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Annotated Bibliography

Taylor Littleton
October 21, 2015
Professor Drake
Research Techniques and Technology

Choi, P. L., Parrott, A. C., & Cowan, D. (1990). High-Dose Anabolic Steroids in Strength
Athletes: Effects upon Hostility and Aggression. Human Psychopharmacology:
Clinical & Experimental, 5(4), 349-356.
Choi in his detailed experimental study took six male strength athletes which had three
using steroids illicitly and three non-steroid users. He monitored them for several months
as they did their regular training and while they competed in games. Choi did this study
because he felt like the use of steroids causes aggression and hostility. He also used other
studies that have been done and compared them to his study.
This source relates to college athletes using steroids because Choi notices its also an
issue when it comes to sports today. Even though this study was written in 1990 it proves
that it was an issue then like it is today. This also relates to college athletes and steroids
because aggression and hostility can also be a common side effect depending on what
steroid is being taken and how bad the athlete is abusing the drug.
Buckman, J. F., Farris, S. G., & Yusko, D. A. (2013). A national study of substance use
behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banned performance enhancing
substances. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 131(1/2), 50-55.
Buckmans study has to do with illicit substance abuse by college athletes because it has
become a common thing that athletes are doing these days. The data that was in this study
came from the national dataset by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). He

compared undergraduate males and recorded their performance. The ending showed there
was a consistent pattern of substance use.
This relates to college athletes and the use of steroids because this study took actual
athletes from the NCAA as a whole and researched and followed them closely. This also
relates to the topic college athletes and steroid use because even the NCAA sees it as a
growing trend and a problem that is becoming among athletes everywhere. This study
also suggest ways to help college athletes struggling with this problem.
Miller, K. E., Hoffman, J. H., Barnes, G. M., Sabo, D., Melnick, M. J., & Farrell, M. P.
(2005). Adolescent Anabolic Steroid Use, Gender, Physical Activity, and Other
Problem Behaviors. Substance Use & Misuse, 40(11), 1637-1657.
Miller is another person who did a study on steroids but in his study he did a gender
specific relationship with steroid use. They took a sample of 16,000 public and private
school students. They wanted to see if males had a difference when talking to a female
and see if they influence their decisions.
Although this is a good case study this would not work for college athletes and steroid
use because one they used high school students, two they used relationships for talking to
the opposite sex and because they look like they were basing this study off of feelings. If
Miller would make a college version of this study and see what the end results ended up
to be this would be a very useful case study.

Graham, M. R., Davies, B., Grace, F. M., Kicman, A., & Baker, J. S. (2008). Anabolic
Steroid Use. Sports Medicine, 38(6), 505-525.
Graham makes it very clear in his article about what steroids are and how serious they
are. Graham also talks about even though athletes know how serious steroids are they
continue to still take them. He also talks about steroid use in the United Kingdom and
how it is considered a criminal offence there.
Grahams article is perfect for college athletes and their problem with steroid use because
he makes points that athletes should know if you decide to take them. This is also perfect
because it tells you the consequences if too much is taken in big dosages. Graham raises a
lot of good points and with him comparing it with another country proves its not just the
United States with a problem.
Dodge, T., Stock, M., & Litt, D. (2013). Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing
substances: Reasoned, reactive, or both?. Journal Of Health Psychology, 18(7),
962-971. doi:10.1177/1359105312445079
In this article there were two study objectives that were being evaluated for the one study
that was done. The first one was investigating whether or not steroid use was effective
and the second was examining whether attitudes, norms and prototypes influence using
steroids but wasnt there intentions.
This study works for college athletes and steroid use because it is evaluating if it was
their intention to take steroids or if they were basically pressured into doing it. This study

also works because it is examining the athletes attitude and their norms. This study also
works because its viewing the psychology side of the situation.
Suggs, W. (2003). Deadly Fuel. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 49(27), A36.
In Suggs article it discusses how college athletes in Maine and Texas were arrested and
punished for using steroids. Suggs also mentions how there were pills and powder
containing ephedrine at Northwestern University. The article then goes in deep talking
about how you can make new choices and how serious each drug is by going into detail.
This is also another perfect source for college athletes and steroids because they mention
states in where this has occurred and how they are getting caught. This article really goes
into depth about how serious the situation is and how each drug has a class of how severe
it is.
Dodge, T., Williams, K. J., Marzell, M., & Turrisi, R. (2012). Judging cheaters: Is
substance misuse viewed similarly in the athletic and academic domains?.
Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 678-682. doi:10.1037/a0027872
This study examines individuals and how they judge others who use steroids in two
domains the athletic side and the academic side. There were two scenarios described, an
athlete taking steroids to improve on the performance end and someone taking it for
success in school. The ending results ended up being everyone thought the athlete was
more of a cheater and drugs like Adderall were necessary than steroids for success in the

This is a good source because it is talking about people judging others besides just
athletes. This is also a good source to see how people really feel when the script is
reversed on them. Misuse of any type of steroid should be punished especially if it is
something you are not prescribed.
Nichols, K. (2004). 2 Dartmouth Football Players Arrestedon Steroid-Possession
Charges. Chronicle Of Higher Education, 50(44), A33.
This article is about two members on the football team at Dartmouth College who were
charged of possessing steroids and other narcotics. Another person who worked for the
colleges newspaper was also charged four counts of illegal possession. They were also
facing seven years in prison.
This proves to be serious and proves college athletes and steroids are not a good match
together. Even if you live with someone who has it and you have no involvement that
person can still get charged for being in the home. Athletes should know by now the
consequences of taking steroids and be smarter about the decisions they make.
Greifner, L. (2006). Sports Illustrated Joins Programs To Address Steroid Use, Nutrition.
Education Week, 25(23), 12.
This article discusses Sports Illustrated joining with two Oregon programs that
discourage steroid use. This article explains that they want to promote healthier lifestyles
for both men and women. They also list model programs to follow.

This relates to college athletes and steroids because if an athlete has a problem they can
read this article to guide them in the path they need to go. This is also a good source
because a lot of athletes read Sports Illustrated and look up to the magazine.
Miller, K. E., Barnes, G. M., Sabo, D., Melnick, M. J., & Farrell, M. P. (2002). A
Comparison of Health Risk Behavior in Adolescent Users of AnabolicAndrogenic Steroids, by Gender and Athlete Status. Sociology Of Sport Journal,
19(4), 385-402.
Millers article examines relationships among gender, athletic participation, and health
related problem behaviors. This study targeted mostly high school students which nearly
had used them. The article also talks about behaviors that may arouse while taking
This is a good source but wouldnt work for college athletes and steroids. This would be
great if high school students were being targeted but that is not the case. If this article
focused on both high school and college this would have been an outstanding source