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Physics ISU: Toy Roller

Coaster
Kevin OBrien, John Polak, and Bruce Miller

21/12/12
SPH 3U1-30

Mr. Edwards

Table of Contents
1.0 Purpose:.....................................................................................................1
2.0 Hypothesis:................................................................................................1
3.0 Background:...............................................................................................1
3.1 Time (From Start):...................................................................................1
3.2 Change in Time:......................................................................................2
3.3 Change in Height:...................................................................................2
3.4 Displacement (Change in Position):........................................................3
3.5 Velocity/Speed:.......................................................................................3
3.6. Acceleration:..........................................................................................4
3.7 Work:......................................................................................................4
3.8 Potential Energy:.....................................................................................5
3.9 Kinetic Energy:........................................................................................5
3.10 Total Energy:.........................................................................................6
3.11 Percent Efficiency:................................................................................6
3.12 Conservation of Mechanical Energy:.....................................................6
3.13 Conservation of Energy:........................................................................7
3.14 Sources of Energy Loss:........................................................................7
3.15 Force of Friction:...................................................................................7
3.16 Power:...................................................................................................8
3.17 Mid-Time:..............................................................................................8
3.18 Average Velocity/Speed:.......................................................................8
3.19 Percent Difference:...............................................................................9

4.0 Materials:.................................................................................................10
5.0 Procedure:................................................................................................10
6.0 Observations:...........................................................................................11
6.1 Tables for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:....................................11
6.1.1 Overall:...........................................................................................11
6.1.2 First Drop:.......................................................................................17
6.1.3 Loop:...............................................................................................19
6.1.4 Second Drop:..................................................................................21
6.1.5 Banked Turn:...................................................................................23
6.2 Tables for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:..........................................25
6.2.1 Overall:...........................................................................................25
6.2.2 First Drop:.......................................................................................30
6.2.3 Loop:...............................................................................................32
6.2.4 Second Drop:..................................................................................34
6.2.5 Banked Turn:...................................................................................36
6.3 Graphs for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:...................................38
6.3.1 Energy Versus Time Graphs:...........................................................38
6.3.2 Energy Versus Position Graphs:......................................................43
6.4 Graphs for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:........................................48
6.4.1 Energy Versus Time Graphs:...........................................................48
6.4.2 Energy Versus Position Graphs:......................................................53
6.5 Overall Comparison Graph:..................................................................58
6.6 Overall Percent Difference:...................................................................59
7.0 Analysis:..................................................................................................60
7.1 Sample Calculations for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:..............60

7.1.1 Sample Calculations:......................................................................60


7.1.2 Overall:...........................................................................................65
7.1.3 Most Energy Efficient Feature, First Drop:......................................68
7.1.4 Least Energy Efficient Feature, Second Drop:.................................71
7.2 Sample Calculations for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:...................74
7.2.1 Sample Calculations:......................................................................74
7.2.2 Overall:...........................................................................................79
7.2.3 Most Energy Efficient Feature, First Drop:......................................82
7.2.4 Least Energy Efficient Feature, Loop:.............................................85
7.3 Percent Difference Calculations:...........................................................88
7.3.1 Overall:...........................................................................................88
7.3.2 First Drop:.......................................................................................88
7.3.3 Loop:...............................................................................................88
7.3.4 Second Drop:..................................................................................88
7.3.5 Banked Turn:...................................................................................89
8.0 Discussion:...............................................................................................90
8.1 General Energy Analysis:......................................................................90
8.1.1 Section Comparisons:.....................................................................90
8.1.2 Potential, Kinetic, and Total Energy:...............................................90
8.2 Error:.....................................................................................................91
8.2.1 Drop Height:...................................................................................91
8.2.2 Measurement Error:........................................................................91
8.2.3 Frame Rate:....................................................................................92
8.2.4 Parallax:..........................................................................................92
8.3 Reasons for Energy Loss:......................................................................93

8.4 Feature With Least Energy Loss:...........................................................94


8.5 Feature With Most Energy Loss:............................................................94
9.0 Analysis of Centripetal/Centrifugal/G-Force:............................................95
9.1 Background:.........................................................................................95
9.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration:................................................................95
9.1.2 Centripetal Force:...........................................................................95
9.1.3 Centrifugal Acceleration:................................................................96
9.1.4 Centrifugal Force:...........................................................................96
9.1.5 G-Force:..........................................................................................97
9.1.6 Radius:............................................................................................97
9.2 Analysis:...............................................................................................98
9.2.1 Radius:............................................................................................98
9.2.2 Centripetal Acceleration:................................................................98
9.2.3 Centripetal Force:...........................................................................98
9.2.4 Centrifugal Acceleration:................................................................99
9.2.5 Centrifugal Force:...........................................................................99
9.2.6 G-Force:..........................................................................................99
10.0 Conclusion:..........................................................................................100
11.0 Pictures:...............................................................................................101
12.0 Bibliography/Works Cited:....................................................................103

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 1 of 102

1.0 Purpose:
To determine energy lost by the un-optimized roller coaster, and compare it
to the energy lost after the roller coaster is optimized.

2.0 Hypothesis:
The toy roller coaster will be 20% efficient before optimization. Less energy
will be lost after the roller coaster is optimized. The toy roller coaster will be
30% efficient after optimization. This will be because less energy will be lost
as the cart travels down the track, because the track will not move as much
after optimization. Therefore, less energy will be spent moving the track, and
more energy will remain in the cart.

3.0 Background:
3.1 Time (From Start):
This formula will be used to find the time from when the cart was released
from the start of the track. This experiment used a high-speed camera that
filmed at 240 frames per second. This means that for every 240 frames, the
cart has been travelling for 1 second. This formula will be useful for finding
the changes in time between two time intervals. This value is measured in
seconds, and is obtained by dividing the frame number by the frame rate.
t=

F
FPS

Where t is thetimeseconds

Where F is the number of frames the start

Where FPS is the number of frames per second

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 2 of 102

3.2 Change in Time:


This formula will be used to find the change in time over an interval of time.
The values derived from this formula will be used to find velocity,
acceleration, and kinetic energy. This value is measured in seconds, and is
obtained by subtracting the value of the first time from the value of the
second time.
t=t 2t 1

Where t is the changetime seconds ( s)

Where t 2 is the second time seconds(s)

Where t 1 is the first timeseconds(s)

3.3 Change in Height:


This formula will be used to find the change in height between two positions
of the cart. The change in height calculation will be useful because it is
related to the change in potential energy. This value is measured in metres,
and is obtained subtracting the value of the first height from the value of the
second height.
h=h2h1

Where h is the changeheight metres(m)

Where h1 isthe first height metres(m)

Where h2 isthe second height metres (m)

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 3 of 102

3.4 Displacement (Change in Position):


This formula will be used to find the displacement or change in position along
the track of the cart between two intervals of time. Displacement, however,
is a vector quantity, so it would have quantitative values as well as a
direction. However, in this experiment, direction was not measured, so
instead the value will be the distance travelled by the cart along the track.
This value is measured in metres, and is obtained by subtracting the value of
the first position from the value of the second position.
d =d 2d 1

Where d is the change positionmetres(m)

Where d 2 is the second positionmetres(m)

Where d 1 is the first position metres(m)

3.5 Velocity/Speed:
This formula will be used to find the speed of the cart over an interval of
time. Speed will be used because velocity is a vector quantity and direction
was not measured during the experiment. Speed is used to measure the
change in distance over an interval of time. This value is measured in metres
per second, and is obtained by dividing the displacement by the change in
time.
v=

d
t

Where v is the velocitymetres per second

( ms )

Where t is the changetime seconds ( s)

Where d is thedisplacement metres ( m)

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 4 of 102

3.6. Acceleration:
This formula will be used to find the acceleration of the cart over an interval
of time. Acceleration is the rate at which the speed of the cart changes. This
will not be a vector quantity as speed was used instead of velocity. This value
is measured in metres per second squared, and is obtained by subtracting
the first speed from the second speed, and dividing by the change in time.
a=

v 2v1
t

Where a is theacceleration is metres per second squared

Where v 2 isthe second speed metres per second

Where v 1 isthe first speed metres per second

( ms )
2

( ms )

( ms )

Where t is the changetime seconds ( s)

3.7 Work:
This formula will be used to determine force on the cart over a distance.
Work is measured in joules, so when you know two of the energy, the force,
and the displacement, the third can be determined. This value is measured
in joules, and is obtained by multiplying the force acting on the cart by the
displacement of the cart.
W =F cos d

W =ET 2ET 1

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
Where W isthe work done joules ( J )

Page 5 of 102

Where F is the forcenewtons ( N )

Where isthe direction of the force degrees ( )


Where d is thedisplacemtn ( changeposition ) metres ( m )
Where ET 2 is the second amount of total energy joules ( J )
Where ET 1 is the first amount of total energy joules ( J )

3.8 Potential Energy:


This formula will be used to determine the potential energy of the cart at a
certain time. In this experiment, potential energy refers to gravitational
potential energy. Potential energy decreases as the cart nears the ground.
This value is measured in joules, and is determined by multiplying the mass
of the cart by the acceleration due to gravity by the height of the cart.
E P=m g h
Where E P is the potential e nergy joules ( J )

Where g isthe acceleration due gravity

Where mis the masskilograms(kg)

( ms )
2

3.9 Kinetic Energy:


This formula will be used to determine the kinetic energy of the cart at a
certain time. Kinetic energy increases as the cart speeds up, and decreases
as the cart slows down. This value is measured in joules, and is determined
by multiplying half of the mass of the cart by the square of the speed.
1
2
E K= m v
2

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
Where E K isthe kinetic energy joules ( J )

Where v is the velocitymetres per second

Page 6 of 102

Where mis the masskg

( ms )

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 7 of 102

3.10 Total Energy:


This formula will be used to find the total energy in the cart at a certain time.
Total energy should decrease as the cart goes along the track. This is
because some energy will be lost to sources such as friction, sound, and
drag. This value is measured in joules, and is determined by adding the
kinetic energy to the potential energy.
ET =E P + E K
Where ET is thetotal energy joules ( J )

Where E P is the potential energy joules ( J )

Where E K isthe kinetic energy joule s ( J )

3.11 Percent Efficiency:


This formula will be used to find the percent efficiency of the roller coaster
over an interval of time. Percent efficiency is useful because it can be used to
determine what percent of energy is lost by doing a certain action, such as a
roller coaster travelling along a track. This value is measured in percent, and
is determined by dividing the second amount of energy by the first amount
of energy, and then by multiplying the quotient by 100%.
E2
100
E1

( )

Eff =

Where Eff is the percent efficiency of the roller coaster percent ( )


Where E2 isthe second amount of energy joules ( J )
Where E1 isthe first amount of energy joules(J )

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 8 of 102

3.12 Conservation of Mechanical Energy:


This formula can be used to determine that the total energy at the start of
the roller coaster is the same as the total energy at the end of the roller
coaster.
ET 2 =ET 1
Where ET 2 is the second amount of total energy joules(J )
Where ET 1 is the first amount of total energy joules (J )

3.13 Conservation of Energy:


This formula can be used to find how much energy is lost from the system to
the surroundings, or vice versa. It is also useful because it tells us that
energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
E sys+ Esurr =0
Where E sys is the changethe energythe system( J )
Where E surr is thecahnge theenergy the surroundings(J )

3.14 Sources of Energy Loss:


Friction, heat, sound, and drag are all sources of energy loss. As the cart
goes along the track, it loses energy to these sources, which cause energy to
be lost from the system and added to the surrounding, as is illustrated in the
conservation of energy formula. As the carts wheels pass along the track,
energy is lost to friction, which becomes heat and sounds. Also, as the cart
moves through the air, drag slows it down, which takes energy from the cart.
ET 2 =ET 1E L

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
Where ET 2 is the second amount of energy joules ( J )

Page 9 of 102

Where ET 1 is the first amount of enegry joules ( J )


Where E L isthe energy lost the cart joules(J )

3.15 Force of Friction:


Ff=

ET 2ET 1
d

Where F f isthe force of frictionnewtons ( N )


Where ET 2 is the second amount of energy joules ( J )
Where ET 1 is the first amount of energy joules ( J )
Where d is the displacement metres(m)

3.16 Power:
This formula can be used to find the power created by the cart over an
interval of time. This value is measured in watts, and is determined by
dividing the total energy of the cart by the change in time.
P=

E
t

Where Pis the power watts ( W )


Where t is the time seconds (s )

Where ET is the energy joules ( J )

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 10 of 102

3.17 Mid-Time:
This formula can be used to find the middle point in time between two
intervals of time. This value is measured in seconds, and is determined by
adding the two times together, and dividing by two.
T Mid=

t 1+t 2
2

Where T Mid isthe middle point timeseconds ( s )

Where t 1 is the first timeseconds ( s )

Where t 2 is the second time seconds(s)

3.18 Average Velocity/Speed:


This formula will be used to find the average velocity/speed over a certain
distance. This value is found by dividing the change distance travelled by the
change in time.
v=

d
t

Where v is the speed metres per second

( ms )

Where d is the change distancemetres ( m )

Where t is the changetimeseconds( s)

3.19 Percent Difference:


This formula will be used to find the percent difference between two values.
This value is found by dividing the difference between the maximum value
and the minimum value by the average value.

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
Maximum ValueMinimum Value
%Diff =
100
Average Value

Page 11 of 102

Where %Diff is the percent difference percent ( )


Where MaximumValue is the greatest value
Where Average Value is the average value

Whe Minimum Value isthe lowest value

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 12 of 102

4.0 Materials:

Toy Roller Coaster


Track
High Speed Camera
Ruler Sticks
Measuring Tape
Retort Stands
C Clamps
Chair
Desk

5.0 Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A toy roller coaster was built.


The cart was massed.
The height of each segment of the track was measured.
The length of each track segment was measured.
A high-speed camera was used to film the cart descending the track.
The roller coaster was modified to reduce energy loss.
A high-speed camera was used to film the cart descending the
improved track.

