed, The writer prepared a small test kit for each of the students which in¢luded examples from the Chromatic Exercises and a copy of the first etude, On October 21, 1975, the three students were recorded while performing the etude. Then they were given the relevant exercises and instructed on their use. One week later, after having practiced the 42 exercises and the etude, the students were again recorded while per- forming the etude a second time, Although this informal experiment is not offered as proof of the effectiveness of the materials, the improve- ment in performance is nonetheless easily perceived. Appendix D con~ sists of the audio tape recording made by the students, 43 PREPARATORY EXERCISES When the following sequences are played, it is important that the semitones adjacent to the quarter-tone be well established as pitch reference points. The quarter-tone should be centered between these two semitones. If the quarter-tone is not centered, the resulting intervals between it and its adjacent semitones will not be equal, Care should be taken not to allow any variation in timbre to influence the interpretation of pitch. Exercise No. 1, Exercise No. 2, Exercise No. 3. CHROMATIC EXERCISES 45 Ay 48 INTERVAL EXERCISES SET I 49 50 be Doe: be be: f be be F be te be +#: b. be oe fp bt » he te ie fo of He roi it $ 2 f 54 INTERVAL EXERCISES SET II 52 ah 5h INTERVAL EXERCISES SET ITI SSS 7 7 —s 55 \ te lb . a Tt FS HL 56 QUARTER-TONE CHROMATIC SCALE ai Topo He — ez z ze 4 porte etre te tet ipiede pte pte te we f 1% 1p it He i > % fb gi g'e ¢ tebe ¢ ie tebe ¢ HL be be bbe «kobe bbe pba bbe . aw 4 = 57 QUARTER-TONE ETUDES FOR ‘SAXOPHONE 58 L d= 60 eer P decrese. 59 RP erase. aN 61 é f — == 7 Erese. Crese. - - se 63 vIL dst Largamente ’ 2 bre. es tte > = ti 4 65 Jen VIII pba é 7 ee z mat —~ Temoo ad li phy these ie with any rhythed or ba to Tempo I? Rubato - = tempo Pat ba abe ete erese. geass, bepeosoooo =. be bebebs betecbe: be bebe» ete pbe ot f decrescende. ~ b 69 5 fice en abe bbe pian Ww SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS With the increased interest contemporary composers have shown in expanding technical parameters of conventional instruments, the need has arisen for both means to perform the new techniques and related ‘pedagogical materials, These new techniques, numerous and diverse in nature, require methodical research, The present study of quarter-tone production by the principal members of the saxophone family is an attempt to provide @ practical source for composer, performer, and teacher. ‘The problem inherent with quarter-tone production on the saxophone is that the instrument is designed to produce semitones, Quarter-tones can be produced on the saxophone throughout most of its range, but only with limited success, Many fingerings may be utilized to create quarter- tones with satisfactory intonation. The timbre resulting from these fingerings, however, is often inconsistent with the characteristic timbre of the instrument. This is due primarily to the unavoidable use of cross-fingerings which tend to dull the sound noticeably, Still, quarter-tones can be effectively incorporated into music for saxophone Af 1) the performer is familiar with the undesirable tendencies of any given fingering so as to be able to negate them, and 2) the composer is knowledgeable of how to best utilize the quarter-tones, Of equal importance to the fingerings devised for quarter-tone production is their introduction to the student saxophonist, This 70 n introduction should consist of a systematic learning sequence; the performer must develop both his ability to hear.the quarter-tone inter- vals and his confidence to perform then, One such learning sequence Aneludes the introduction of quarter-tones in a chromatic context whereby the semitones adjacent to the quarter-tone are established as pitch reference points. Then, as the performer gains familiarity with quarter- tones, larger intervals are introduced, but always with chromatic pitch reference points, Eventually, etudes can be utilized to help attain mastery of quarter-tone production. It is hoped that this study will lend encouragement to saxophonists wishing to attempt music incorporating