Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

18K vues

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- BS 5950-Part1(1990)
- Steel Column Design
- Design of Beams in Structural Steel
- Steel Column Design
- Steel Design Project: Laterally Supported and Unsupported Beams, Columns, Column Base Plate, Connections
- BS 5950 Worked Examples
- Columns & Struts
- Design of Steel I-Section (BS5950)
- Structural steel
- BUCKLING OF STRUTS
- Steel Sheds Introduction
- Advances in Steel Structures Vol.1
- Design of Base Plate for BS5950
- 2. Steel Column Design
- Strut Design Sheet
- Worked Examples to Eurocode 2
- Speed Spot Study Lab Report
- Design of Beams to BS 8110
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns
- Unit 13 ( DESIGN OF SHORT BRACED COLUMNS )

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Y

Columns and struts carry load primarily in compression along their length, and are found in most

building structures.

Columns, sometimes referred to as stanchions, and struts are structural elements which support

compressive loads primarily along their longitudinal axes. Such members are present in the

structure of almost all buildings from the temples of ancient civilisations to present day frame

structures.

At the ancient monument of Stonehenge all stone posts are compression members of huge

proportions.

Compression members (struts) are also an integral part of trusses and space frames.

n suspension structures, cable-stayed roof structure and tent structures compression members

play an essential role. They generally take the form of a mast or tower providing support to the

cables or membrane acting in tension of the mast.

Columns are an essential part of modern framed buildings. n some instances, these columns may

additionally be required to carry lateral wind load and bending due to eccentricity of the end

reaction of floor beams. However, axial compression is normally the predominant effect. The

combination of bending and compression complicates the behaviour of the column and is not

considered here.

Y

à

jor a given axial load, steel grade, column length and end conditions, the procedure for sizing a

column section is based on trial and error, and can be described as a sequence of steps.

The method of calculating suitable column sizes to satisfy the requirements of BS 5950 is based

on a trial and error routine. This is because both strength and actual stress depend on the cross-

section size. nitially the design load and effective length must be determined. The design load is

generally derived from the beam reactions, under factored load conditions. The effective length

is based on height between restraints and the end conditions. The method of member selection

can then be summarised as a number of steps.

The trial section should be estimated to be of adequate size to carry the applied load. This may

appear to be quite arbitrary, but with a little experience the initial guess will become quite

accurate. The only penalty for an µincorrect' guess at this stage is the need to repeat the

calculation procedure with a more informed guess. At this stage the class of cross-section can be

checked to eliminate the risk of local buckling. To do this it is necessary to calculate b/T and d/t

values for the section and check that these are within certain limits. Rolled steel sections will

normally be classified as plastic, compact or semi-compact and need no further consideration.

jor a member resisting normal dead and imposed load in a building, this value would be 180. f

necessary reselect a bigger section to comply with this condition.

Step 3: Determine the compressive strength from the appropriate strut table.

Select the relevant strut table with reference to Table 25 and the type of section (, H, hot rolled,

welded section etc.) used. The compressive strength pc can then be read directly from the

appropriate table 27 (a), (b), (c) or (d) for the calculated value of slenderness ratio and the

specified material strength.

Step 4: Compare axial load capacity with the applied design axial load, and adjust the trial

section size if necessary, repeating the checks from step 2.

Pc = Ag . pc

and compare with the design axial load. f Pc is either smaller than the required value (or too

large), a larger section (or smaller) than the previous section must be adopted and steps 2 to 5 are

repeated until a satisfactory result is obtained.

Y

ô

The radius of gyration is a convenient parameter, providing a

measure of the resistance of a cross-section to lateral buckling.

relationship derived to make prediction of column behaviour

easy. t is simply the square root of the second moment of area of

the section divided by the cross-sectional area of the section.

Thus,

r = Ö (/A)

section

The radius of gyration is related to the size and shape of the cross-section.

The shape and size of the cross-section of the compression member determines the least radius of

gyration of the section. f all the material of the section is concentrated to produce a solid section

of small overall dimensions the section will have a smaller radius of gyration than a hollow

member with the material distributed further away from the centre of the cross section. This can

be illustrated by comparing solid cross-sections (a) with cross-sectional shapes in which the

overall dimensions are much larger (b), but the cross-sectional area is the same. n each case

cross-section (b) has a larger radius of gyration than (a) and the buckling strength is therefore

increased.