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 13 of 102

6.0 Observations:
6.1 Tables for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:
6.1.1 Overall:
Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track
Section
Numbe
r

CrossSection
Numbe
r

Frame
s

Frame
s

Heigh
t

Position
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

Heigh
t

Positio
n Down
Track

Velocit
y

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

219.5

19

19

215.0

4.5

13

32

210.5

9.0

40

206.5

13.5

47

202.0

18.0

53

198.0

22.5

59

194.0

27.0

64

189.5

31.5

68

185.5

36.0

73

181.5

40.5

77

178.0

45.0

81

174.0

49.5

85

170.5

54.0

88

167.0

58.5

0
0.07
9
0.13
3
0.16
7
0.19
6
0.22
1
0.24
6
0.26
7
0.28
3
0.30
4
0.32
1
0.33
8
0.35
4
0.36
7

0.04
0
0.10
6
0.15
0
0.18
1
0.20
8
0.23
3
0.25
6
0.27
5
0.29
4
0.31
3
0.32
9
0.34
6
0.36
0

2.195

2.150

0.045

2.105

0.090

2.065

0.135

2.020

0.180

1.980

0.225

1.940

0.270

1.895

0.315

1.855

0.360

1.815

0.405

1.780

0.450

1.740

0.495

1.705

0.540

1.670

0.585

0
0.07
9
0.05
4
0.03
3
0.02
9
0.02
5
0.02
5
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
3

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.045
0.045
0.040
0.045
0.040
0.040
0.045
0.040
0.040
0.035
0.040
0.035
0.035

0.568
0.831
1.350
1.543
1.800
1.800
2.160
2.700
2.160
2.700
2.700
2.700
3.600

Averag
e
Velocity

Ep

Ek

Et

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

2.673

0.366
8
0.359
2
0.351
7
0.345
0
0.337
5
0.330
8
0.324
2
0.316
6
0.310
0
0.303
3
0.297
4
0.290
7
0.284
9
0.279
0

0.3668
0.0028

0.3620

0.0059

0.3576

0.0155

0.3606

0.0203

0.3578

0.0276

0.3585

0.0276

0.3518

0.0398

0.3564

0.0621

0.3721

0.0398

0.3430

0.0621

0.3596

0.0621

0.3529

0.0621

0.3470

0.1105

0.3895

%
Eff

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

14.5
1

0.3135

0.0571

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 14 of 102

91

163.5

63.0

95

160.0

67.5

98

157.0

72.0

102

153.0

76.5

105

149.0

81.0

108

145.2

85.5

112

141.5

90.0

114

137.0

94.5

117

133.5

99.0

120

129.0

103.5

122

124.5

108.0

125

118.5

112.5

128

114.5

117.0

131

110.5

121.5

133

108.0

126.0

136

103.5

130.5

138

100.5

135.0

141

95.0

139.5

143

91.0

144.0

146

88.0

148.5

149

83.5

153.0

151

80.5

157.5

154

77.5

162.0

156

74.5

166.5

0.37
9
0.39
6
0.40
8
0.42
5
0.43
8
0.45
0
0.46
7
0.47
5
0.48
8
0.50
0
0.50
8
0.52
1
0.53
3
0.54
6
0.55
4
0.56
7
0.57
5
0.58
8
0.59
6
0.60
8
0.62
1
0.62
9
0.64
2
0.65
0

0.37
3
0.38
8
0.40
2
0.41
7
0.43
1
0.44
4
0.45
8
0.47
1
0.48
1
0.49
4
0.50
4
0.51
5
0.52
7
0.54
0
0.55
0
0.56
0
0.57
1
0.58
1
0.59
2
0.60
2
0.61
5
0.62
5
0.63
5
0.64
6

1.635

0.630

1.600

0.675

1.570

0.720

1.530

0.765

1.490

0.810

1.452

0.855

1.415

0.900

1.370

0.945

1.335

0.990

1.290

1.035

1.245

1.080

1.185

1.125

1.145

1.170

1.105

1.215

1.080

1.260

1.035

1.305

1.005

1.350

0.950

1.395

0.910

1.440

0.880

1.485

0.835

1.530

0.805

1.575

0.775

1.620

0.745

1.665

0.01
3
0.01
7
0.01
3
0.01
7
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
7
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.00
8

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.035
0.035
0.030
0.040
0.040
0.038
0.037
0.045
0.035
0.045
0.045
0.060
0.040
0.040
0.025
0.045
0.030
0.055
0.040
0.030
0.045
0.030
0.030
0.030

3.600
2.700
3.600
2.700
3.600
3.600
2.700
5.400
3.600
3.600
5.400
3.600
3.600
3.600
5.400
3.600
5.400
3.600
5.400
3.600
3.600
5.400
3.600
5.400

0.273
2
0.267
3
0.262
3
0.255
6
0.249
0
0.242
6
0.236
4
0.228
9
0.223
1
0.215
5
0.208
0
0.198
0
0.191
3
0.184
6
0.180
5
0.172
9
0.167
9
0.158
7
0.152
1
0.147
0
0.139
5
0.134
5
0.129
5
0.124
5

0.1105

0.3837

0.0621

0.3295

0.1105

0.3728

0.0621

0.3178

0.1105

0.3594

0.1105

0.3531

0.0621

0.2986

0.2486

0.4775

0.1105

0.3335

0.1105

0.3260

0.2486

0.4566

0.1105

0.3085

0.1105

0.3018

0.1105

0.2951

0.2486

0.4290

0.1105

0.2834

0.2486

0.4165

0.1105

0.2692

0.2486

0.4006

0.1105

0.2575

0.1105

0.2500

0.2486

0.3831

0.1105

0.2400

0.2486

0.3731

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 15 of 102

159

71.5

171.0

161

69.0

175.5

164

67.5

180.0

166

67.0

184.5

169

69.5

189.0

172

73.0

193.5

175

77.0

198.0

178

81.5

202.5

183

85.5

207.0

188

89.5

211.5

191

93.5

216.0

194

98.0

220.5

199

99.5

225.0

203

101.5

229.5

208

101.0

234.0

212

99.5

238.5

216

97.0

243.0

220

82.5

247.5

224

82.1

252.0

229

81.7

256.5

233

78.0

261.0

237

74.4

265.5

241

71.0

270.0

245

68.1

274.5

0.66
3
0.67
1
0.68
3
0.69
2
0.70
4
0.71
7
0.72
9
0.74
2
0.76
3
0.78
3
0.79
6
0.80
8
0.82
9
0.84
6
0.86
7
0.88
3
0.90
0
0.91
7
0.93
3
0.95
4
0.97
1
0.98
8
1.00
4
1.02
1

0.65
6
0.66
7
0.67
7
0.68
8
0.69
8
0.71
0
0.72
3
0.73
5
0.75
2
0.77
3
0.79
0
0.80
2
0.81
9
0.83
8
0.85
6
0.87
5
0.89
2
0.90
8
0.92
5
0.94
4
0.96
3
0.97
9
0.99
6
1.01
3

0.715

1.710

0.690

1.755

0.675

1.800

0.670

1.845

0.695

1.890

0.730

1.935

0.770

1.980

0.815

2.025

0.855

2.070

0.895

2.115

0.935

2.160

0.980

2.205

0.995

2.250

1.015

2.295

1.010

2.340

0.995

2.385

0.970

2.430

0.825

2.475

0.821

2.520

0.817

2.565

0.780

2.610

0.744

2.655

0.710

2.700

0.681

2.745

0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.02
1
0.02
1
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.030
0.025
0.015
0.005

3.600
5.400
3.600
5.400

0.025

3.600

0.035

3.600

0.040

3.600

0.045

3.600

0.040

2.160

0.040

2.160

0.040

3.600

0.045

3.600

0.015

2.160

0.020

2.700

0.005
0.015
0.025
0.145
0.004
0.004
0.037
0.036
0.034
0.029

2.160
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.160
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700

0.119
5
0.115
3
0.112
8
0.112
0
0.116
1
0.122
0
0.128
7
0.136
2
0.142
9
0.149
5
0.156
2
0.163
7
0.166
3
0.169
6
0.168
8
0.166
3
0.162
1
0.137
8
0.137
2
0.136
5
0.130
3
0.124
3
0.118
6
0.113
8

0.1105

0.2300

0.2486

0.3639

0.1105

0.2233

0.2486

0.3605

0.1105

0.2266

0.1105

0.2325

0.1105

0.2391

0.1105

0.2467

0.0398

0.1826

0.0398

0.1893

0.1105

0.2667

0.1105

0.2742

0.0398

0.2060

0.0621

0.2317

0.0398

0.2085

0.0621

0.2284

0.0621

0.2242

0.0621

0.2000

0.0621

0.1993

0.0398

0.1763

0.0621

0.1925

0.0621

0.1865

0.0621

0.1808

0.0621

0.1759

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 16 of 102

248

64.4

279.0

251

61.5

283.5

255

58.8

288.0

258

56.0

292.5

262

53.5

297.0

265

50.5

301.5

268

48.0

306.0

271

43.7

310.5

274

40.3

315.0

277

37.2

319.5

280

34.0

324.0

283

31.0

328.5

286

28.5

333.0

289

26.5

337.5

292

23.7

342.0

295

21.7

346.5

10

298

20.0

351.0

10

301

18.2

355.5

10

304

17.0

360.0

10

306

15.3

364.5

10

309

13.5

369.0

10

312

11.8

373.5

10

315

10.4

378.0

10

317

9.0

382.5

1.03
3
1.04
6
1.06
3
1.07
5
1.09
2
1.10
4
1.11
7
1.12
9
1.14
2
1.15
4
1.16
7
1.17
9
1.19
2
1.20
4
1.21
7
1.22
9
1.24
2
1.25
4
1.26
7
1.27
5
1.28
8
1.30
0
1.31
3
1.32
1

1.02
7
1.04
0
1.05
4
1.06
9
1.08
3
1.09
8
1.11
0
1.12
3
1.13
5
1.14
8
1.16
0
1.17
3
1.18
5
1.19
8
1.21
0
1.22
3
1.23
5
1.24
8
1.26
0
1.27
1
1.28
1
1.29
4
1.30
6
1.31
7

0.644

2.790

0.615

2.835

0.588

2.880

0.560

2.925

0.535

2.970

0.505

3.015

0.480

3.060

0.437

3.105

0.403

3.150

0.372

3.195

0.340

3.240

0.310

3.285

0.285

3.330

0.265

3.375

0.237

3.420

0.217

3.465

0.200

3.510

0.182

3.555

0.170

3.600

0.153

3.645

0.135

3.690

0.118

3.735

0.104

3.780

0.090

3.825

0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
7
0.01
3
0.01
7
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.037
0.029
0.027
0.028
0.025
0.030
0.025
0.043
0.034
0.031
0.032
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.028
0.020
0.017
0.018
0.012
0.017
0.018
0.017
0.014
0.014

3.600
3.600
2.700
3.600
2.700
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
5.400
3.600
3.600
3.600
5.400

0.107
6
0.102
8
0.098
2
0.093
6
0.089
4
0.084
4
0.080
2
0.073
0
0.067
3
0.062
2
0.056
8
0.051
8
0.047
6
0.044
3
0.039
6
0.036
3
0.033
4
0.030
4
0.028
4
0.025
6
0.022
6
0.019
7
0.017
4
0.015
0

0.1105

0.2181

0.1105

0.2132

0.0621

0.1604

0.1105

0.2041

0.0621

0.1515

0.1105

0.1949

0.1105

0.1907

0.1105

0.1835

0.1105

0.1778

0.1105

0.1726

0.1105

0.1673

0.1105

0.1623

0.1105

0.1581

0.1105

0.1548

0.1105

0.1501

0.1105

0.1467

0.1105

0.1439

0.1105

0.1409

0.1105

0.1389

0.2486

0.2742

0.1105

0.1330

0.1105

0.1302

0.1105

0.1279

0.2486

0.2636

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 17 of 102

10

320

7.3

387.0

11

323

6.0

391.5

11

326

5.3

396.0

11

329

5.0

400.5

11

331

5.3

405.0

11

334

6.0

409.5

11

337

7.7

414.0

11

340

8.7

418.5

11

343

10.3

423.0

11

346

11.3

427.5

12

349

13.0

432.0

12

354

15.0

436.5

12

358

17.0

441.0

12

362

18.0

445.5

12

366

19.5

450.0

12

371

19.5

454.5

12

375

20.5

459.0

12

380

21.3

463.5

12

384

21.7

468.0

13

389

22.0

472.5

13

393

22.0

477.0

13

398

22.0

481.5

13

403

22.5

486.0

13

408

22.7

490.5

1.33
3
1.34
6
1.35
8
1.37
1
1.37
9
1.39
2
1.40
4
1.41
7
1.42
9
1.44
2
1.45
4
1.47
5
1.49
2
1.50
8
1.52
5
1.54
6
1.56
3
1.58
3
1.60
0
1.62
1
1.63
8
1.65
8
1.67
9
1.70
0

1.32
7
1.34
0
1.35
2
1.36
5
1.37
5
1.38
5
1.39
8
1.41
0
1.42
3
1.43
5
1.44
8
1.46
5
1.48
3
1.50
0
1.51
7
1.53
5
1.55
4
1.57
3
1.59
2
1.61
0
1.62
9
1.64
8
1.66
9
1.69
0

0.073

3.870

0.060

3.915

0.053

3.960

0.050

4.005

0.053

4.050

0.060

4.095

0.077

4.140

0.087

4.185

0.103

4.230

0.113

4.275

0.130

4.320

0.150

4.365

0.170

4.410

0.180

4.455

0.195

4.500

0.195

4.545

0.205

4.590

0.213

4.635

0.217

4.680

0.220

4.725

0.220

4.770

0.220

4.815

0.225

4.860

0.227

4.905

0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.00
8
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.01
3
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
1
0.02
1
0.02
1

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.017
0.013
0.007
0.003

3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600

0.003

5.400

0.007

3.600

0.017

3.600

0.010

3.600

0.016

3.600

0.010

3.600

0.017

3.600

0.020

2.160

0.020

2.700

0.010

2.700

0.015

2.700

0.000

2.160

0.010

2.700

0.008

2.160

0.004

2.700

0.003

2.160

0.000

2.700

0.000

2.160

0.005

2.160

0.002

2.160

0.012
2
0.010
0
0.008
9
0.008
4
0.008
9
0.010
0
0.012
9
0.014
5
0.017
2
0.018
9
0.021
7
0.025
1
0.028
4
0.030
1
0.032
6
0.032
6
0.034
3
0.035
6
0.036
3
0.036
8
0.036
8
0.036
8
0.037
6
0.037
9

0.1105

0.1227

0.1105

0.1205

0.1105

0.1193

0.1105

0.1188

0.2486

0.2574

0.1105

0.1205

0.1105

0.1233

0.1105

0.1250

0.1105

0.1277

0.1105

0.1294

0.1105

0.1322

0.0398

0.0648

0.0621

0.0906

0.0621

0.0922

0.0621

0.0947

0.0398

0.0724

0.0621

0.0964

0.0398

0.0754

0.0621

0.0984

0.0398

0.0765

0.0621

0.0989

0.0398

0.0765

0.0398

0.0774

0.0398

0.0777

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 18 of 102

13

413

23.2

495.0

13

417

23.5

499.5

13

423

24.0

504.0

13

428

24.5

508.5

14

434

24.5

513.0

14

440

24.5

517.5

14

447

24.5

522.0

14

454

24.5

526.5

14

461

24.5

531.0

14

468

24.5

535.5

14

476

24.5

540.0

14

484

24.5

544.5

14

493

24.5

549.0

1.72
1
1.73
8
1.76
3
1.78
3
1.80
8
1.83
3
1.86
3
1.89
2
1.92
1
1.95
0
1.98
3
2.01
7
2.05
4

1.71
0
1.72
9
1.75
0
1.77
3
1.79
6
1.82
1
1.84
8
1.87
7
1.90
6
1.93
5
1.96
7
2.00
0
2.03
5

0.232

4.950

0.235

4.995

0.240

5.040

0.245

5.085

0.245

5.130

0.245

5.175

0.245

5.220

0.245

5.265

0.245

5.310

0.245

5.355

0.245

5.400

0.245

5.445

0.245

5.490

0.02
1
0.01
7
0.02
5
0.02
1
0.02
5
0.02
5
0.02
9
0.02
9
0.02
9
0.02
9
0.03
3
0.03
3
0.03
8

0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
5

0.005

2.160

0.003

2.700

0.005

1.800

0.005

2.160

0.000

1.800

0.000

1.800

0.000

1.543

0.000

1.543

0.000

1.543

0.000

1.543

0.000

1.350

0.000

1.350

0.000

1.200

0.038
8
0.039
3
0.040
1
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9
0.040
9

