Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barry Meier (2013). A world of hurt: Fixing pain medicines biggest mistake. Available from
http://s3.amazonaws.com/vookflow-sf-prd/AWorldofHurt-20130523-sample.pdf
eiSBN: 9781625392480
Thesis: Opioids are not only used for patients that have been diagnosed with cancer.
Opioids are taken by many people with or without medical conditions for purposes
not only relative to pain.
Annotation: Bad backs, migraines, arthritis and other painful conditions have been
known to be treated by opioids, as well as cancer. Although opioids can be
addictive, people were persuaded to take opioids back in 1986. They soon
became the most powerful drug available. Around 2001, reports stated that
adolescents were using such opioids to get high, and shortly after that doctors
began to see the abuse being taken of the drugs.
Question: #2; this pertains to question #2 because in this article it is stated that
some of the long term effects include: addiction, psychological dependence,
reduced sexual drive, extreme lethargy and sleep apnea as well as increased falls
and fractures in the elderly.
Point of View: Mr. Meier explains how these types of prescribed pain medications
have not always been misused and abused. Even though they are used to treat
chronic illnesses, the long term effects of taking these narcotics may even worsen
the conditions.
Celine Grounder (2013, November 8). Who is responsible for the pain-pill epidemic?
Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/who-is-responsiblefor-the-pain-pill-epidemic

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thesis: As doctors started to prescribe more and more narcotics, the number of
deaths due to narcotics started to increase as well. Most studies of prescribed
narcotics last only between twelve and seventeen weeks, so prescribing them long
term is unnecessary.
Annotation: Purdue Pharma, in 2007 plead guilty to misleading the F.D.A., clinics,
and patients about the risks of OxyContin abuse and addiction. Patients openly
welcomed and encouraged narcotic prescriptions though motivated by the
pharmaceutical industry. Doctors, trying to be the good guy, often have upset
patients claiming that they are not understanding their pain, therefore the doctors
have a hard time saying no when a patient requests a certain medication, knowing
its not the best choice. Doctors would longer be able to write out prescriptions for
six-months, like Vicodin and would suggest over-the-counter painkillers instead.
Question: #2 and #4; this article pertains to both, questions 2 and 4 because it
mentions some more side effects including: constipation, sexual dysfunction,
cognitive impairment, addiction, and overdosing, and also mentions that doctors are
contributing to the epidemic by giving in to the patients needs and not prescribing
what they know is best. Being a doctor and having dealt with these situations
before, she admits to facing difficulties when it comes to prescribing narcotics to
patients who really need them.
Point of View: As a doctor, Celine was puzzled as to what she should do with her
patients. She wants to make them happy but at the same time do whats best for
the patient but they do not always go hand in hand.
Center for Disease Control (2011, November). Prescription painkiller overdoses in the US
Retrieved from http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/gpo49429/2011-11-vitalsigns.pdf

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thesis: The number of deaths from prescribed painkillers has skyrocketed within the
last ten years. A huge factor includes the use of non-medical use of prescription pain
medications to get high
Annotation: Problems begin with how easily these types of medications are to get a
hold of, whether it be from someone you know, buying them on the streets, or even
lying to doctors about their medical conditions to receive them. It is also more common
for men to die from prescribed painkiller overdoses than women and middle-aged
adults to die from overdoses. The number of real life stories of this epidemic is through
the roof.
Question: #4; this pertains to question 4 because it lists a number of things that can be
done to prevent the abuse starting with the government and all the way to individuals
themselves. The government tracks prescription drug overdose trends and educates
health care providers and the public about the overdose of the prescription drugs.
States can set up programs that address the improper use of prescribed drugs, enforce
laws to crack down the prescribing, or even increase the access of treatment for
abusers to prevent the abuse. Health insurers, health care providers and individuals can
do numerous amounts of things to prevent the abuse as well, starting with LISTENING
to their health care providers.
Point of View: The point of view for this short little article is to say that with the help of
everyone this epidemic can be stopped, or at least lowered so that there are not nearly
15,000 deaths a year involving prescribed pain medications.
EBSCO Publishing (2009). Prescription Painkillers: Relief for Some, Addiction for
Others. Nucleus Catalog. Retrieved from http://www.nucleuscatalog.com/prescriptionpainkillers-relief-for-some-addiction-for-others/view-item?ItemID=59472