Columns will buckle in the direction of least cross-sectional stiffness.

t should also be noted that when a column of rectangular cross-section is loaded it will buckle in

the direction of the smaller dimension in cross-section. A column of square cross-section will be

equally prone to buckling in x and y directions. This is because the cross section will offer equal

resistance to buckling in the direction x and y. (n practice the presence of imperfections will

cause the column to buckle preferentially in one direction.) jor a rectangular cross-section, the

tendency to buckle will be in the direction of the smaller dimension, that is perpendicular to the

line yy.

A special range of sections (UCs) is manufactured principally for use as columns; these sections

have similar resistance to lateral buckling about both axes of the cross-section.

Hot-rolled steel sections, such as Universal Beams (UBs), channels and joists, are deeper in one

direction than the other. These sections are ideal for use as beams, where the main strength of the

section is required in the direction of bending. f these sections are used as columns, their

strength will be determined by their ability to resist buckling in the weaker direction. This

suggests that rolled steel sections which are efficient in bending are less good at resisting lateral

buckling as columns. jor this reason, a different set of sections are produced with more

comparable resistance to lateral buckling in xx and yy directions. These are called Universal

Columns (UC) and are normally used for columns carrying primarily axial load. However, in

practice, columns may have to resist lateral bending as well as axial load and, if this is

significant, a Universal Beam section may prove to be more economical.

Other cross-section shapes are often used for struts, and hollow sections are very efficient in

compression.

jor small scale columns, joists or channel sections may be used, whilst lighter sections such as

angles are more common for use as struts in trusses. The use of hollow sections is also becoming

increasingly popular. Although connections involving such sections are more difficult, they are

efficient in compression and are often preferred for aesthetic reasons.

Apart from standard rolled sections, it is possible to fabricate sections to suit any specific

requirement although there is a cost penalty in doing so.

Although generally not justifiable on the grounds of cost, tapered columns can be efficient in

resisting buckling.

n a compression member the resistance to buckling can be increased by shaping the member in

such a way as to strengthen the point which is most affected by buckling. jor example, in a

column with both ends pinned, the point most susceptible to buckling deformation would be at

the mid height. This reduces gradually towards the end of the column. deally the column could

be shaped by making the mid point of the largest cross-section and gradually reducing the cross-

sectional size towards the ends. Similarly, for a column fixed at both ends, the susceptible part is

the central 70% of its column length. t is possible to strengthen this part to make a more stable

column overall by making a tapered section or by using tension wires. However, the cost of such

extra fabrication is likely to be very high and only justified on the basis of architectural

expression.

Steel columns are often slender because of the high strength of the material.

Columns constructed in traditional materials such as stone and brick tend to be of large cross-

sectional size relative to their length. A column in structural steel may also be stocky but the

much greater strength of steel compared with stone enables the safe design of much more slender

columns.

strength and area of cross-section

reached when any further increase in load causes a disproportionately

high reduction in length. At this stage the column is described as

having reached the yield point. On further loading the column will

reach its collapse load. jor the column to behave in this way it must

be very short in relation to the size of its cross-section. Under this

condition, the failure of the column is due to the failure of steel as a

material in compression and the axial load capacity of the column to

carry load is determined as follows:

BY Axial load capacity of the column = yield stress of steel in compression x cross-sectional

area of column

However, in practice such columns are rarely found since the high strength of steel requires a

relatively small cross-sectional area for the column. A typical steel column is therefore likely to

be slender. This contrasts with columns constructed in relatively weak materials which require a

large cross-section and are therefore generally stocky.

n practice, the failure load of steel columns is associated with

buckling; this is related to the column slenderness.

the crushing strength of steel is reached. As the compressive

stress is gradually increased, a value is reached at which the

column, instead of just axially shortening in length, buckles and

deforms perpendicular to its axis. This value of load is called the

buckling load. When a column has reached its buckling load it

has effectively failed as a structural element and is incapable of

sustaining the load. The aim of column design, therefore, is to

predict the load at which the column may collapse and to ensure

that there is always an adequate factor of safety compared with

the applied load.

+

The restraint at the ends of a column has a significant influence on the effective length and

therefore the buckling strength.