0.0398

0.0785

0.0621

0.1014

0.0276

0.0677

0.0398

0.0807

0.0276

0.0686

0.0276

0.0686

0.0203

0.0612

0.0203

0.0612

0.0203

0.0612

0.0203

0.0612

0.0155

0.0565

0.0155

0.0565

0.0123

0.0532

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 19 of 102

6.1.2 First Drop:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (First Drop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

219.
5

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

2.19
5

19

19

215.
0

4.5

0.0
79

0.0
40

2.15
0

0.045

0.0
79

0.0
45

13

32

210.
5

9.0

0.1
33

0.1
06

2.10
5

0.090

0.0
54

0.0
45

40

206.
5

13.5

0.1
67

0.1
50

2.06
5

0.135

0.0
33

0.0
45

47

202.
0

18.0

0.1
96

0.1
81

2.02
0

0.180

0.0
29

0.0
45

53

198.
0

22.5

0.2
21

0.2
08

1.98
0

0.225

0.0
25

0.0
45

59

194.
0

27.0

0.2
46

0.2
33

1.94
0

0.270

0.0
25

0.0
45

64

189.
5

31.5

0.2
67

0.2
56

1.89
5

0.315

0.0
21

0.0
45

68

185.
5

36.0

0.2
83

0.2
75

1.85
5

0.360

0.0
17

0.0
45

73

181.
5

40.5

0.3
04

0.2
94

1.81
5

0.405

0.0
21

0.0
45

77

178.
0

45.0

0.3
21

0.3
13

1.78
0

0.450

0.0
17

0.0
45

81

0.3
38

0.3
29

1.74
0

0.0
17

0.0
45

174.
0

49.5

0.495

0
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.03
5
0.04

Averag
e
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

2.667

0.36
68

Et

%
Eff

(J)
0.36
68

0.568

0.35
92

0.00
28

0.36
20

0.831

0.35
17

0.00
59

0.35
76

1.350

0.34
50

0.01
55

0.36
06

1.543

0.33
75

0.02
03

0.35
78

1.800

0.33
08

0.02
76

0.35
85

1.800

0.32
42

0.02
76

0.35
18

2.160

0.31
66

0.03
98

0.35
64

2.700

0.31
00

0.06
21

0.37
21

2.160

0.30
33

0.03
98

0.34
30

2.700

0.29
74

0.06
21

0.35
96

0.29
07

0.06
21

0.35
29

2.700

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

98.
30

0.006
2

0.003
4

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 20 of 102

0
2

85

170.
5

54.0

0.3
54

0.3
46

1.70
5

0.540

0.0
17

0.0
45

88

167.
0

58.5

0.3
67

0.3
60

1.67
0

0.585

0.0
13

0.0
45

91

163.
5

63.0

0.3
79

0.3
73

1.63
5

0.630

0.0
13

0.0
45

95

160.
0

67.5

0.3
96

0.3
88

1.60
0

0.675

0.0
17

0.0
45

98

157.
0

72.0

0.4
08

0.4
02

1.57
0

0.720

0.0
13

0.0
45

102

153.
0

76.5

0.4
25

0.4
17

1.53
0

0.765

0.0
17

0.0
45

105

149.
0

81.0

0.4
38

0.4
31

1.49
0

0.810

0.0
13

0.0
45

108

145.
2

85.5

0.4
50

0.4
44

1.45
2

0.855

0.0
13

0.0
45

112

141.
5

90.0

0.4
67

0.4
58

1.41
5

0.900

0.0
17

0.0
45

114

137.
0

94.5

0.4
75

0.4
71

1.37
0

0.945

0.0
08

0.0
45

117

133.
5

99.0

0.4
88

0.4
81

1.33
5

0.990

0.0
13

0.0
45

120

129.
0

103.5

0.5
00

0.4
94

1.29
0

1.035

0.0
13

0.0
45

122

124.
5

108.0

0.5
08

0.5
04

1.24
5

1.080

0.0
08

0.0
45

125

118.
5

112.5

0.5
21

0.5
15

1.18
5

1.125

0.0
13

0.0
45

128

114.

117.0

0.5

0.5

1.14

1.170

0.0

0.0

0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.03
8
0.03
7
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.04
5
0.04
5
0.06
0
-

2.700

0.28
49

0.06
21

0.34
70

3.600

0.27
90

0.11
05

0.38
95

3.600

0.27
32

0.11
05

0.38
37

2.700

0.26
73

0.06
21

0.32
95

3.600

0.26
23

0.11
05

0.37
28

2.700

0.25
56

0.06
21

0.31
78

3.600

0.24
90

0.11
05

0.35
94

3.600

0.24
26

0.11
05

0.35
31

2.700

0.23
64

0.06
21

0.29
86

5.400

0.22
89

0.24
86

0.47
75

3.600

0.22
31

0.11
05

0.33
35

3.600

0.21
55

0.11
05

0.32
60

5.400

0.20
80

0.24
86

0.45
66

3.600

0.19
80

0.11
05

0.30
85

3.600

0.19

0.11

0.30

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 21 of 102

33

27

13

45

131

110.
5

121.5

0.5
46

0.5
40

1.10
5

1.215

0.0
13

0.0
45

133

108.
0

126.0

0.5
54

0.5
50

1.08
0

1.260

0.0
08

0.0
45

136

103.
5

130.5

0.5
67

0.5
60

1.03
5

1.305

0.0
13

0.0
45

138

100.
5

135.0

0.5
75

0.5
71

1.00
5

1.350

0.0
08

0.0
45

141

95.0

139.5

0.5
88

0.5
81

0.95
0

1.395

0.0
13

0.0
45

143

91.0

144.0

0.5
96

0.5
92

0.91
0

1.440

0.0
08

0.0
45

146

88.0

148.5

0.6
08

0.6
02

0.88
0

1.485

0.0
13

0.0
45

149

83.5

153.0

0.6
21

0.6
15

0.83
5

1.530

0.0
13

0.0
45

151

80.5

157.5

0.6
29

0.6
25

0.80
5

1.575

0.0
08

0.0
45

154

77.5

162.0

0.6
42

0.6
35

0.77
5

1.620

0.0
13

0.0
45

156

74.5

166.5

0.6
50

0.6
46

0.74
5

1.665

0.0
08

0.0
45

159

71.5

171.0

0.6
63

0.6
56

0.71
5

1.710

0.0
13

0.0
45

161

69.0

175.5

0.6
71

0.6
67

0.69
0

1.755

0.0
08

0.0
45

164

67.5

180.0

0.6
83

0.6
77

0.67
5

0.0
13

0.0
45

1.800

0.04
0
0.04
0
0.02
5
0.04
5
0.03
0
0.05
5
0.04
0
0.03
0
0.04
5
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.02
5
0.01
5

13

05

18

3.600

0.18
46

0.11
05

0.29
51

5.400

0.18
05

0.24
86

0.42
90

3.600

0.17
29

0.11
05

0.28
34

5.400

0.16
79

0.24
86

0.41
65

3.600

0.15
87

0.11
05

0.26
92

5.400

0.15
21

0.24
86

0.40
06

3.600

0.14
70

0.11
05

0.25
75

3.600

0.13
95

0.11
05

0.25
00

5.400

0.13
45

0.24
86

0.38
31

3.600

0.12
95

0.11
05

0.24
00

5.400

0.12
45

0.24
86

0.37
31

3.600

0.11
95

0.11
05

0.23
00

5.400

0.11
53

0.24
86

0.36
39

0.11
28

0.11
05

0.22
33

3.600

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
5

Page 22 of 102

166

67.0

184.5

0.6
92

0.6
88

0.67
0

1.845

0.0
08

0.0
45

0.00
5

0.11
20

0.24
86

0.36
05

Averag
e
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

Et

%
Eff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

5.400

6.1.3 Loop:
Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Loop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

166

67.0

184.5

169

69.5

189.0

172

73.0

193.5

175

77.0

198.0

178

81.5

202.5

183

85.5

207.0

188

89.5

211.5

191

93.5

216.0

194

98.0

220.5

199

99.5

225.0

203

101.
5

229.5

208

101.
0

234.0

212

99.5

238.5

0.6
92

0.6
88

0.67
0

0.7
04
0.7
17
0.7
29
0.7
42
0.7
63
0.7
83
0.7
96
0.8
08
0.8
29
0.8
46

0.6
98
0.7
10
0.7
23
0.7
35
0.7
52
0.7
73
0.7
90
0.8
02
0.8
19
0.8
38

0.69
5
0.73
0
0.77
0
0.81
5
0.85
5
0.89
5
0.93
5
0.98
0
0.99
5
1.01
5

0.8
67

0.8
56

1.01
0

0.8
83

0.8
75

0.99
5

1.845
1.890
1.935
1.980
2.025
2.070
2.115
2.160
2.205
2.250
2.295
2.340
2.385

0.0
08

0.0
45

0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
21
0.0
17

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

0.0
21

0.0
45

0.0
17

0.0
45

0.00
5
0.02
5
0.03
5
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.01
5
0.02
0
0.00
5
0.01
5

5.400
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
2.160
2.160
3.600
3.600
2.160
2.700
2.160
2.700

2.766

0.11
20

0.24
86

0.36
05

0.11
61
0.12
20
0.12
87
0.13
62
0.14
29
0.14
95
0.15
62
0.16
37
0.16
63
0.16
96

0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.03
98
0.06
21

0.22
66
0.23
25
0.23
91
0.24
67
0.18
26
0.18
93
0.26
67
0.27
42
0.20
60
0.23
17

0.16
88

0.03
98

0.20
85

0.16
63

0.06
21

0.22
84

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

60.
49

0.142
4

0.150
7

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 23 of 102

216

97.0

243.0

0.9
00

0.8
92

0.97
0

2.430

0.0
17

0.0
45

220

82.5

247.5

0.9
17

0.9
08

0.82
5

2.475

0.0
17

0.0
45

224

82.1

252.0

0.9
33

0.9
25

0.82
1

2.520

0.0
17

0.0
45

229

81.7

256.5

0.9
54

0.9
44

0.81
7

2.565

0.0
21

0.0
45

233

78.0

261.0

0.9
71

0.9
63

0.78
0

2.610

0.0
17

0.0
45

237

74.4

265.5

0.9
88

0.9
79

0.74
4

2.655

0.0
17

0.0
45

241

71.0

270.0

1.0
04

0.9
96

0.71
0

2.700

0.0
17

0.0
45

245

68.1

274.5

1.0
21

1.0
13

0.68
1

2.745

0.0
17

0.0
45

248

64.4

279.0

1.0
33

1.0
27

0.64
4

2.790

0.0
13

0.0
45

0.02
5
0.14
5
0.00
4
0.00
4
0.03
7
0.03
6
0.03
4
0.02
9
0.03
7

2.700

0.16
21

0.06
21

0.22
42

2.700

0.13
78

0.06
21

0.20
00

2.700

0.13
72

0.06
21

0.19
93

2.160

0.13
65

0.03
98

0.17
63

2.700

0.13
03

0.06
21

0.19
25

2.700

0.12
43

0.06
21

0.18
65

2.700

0.11
86

0.06
21

0.18
08

2.700

0.11
38

0.06
21

0.17
59

3.600

0.10
76

0.11
05

0.21
81

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 24 of 102

6.1.4 Second Drop:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Second Drop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

248

64.4

279.0

1.0
33

1.0
27

0.64
4

2.790

0.0
13

0.0
45

251

61.5

283.5

1.0
46

1.0
40

0.61
5

2.835

0.0
13

0.0
45

255

58.8

288.0

1.0
63

1.0
54

0.58
8

2.880

0.0
17

0.0
45

258

56.0

292.5

1.0
75

1.0
69

0.56
0

2.925

0.0
13

0.0
45

262

53.5

297.0

1.0
92

1.0
83

0.53
5

2.970

0.0
17

0.0
45

265

50.5

301.5

1.1
04

1.0
98

0.50
5

3.015

0.0
13

0.0
45

268

48.0

306.0

1.1
17

1.1
10

0.48
0

3.060

0.0
13

0.0
45

271

43.7

310.5

1.1
29

1.1
23

0.43
7

3.105

0.0
13

0.0
45

274

40.3

315.0

1.1
42

1.1
35

0.40
3

3.150

0.0
13

0.0
45

277

37.2

319.5

1.1
54

1.1
48

0.37
2

3.195

0.0
13

0.0
45

280

34.0

324.0

1.1
67

1.1
60

0.34
0

3.240

0.0
13

0.0
45

283

31.0

328.5

1.1

1.1

0.31

3.285

0.0

0.0

0.03
7
0.02
9
0.02
7
0.02
8
0.02
5
0.03
0
0.02
5
0.04
3
0.03
4
0.03
1
0.03
2
-

Averag
e
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

Et

%
Eff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

3.600
3.600

0.10
76

0.11
05

0.21
81

3.600

0.10
28

0.11
05

0.21
32

2.700

0.09
82

0.06
21

0.16
04

3.600

0.09
36

0.11
05

0.20
41

2.700

0.08
94

0.06
21

0.15
15

3.600

0.08
44

0.11
05

0.19
49

3.600

0.08
02

0.11
05

0.19
07

3.600

0.07
30

0.11
05

0.18
35

3.600

0.06
73

0.11
05

0.17
78

3.600

0.06
22

0.11
05

0.17
26

3.600

0.05
68

0.11
05

0.16
73

3.600

0.05

0.11

0.16

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

55.
26

0.097
6

0.086
7

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 25 of 102

79

73

13

45

286

28.5

333.0

1.1
92

1.1
85

0.28
5

3.330

0.0
13

0.0
45

289

26.5

337.5

1.2
04

1.1
98

0.26
5

3.375

0.0
13

0.0
45

292

23.7

342.0

1.2
17

1.2
10

0.23
7

3.420

0.0
13

0.0
45

295

21.7

346.5

1.2
29

1.2
23

0.21
7

3.465

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

298

20.0

351.0

1.2
42

1.2
35

0.20
0

3.510

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

301

18.2

355.5

1.2
54

1.2
48

0.18
2

3.555

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

304

17.0

360.0

1.2
67

1.2
60

0.17
0

3.600

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

306

15.3

364.5

1.2
75

1.2
71

0.15
3

3.645

0.0
08

0.0
45

10

309

13.5

369.0

1.2
88

1.2
81

0.13
5

3.690

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

312

11.8

373.5

1.3
00

1.2
94

0.11
8

3.735

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

315

10.4

378.0

1.3
13

1.3
06

0.10
4

3.780

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

317

9.0

382.5

1.3
21

1.3
17

0.09
0

3.825

0.0
08

0.0
45

10

320

7.3

387.0

1.3
33

1.3
27

0.07
3

3.870

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

323

6.0

391.5

1.3
46

1.3
40

0.06
0

3.915

0.0
13

0.0
45

0.03
0
0.02
5
0.02
0
0.02
8
0.02
0
0.01
7
0.01
8
0.01
2
0.01
7
0.01
8
0.01
7
0.01
4
0.01
4
0.01
7
0.01
3

