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Mr. Fagan
October 2015


Learning Targets 14-19


states of consciousness
LT15:Distinguish between processing what is
conscious and other processing that is happening
without conscious awareness
LT16: Define circadian rhythm and explain its
relationship to sleep
LT17: Describe the sleep cycle
LT18:Compare and contrast the theories about
the functions of sleep and define and describe
sleep disorders
LT19: Compare and contrast theories about the
functions of dreams


is no agreed upon definition of

Consciousness is what allows us to know
our past, experience our present and
predict the future.
It gives us a sense of mortality


consciousness takes in all

information and breaks it into two
categories: The relevant and noticed or
the irrelevant and the ignored

Three levels of

proposed by
Sigmund Freud
Sub consciousness

Consciousness V

Dual processing
Information is

processed on a
separate conscious
and unconscious

99% of what we do
in unconscious

Circadian Rhythms
Sleep / wake cycle
that exists over a 24
hour period.
This cycle determines
our alertness and
activity levels
throughout the day
and night.
This internal body
clock is affected by
internal and external

Internal Factors
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
(SCN) and the pineal
SCN sends messages to
the pineal gland to
produce and release
melatonin and serotonin.
Melatonin and serotonin
levels increase during
darkness and are
inhibited (reduced) during
periods of light.
Increased level result in
drowsiness and sleep.

External Factors
Aka zeitgeber the
major external factor is
related to the presence
of light!
The detection of light by
the retina in the eyes has
an effect on the SCN.
External factors that
disrupt the circadian
rhythm include time zone
changes (jet lag), shift
work (working overnight),
and medications.

Stages of Sleep
There are two stages of
sleep that are present in
the sleep cycle NREM
(non-rapid eye
movement) and REM
(rapid eye movement)
During an 8 hour sleep
cycle, humans
experience 4 to 5 of
these sleep cycles each
Most humans spend
approximately 1/3 of their
lives sleeping.

Sleep Cycle Chart 1

(typical 8 hour sleep cycle)

Sleep Cycle Chart 2

(typical 8 hour sleep cycle)

NREM Sleep
Awake and alert: Beta and
alpha brain wave activity.
Stage 1: Light sleep, brain
waves slow down,
transition from awake to
sleep, theta brain waves
Stage 2: Normal sleep,
theta brain waves
continue, but as they slow
down k-waves or spindles
exist (brief bursts of wave

NREM (continued)
Stage 3: Patterns of
deep sleep begin, delta
brain waves are present.
Stage 4: The deepest
level of sleep, difficult to
wake someone up from
this stage, delta brain
waves present.
The first cycle of stage 4
last about 30 minutes,
after which it length
decreases as the sleep
cycle is repeated.

REM Sleep

move rapidly under the eyelids, but the rest

of the body experiences paralysis.
Irregular breathing, increased heart rate,
increased blood pressure, higher brain wave
activity: beta, alpha, and theta brain waves can
be present.
People experience their most vivid dreams
during REM sleep period.
As the sleep cycle progresses, people spend less
and less time in NREM sleep patterns.
REM sleep pattern increases as the sleep cycle

Brain wave activity!

Beta (awake and
Alpha (awake, but
entering stage 1)
Theta (stage 1,
and stage 2)
Delta (stage 3, and
stage 4)

Why do people require


Restoration of energy, repair of

muscles, and the need for growth.


Psychological recovery from

stress, reorganization of information
in the brain, and improvement of
mood and mental fatigue.

Sleep Disorders
Sleep apnea
Night terrors


A component and form of

memory processing
Aiding in the consolidation of

short term memory into long

term memory

An extension of waking
The way that the mind
works through difficult,
complicated, unsettling
thoughts to achieve balance
The brain responding to
biochemical changes and
electrical impulses that
happen in sleep

A form of consciousness
that unites the past,
present and future in
processing information
from the first two to
predict the third
It is a protective act by
the brain to face threats,
dangers and challenges
It is the brain repairing
itself from the damage
of the day