Because of the significance of the effective length, the way a column buckles under load will

depend on how the column is constructed. f one end of a slender column is fixed at its base and

the other end is totally free of any restraint, the column will be extremely prone to lateral

buckling under load. n contrast, a column which is fixed at both ends will be much more stable.

dealised end conditions for a column are described as free, pinned or fixed. Each of these

conditions is described below.

When a column end is connected in such a way that the joint allows the column to rotate freely

but restrains it from translation (horizontal movement), the connection could be described as

being pinned. Such a joint could be produced in practice in several ways. jor example the figure

below shows a typical arrangement where the column is free to rotate in the xx direction, but it is

secured in position at point A.

jixed ends do not allow any rotation.

A fixed end does not allow the column end to move in any manner, ie. to translate or to rotate.

Such a joint could be bolted or welded.

Such a condition can apply to only one end of a column and the

other end must be fixed to ensure stability of the column. A free

end is totally unrestrained and both translation and rotation may

take place.

The end conditions influence the shape of the buckled form; the effective length corresponds to

that part of the column which deforms as a single curve in the shape of a pin ended buckle.

The type of end condition will dictate how much restraint to lateral buckling is offered to the

column. The pin ended column can buckle more freely than a fixed ended column and is

therefore less strong.

The effective length describes the part of the column which is free to buckle laterally. jor pinned

ends, the effective length LE and the actual length L are the same. jor partial or nominally full

rotational end restraint, the effective length LE = 0.85 L and 0.7 L respectively. These figures are

established by laboratory experiment. jor a cantilever column the effective length can be

deduced by comparing with a column which has both the ends pinned. When the deflection

configuration is completed, it becomes clear that the effective length LE is 2L.Table 24 of BS

5950 lists a number of end conditions for columns and the related factors for the effective

lengths.

+

àulti-storey columns are generally restrained at every floor level, and the effective length is

therefore based on storey height.

n multi-storey frame buildings the columns are restrained by the floor beams framing in at each

storey. t is therefore storey height and not overall building height which is significant in

determining effective lengths. Thus the column length between floors should be considered and

restraints in both the xx and yy directions are to be considered in arriving at the appropriate value

of the effective length LE. A practical column in a building has many restraints offered by

various building components working in unison. Their overall effect cannot be accurately

measured. A guess based on experience is the only possibility, and in that, the BS 5950

recommendations provide safe and sensible values for calculation of the strength of columns.

Y

+

Special consideration may need to be given to the effective length of columns in single storey

buildings to account for practical construction details.

jor single storey shed type buildings, columns are often fixed at the base, ie. restrained against

rotation and translation, and normally carry a roof structure, such as a truss, at the top, providing

partial restraint against rotation only. f the lateral stability of the building as a whole is

dependent on the fixity at the base, the top of the column is not restrained against translation. n

the horizontal plane of the building there may be elements which effectively restrain the column

from lateral buckling at certain intervals along the height. Normally, these restraints are provided

at the positions where the sheeting rails are connected, because the sheeting rails themselves can

then become part of the restraining elements. The effective length for such a column will need to

be carefully considered.

jor buckling about the xx axis, the whole column is capable of distortion. Hence the length of

the column which is capable of distortion in one unit is the whole length L rather than a single

part of it. The base of the column is fixed and the top of the column is not fully free to distort.

The top can sway laterally taking the truss with it, but cannot rotate due to the restraint from the

roof truss. Hence, the effective length of the column axis xx is 1.5 L

àinor axis buckling is related to the distance between longitudinal restraints, such as may be

provided by sheeting rails.

jor buckling about the yy axis the column has different degrees of restraint over different

sections. The bottom length L1, can be described as effectively held in position at both ends and

restrained in direction at the base only. Therefore, the effective length of the column axis yy for

the length L1 is equal to 0.85 L1.jor the lengths L2 and L3, the column can be described as being

effectively held in position at both ends, but not restrained in direction. Therefore, the effective

length of the column axis yy for the lengths L2 and L3 are 1.0 L2 and 1.0 L3 respectively.The

final LE to be adopted for calculation would be the largest of the three values 0.85 L1, 1.0 L2 and

1.0 L3.

Columns are often subject to some bending in addition to compression. Two factors contribute

towards the bending in a practical column; these are eccentricity of real beam connection details,

and the effect of wind loading.