18

05

23

3.600

0.04
76

0.11
05

0.15
81

3.600

0.04
43

0.11
05

0.15
48

3.600

0.03
96

0.11
05

0.15
01

3.600

0.03
63

0.11
05

0.14
67

3.600

0.03
34

0.11
05

0.14
39

3.600

0.03
04

0.11
05

0.14
09

3.600

0.02
84

0.11
05

0.13
89

5.400

0.02
56

0.24
86

0.27
42

3.600

0.02
26

0.11
05

0.13
30

3.600

0.01
97

0.11
05

0.13
02

3.600

0.01
74

0.11
05

0.12
79

5.400

0.01
50

0.24
86

0.26
36

3.600

0.01
22

0.11
05

0.12
27

3.600

0.01
00

0.11
05

0.12
05

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 26 of 102

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 27 of 102

6.1.5 Banked Turn:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Banked Turn)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

11

323

6.0

391.5

1.3
46

1.3
40

0.06
0

3.915

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

326

5.3

396.0

1.3
58

1.3
52

0.05
3

3.960

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

329

5.0

400.5

1.3
71

1.3
65

0.05
0

4.005

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

331

5.3

405.0

11

334

6.0

409.5

11

337

7.7

414.0

11

340

8.7

418.5

11

343

10.3

423.0

11

346

11.3

427.5

12

349

13.0

432.0

12

354

15.0

436.5

12

358

17.0

441.0

12

362

18.0

445.5

12

366

19.5

450.0

12

371

19.5

454.5

1.3
79
1.3
92
1.4
04
1.4
17
1.4
29
1.4
42
1.4
54
1.4
75
1.4
92
1.5
08
1.5
25
1.5
46

1.3
75
1.3
85
1.3
98
1.4
10
1.4
23
1.4
35
1.4
48
1.4
65
1.4
83
1.5
00
1.5
17
1.5
35

0.05
3
0.06
0
0.07
7
0.08
7
0.10
3
0.11
3
0.13
0
0.15
0
0.17
0
0.18
0
0.19
5
0.19
5

0.0
08
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
21

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

4.050
4.095
4.140
4.185
4.230
4.275
4.320
4.365
4.410
4.455
4.500
4.545

0.01
3
0.00
7
0.00
3
0.00
3
0.00
7
0.01
7
0.01
0
0.01
6
0.01
0
0.01
7
0.02
0
0.02
0
0.01
0
0.01
5
0.00
0

Averag
e
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

Et

%
Eff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

2.627
3.600

0.01
00

0.11
05

0.12
05

3.600

0.00
89

0.11
05

0.11
93

3.600

0.00
84

0.11
05

0.11
88

0.00
89
0.01
00
0.01
29
0.01
45
0.01
72
0.01
89
0.02
17
0.02
51
0.02
84
0.03
01
0.03
26
0.03
26

0.24
86
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.03
98

0.25
74
0.12
05
0.12
33
0.12
50
0.12
77
0.12
94
0.13
22
0.06
48
0.09
06
0.09
22
0.09
47
0.07
24

5.400
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
3.600
2.160
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.160

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

56.
89

0.052
0

0.042
8

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 28 of 102

12

375

20.5

459.0

12

380

21.3

463.5

12

384

21.7

468.0

13

389

22.0

472.5

13

393

22.0

477.0

13

398

22.0

481.5

13

403

22.5

486.0

13

408

22.7

490.5

13

413

23.2

495.0

13

417

23.5

499.5

13

423

24.0

504.0

13

428

24.5

508.5

14

434

24.5

513.0

1.5
63
1.5
83
1.6
00
1.6
21
1.6
38
1.6
58
1.6
79
1.7
00
1.7
21
1.7
38
1.7
63
1.7
83
1.8
08

1.5
54
1.5
73
1.5
92
1.6
10
1.6
29
1.6
48
1.6
69
1.6
90
1.7
10
1.7
29
1.7
50
1.7
73
1.7
96

0.20
5
0.21
3
0.21
7
0.22
0
0.22
0
0.22
0
0.22
5
0.22
7
0.23
2
0.23
5
0.24
0
0.24
5
0.24
5

4.590
4.635
4.680
4.725
4.770
4.815
4.860
4.905
4.950
4.995
5.040
5.085
5.130

0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
25
0.0
21
0.0
25

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

0.01
0
0.00
8
0.00
4
0.00
3
0.00
0
0.00
0
0.00
5
0.00
2
0.00
5
0.00
3
0.00
5
0.00
5
0.00
0

2.700
2.160
2.700
2.160
2.700
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.700
1.800
2.160
1.800

0.03
43
0.03
56
0.03
63
0.03
68
0.03
68
0.03
68
0.03
76
0.03
79
0.03
88
0.03
93
0.04
01
0.04
09
0.04
09

0.06
21
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.02
76
0.03
98
0.02
76

0.09
64
0.07
54
0.09
84
0.07
65
0.09
89
0.07
65
0.07
74
0.07
77
0.07
85
0.10
14
0.06
77
0.08
07
0.06
86

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 29 of 102

6.2 Tables for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:


6.2.1 Overall:
Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

225.
0

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

2.25
0

14

14

221.
0

4.5

0.0
58

0.0
29

2.21
0

0.045

0.0
58

0.0
45

23

217.
0

9.0

0.0
96

0.0
77

2.17
0

0.090

0.0
38

0.0
45

31

212.
5

13.5

0.1
29

0.1
13

2.12
5

0.135

0.0
33

0.0
45

37

208.
5

18.0

0.1
54

0.1
42

2.08
5

0.180

0.0
25

0.0
45

42

204.
5

22.5

0.1
75

0.1
65

2.04
5

0.225

0.0
21

0.0
45

47

200.
5

27.0

0.1
96

0.1
85

2.00
5

0.270

0.0
21

0.0
45

52

196.
5

31.5

0.2
17

0.2
06

1.96
5

0.315

0.0
21

0.0
45

56

192.
0

36.0

0.2
33

0.2
25

1.92
0

0.360

0.0
17

0.0
45

60

188.
0

40.5

0.2
50

0.2
42

1.88
0

0.405

0.0
17

0.0
45

64

68

0.2
67
0.2
83

0.2
58
0.2
75

1.90
5
1.87
5

0.0
17
0.0
17

0.0
45
0.0
45

190.
5
187.
5

45.0
49.5

0.450
0.495

0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.02
5
0.03

Avera
ge
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

2.728

0.37
60

Et

%E
ff

(J)
0.37
60

0.771

0.36
93

0.00
51

0.37
43

1.200

0.36
26

0.01
23

0.37
49

1.350

0.35
51

0.01
55

0.37
06

1.800

0.34
84

0.02
76

0.37
60

2.160

0.34
17

0.03
98

0.38
15

2.160

0.33
50

0.03
98

0.37
48

2.160

0.32
83

0.03
98

0.36
81

2.700

0.32
08

0.06
21

0.38
30

2.700

0.31
41

0.06
21

0.37
63

0.31
83
0.31
33

0.06
21
0.06
21

0.38
05
0.37
54

2.700
2.700

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

18.
01

0.308
2

0.055
7

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 30 of 102

0
2

72

176.
0

54.0

0.3
00

0.2
92

1.76
0

0.540

0.0
17

0.0
45

76

172.
0

58.5

0.3
17

0.3
08

1.72
0

0.585

0.0
17

0.0
45

79

168.
0

63.0

0.3
29

0.3
23

1.68
0

0.630

0.0
13

0.0
45

83

164.
0

67.5

0.3
46

0.3
38

1.64
0

0.675

0.0
17

0.0
45

86

159.
5

72.0

0.3
58

0.3
52

1.59
5

0.720

0.0
13

0.0
45

89

156.
0

76.5

0.3
71

0.3
65

1.56
0

0.765

0.0
13

0.0
45

93

152.
5

81.0

0.3
88

0.3
79

1.52
5

0.810

0.0
17

0.0
45

97

149.
0

85.5

0.4
04

0.3
96

1.49
0

0.855

0.0
17

0.0
45

100

145.
0

90.0

0.4
17

0.4
10

1.45
0

0.900

0.0
13

0.0
45

103

141.
5

94.5

0.4
29

0.4
23

1.41
5

0.945

0.0
13

0.0
45

106

137.
5

99.0

0.4
42

0.4
35

1.37
5

0.990

0.0
13

0.0
45

109

132.
5

103.5

0.4
54

0.4
48

1.32
5

1.035

0.0
13

0.0
45

112

129.
0

108.0

0.4
67

0.4
60

1.29
0

1.080

0.0
13

0.0
45

114

126.
0

112.5

0.4
75

0.4
71

1.26
0

1.125

0.0
08

0.0
45

117

121.
5

117.0

0.4
88

0.4
81

1.21
5

1.170

0.0
13

0.0
45

120

116.

121.5

0.5

0.4

1.16

1.215

0.0

0.0

0.11
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.04
0
0.03
5
0.04
0
0.05
0
0.03
5
0.03
0
0.04
5
-

2.700

0.29
41

0.06
21

0.35
62

2.700

0.28
74

0.06
21

0.34
95

3.600

0.28
07

0.11
05

0.39
12

2.700

0.27
40

0.06
21

0.33
62

3.600

0.26
65

0.11
05

0.37
70

3.600

0.26
07

0.11
05

0.37
11

2.700

0.25
48

0.06
21

0.31
70

2.700

0.24
90

0.06
21

0.31
11

3.600

0.24
23

0.11
05

0.35
28

3.600

0.23
64

0.11
05

0.34
69

3.600

0.22
97

0.11
05

0.34
02

3.600

0.22
14

0.11
05

0.33
19

3.600

0.21
55

0.11
05

0.32
60

5.400

0.21
05

0.24
86

0.45
91

3.600

0.20
30

0.11
05

0.31
35

3.600

0.19

0.11

0.30

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 31 of 102

00

94

13

45

122

113.
5

126.0

0.5
08

0.5
04

1.13
5

1.260

0.0
08

0.0
45

125

110.
5

130.5

0.5
21

0.5
15

1.10
5

1.305

0.0
13

0.0
45

128

105.
0

135.0

0.5
33

0.5
27

1.05
0

1.350

0.0
13

0.0
45

130

103.
0

139.5

0.5
42

0.5
38

1.03
0

1.395

0.0
08

0.0
45

133

97.0

144.0

0.5
54

0.5
48

0.97
0

1.440

0.0
13

0.0
45

135

95.0

148.5

0.5
63

0.5
58

0.95
0

1.485

0.0
08

0.0
45

137

91.0

153.0

0.5
71

0.5
67

0.91
0

1.530

0.0
08

0.0
45

139

86.5

157.5

0.5
79

0.5
75

0.86
5

1.575

0.0
08

0.0
45

142

83.0

162.0

0.5
92

0.5
85

0.83
0

1.620

0.0
13

0.0
45

144

80.0

166.5

0.6
00

0.5
96

0.80
0

1.665

0.0
08

0.0
45

146

76.5

171.0

0.6
08

0.6
04

0.76
5

1.710

0.0
08

0.0
45

148

73.0

175.5

0.6
17

0.6
13

0.73
0

1.755

0.0
08

0.0
45

151

71.0

180.0

0.6
29

0.6
23

0.71
0

1.800

0.0
13

0.0
45

153

69.0

184.5

0.6
38

0.6
33

0.69
0

1.845

0.0
08

0.0
45

155

69.0

189.0

158

71.0

193.5

0.6
46
0.6
58

0.6
42
0.6
52

0.69
0
0.71
0

0.0
08
0.0
13

0.0
45
0.0
45

1.890
1.935

0.05
0
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.05
5
0.02
0
0.06
0
0.02
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.03
0
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.02
0
0.02
0
0.00
0
0.02
0

47

05

51

5.400

0.18
96

0.24
86

0.43
82

3.600

0.18
46

0.11
05

0.29
51

3.600

0.17
54

0.11
05

0.28
59

5.400

0.17
21

0.24
86

0.42
07

3.600

0.16
21

0.11
05

0.27
26

5.400

0.15
87

0.24
86

0.40
73

5.400

0.15
21

0.24
86

0.40
06

5.400

0.14
45

0.24
86

0.39
31

3.600

0.13
87

0.11
05

0.24
92

5.400

0.13
37

0.24
86

0.38
23

5.400

0.12
78

0.24
86

0.37
64

5.400

0.12
20

0.24
86

0.37
06

3.600

0.11
86

0.11
05

0.22
91

5.400

0.11
53

0.24
86

0.36
39

0.11
53
0.11
86

0.24
86
0.11
05

0.36
39
0.22
91

5.400
3.600

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Kevin OBrien
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161

73.0

198.0

165

77.5

202.5

168

81.0

207.0

173

86.0

211.5

177

90.0

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181

94.5

220.5

184

97.0

225.0

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2
103.
0
103.
5

229.5

0.6
71
0.6
88
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00
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38
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54
0.7
67
0.7
83
0.8
04
0.8
25

0.6
65
0.6
79
0.6
94
0.7
10
0.7
29
0.7
46
0.7
60
0.7
75
0.7
94
0.8
15

0.73
0
0.77
5
0.81
0
0.86
0
0.90
0
0.94
5
0.97
0
1.00
2
1.03
0
1.03
5

1.980
2.025
2.070
2.115
2.160
2.205
2.250

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

188

193

198

202

102.
5

243.0

0.8
42

0.8
33

1.02
5

2.430

0.0
17

0.0
45

207

99.0

247.5

0.8
63

0.8
52

0.99
0

2.475

0.0
21

0.0
45

213

95.5

252.0

0.8
88

0.8
75

0.95
5

2.520

0.0
25

0.0
45

219

92.0

256.5

0.9
13

0.9
00

0.92
0

2.565

0.0
25

0.0
45

224

87.0

261.0

0.9
33

0.9
23

0.87
0

2.610

0.0
21

0.0
45

229

84.0

265.5

0.9
54

0.9
44

0.84
0

2.655

0.0
21

0.0
45

234

80.0

270.0

0.9
75

0.9
65

0.80
0

2.700

0.0
21

0.0
45

238

74.0

274.5

0.9
92

0.9
83

0.74
0

2.745

0.0
17

0.0
45

243

71.5

279.0

1.0
13

1.0
02

0.71
5

0.0
21

0.0
45

234.0
238.5

2.295

0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
21

2.340
2.385

2.790

0.02
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.05
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.02
5
0.03
2
0.02
8
0.00
5
0.01
0
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.05
0
0.03
0
0.04
0
0.06
0
0.02
5