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thesis: When people hear the words drug addiction, one often thinks of cocaine
and heroin, but all the drugs being given out in pharmacies across the country never
crosses ones mind. When used correctly opioids can be a gift from heaven, relieving
chronic pain from persons actually suffering it but when misused it can increase the
risks of addiction.
Annotation: What also does not help is that people come up with new ways to taking
them other than swallowing it, such as injecting or snorting (inhaling). What makes the
person vulnerable is not easily known. Being addicted to other substances such as
alcohol is linked to becoming addicted to opioids; someone addicted to alcohol and
prescribed opioids for chronic pain are highly likely to get addicted to that substance as
well.
Question: #1; this pertains to question #1 because there is a list of potentially addictive
painkillers which include: hydrocodone (Vicodin, Percocet), hydromorphone (Dilaudid),
meperidine (Demerol), morphine, oxycodone (Oxycontin), and propoxyphene (Darvon).
Point of View: Treatments for this kind of addiction include behavior therapy and
medication. They do not necessarily need to go hand-in-hand, but studies show that
the effectiveness of getting over the addiction is more likely when given both types of
treatment.
Jeremy Culver (2015, October 14). Misuse of opioid prescription painkillers spikes.
Retrieved from http://www.wgem.com/story/30263182/2015/10/14/misuse-of-opioidprescription-painkillers-spikes
Thesis: In Missouri, the opioid misuse has increased 137% because of how easily they
are to get. Often the addiction starts with getting prescribed this medication due to a
serious accident.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotation: People dont realize the self-medicated issues with this epidemic. Patients
go in to doctors offices knowing what to say in order to get ahold of these
medications. It also doesnt help the fact that it is legal.
Question: #3; this video pertains to question #3 because Jessica Baker, a CSS
Supervisor, Preferred Family Healthcare states that patients know how to get the drugs,
by knowing where to go and exactly what symptoms to tell their doctors in order to
receive the medication.
Point of View: People may often times build a tolerance to the drug after being
prescribed it which also then leads to an addiction.
Saint Louis University Medical Center. (2013, October 31). Long-term use of prescription
painkillers increases risk of depression. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131031124725.htm
Thesis: There is perhaps a link between taking pain relieving medication and
developing major depression. Though there is no clear evidence of opioids contributing
to the development of depression, there are many factors that can lead to it.
Annotation: Opioid-induced resetting of the brain's 'reward pathway' to a higher
level, which means the chronic use of narcotic pain killers can elevate the threshold for
a person's ability to experience pleasure from natural rewards such as a food or sexual
activity. Another factor is the higher the opioid dosage, the greater the risk is of
becoming depressed. According to studies, patients who were on opioids for 180 days
or longer were at a 53% increased chance of being exposed to depression.
Question: #2; this pertains to question 2 because it states that depression, as well as
adrenal, testosterone and vitamin D deficiencies and glucose dysregulation can be
effected after the use of opioids has stopped.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Point of View: There are many harmful side effects of taking opioids. Its even possible
for the chronic pain to worsen in later years when the medication has stopped.
Scott Glover & Lisa Girion (2013, January 17). Are doctors contributing to the prescription
drug abuse epidemic. Retrieved from
http://www.kcet.org/shows/socal_connected/content/interview/are-doctorscontributing-to-the-prescription-drug-abuse-epidemic.html
Thesis: Prescription pain killers are being overly prescribed, enough to medicate every
adult American for 24 hours for a whole month. These types of drugs used to be
prescribed for only people with cancer until it was found to help other illnesses as well.
Annotation: These drugs are being prescribed ethically because death is not an
assumed outcome of prescribing these drugs to patients in need. There are many
factors to which one can know who, where, why and how there drugs are being
prescribed. Doctors prescribing these drugs should also be monitoring and screening
their patients to make sure they are using them as directed and that there is no past
history of substance abuse.
Question: #4; this video pertains to question 4 because it mentions many of the ways
that doctors are contributing to the epidemic, but none are technically at fault. There
would be many other factors to look at including doctor files to determine whether
they should be at fault for this death.
Point of View: There is an expectation that if, as a doctor, you are prescribing these
types of narcotics then you should be monitoring your patients. There is a way to see
clusters of overly prescribed medications that only about 6 states are using.
Implications of the budget needed to help with these screenings and monitoring of
patients is also at risk, making it hard to keep track of all these details.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Scott Glover, Lisa Girion & Liz O. Baylen (2012, November 11). Legal drugs, deadly
outcomes. Retrieved from http://graphics.latimes.com/prescription-drugs-part-one/
Thesis: Many doctors are contributing to the epidemic without even knowing it by over
prescribing drugs and in some cases, not looking at past history of their patient.
Hydrocodone is the most commonly prescribed medication for pain.
Annotation: Physicians argued that it was inhumane to ignore suffering in non-cancer
patients. Some studies showed that some of the patients did build a tolerance and
would take higher amounts of the drug to relieve the pain, which then led to an
accidental overdose. Many of doctor Vans patients came to him already dependent
on narcotics which made his job a little bit more complicated, but he argued that there
was the same amount, if not a higher amount of patients succeeding with the
treatment.
Question: #1 and #4; this pertains to questions #1 and #4 because it goes on to list
some of the drugs that are being focused on including: Xanax, OxyContin, Vicodin,
and other pain effective medications.
Point of View: Narcotic painkillers are the worlds most popular prescribed drug on the
US market. Theres no way for doctors to be 100% liable for every patient of theirs
that overdoses, but thats not to say that they are still many ways for them to prevent
it.
Sean E. McCabe & Carol J. Boyd. (2005, August). Sources of prescription drugs for illicit
use. Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 1342-1350. Retrieved from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460305000134
Thesis: College students are more likely to have illicit drug use whether it be because of
their peers, or because theyre getting prescribed these drugs themselves. The four

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

main types of prescribed drugs being studied are: opioid analgesics, stimulants,
anxiolytics/sedatives, and sleeping medications because these drugs are most
commonly abused in college students.
Annotation: College students who have an illicit drug problem are more likely to drink
and develop other deviant habits. There are many ways for a college to get access to
these types of drugs without even having to pay for them. Many of the students who
were asked, said that their peers, including family members, gave them the drugs. The
students who admitted to the drug use were just as applicable to be a heavy drinker as
well as the students who did not admit to drug use.
Question: #3; this pertains to question 3 because this article states how easily the
drugs are to get ahold of, making it easier for illicit use of the drug.
Point of View: Alcohol and other drug users need to be open to other prevention to
condense the amount of illicit drug and alcohol users. Students who get drugs from
peers are more likely to be considered a high-risk for combining different types of
drugs.