Bending can develop in columns due to eccentricity of beam connections; this is accounted for

by assuming that the beam reaction is applied at a prescribed distance from the face of the

column. The way the floor beams are connected to a column causes inevitable eccentric

application of loads on the column. Beam end reactions are generally applied on the supporting

brackets or cleats and consequently they are at a distance e from the centre of the column. This

eccentric load would cause the column to bend towards the applied load resulting in tension on

one face and compression on the other along with a uniform compression all along the section

due to the direct effect of the compressive load alone. Whether both faces will be in

compression, albeit unequal amounts of compression, or the outside face will be in tension would

depend on the value of the beam reaction and the value of eccentricity.

The effect of connection eccentricity is negligible for internal columns supporting an

approximately symmetrical arrangement of beams.

n the figure below, the column would be subjected to bending in directions opposed to each

other. f W1 and W2 were equal and they were an equal distance away from the column centre,

ie. e1 and e2 were equal, then the bending produced by the two beams would be equal and in the

opposite directions and would cancel each other out.

f the column is an internal column with beams running in xx and yy axes the column would

experience a combined effect of some or all of the following:

BY Direct compression due to vertical loads imposed by the end reactions of beams 1, 2, 3

and 4.

BY Compression and tension due to bending about the xx axis.

BY Compression and tension due to bending about the yy axis.

n principle a simplified interaction relationship is used to assess the strength of a column in such

cases, but this is beyond the scope of the material covered here.

n buildings which depend on rigid frame action for lateral stability, bending will develop in the

columns due to wind loads.

All building structures need to resist horizontal loads due to wind. f the structure cannot readily

transfer the wind loads to braced parts of the building such as stair towers, lift wells and shear

walls, it is generally necessary to rely on rigid frame action. The effect of this is to cause bending

in both the beams and columns. n such cases the bending moment distribution must be

determined by analysis, and the columns designed for combined axial load and bending.

Y

Y

P

Simplified procedures can be used to estimate the required size of column section.

t may not be necessary to perform detailed calculations to determine column sizes, and simpler

methods can be adopted. These include rules of thumb which enable a simple estimate of

approximate section sizes, and safe load tables which provide a more rigorous approach to

estimating column sizes.

Rules of thumb provide an estimate of the required cross-section in relation to function and

position within the building.

A typical structural frame for a multi-storey building may require column sizes which vary

depending on the number of storeys supported. Thus the columns on the top storey supporting

the roof only are likely to be much smaller than those on the ground floor which support all of

the intermediate floors.

The compressive strength of a column is related primarily to its cross-sectional area and

slenderness ratio, and the material strength. Because of the importance of slenderness ratio in

relation to buckling, it is not possible to calculate the maximum compressive strength for any

cross-section, unless this is related to the effective length of the column. However, by assuming a

range of different values, the compressive strength can be published as a function of effective

length. Such tables enable the section size required for a given axial load and effective length to

be read directly.

Y

P

Column buckling was first investigated by Euler who established that the buckling strength is

inversely proportional to the square of the slenderness ratio.

n 1757 Leonard Euler propounded a theory for calculating the strength of an axially loaded

column pinned at both ends. The relationship he established was as follows:

Pe = pie2E/L2 (1)

The corresponding buckling stress is obtained simply by dividing the collapse load by the cross-

sectional area of the column, A. Thus:

p = Pe/A = pie2E/AL2

Since the moment of inertia () and the cross-sectional area (A) are both dependent solely on the

geometry of the cross-section they can be combined into a single variable. This is defined as the

radius of gyration r of the column section and is related to and A as follows:

= A.r2 (2)

pe = pie2E./(L/r)2 (3)

This relationship can be represented graphically as a graph of buckling stress against (L/r).

Clearly the value of (L/r) is of considerable importance in determining the ability of a column to

carry load without buckling.

The relationship between buckling strength and slenderness ratio depends on the support

conditions at the column ends.

