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SalmataBarrieandSaraGraham
BethanySmith
HonorsEnglishII
1December2015
TheMicroscopicAssassin
Deepinthedepthsoftheforestadangertohumanityisfesteringonceagaintowreak
havoconmankind.ThisworldwideantagonistisknowntomanasEbola.Ebolaisaninfectious
andlethaldisease.TherecentoutbreakofEbolahascausedunspeakableharm,afflictingnotonly
Africabutthewholeworld,andrequiresaglobalefforttominimizeitsaftermath.
Themostdeadlykillerscantalwaysbeseenwiththenakedeye.Ebolaisoneofthese
predators.Thisseverediseasecausesaviralhemorrhagicfever(Willett4).Themostrecent
outbreakstartedinSierraLeoneinMarchof2014,withanaveragefatalityrateofthirtynine
percent,whichspreadtoLiberiaandGuinea(Cook).Althoughthisisthelargestoutbreakof
Ebolaeverrecorded,pastoccurrenceshavereachedfatalityratesofninetypercent.Reportedly
thirtythousandmenandwomenofallageswereinfectedbytherecentoutbreak(Davieson17).
However,itdoesnotstopathumanbeings.Ebolaalsoinfectsnonhumanprimatessuchas
monkeys&chimpanzees(Willett4).Ebolaistransmittedthroughcontactwithbodilyfluids.
Earlysymptomsincludesweatingandheadaches,withmuscleandbodypainthatcanleadto
vomiting,fatigue,anddehydration.Manyvictimsneardeathbecomehelplessandbeginshaking
withexternalbleedingusuallycomingfromthemouth(ThisEbola).Thevirushasheavily
impactedtheWestAfricanregionandcauseddevastatingaftermath.

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Whensomeonebecomesseverelyill,theyarelikelytakentoahospital.However,little
dopeopleknowthatbringinganEbolapatienttoahospitalcouldactuallycausemoreharmthan
good.ThepoorsocialandeconomicconditionsintheAfricancountrieswhereit[Ebola]occurs
meanthehospitalsandotherhealthcarefacilitiesactuallyhelpspreadthedisease(Willett5).
ManyhealthcareworkersdieduringEbolaoutbreaks,whichcausesadominoeffectastheloss
ofworkersleadstoevenmorecivilunrest(Willett58).Thisalsomaycausedistrustbetween
doctorsandpatientsespeciallywhenpatientsacquirethevirusatahospital.Thus,lesspeopleto
gotothehospitalinthefuturefortreatment(Willett57).However,Ebolavictimswhodontseek
professionalhelpcouldinfecttheirwholefamilyinoneday(Davieson5).Thiscanoccurwhena
familypreparesadiseasedbodyforburialbecausethevirusstilllingersinthebodyfluidsofthe
victim(ThePolitics).Peoplewhobecomeawarethattheirdeceasedfamilymemberwas
afflictedwithEbolastoptakingpartintraditional,ritualisticwashingofthedeadforfearof
catchingthedeadlyvirus(Willett59).Ebolasurvivorsareoftenshunnedandmanyfamily
memberswontgonearthem.(Willett61).Thevirusitselfisnotcompletelyisolatedwithin
culturallyguidedWestAfrica.EbolahastouchedtheDemocraticrepublicoftheCongo,Gabon,
Sudan,theIvoryCoast,Uganda,evenEngland,andtheUnitedStates(Willet4).Therefore,mass
globaleffortstominimizethediseasehavetakenplaceaccordingly.
ThefearandanxietyofEbolacontinuestomotivatepeopleinAfricaandaroundthe
globetofindasolution.EBOVACSalonehasinitiatedPhaseIandPhaseIIstudiesthatare
beingconductedacrosstheUnitedStates,Europe,andAfricatoacceleratethedevelopmentofa
vaccineregimen(Johnson).JanssensEbolaprimeboostvaccineregimenisalsounderway.