0.12
20
0.12
95
0.13
53
0.14
37
0.15
04
0.15
79
0.16
21
0.16
74
0.17
21
0.17
29

0.11
05
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.03
98

0.23
25
0.19
16
0.24
58
0.18
35
0.21
25
0.22
00
0.27
26
0.22
96
0.21
19
0.21
27

2.700

0.17
13

0.06
21

0.23
34

2.160

0.16
54

0.03
98

0.20
52

1.800

0.15
96

0.02
76

0.18
72

1.800

0.15
37

0.02
76

0.18
13

2.160

0.14
54

0.03
98

0.18
51

2.160

0.14
04

0.03
98

0.18
01

2.160

0.13
37

0.03
98

0.17
34

2.700

0.12
36

0.06
21

0.18
58

0.11
95

0.03
98

0.15
92

3.600
2.700
3.600
2.160
2.700
2.700
3.600
2.700
2.160
2.160

2.160

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Kevin OBrien
John Polak

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66.0

283.5

1.0
29

1.0
21

0.66
0

2.835

0.0
17

0.0
45

251

64.5

288.0

1.0
46

1.0
38

0.64
5

2.880

0.0
17

0.0
45

255

61.7

292.5

1.0
63

1.0
54

0.61
7

2.925

0.0
17

0.0
45

259

56.7

297.0

1.0
79

1.0
71

0.56
7

2.970

0.0
17

0.0
45

262

53.3

301.5

1.0
92

1.0
85

0.53
3

3.015

0.0
13

0.0
45

266

50.0

306.0

1.1
08

1.1
00

0.50
0

3.060

0.0
17

0.0
45

269

47.0

310.5

1.1
21

1.1
15

0.47
0

3.105

0.0
13

0.0
45

272

44.2

315.0

1.1
33

1.1
27

0.44
2

3.150

0.0
13

0.0
45

275

40.7

319.5

1.1
46

1.1
40

0.40
7

3.195

0.0
13

0.0
45

278

38.0

324.0

1.1
58

1.1
52

0.38
0

3.240

0.0
13

0.0
45

282

35.0

328.5

1.1
75

1.1
67

0.35
0

3.285

0.0
17

0.0
45

285

32.0

333.0

1.1
88

1.1
81

0.32
0

3.330

0.0
13

0.0
45

288

30.0

337.5

1.2
00

1.1
94

0.30
0

3.375

0.0
13

0.0
45

291

27.5

342.0

1.2
13

1.2
06

0.27
5

3.420

0.0
13

0.0
45

294

25.5

346.5

1.2
25

1.2
19

0.25
5

3.465

0.0
13

0.0
45

297

23.5

351.0

1.2
38

1.2
31

0.23
5

0.0
13

0.0
45

3.510

0.05
5
0.01
5
0.02
8
0.05
0
0.03
4
0.03
3
0.03
0
0.02
8
0.03
5
0.02
7
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.02
0
0.02
5
0.02
0
0.02
0

2.700

0.11
03

0.06
21

0.17
24

2.700

0.10
78

0.06
21

0.16
99

2.700

0.10
31

0.06
21

0.16
52

2.700

0.09
47

0.06
21

0.15
69

3.600

0.08
91

0.11
05

0.19
95

2.700

0.08
35

0.06
21

0.14
57

3.600

0.07
85

0.11
05

0.18
90

3.600

0.07
39

0.11
05

0.18
43

3.600

0.06
80

0.11
05

0.17
85

3.600

0.06
35

0.11
05

0.17
40

2.700

0.05
85

0.06
21

0.12
06

3.600

0.05
35

0.11
05

0.16
40

3.600

0.05
01

0.11
05

0.16
06

3.600

0.04
59

0.11
05

0.15
64

3.600

0.04
26

0.11
05

0.15
31

0.03
93

0.11
05

0.14
98

3.600

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Kevin OBrien
John Polak

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300

21.2

355.5

1.2
50

1.2
44

0.21
2

3.555

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

303

20.2

360.0

1.2
63

1.2
56

0.20
2

3.600

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

306

18.7

364.5

1.2
75

1.2
69

0.18
7

3.645

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

309

17.5

369.0

1.2
88

1.2
81

0.17
5

3.690

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

312

16.0

373.5

1.3
00

1.2
94

0.16
0

3.735

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

315

14.5

378.0

1.3
13

1.3
06

0.14
5

3.780

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

318

13.2

382.5

1.3
25

1.3
19

0.13
2

3.825

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

321

12.7

387.0

1.3
38

1.3
31

0.12
7

3.870

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

324

12.0

391.5

1.3
50

1.3
44

0.12
0

3.915

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

327

10.5

396.0

1.3
63

1.3
56

0.10
5

3.960

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

330

9.2

400.5

1.3
75

1.3
69

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2

4.005

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

333

8.5

405.0

1.3
88

1.3
81

0.08
5

4.050

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

336

7.7

409.5

1.4
00

1.3
94

0.07
7

4.095

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

340

8.2

414.0

11

343

8.7

418.5

11

347

9.0

423.0

11

350

9.7

427.5

1.4
17
1.4
29
1.4
46
1.4
58

1.4
08
1.4
23
1.4
38
1.4
52

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2
0.08
7
0.09
0
0.09
7

0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
13

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

4.140
4.185
4.230
4.275

0.02
3
0.01
0
0.01
5
0.01
2
0.01
5
0.01
5
0.01
3
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5
0.00
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0.01
5
0.01
3
0.00
7
0.00
8
0.00
5
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5
0.00
3
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3.600

0.03
54

0.11
05

0.14
59

3.600

0.03
38

0.11
05

0.14
42

3.600

0.03
12

0.11
05

0.14
17

3.600

0.02
92

0.11
05

0.13
97

3.600

0.02
67

0.11
05

0.13
72

3.600

0.02
42

0.11
05

0.13
47

3.600

0.02
21

0.11
05

0.13
25

3.600

0.02
12

0.11
05

0.13
17

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0.02
01

0.11
05

0.13
05

3.600

0.01
75

0.11
05

0.12
80

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0.01
54

0.11
05

0.12
59

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0.01
42

0.11
05

0.12
47

3.600

0.01
29

0.11
05

0.12
33

0.01
37
0.01
45
0.01
50
0.01
62

0.06
21
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.11
05

0.07
58
0.12
50
0.07
72
0.12
67

2.700
3.600
2.700
3.600

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Kevin OBrien
John Polak

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354

10.7

432.0

12

357

11.5

436.5

12

360

12.7

441.0

12

364

13.7

445.5

12

368

14.5

450.0

12

372

15.2

454.5

12

376

16.0

459.0

12

380

16.2

463.5

12

384

16.5

468.0

12

388

16.7

472.5

13

392

17.0

477.0

13

397

17.0

481.5

13

402

17.5

486.0

13

407

18.0

490.5

13

412

19.0

495.0

13

417

20.0

499.5

13

422

21.0

504.0

13

427

22.5

508.5

13

433

23.2

513.0

14

439

24.5

517.5

14

445

25.0

522.0

14

451

25.2

526.5

14

457

25.0

531.0

1.4
75
1.4
88
1.5
00
1.5
17
1.5
33
1.5
50
1.5
67
1.5
83
1.6
00
1.6
17
1.6
33
1.6
54
1.6
75
1.6
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1.7
17
1.7
38
1.7
58
1.7
79
1.8
04
1.8
29
1.8
54
1.8
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1.9
04

1.4
67
1.4
81
1.4
94
1.5
08
1.5
25
1.5
42
1.5
58
1.5
75
1.5
92
1.6
08
1.6
25
1.6
44
1.6
65
1.6
85
1.7
06
1.7
27
1.7
48
1.7
69
1.7
92
1.8
17
1.8
42
1.8
67
1.8
92

0.10
7
0.11
5
0.12
7
0.13
7
0.14
5
0.15
2
0.16
0
0.16
2
0.16
5
0.16
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0.17
0
0.17
0
0.17
5
0.18
0
0.19
0
0.20
0
0.21
0
0.22
5
0.23
2
0.24
5
0.25
0
0.25
2
0.25
0

4.320
4.365
4.410
4.455
4.500
4.545
4.590
4.635
4.680
4.725
4.770
4.815
4.860
4.905
4.950
4.995
5.040
5.085
5.130
5.175
5.220
5.265
5.310

0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
25
0.0
25
0.0
25
0.0
25
0.0
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0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

0.01
0
0.00
8
0.01
2
0.01
0
0.00
8
0.00
7
0.00
8
0.00
2
0.00
3
0.00
2
0.00
3
0.00
0
0.00
5
0.00
5
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.01
5
0.00
7
0.01
3
0.00
5
0.00
2
0.00
2

2.700
3.600
3.600
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
1.800
1.800
1.800
1.800
1.800

0.01
79
0.01
92
0.02
12
0.02
29
0.02
42
0.02
54
0.02
67
0.02
71
0.02
76
0.02
79
0.02
84
0.02
84
0.02
92
0.03
01
0.03
17
0.03
34
0.03
51
0.03
76
0.03
88
0.04
09
0.04
18
0.04
21
0.04
18

0.06
21
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.02
76
0.02
76
0.02
76
0.02
76
0.02
76

0.08
00
0.12
97
0.13
17
0.08
50
0.08
64
0.08
75
0.08
89
0.08
92
0.08
97
0.09
01
0.09
06
0.06
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0.06
90
0.06
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0.07
15
0.07
32
0.07
49
0.07
74
0.06
64
0.06
86
0.06
94
0.06
97
0.06
94

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Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 36 of 102

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463

24.7

535.5

1.9
29

1.9
17

0.24
7

5.355

0.0
25

0.0
45

14

469

24.5

540.0

1.9
54

1.9
42

0.24
5

5.400

0.0
25

0.0
45

14

475

24.3

544.5

1.9
79

1.9
67

0.24
3

5.445

0.0
25

0.0
45

14

481

24.0

549.0

2.0
04

1.9
92

0.24
0

5.490

0.0
25

0.0
45

14

487

24.0

553.5

2.0
29

2.0
17

0.24
0

5.535

0.0
25

0.0
45

0.00
3
0.00
2
0.00
2
0.00
3
0.00
0

1.800

0.04
13

0.02
76

0.06
89

1.800

0.04
09

0.02
76

0.06
86

1.800

0.04
06

0.02
76

0.06
82

1.800

0.04
01

0.02
76

0.06
77

1.800

0.04
01

0.02
76

0.06
77

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 37 of 102

6.2.2 First Drop:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (First Drop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Tim
e

MidTim
e

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

(s)

225.
0

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

2.25
0

14

14

221.
0

4.5

0.0
58

0.0
29

2.21
0

0.045

0.0
58

0.0
45

23

217.
0

9.0

0.0
96

0.0
77

2.17
0

0.090

0.0
38

0.0
45

31

212.
5

13.5

0.1
29

0.1
13

2.12
5

0.135

0.0
33

0.0
45

37

208.
5

18.0

0.1
54

0.1
42

2.08
5

0.180

0.0
25

0.0
45

42

204.
5

22.5

0.1
75

0.1
65

2.04
5

0.225

0.0
21

0.0
45

47

200.
5

27.0

0.1
96

0.1
85

2.00
5

0.270

0.0
21

0.0
45

52

196.
5

31.5

0.2
17

0.2
06

1.96
5

0.315

0.0
21

0.0
45

56

192.
0

36.0

0.2
33

0.2
25

1.92
0

0.360

0.0
17

0.0
45

60

188.
0

40.5

0.2
50

0.2
42

1.88
0

0.405

0.0
17

0.0
45

64

68

0.2
67
0.2
83

0.2
58
0.2
75

1.90
5
1.87
5

0.0
17
0.0
17

0.0
45
0.0
45

190.
5
187.
5

45.0
49.5

0.450
0.495

0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.04
0
0.02
5
0.03
0

Avera
ge
Velocit
y

Ep

Ek

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

2.894

0.37
60

Et

%E
ff

(J)
0.37
60

0.771

0.36
93

0.00
51

0.37
43

1.200

0.36
26

0.01
23

0.37
49

1.350

0.35
51

0.01
55

0.37
06

1.800

0.34
84

0.02
76

0.37
60

2.160

0.34
17

0.03
98

0.38
15

2.160

0.33
50

0.03
98

0.37
48

2.160

0.32
83

0.03
98

0.36
81

2.700

0.32
08

0.06
21

0.38
30

2.700

0.31
41

0.06
21

0.37
63

0.31
83
0.31
33

0.06
21
0.06
21

0.38
05
0.37
54

2.700
2.700

Work

Ff

(%)

(J)

(N)

96.
79

0.012
1

0.006
5

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 38 of 102

72

176.
0

54.0

0.3
00

0.2
92

1.76
0

0.540

0.0
17

0.0
45

76

172.
0

58.5

0.3
17

0.3
08

1.72
0

0.585

0.0
17

0.0
45

79

168.
0

63.0

0.3
29

0.3
23

1.68
0

0.630

0.0
13

0.0
45

83

164.
0

67.5

0.3
46

0.3
38

1.64
0

0.675

0.0
17

0.0
45

86

159.
5

72.0

0.3
58

0.3
52

1.59
5

0.720

0.0
13

0.0
45

89

156.
0

76.5

0.3
71

0.3
65

1.56
0

0.765

0.0
13

0.0
45

93

152.
5

81.0

0.3
88

0.3
79

1.52
5

0.810

0.0
17

0.0
45

97

149.
0

85.5

0.4
04

0.3
96

1.49
0

0.855

0.0
17

0.0
45

100

145.
0

90.0

0.4
17

0.4
10

1.45
0

0.900

0.0
13

0.0
45

103

141.
5

94.5

0.4
29

0.4
23

1.41
5

0.945

0.0
13

0.0
45

106

137.
5

99.0

0.4
42

0.4
35

1.37
5

0.990

0.0
13

0.0
45

109

132.
5

103.5

0.4
54

0.4
48

1.32
5

1.035

0.0
13

0.0
45

112

129.
0

108.0

0.4
67

0.4
60

1.29
0

1.080

0.0
13

0.0
45

114

126.
0

112.5

0.4
75

0.4
71

1.26
0

1.125

0.0
08

0.0
45

117

0.4
88

0.4
81

1.21
5

0.0
13

0.0
45

121.
5

117.0

1.170

0.11
5
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.04
0
0.03
5
0.04
0
0.05
0
0.03
5
0.03
0
0.04
5

2.700

0.29
41

0.06
21

0.35
62

2.700

0.28
74

0.06
21

0.34
95

3.600

0.28
07

0.11
05

0.39
12

2.700

0.27
40

0.06
21

0.33
62

3.600

0.26
65

0.11
05

0.37
70

3.600

0.26
07

0.11
05

0.37
11

2.700

0.25
48

0.06
21

0.31
70

2.700

0.24
90

0.06
21

0.31
11

3.600

0.24
23

0.11
05

0.35
28

3.600

0.23
64

0.11
05

0.34
69

3.600

0.22
97

0.11
05

0.34
02

3.600

0.22
14

0.11
05

0.33
19

3.600

0.21
55

0.11
05

0.32
60

5.400

0.21
05

0.24
86

0.45
91

0.20
30

0.11
05

0.31
35

3.600

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 39 of 102

120

116.
5

121.5

0.5
00

0.4
94

1.16
5

1.215

0.0
13

0.0
45

122

113.
5

126.0

0.5
08

0.5
04

1.13
5

1.260

0.0
08

0.0
45

125

110.
5

130.5

0.5
21

0.5
15

1.10
5

1.305

0.0
13

0.0
45

128

105.
0

135.0

0.5
33

0.5
27

1.05
0

1.350

0.0
13

0.0
45

130

103.
0

139.5

0.5
42

0.5
38

1.03
0

1.395

0.0
08

0.0
45

133

97.0

144.0

0.5
54

0.5
48

0.97
0

1.440

0.0
13

0.0
45

135

95.0

148.5

0.5
63

0.5
58

0.95
0

1.485

0.0
08

0.0
45

137

91.0

153.0

0.5
71

0.5
67

0.91
0

1.530

0.0
08

0.0
45

139

86.5

157.5

0.5
79

0.5
75

0.86
5

1.575

0.0
08

0.0
45

142

83.0

162.0

0.5
92

0.5
85

0.83
0

1.620

0.0
13

0.0
45

144

80.0

166.5

0.6
00

0.5
96

0.80
0

1.665

0.0
08

0.0
45

146

76.5

171.0

0.6
08

0.6
04

0.76
5

1.710

0.0
08

0.0
45

148

73.0

175.5

0.6
17

0.6
13

0.73
0

1.755

0.0
08

0.0
45

151

71.0

180.0

0.6
29

0.6
23

0.71
0

1.800

0.0
13

0.0
45

153

69.0

184.5

0.6
38

0.6
33

0.69
0

1.845

0.0
08

0.0
45

0.05
0
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.05
5
0.02
0
0.06
0
0.02
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.03
0
0.03
5
0.03
5
0.02
0
0.02
0