quarter-tones. As they become more confident of their ability in this type of performance, they will explore other new techniques on their instrument, and composers will very likely be encouraged to include such techniques in their music. Systematic investigation of solutions to performance problems found in contemporary works is highly recommended. APPENDIX A ‘SELECTED LIST OF COMPOSITIONS FOR SAXOPHONE EMPLOYING QUARTER-TONES Adler, Samuel, Canto IV (1971), for alto saxophone, Islington, Massachusetts: Dorn Publications, 1973. Blank, Allan, Three Novelties (1971), for alto saxophone, Islington, Massachusetts: Dorn Publications, 1973. Caravan, Ronald L. Three Pieces for Saxophone (1973). From Extensions ‘6f Technique Tor Clarinet and Saxophone. D.ti.A. dissertation, ‘Fastman School of husic, Hochester, New York, 1974. Caravan, Ronald L, Sketch for Alto Saxophone (1973). New York: Seesaw Music Corporation, 1974. Denisov, Edison, Sonate, for alto saxophone. Paris: Leduc, 1973. Diemente, Edward. Dimensions III, for alto saxophone and tape. New York: Seesaw Music Corporation, 1972. Korte, Karl, Dialogue, for alto saxophone and two channel tape. New York: Galaxy Husic Corporation, 1971. Silverman, Faye-Ellen. Three Movements for Saxophone Alone (1971). New York: Seesaw Husic Corporation, 1972. Strawser, Richard’Alan, Lamentation (1972), for alto saxophone and piano. Richard Alen Strawser, Husic Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06862 (manuscript). 7 APPENDIX B SELECTED LIST OF COMPOSITIONS FOR SAXOPHONE IN ENSEMBIE EMPLOYING QUARTER-TONES Ahern, Philip, Scherzoid (1974), for saxophone quartet (SATB), Philip Ahern, P.0. Box 2282, Station "A", Champaign, Dlinois 61620 (manuscript). Andrews, Ray. Steps Approaching (1973), for alto saxophone and percussion ensemble, Ray Andrews, 586 North Clinton Street, Stephenville, Texas 76401 (manuscript ). for Saxorhone and Percussion (1972), for tenor New York: Artisan Music Press, Faulconer, Bruce L. Music for saxophone and percussion ensemble 197s Husa, Karel. Apotheosis of the Earth, for concert band. New York: Associated Husic Publishers, Incorporated, 1971. Korte, Karl. Synmetrics, for saxophone and four percussion. Karl Korte, Music Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (manuscript). Verdi, Kalph Carl. Strong Song (1974), for saxophone quartet (SATB) and chanber wind ensenble. -kalph Carl Verdi, St. Joseph's College, Renesselaer, Indiana (manuscript). Weinzweig, John. Divertimento No. 6, for alto saxophone and strings. Toronto: Canadian Fusic Centre, 1263 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario, Ganada N5R 2C1. . B APPENDIX ¢ QUARTER-TONE MEASUREMENT The fingerings presented at the end of Chapter II in thie study were checked for pitch accuracy with measurements made on the Strobotuner ST-11 manufactured by C.G. Conn, Ltd. of Oak Brook, Illinois. This device can be easily and effectively used to measure the pitch produced on an instrument. To measure quarter-tones, the normal procediire outlined in ‘the Strobotuner Owner's Manual 4s followed plus one additional step. ‘Once the machine has been calibrated properly for routine use and the ‘dial designated Function is set to Normal, the calibration dial need only be set to either fifty cents sharp or fifty cents flat to measure @ quarter-tone accurately. m APPENDIX D RECORDING TAPE: TRIAL PERFORMANCES OF ETUDE I See enclosed audio cassette tape recording of Etude I, The order of performances is as follows: October 21, October 28, October 21, October 28, October 21, + Student C October 28, + Student. C BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘Austin, William, Music In the Twentieth Century. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1966. Backus, John, The Acoustical Foundations of Music, New York: W.W. Norton ard Company, 199. Bartolozzi, Bruno, New Sounds for Woodwind, Transalated and edited by Reginald Smith Brindle. London: Oxford University Press, 1967. Caravan, Ronald. Extensions of Technique for Clarinet and Saxophone. Unpublished D.K.A. dissertation, Eastman, 1974. Henke, Fred L, "New Directions In Saxophone Technique. Selmer Bandwagon, 63 (Fall, 1970),pp. 14-7, and 64 (Winter, 1971), pp. 21-3-