VolunteersinthestudywillfirstbegiventheAdVacdosetoprimetheirimmunesystem,and

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thentheMVABNdosetwomonthslatertoboosttheirimmuneresponse
(Johnson).
Janssensprocedureisaimingtostrengthenandoptimizethedurationofimmunity.Allofthese
attemptshaveprovidedasignificantsteptowardsfiguringouthowtostopallvirusesfrom
replicating(Ghayourmanesh).PreventionmeasuresarebeingcarriedoutinWestAfricatokeep
anotheroutbreak,orvirusfromtakingovertheundevelopedregion.
Tominimizetheeffectsoffutureoutbreaks,preventionmeasuresmustbetakeplaceas
soonasfirstcasesappear.Significantinvestmenthasbeenmadetoestablishthefirstemergency
roomattheKambiaDistrictHospital,buildanewvaccinestoragefacilityonsite,andemploy
andtrainfirstresponders(Johnson).OnNovember7th2015,SierraLeonewasdeclaredfreeof
Ebola.
SierraLeonehadgonefortytwodayswithoutanynewcaseofEbolathebenchmarkset
bytheworldhealthbodybeforeanaffectedcountrycouldbedeclaredfreeofthevirus
(This
Ebola).KeepinginmindthattheincubationperiodforEbolaistwentyonedays,itisessential
thatpeoplestaycautious.Doctorscanpreventpotentialspreadingbywearingprotective
clothing,usingsterilizedequipment,andisolatinginfectedpatients.Doctorscantreatsymptoms
bybalancingpatientsfluidandelectrolytes,makingsurethattheyaregettingenoughoxygen,
keepinguptheirbloodpressure,&treatinganysecondaryinfections(Willett5).Despiteallof
thefundingbeingputtowardsresearchandprevention,thereisstillnolicensedvaccine,
treatment,orcureforEbola.
Overthepastcentury,theearthhascometoknowamicroscopicassassinbythenameof
Ebola.Thisimperceptiblevirushasmanifesteditselftoreachmanypartsoftheglobealtering
notonlytheexteriorbutalsothefragileinterior.Duetoitsfrequency,peoplehavebegunto

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acknowledgethevirusandproposewaystopreventitsspread.Inspiteofhardworkingefforts,
Ebolastilllingers,demolishingeverythinginitspath.

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WorksCited
Cook,Nicolas,andTiajiSalaamBlyther."Ebola:2014OutbreakinWestAfrica."Congressional
ResearchService(CRS)ReportsandIssueBriefs.Washington,DC:Congressional
ResearchService,2014.StudentEdition.Web.13Nov.2015.
Davieson,Adrian.
Ebola
.CreateSpaceIndependentPublishingPlatform,2015.Print
Ghayourmanesh,Soraya,PhD,andH.Bradford,MDHawley."EbolaVirus."MagillSMedical
Guide(OnlineEdition)(2015):TopicOverviews612.Web.13Nov.2015.
"Johnson&JohnsonAnnouncesStartofClinicalTrialofEbolaVaccineRegimeninSierra
Leone."PRNewswire9Oct.2015.GaleBiographyInContext.Web.13Nov.2015.
"ThePoliticsBehindtheEbolaCrisis[document]."AfricaNewsService28Oct.2015.Student
Edition.Web.13Nov.2015.
"ThisEbolaOutbreakisOverbutNotQuiteTheTimeisNowtoAssistSierraLeone's
RecoveryProgramme[opinion]."AfricaNewsService11Nov.2015.StudentEdition.
Web.13Nov.2015.
Willett,Edward.
EbolaVirus.
BerkeleyHeights,NJ:Enslow,2003.Print.

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Outline
I.Introduction
A.Definition/Explanation
B.Statistics
II.HarmfulEffects
A.EffectsOnAfrica
B.GlobalImpact
III.Solutions
A.ClinicalTrials
B.HowtoMinimizetheProblem
IV.Conclusion