3.600

0.19
47

0.11
05

0.30
51

5.400

0.18
96

0.24
86

0.43
82

3.600

0.18
46

0.11
05

0.29
51

3.600

0.17
54

0.11
05

0.28
59

5.400

0.17
21

0.24
86

0.42
07

3.600

0.16
21

0.11
05

0.27
26

5.400

0.15
87

0.24
86

0.40
73

5.400

0.15
21

0.24
86

0.40
06

5.400

0.14
45

0.24
86

0.39
31

3.600

0.13
87

0.11
05

0.24
92

5.400

0.13
37

0.24
86

0.38
23

5.400

0.12
78

0.24
86

0.37
64

5.400

0.12
20

0.24
86

0.37
06

3.600

0.11
86

0.11
05

0.22
91

5.400

0.11
53

0.24
86

0.36
39

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 40 of 102

6.2.3 Loop:
Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Loop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

Tim
e

MidTim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

(s)

(s)

(m)

0.6
46
0.6
58
0.6
71
0.6
88
0.7
00
0.7
21
0.7
38
0.7
54
0.7
67
0.7
83
0.8
04
0.8
25

0.6
42
0.6
52
0.6
65
0.6
79
0.6
94
0.7
10
0.7
29
0.7
46
0.7
60
0.7
75
0.7
94
0.8
15

0.69
0
0.71
0
0.73
0
0.77
5
0.81
0
0.86
0
0.90
0
0.94
5
0.97
0
1.00
2
1.03
0
1.03
5

155

69.0

189.0

158

71.0

193.5

161

73.0

198.0

165

77.5

202.5

168

81.0

207.0

173

86.0

211.5

177

90.0

216.0

181

94.5

220.5

184

97.0

225.0

188

193

198

202

102.
5

243.0

0.8
42

0.8
33

1.02
5

207

99.0

247.5

0.8
63

0.8
52

0.99
0

213

95.5

252.0

0.8
88

0.8
75

0.95
5

100.
2
103.
0
103.
5

229.5
234.0
238.5

1.890
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

2.430

0.0
17

0.0
45

2.475

0.0
21

0.0
45

0.0
25

0.0
45

1.980
2.025
2.070
2.115
2.160
2.205
2.250
2.295
2.340
2.385

2.520

0.02
0
0.02
0
0.04
5
0.03
5
0.05
0
0.04
0
0.04
5
0.02
5
0.03
2
0.02
8
0.00
5
0.01
0
0.03
5
0.03

Ep

Ek

Et

%E
ff

Work

Ff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

(%)

(J)

(N)

2.456

0.11
53
0.11
86
0.12
20
0.12
95
0.13
53
0.14
37
0.15
04
0.15
79
0.16
21
0.16
74
0.17
21
0.17
29

0.24
86
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.03
98
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.03
98

0.36
39
0.22
91
0.23
25
0.19
16
0.24
58
0.18
35
0.21
25
0.22
00
0.27
26
0.22
96
0.21
19
0.21
27

47.
39

0.191
5

0.202
6

2.700

0.17
13

0.06
21

0.23
34

2.160

0.16
54

0.03
98

0.20
52

0.15
96

0.02
76

0.18
72

5.400
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
21
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
21

1.935

Averag
e
Velocit
y

3.600
3.600
2.700
3.600
2.160
2.700
2.700
3.600
2.700
2.160
2.160

1.800

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 41 of 102

5
7

219

92.0

256.5

0.9
13

0.9
00

0.92
0

2.565

0.0
25

0.0
45

224

87.0

261.0

0.9
33

0.9
23

0.87
0

2.610

0.0
21

0.0
45

229

84.0

265.5

0.9
54

0.9
44

0.84
0

2.655

0.0
21

0.0
45

234

80.0

270.0

0.9
75

0.9
65

0.80
0

2.700

0.0
21

0.0
45

238

74.0

274.5

0.9
92

0.9
83

0.74
0

2.745

0.0
17

0.0
45

243

71.5

279.0

1.0
13

1.0
02

0.71
5

2.790

0.0
21

0.0
45

247

66.0

283.5

1.0
29

1.0
21

0.66
0

2.835

0.0
17

0.0
45

0.03
5
0.05
0
0.03
0
0.04
0
0.06
0
0.02
5
0.05
5

1.800

0.15
37

0.02
76

0.18
13

2.160

0.14
54

0.03
98

0.18
51

2.160

0.14
04

0.03
98

0.18
01

2.160

0.13
37

0.03
98

0.17
34

2.700

0.12
36

0.06
21

0.18
58

2.160

0.11
95

0.03
98

0.15
92

2.700

0.11
03

0.06
21

0.17
24

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 42 of 102

6.2.4 Second Drop:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Second Drop)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

Tim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

1.0
38

0.64
5

2.880

MidTim
e

251

64.5

288.0

1.0
46

255

61.7

292.5

1.0
63

1.0
54

0.61
7

2.925

0.0
17

0.0
45

259

56.7

297.0

1.0
79

1.0
71

0.56
7

2.970

0.0
17

0.0
45

262

53.3

301.5

1.0
92

1.0
85

0.53
3

3.015

0.0
13

0.0
45

266

50.0

306.0

1.1
08

1.1
00

0.50
0

3.060

0.0
17

0.0
45

269

47.0

310.5

1.1
21

1.1
15

0.47
0

3.105

0.0
13

0.0
45

272

44.2

315.0

1.1
33

1.1
27

0.44
2

3.150

0.0
13

0.0
45

275

40.7

319.5

1.1
46

1.1
40

0.40
7

3.195

0.0
13

0.0
45

278

38.0

324.0

1.1
58

1.1
52

0.38
0

3.240

0.0
13

0.0
45

282

35.0

328.5

1.1
75

1.1
67

0.35
0

3.285

0.0
17

0.0
45

285

32.0

333.0

1.1
88

1.1
81

0.32
0

3.330

0.0
13

0.0
45

288

30.0

337.5

1.2
00

1.1
94

0.30
0

0.0
13

0.0
45

3.375

Ep

Ek

Et

%E
ff

Work

Ff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

(%)

(J)

(N)

3.411

0.10
78

0.06
21

0.16
99

75.
35

0.041
9

2.700

0.10
31

0.06
21

0.16
52

0.038
8

2.700

0.09
47

0.06
21

0.15
69

3.600

0.08
91

0.11
05

0.19
95

2.700

0.08
35

0.06
21

0.14
57

3.600

0.07
85

0.11
05

0.18
90

3.600

0.07
39

0.11
05

0.18
43

3.600

0.06
80

0.11
05

0.17
85

3.600

0.06
35

0.11
05

0.17
40

2.700

0.05
85

0.06
21

0.12
06

3.600

0.05
35

0.11
05

0.16
40

0.05
01

0.11
05

0.16
06

2.700
0.02
8
0.05
0
0.03
4
0.03
3
0.03
0
0.02
8
0.03
5
0.02
7
0.03
0
0.03
0
0.02

Averag
e
Velocit
y

3.600

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 43 of 102

0
9

291

27.5

342.0

1.2
13

1.2
06

0.27
5

3.420

0.0
13

0.0
45

294

25.5

346.5

1.2
25

1.2
19

0.25
5

3.465

0.0
13

0.0
45

297

23.5

351.0

1.2
38

1.2
31

0.23
5

3.510

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

300

21.2

355.5

1.2
50

1.2
44

0.21
2

3.555

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

303

20.2

360.0

1.2
63

1.2
56

0.20
2

3.600

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

306

18.7

364.5

1.2
75

1.2
69

0.18
7

3.645

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

309

17.5

369.0

1.2
88

1.2
81

0.17
5

3.690

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

312

16.0

373.5

1.3
00

1.2
94

0.16
0

3.735

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

315

14.5

378.0

1.3
13

1.3
06

0.14
5

3.780

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

318

13.2

382.5

1.3
25

1.3
19

0.13
2

3.825

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

321

12.7

387.0

1.3
38

1.3
31

0.12
7

3.870

0.0
13

0.0
45

10

324

12.0

391.5

1.3
50

1.3
44

0.12
0

3.915

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

327

10.5

396.0

1.3
63

1.3
56

0.10
5

3.960

0.0
13

0.0
45

0.02
5
0.02
0
0.02
0
0.02
3
0.01
0
0.01
5
0.01
2
0.01
5
0.01
5
0.01
3
0.00
5
0.00
7
0.01
5

3.600

0.04
59

0.11
05

0.15
64

3.600

0.04
26

0.11
05

0.15
31

3.600

0.03
93

0.11
05

0.14
98

3.600

0.03
54

0.11
05

0.14
59

3.600

0.03
38

0.11
05

0.14
42

3.600

0.03
12

0.11
05

0.14
17

3.600

0.02
92

0.11
05

0.13
97

3.600

0.02
67

0.11
05

0.13
72

3.600

0.02
42

0.11
05

0.13
47

3.600

0.02
21

0.11
05

0.13
25

3.600

0.02
12

0.11
05

0.13
17

3.600

0.02
01

0.11
05

0.13
05

3.600

0.01
75

0.11
05

0.12
80

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 44 of 102

6.2.5 Banked Turn:


Data Table for a 17.05 g Cart on an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster Track (Banked Turn)
Sectio
n
Numb
er

CrossSectio
n
Numb
er

Fram
es

Fram
es

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

(#)

(#)

(#)

(#)

(cm)

(cm)

(s)

Tim
e

Heig
ht

Positio
n
Down
Track

Velocit
y

(s)

(m)

(m)

(s)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

1.3
56

0.10
5

3.960

MidTim
e

11

327

10.5

396.0

1.3
63

11

330

9.2

400.5

1.3
75

1.3
69

0.09
2

4.005

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

333

8.5

405.0

1.3
88

1.3
81

0.08
5

4.050

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

336

7.7

409.5

1.4
00

1.3
94

0.07
7

4.095

0.0
13

0.0
45

11

340

8.2

414.0

11

343

8.7

418.5

11

347

9.0

423.0

11

350

9.7

427.5

11

354

10.7

432.0

12

357

11.5

436.5

12

360

12.7

441.0

12

364

13.7

445.5

12

368

14.5

450.0

12

372

15.2

454.5

12

376

16.0

459.0

1.4
17
1.4
29
1.4
46
1.4
58
1.4
75
1.4
88
1.5
00
1.5
17
1.5
33
1.5
50
1.5
67

1.4
08
1.4
23
1.4
38
1.4
52
1.4
67
1.4
81
1.4
94
1.5
08
1.5
25
1.5
42
1.5
58

0.08
2
0.08
7
0.09
0
0.09
7
0.10
7
0.11
5
0.12
7
0.13
7
0.14
5
0.15
2
0.16
0

0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
13
0.0
13
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

4.140
4.185
4.230
4.275
4.320
4.365
4.410
4.455
4.500
4.545
4.590

Ep

Ek

Et

%E
ff

Work

Ff

(m/s)

(J)

(J)

(J)

(%)

(J)

(N)

2.604

0.01
75

0.11
05

0.12
80

53.
55

0.059
5

3.600

0.01
54

0.11
05

0.12
59

0.048
9

3.600

0.01
42

0.11
05

0.12
47

3.600

0.01
29

0.11
05

0.12
33

0.01
37
0.01
45
0.01
50
0.01
62
0.01
79
0.01
92
0.02
12
0.02
29
0.02
42
0.02
54
0.02
67

0.06
21
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.11
05
0.11
05
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21

0.07
58
0.12
50
0.07
72
0.12
67
0.08
00
0.12
97
0.13
17
0.08
50
0.08
64
0.08
75
0.08
89

3.600
0.01
3
0.00
7
0.00
8
0.00
5
0.00
5
0.00
3
0.00
7
0.01
0
0.00
8
0.01
2
0.01
0
0.00
8
0.00
7
0.00
8

Averag
e
Velocit
y

2.700
3.600
2.700
3.600
2.700
3.600
3.600
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 45 of 102

12

380

16.2

463.5

12

384

16.5

468.0

12

388

16.7

472.5

13

392

17.0

477.0

13

397

17.0

481.5

13

402

17.5

486.0

13

407

18.0

490.5

13

412

19.0

495.0

13

417

20.0

499.5

13

422

21.0

504.0

13

427

22.5

508.5

13

433

23.2

513.0

14

439

24.5

517.5

1.5
83
1.6
00
1.6
17
1.6
33
1.6
54
1.6
75
1.6
96
1.7
17
1.7
38
1.7
58
1.7
79
1.8
04
1.8
29

1.5
75
1.5
92
1.6
08
1.6
25
1.6
44
1.6
65
1.6
85
1.7
06
1.7
27
1.7
48
1.7
69
1.7
92
1.8
17

0.16
2
0.16
5
0.16
7
0.17
0
0.17
0
0.17
5
0.18
0
0.19
0
0.20
0
0.21
0
0.22
5
0.23
2
0.24
5

4.635
4.680
4.725
4.770
4.815
4.860
4.905
4.950
4.995
5.040
5.085
5.130
5.175

0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
17
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
21
0.0
25
0.0
25

0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45
0.0
45

0.00
2
0.00
3
0.00
2
0.00
3
0.00
0
0.00
5
0.00
5
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.01
5
0.00
7
0.01
3

2.700
2.700
2.700
2.700
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
2.160
1.800
1.800

0.02
71
0.02
76
0.02
79
0.02
84
0.02
84
0.02
92
0.03
01
0.03
17
0.03
34
0.03
51
0.03
76
0.03
88
0.04
09

0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.06
21
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.03
98
0.02
76
0.02
76

0.08
92
0.08
97
0.09
01
0.09
06
0.06
82
0.06
90
0.06
99
0.07
15
0.07
32
0.07
49
0.07
74
0.06
64
0.06
86

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

6.3 Graphs for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:


6.3.1 Energy Versus Time Graphs:
6.3.1.1 Overall Energy Versus Time Graph:

Page 46 of 102

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 47 of 102

Overall Energy Versus Time Graph for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.5000

0.4000

0.3000

Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)

0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

0.500

1.000

1.500
Time (s)

2.000

2.500

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
6.3.1.2 Energy Versus Time Graph for First Drop:

Page 48 of 102

Energy Versus Time Graph for First Drop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.6000

0.5000

0.4000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.3000

Et (J)
0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300
Time (s)

0.400

0.500

0.600

0.700

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 49 of 102

6.3.1.3 Energy Versus Time Graph for Loop:

Energy Versus Time Graph for Loop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
0.2500
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2000

Et (J)
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850
Time (s)

0.900

0.950

1.000

1.050

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 50 of 102

6.3.1.4 Energy Versus Time Graph for Second Drop:

nergy Versus Time Graph for Second Drop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaste
0.3000

0.2500

0.2000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.1500

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
1.000

1.050

1.100

1.150
Time (s)

1.200

1.250

1.300

1.350

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 51 of 102

6.3.1.5 Energy Versus Time Graph for Banked Turn:

nergy Versus Time Graph for Banked Turn for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaste
0.3000

0.2500

0.2000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.1500

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
1.300

1.350

1.400

1.450

1.500

1.550
Time (s)

1.600

1.650

1.700

1.750

1.800

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 52 of 102

6.3.2 Energy Versus Position Graphs:


6.3.2.1 Overall Energy Versus Position Graph:

Overall Energy Versus Position Graph for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.5000

0.4000

0.3000
Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)
0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000
Position (m)

4.000

5.000

6.000

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
6.3.2.2 Energy Versus Position Graph for First Drop:

Page 53 of 102

nergy Versus Position Graph for First Drop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaste
0.5000

0.4000

0.3000
Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)
0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

Position (m)

1.200

1.400

1.600

1.800

2.000

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 54 of 102

6.3.2.3 Energy Versus Position Graph for Loop:

Energy Versus Distance Graph for Loop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
0.2500
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2000

Et (J)
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850
Position (m)

0.900

0.950

1.000

1.050

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 55 of 102

6.3.2.4 Energy Versus Position Graph for Second Drop:

ergy Versus Position Graph for Second Drop for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coas
0.3000

0.2500

0.2000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.1500

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
2.750

2.950

3.150

3.350
Position (m)

3.550

3.750

3.950

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 56 of 102

6.3.2.5 Energy Versus Position Graph for Banked Turn:

ergy Versus Position Graph for Banked Turn for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller Coas
0.3000

0.2500

0.2000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.1500

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
3.800

4.000

4.200

4.400
Position (m)

4.600

4.800

5.000

5.200

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

6.4 Graphs for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:


6.4.1 Energy Versus Time Graphs:
6.4.1.1 Overall Energy Versus Time Graph:

Page 57 of 102

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 58 of 102

ersus Time Graph for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster for an Optimized Toy Rolle
0.5000

0.4000

0.3000

Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)

0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

0.500

1.000

1.500
Time (s)

2.000

2.500

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
6.4.1.2 Energy Versus Time Graph for First Drop:

Page 59 of 102

Energy Versus Time Graph for First Drop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.5000
0.4500
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2500

Et (J)
0.2000
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300
Time (s)

0.400

0.500

0.600

0.700

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 60 of 102

6.4.1.3 Energy Versus Time Graph for Loop:

Energy Versus Time Graph for Loop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
0.2500
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2000

Et (J)
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.600

0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800
Time (s)

0.850

0.900

0.950

1.000

1.050

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 61 of 102

6.4.1.4 Energy Versus Time Graph for Second Drop:

Energy Versus Time Graph for Second Drop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.2500

0.2000

0.1500
Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
1.000

1.050

1.100

1.150

1.200
Time (s)

1.250

1.300

1.350

1.400

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 62 of 102

6.4.1.5 Energy Versus Time Graph for Banked Turn:

Energy Versus Time Graph for Banked Turn for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.1400

0.1200

0.1000

0.0800

Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
1.350

1.400

1.450

1.500

1.550

1.600
Time (s)

1.650

1.700

1.750

1.800

1.850

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 63 of 102

6.4.2 Energy Versus Position Graphs:


6.4.2.1 Overall Energy Versus Position Graph:

Energy Versus Position Graph for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster


0.5000

0.4000

0.3000
Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)
0.2000

0.1000

0.0000
0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000
Position(m)

4.000

5.000

6.000

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
6.4.2.2 Energy Versus Position Graph for First Drop:

Page 64 of 102

Energy Versus Position Graph for First Drop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.5000
0.4500
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2500

Et (J)
0.2000
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

Position (m)

1.200

1.400

1.600

1.800

2.000

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 65 of 102

6.4.2.2 Energy Versus Position Graph for Loop:

Energy Versus Position Graph for Loop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.4000
0.3500
0.3000
0.2500
Ep (J)
Energy (J)

Ek (J)

0.2000

Et (J)
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
1.750

1.950

2.150

2.350
Position (m)

2.550

2.750

2.950

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 66 of 102

6.4.2.2 Energy Versus Position Graph for Second Drop:

nergy Versus Position Graph for Second Drop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaste
0.2500

0.2000

0.1500
Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)
0.1000

0.0500

0.0000
2.750

2.950

3.150

3.350
Position (m)

3.550

3.750

3.950

4.150

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 67 of 102

6.3.2.2 Energy Versus Position Graph for Banked Turn:

Energy Versus Position Graph for First Drop for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
0.1400

0.1200

0.1000

0.0800

Ep (J)
Ek (J)

Energy (J)

Et (J)

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
3.900

4.100

4.300

4.500
Position (m)

4.700

4.900

5.100

5.300

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 68 of 102

6.5 Overall Comparison Graph:

of Percent Efficiencies between an Un-Optimized and Optimized Toy Roller Coast


98.3996.79

100
90
80

75.35

70
60.49

60
Percent Efficiency (%)

55.26

56.89
53.55

47.39

50

Optimized

40
30
20

18.01
14.51

10
0
Total

First Drop

Loop
Sections

Un-Optimized

Second Drop

Banked Turn

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 69 of 102

6.6 Overall Percent Difference:

Total
First Drop
Loop
Second Drop
Banked Turn

Summary Comparison Table of Percent Efficiency and Percent Difference


Un-Optimized Percent Efficiency
Optimized Percent Efficiency
Percent Difference
Values
Energy Values
(%)
(%)
(%)
14.51
18.01
21.53
98.39
96.79
1.64
60.49
47.39
24.29
55.26
75.35
30.76
56.89
53.55
6.05

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 70 of 102

7.0 Analysis:
7.1 Sample Calculations for an Un-Optimized Toy Roller
Coaster:
7.1.1 Sample Calculations:
7.1.1.1 Time:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
t=

F
FPS

t=

40 Frames
240 Frames Per Second

t=0.167 s

the cart was released 0.167 secondsago .

7.1.1.2 Mid-Time:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
T Mid=

t 1+t 2
2

T Mid =

0.167 s+0.196 s
2

T Mid =0.150 s

the midtime was 0.150 seconds.

7.1.1.3 Change in Time:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
t=t 2t 1
t=0.167 s0.133 s

t=0.033 s

the change time was 0.033 seconds.

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
7.1.1.4 Change in Height:

Page 71 of 102

At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 5.


h=h2h1
h=2.150 m2.195 m

h=0.045 m

the change height is0.045 metres .

7.1.1.5 Displacement (Change in Position):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 6.
d =d 2d 1
d =0.090 m0.045 m

d =0.045 m

the displacement is 0.045 metres .

7.1.1.6 Velocity:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 9.
v=

d
t

v=

0.045 m
0.025 s

v =1.800

m
s

the speed of the cart was 1.800 metres per second .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 72 of 102

7.1.1.7 Average Velocity:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg =

d
t

v avg =

5.490 m0 m
2.054 s0 s

v avg =2.673

m
s

the average speed was 2.673

m
.
s

7.1.1.8 Potential Energy:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 8.
E P=m g h

E p=0.01705 kg 9.8

m
2.020 m
s2

E P=0.3375 J

the potential energy was 0.3375 J .

7.1.1.9 Kinetic Energy:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
1
E K = m v2
2
1
E K = ( 0.01705 kg ) (1.350 m/s)2
2

E K =0.0155

the kinetic energy was 0.0155 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 73 of 102

7.1.1.10 Total Energy:


At Section 2, Cross-Section Number 1.
ET =E P + E K

ET =0.3242 J + 0.0276 J

ET =0.3518

the total energy was 0.3518 J .

7.1.1.11 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

100
( 0.0532
0.3668 )

%Eff =

%Eff =14.51

the t oy roller coaster was 14.51 efficient .


7.1.1.12 Work:
Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
W =ET 2ET 1
W =0.0532 J 0.3668 J

W =0.3135 J

the work done onthe cart was 0.3135 J .

W =0.3135 J

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 74 of 102

7.1.1.13 Force of Friction:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
Ff=

E
d

Ff=

0.0532 J 3.668 J
5.490 m0 m

F f =0.0571 N

the force of friction was0.0571 N .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 75 of 102

7.1.2 Overall:
7.1.2.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
2.195 m
s2

E P=0.3668 J

the potential energy was 0.3668 J .

7.1.2.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
1
E K= m v 2
2
0 m/ s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0 J

the kinetic energy was 0 J .

7.1.2.3 Total Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.3668 J +0 J

ET =0.3668 J

the total energy was 0.3668 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 76 of 102

7.1.2.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.245 m
s2

E P=0.0409 J

the potential energy was 0.0409 J .

7.1.2.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
1
E K= m v 2
2
1.200 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.0123 J

the kinetic energy was 0.0123 J .

7.1.2.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.0404 J +0.0123 J

ET =0.0532 J

the total energy was 0.0532 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 77 of 102

7.1.2.7 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.0532
0.3668 J )

%Eff =

14.51

the percent effiency of the unoptimized toy toller coaster was 14.51 .

7.1.2.8 Average Velocity:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

5.490 m0 m
2.054 s0 s

v avg =2.673 m s

the average speed was 2.673

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 78 of 102

7.1.3 Most Energy Efficient Feature, First Drop:


7.1.3.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
2.195 m
s2

E P=0.3668 J

the potential energy was 0.3668 J .

7.1.3.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
1
E K= m v 2
2
0 m/ s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0 J

the kinetic energy was 0 J .

7.1.3.3 Total Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 4.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.3668 J +0 J

ET =0.3668 J

the total energy was 0.3668 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 79 of 102

7.1.3.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.670 m
2
s

E P=0.1120 J

the potential energy was 0.1120 J .

7.1.3.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
1
2
E K= m v
2
5.400 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.2486 J

the kinetic energy was 0.2486 J .

7.1.3.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.1120 J +0 J

ET =0.2486 J

the total energy was 0.3605 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 80 of 102

7.1.3.7 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coasters first drop.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.3605
0.3668 J )

%Eff =

98.30

'

the percent effiency of the unoptimized toy toller coaste r s first dropwas 98.30 .
7.1.3.8 Average Velocity:
Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coasters first drop.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

1.845 m0 m
0.692 s0 s

v avg =2.667 m s

the average speed was 2.667

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 81 of 102

7.1.4 Least Energy Efficient Feature, Second Drop:


7.1.4.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.644 m
s2

E P=0.1076 J

the potential energy was 0.1076 J .

7.1.4.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
1
E K= m v 2
2
3.600 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.1105 J

the kinetic energy was 0.1105 J .

7.1.5.4 Total Energy (In):


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.1076 J +0.1105 J

ET =0.2181 J

the total energy was 0.2181 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 82 of 102

7.1.4.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 11, Cross-Section Number 1.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.060 m
2
s

E P=0.0100 J

the potential energy was 0.0100 J .

7.1.4.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 11, Cross-Section Number 1.
1
2
E K= m v
2
3.600 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.1105 J

the kinetic energy was 0.1105 J .

7.1.4.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 11, Cross-Section Number 1.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.0100 J +0.1105 J

ET =0.1205 J

the total energy was 0.1205 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 83 of 102

7.1.4.7 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coasters second drop.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.1205
0.2181 J )

%Eff =

55.26

'

the percent effiency of the unoptimized toy toller coaste r s second drop was 55.26 .
7.1.4.8 Average Velocity:
Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

1.845 m0 m
0.692 s0 s

v avg =2.667 m s

the average speed was 2.667

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 84 of 102

7.2 Sample Calculations for an Optimized Toy Roller Coaster:


7.2.1 Sample Calculations:
7.2.1.1 Time:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
t=

F
FPS

t=

37 Frames
240 Frames Per Second

t=0.154 s

the cart was released 0.154 secondsago .

7.2.2.2 Mid-Time:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
T Mid=

t 1+t 2
2

T Mid=

0.129 s +0.154 s
2

T Mid =0.142 s

the midtime was 0.142 seconds .


7.2.2.3 Change in Time:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
t=t 2t 1
t=0.154 s0.129 s

t=0.025 s

the change time was 0.025 seconds.

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 85 of 102

7.2.2.4 Change in Height:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
h=h2h1
h=2.085 m2.125 m

h=0.040 m

the change height is0.040 metres .

7.2.2.5 Displacement (Change in Position):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 5.
d =d 2d 1
d =0.090 m0.045 m

d =0.045 m

the displacement is 0.045 metres .

7.2.2.6 Velocity:
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 9.
v=

d
t

v=

0.045 m
0.021 s

v =2.160

m
s

the speed of the cart was 2.160 metres per second .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 86 of 102

7.2.4.7 Average Velocity:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

5.535 m0 m
2.092 s0 s

v avg =2.728 m s

the average speed was 2.728

m
.
s

7.2.2.8 Potential Energy:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 8.
E P=m g h

E p=0.01705 kg 9.8

m
2.045 m
s2

E P=0.3417 J

the potential energy was 0.3417 J .

7.2.2.9 Kinetic Energy:


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 7.
1
E K = m v2
2
1
E K = ( 0.01705 kg ) (1.800 m/s)2
2

E K =0.0276

the kinetic energy was 0.0276 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 87 of 102

7.2.2.10 Total Energy:


At Section 2, Cross-Section Number 1.
ET =E P + E K

ET =0.3283 J +0.0398 J

ET =0.3681

the total energy was 0.3681 J .

7.2.2.11 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the optimized toy roller coaster.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

100
( 0.0677
0.3760 )

%Eff =

%Eff =18.01

the toy roller coaster was 18.01 efficient .


7.2.2.12 Work:
Overall, in the optimized toy roller coaster.
W =ET 2ET 1
W =0.0677 J 0.3760 J

W =0.3082 J

the work done onthe cart was 0.3082 J .

W =0.3082 J

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 88 of 102

7.2.2.13 Force of Friction:


Overall, in the optimized toy roller coaster.
Ff=

E
d

Ff=

0.0677 J 3.760 J
5.535 m0 m

F f =0.0557 N

the force of friction was0.0557 N .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 89 of 102

7.2.2 Overall:
7.2.2.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
2.250 m
s2

E P=0.3760 J

the potential energy was 0.3760 J .

7.2.2.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
1
E K= m v 2
2
0 m/ s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0 J

the kinetic energy was 0 J .

7.2.2.3 Total Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.3760 J +0 J

ET =0.3760 J

the total energy was 0.3760 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 90 of 102

7.2.2.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.240 m
2
s

E P=0.0401 J

the potential energy was 0.0401 J .

7.2.2.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
1
2
E K= m v
2
1.800 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.0276 J

the kinetic energy was 0.0276 J .

7.2.2.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 14, Cross-Section Number 9.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.0401 J + 0.0276 J

ET =0.0677 J

the total energy was 0.0677 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 91 of 102

7.2.2.7 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the optimized toy roller coaster.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.0677
0.3760 J )

%Eff =

18.01

the percent effiency of the optimized toy toller coaster was18.01 .

7.2.2.8 Average Velocity:


Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

5.535 m0 m
2.092 s0 s

v avg =2.728 m s

the average speed was 2.728

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 92 of 102

7.2.3 Most Energy Efficient Feature, First Drop:


7.2.3.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
2.250 m
s2

E P=0.3760 J

the potential energy was 0.3760 J .

7.2.3.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
1
E K= m v 2
2
0 m/ s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0 J

the kinetic energy was 0 J .

7.2.3.3 Total Energy (In):


At Section 1, Cross-Section Number 3.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.3668 J +0 J

ET =0.3668 J

the total energy was 0.3668 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 93 of 102

7.2.3.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 8.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.690 m
2
s

E P=0.1153 J

the potential energy was 0.1153 J .

7.2.3.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 8.
1
2
E K= m v
2
5.400 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.2486 J

the kinetic energy was 0.2486 J .

7.2.3.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.1153 J +2486 J

ET =0.3639 J

the total energy was 0.3639 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 94 of 102

7.2.3.7 Percent Efficiency:


Overall, in the optimized toy roller coasters first drop.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.3639
0.3760 J )

%Eff =

96.79

the percent effiency of the optimized toy toller coaste r ' s first drop was 96.79 .
7.2.3.8 Average Velocity:
Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

1.8450 m
0.638 s0 s

v avg =2.894 m s

the average speed was 2.894

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 95 of 102

7.2.4 Least Energy Efficient Feature, Loop:


7.2.4.1 Potential Energy (In):
At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.690 m
s2

E P=0.1153 J

the potential energy was 0.1153 J .

7.2.4.2 Kinetic Energy (In):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
1
E K= m v 2
2
5.400 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.2486 J

the kinetic energy was 0.2486 J .

7.2.4.3 Total Energy (In):


At Section 5, Cross-Section Number 9.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.1153 J +0.2486 J

ET =0.3639 J

the total energy was 0.3639 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 96 of 102

7.2.4.4 Potential Energy (Out):


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
E P=m g h

E P=0.001705 kg 9.8

m
0.660 m
2
s

E P=0.1103 J

the potential energy was 0.1103 J .

7.2.4.5 Kinetic Energy (Out):


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
1
2
E K= m v
2
2.700 m/s

1
E K = ( 0.001705 kg )
2

E K =0.0621 J

the kinetic energy was 0.0621 J .

7.2.4.6 Total Energy (Out):


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
ET =E P + E K
ET =0.1103 J +0.0621 J

ET =0.1724 J

the total energy was 0.1724 J .

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 97 of 102

7.2.4.7 Percent Efficiency:


At Section 8, Cross-Section Number 3.
ET 2
100
ET 1

( )

%Eff =

J
100
( 0.1724
0.3639 J )

%Eff =

55.26

'

the percent effiency of the optimized toy toller coaste r s loop was 55.26 .
7.2.4.8 Average Velocity:
Overall, in the un-optimized toy roller coaster.
v avg = d / t

v avg =

2.8351.890 m
1.029 s0.646 s

v avg =2.456 m s

the average speed was 2.456

m
.
s

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 98 of 102

7.3 Percent Difference Calculations:


7.3.1 Overall:
ValueMinimum Value
( MaximumAverage
) 100
Value

%Diff =

((

%Diff =

18.01 14.51
18.01 + 14.51
2

100

%Diff =21.53

7.3.2 First Drop:


ValueMinimum Value
( MaximumAverage
) 100
Value

%Diff =

((

%Diff =

98.39 96.79
98.39 +96.79
2

100

%Diff =1.64

7.3.3 Loop:
ValueMinimum Value
( Max imumAverage
) 100
Value

%Diff =

((

%Diff =

60.49 47.39
60.49 +47.39
2

100

%Diff =24.29

7.3.4 Second Drop:


ValueMinimum Value
( MaximumAverage
) 100
Value

%Diff =

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
75.35 55.26
%Diff =
75.35 +55.26
2

Page 99 of 102

((

100

%Diff =30.76

7.3.5 Banked Turn:


ValueMinimum Value
( MaximumAverage
) 100
Value

%Diff =

((

%Diff =

56.89 53.55
56.89 +53.55
2

100

%Diff =6.05

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 100 of 102

8.0 Discussion:
8.1 General Energy Analysis:
8.1.1 Section Comparisons:
More energy was conserved in this optimized roller coaster that in the unoptimized roller coaster, even though three out of the four sections were less
efficient. This first drop was only 1.64% less efficient in the optimized
coaster. Because 1.64% is so small, this can be attributed simply to counting
frames, measuring, or drop height error, as discussed below. The loop was
24.29% less efficient in the optimized coaster. This is because of a massive
measuring error in section 7, as discussed below. The second drop was
30.7% more efficient on the optimized roller coaster. The banked curve was
6.05% more efficient. This value is also very small, so it can be attributed
simply to counting, measuring, and drop height error, as discussed below.
Overall, the optimized roller coaster was 21.53% more efficient than the unoptimized roller coaster. The optimized roller coaster was more energy
efficient because the roller coaster was more stable, and less energy was lost
to sources such as vibration, oscillation, and shaking of the track.
8.1.2 Potential, Kinetic, and Total Energy:
The potential energy decreases as the coaster nears the ground, reaching
zero at ground level. At the start of the roller coaster, the potential energy is
high, and decreases throughout the rest of the track, with exception at the
loop and banked turn, during which the potential energy increased slightly,
then decreased again. Kinetic energy increases as the speed increases, and
decreases as the speed decreases. Total energy starts high, and gradually
decreases due to losses discussed in the following paragraphs. However, all
energy is conserved, as it is impossible to either create of destroy energy. If
the roller coaster was 100% efficient, then the equation for conservation of
mechanical energy ET2=ET1 would be correct. This means that the energy at

Bruce Miller
Page 101 of 102
Kevin OBrien
John Polak
the end of the coaster should be the same at the end of the coaster. This,
however, did not occur, because most energy was lost to the surroundings.
The missing energy would be found it the surroundings because of friction
drag, heat, and sound produced.

Bruce Miller
Kevin OBrien
John Polak

Page 102 of 102

8.2 Error:
8.2.1 Drop Height:
The cart was held in the place by a human hand before it was dropped. The
human hand is far from consistent, so there would have been slight
fluctuations in the carts drop height each time. The differences in the motion
on the later part of the track would be minimized by the cart reaching
terminal velocity on the first drop. However, on the optimized track, the cart
was dropped from higher, and this increases the initial total energy, and
when the kinetic energy on the remainder of the track is limited by the
period of terminal velocity of the first drop the result is a lower percent
efficiency.
8.2.2 Measurement Error:
The track height was measured in a hurry and was not measured very
accurately, particularly where there was a chair between the track and the
floor, which was being used as the reference level. This problem was solved
for sections of the track that where above tables by measuring the height of
the table and the height of the track above the table. However this method
would not work with the chair because the surface of the chair was not level.
Instead a metre stick was placed on a desk such that it extended out
beneath the track and that was used as an intermediate reference point as it
had a consistent measurable height.
When the height of each cross on the un-optimized roller coaster there is a
large jump in the height at section 7, cross section 5. The jump of nearly 15
centimetres is clearly not possible when the distance between the cross
sections is 4.5cm. After this jump the numbers recorded show that the track
was traveled almost level, but slightly downward for several cross sections
after the error. The points then follow a steady downward trend. This place
also happens to coincide with where the chair is beneath the track, which

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suggests that the person measuring was in error. However, the person
recording the numbers may have transcribed them incorrectly as well. This
makes calculations about the efficiency of the loop section unreliable, so the
percent efficiency should not be compared to the percent efficiency for the
optimized roller coaster.
8.2.3 Frame Rate:
In the graphs the poor frame rate of the camera is reflected in the large,
rapid fluctuations of the kinetic energy. In areas of the graph where there are
these rapid changes in kinetic energy the cart was travelling at a speed that
made it pass the reference points in between frames, and the apparently
large fluctuations are really only a difference of one frame. The speed of the
cart in those areas should be averaged, in order to obtain a more accurate
result. However the cart crossed the reference point between frames
multiple times, so there are rapid fluctuations in the data points.
8.2.4 Parallax:
Parallax is the visual effect that makes two objects appear to be aligned from
only one angle and if the lab is not viewed form directly above the track, it is
difficult to tell which frame the cart is aligned with the reference point in. In
order to conserve time by reducing the number of seconds that the cart
needed to be run down the track, large sections of track were filmed each
time. As a result at many points along the track there is no direct footage of
the cart and the parallax effect made it determining when the cart was at the
reference point less clear in the frame counting. The speed of the cart is
calculated based on the frame count and the kinetic energy is based on the
speed, so poor frame counting is another possible reason for the fluctuations
that are so visible in the graphs.

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8.3 Reasons for Energy Loss:


There are many reasons for energy loss, such as friction, heat, sound, and
drag. As the cart passes along the track, the wheels cause friction with the
track, which is increased as the direction changes faster, meaning that a
rapid change of direction, such as the loop or banked turn, will greatly
increase the force of friction, while a gentle curve, such as the first and
second drops, increase friction very little. As the cart approaches terminal
velocity, the cart loses potential energy faster than it gains kinetic energy, so
energy is lost faster than it is gained. The cart also loses energy to heat and
sound. As the cart passes over the track, energy is lost to friction, and the
track heats up slightly due to this friction. There is also sound given off as
the cart passes along the track and through the air. The most energy efficient
sections are the ones where the section is the straightest, and the changes
in direction are very small, while the least energy efficient sections are the
ones where the section bends the most, and the changes in direction are
large, and quick.

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8.4 Feature With Least Energy Loss:


The feature that was the most energy efficient in both of the toy roller
coasters was the first drop. The first drop was the most energy efficient
because the cart was pretty much free-falling, with a slight angle. This
means that the cart loses very little energy to friction with the track,
therefore making the first drop very energy efficient. The un-optimized
coasters first drop was 98.39% efficient, and the optimized coasters first
drop was 96.79% efficient. The first drop was most likely more energy
efficient in the un-optimized coaster because it was shorter, so there was
less time for the cart to lose energy. As the cart neared the end of the first
drop, it reached a near-terminal velocity, so the kinetic energy was not
increasing by as much as the potential energy was decreasing, therefore
causing energy loss to sources such as friction, heat, and sound.

8.5 Feature With Most Energy Loss:


The feature with the least energy efficient was the second drop in the unoptimized coaster, and the loop in the optimized coaster. The second drop
was most likely the least energy efficient in the un-optimized coaster
because of a mixture of a large measuring error and a very unstable track
section. As discussed in the paragraphs above (8.2.2), there was a large
measuring error at section 7, which would most likely make the loop section
the least energy efficient section in the un-optimized coaster. However, the
second drop was very shaky and unstable, and a lot of energy was lost to
moving the track. The cart also reached a near-terminal velocity, so the
potential energy was decreasing at a greater rate than the kinetic energy
was increasing, so energy was being lost to sources such as friction, heat,
and sound. In the optimized coaster, the loop was the least energy efficient.
This was most likely because the loop was not very secure, and shook a lot
as the cart passed along it. There is also a lot of energy lost as the cart is
being pushed into the track by centrifugal force, greatly increasing friction,

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and therefore energy loss. Also, as the cart travels up the loop, and potential
energy increases, the kinetic energy decreases faster than the potential
energy increases, so energy is lost to sources such as friction, heat, and
sound.

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9.0 Analysis of Centripetal/Centrifugal/G-Force:


9.1 Background:
9.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration:
Centripetal acceleration is the acceleration cause by a rapid change in
direction. Assuming that the path is a perfect curve, the formula below can
be used to find centripetal acceleration.
2

A CP =

v
r

Where ACP is the centripetal acceleration

m
s2

Where v is the velocity

m
s

Where r isthe radius of the curved path

9.1.2 Centripetal Force:


Centripetal force is the force that acts on an object that makes it follow a
curved path. Centripetal force is perpendicular to the direction that the
object is moving in, and pulls the object towards the centre of curvature.
Assuming that the path is a perfect curve, the formula below can be used to
find centripetal force.
FCP =

m v2
r

Where FCP is the centripetal forceN


Where r isthe radius of the curved path

Where mis the masskg

Where v is the velocity

m
s

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9.1.3 Centrifugal Acceleration:


Assuming that the path is a perfect curve, the formula below can be used to
find centrifugal acceleration.
A CF =

v2
r

Where ACF isthe centrifugal acceleration

m
s2

Where v is the velocity

m
s

Where r isthe radius of the curved path


9.1.4 Centrifugal Force:
Centripetal force is the force that acts on an object that draws an object
away from the centre of curvature, and is a perceived force. The centrifugal
acceleration and force will be in the opposite direction of the centripetal
force, so the formulas are identical, only with opposite directions. Assuming
that the path is a perfect curve, the formula below can be used to find
centrifugal

force.

m v2
FCF =
r

Where FCF isthe centrifugal forceN


Where r isthe rad iusof the curved path

Where mis the masskg

Where v is the velocity

m
s

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9.1.5 G-Force:
G-Force is the force acting upon an object relative to the force of gravity. As
the net force acting upon the object increases, so does g-force, and as the
net force acting on the object decreases, so does g-force.
g=

AN
AG

Where g isthe gforce g ( 1 g is the force of gravity on the surface of the earth )

accel eration perpendicular


Where A N isthe normal acceleration ( the path )

Where AG is theacceleration due gravity

m
s

(use ACP A CF )

m
s

9.1.6 Radius:
This formula will be used to find the radius of a curved path based on an
estimated circumference.
c
(
)
r=
2

Where r isthe radius of the curved path m


Where c isthe circumference of the curved pathm

Where is the ratio of a ' s circumference its diameter

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9.2 Analysis:
9.2.1 Radius:
The circumference of the loop was approximately 0.945 m.
c
(
)
r=
2

0.945 m
(
)
r=

r=0.150 m

0.150 m will be used as the value for the radius.


The mass of the cart is 17.05 g, which is 17.05 g

1 kg
1000 g = 0.01705 kg.

9.2.2 Centripetal Acceleration:


At Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Un-Optimized Roller Coaster:
A CP =

v2
r

m
2.700
s
A CP =
0.150 m

A CP =48.5

m
s2

9.2.3 Centripetal Force:


At Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Un-Optimized Roller Coaster:
FCP =

m v2
r

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0.01705 kg 2.700
FCP =

m
s

FCP =0.826 N

0.150 m

9.2.4 Centrifugal Acceleration:


At Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Optimized Roller Coaster:
A CP =

v2
r

m
s
A CP =
0.150 m

2.160

A CP =31.0

m
s2

9.2.5 Centrifugal Force:


At Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Optimized Roller Coaster:
FCP =

m v2
r

0.01705 kg 2.160
FCP =

m
s

FCP =0.529 N

0.150 m

9.2.6 G-Force:
From Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Un-Optimized Roller Coaster:
g=

AN
AG

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m
48.5 2
s
g=
g=4.94 g
m
9.81 2
s

Page 112 of 102

At Section 7, Cross-Section 1, Optimized Roller Coaster:


g=

AN
AG

m
s2
g=
m
9.81 2
s
31.0

g=3.16 g

10.0 Conclusion:
Overall, the un-optimized toy roller coaster was 14.51% efficient, while the
optimized toy roller coaster was 18.01% efficient. The first drop was 98.39%
efficient in the un-optimized coaster, and 96.79% efficient in the optimized
coaster. The loop was 60.49% efficient in the un-optimized coaster, and
47.39% efficient in the optimized coaster. The second drop was 55.26%
efficient in the un-optimized coaster, and 75.35% efficient in the optimized
coaster. The banked turn was 56.89% efficient in the un-optimized coaster,
and 53.55% efficient in the optimized coaster. Overall, the optimized coaster
was more stable, and therefore less energy was lost to moving the track.

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11.0 Pictures:
Featur
Un- Optimized Toy Roller Coaster
e

Overa
ll

Optimized Toy Roller Coaster

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First
Drop
and
Loop

Loop

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Secon
d
Drop

Banke
d Turn

12.0 Bibliography/Works Cited:


http://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/roller-coaster-physics.html
http://staff.washington.edu/aganse/blog/files/centrip.html
http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/1227/calculation-of-the-g-force
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/cf.html