The above expressions describing the theoretical buckling behaviour of columns are valid for

pinned ends only. Similar expressions can be obtained for other end conditions. jor instance the

buckling stress of a fixed ended column is given by:

Pe = 4pie2E / (L/r)2

The influence of different end conditions can most conveniently be accounted for by using the

concept of an effective length.

t can be seen that the buckling strength of a fixed ended column is the same as for a pin ended

column of half the length. This introduces the concept of effective length which can be defined

as the length of an equivalent pin ended column with the same buckling strength.

Thus to extend the relationship (3) to include columns with end conditions other than pinned

ends the value for length L should be substituted by effective length LE.

Thus:

The ratio LE/r is called the slenderness ratio of the section and the larger the value of this

slenderness ratio, the smaller is the value of the collapse load Pe of the column.

t is also worth noting that, because the slenderness ratio is squared, a relatively small increase in

its value can cause a large reduction in Pe. Thus, in theory, the buckling load of a column with a

slenderness ratio of 160, is just one quarter that of a column with a slenderness ratio of 80.

Because the slenderness ratio is dependent on effective length and radius of gyration, these two

items both influence the Euler critical load. A column of 5m height with both ends pinned, will

carry four times as much load as a similar sized column with fixed base and free top.

jor stocky columns the buckling stress can exceed the material strength and the dominant failure

mode is therefore 'squashing'.

n spite of the elegance of Euler's formula in explaining the parameters contributing to the

strength of a compression member, it is only effective in predicting the collapse load of columns

with large values of slenderness ratio. jor stocky columns, Euler's collapse load Pe exceeds the

yield stress of steel, and the column fails by crushing or 'squashing'.

jor example, for a value of LE/r=20, and taking the modulus of elasticity for steel E as

205000N/mm2, the compressive stress obtained from Euler's formula would be as follows:

pe = Pe/A = pie2E/(LE/r)2

This value of Euler collapse stress is much larger than the yield stress of steel (210 - 450N/mm2)

specified in BS 5950. The failure of stocky columns is therefore determined by material yield

stress, whilst for slender columns failure corresponds to the Euler stress. jor columns with

intermediate slenderness ratios both buckling and yielding contribute to collapse. Clearly both

these conditions must be accounted for in any design rule for columns.

Y

Y

BY Columns are commonly found in many types of building.

BY Columns carry load principally by axial compression.

BY The strength of stocky columns is related to material strength.

BY The strength of slender columns is limited by buckling.

BY n practice steel columns have to allow for both buckling and material failure, and for

interaction between the two.

BY The resistance of a cross-section to buckling is represented by its radius of gyration.

BY End conditions influence buckling behaviour and are accounted for by using an effective

length.

BY n practice columns are subject to a combination of compression and bending.

BY Because buckling resistance and actual stress are both related to the size of the cross-

section, iterative design procedures must be used.

- BS 5950-Part1(1990)Transféré parcastlemadrid
- Steel Column DesignTransféré paranshutomar7915
- Design of Beams in Structural SteelTransféré parMaqsood
- Steel Column DesignTransféré parvsnsfb
- Steel Design Project: Laterally Supported and Unsupported Beams, Columns, Column Base Plate, ConnectionsTransféré parozzieastro
- BS 5950 Worked ExamplesTransféré parKevin Domun
- Columns & StrutsTransféré parAshish Maheshwari
- Design of Steel I-Section (BS5950)Transféré parRachelle C. Abanes
- Structural steelTransféré parSelva Raj
- BUCKLING OF STRUTSTransféré parEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- Steel Sheds IntroductionTransféré parMaqsood
- Advances in Steel Structures Vol.1Transféré parron_dany
- Design of Base Plate for BS5950Transféré pardantevarias
- 2. Steel Column DesignTransféré parWazini D. Izani
- Strut Design SheetTransféré parHafiz Kamarudin
- Worked Examples to Eurocode 2Transféré paramin66932250
- Speed Spot Study Lab ReportTransféré parXamen
- Design of Beams to BS 8110Transféré parKasun Karunaratne
- Design of Reinforced Concrete ColumnsTransféré pardashne134
- Unit 13 ( DESIGN OF SHORT BRACED COLUMNS )Transféré parZara Nabilah
- Unit 9 ( DESIGN OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT )Transféré parZara Nabilah
- 50723682 Steel Design to BS5950 Essential DataTransféré parkmskew
- Steel Member Design With ConnectionTransféré parTamkwokkwong
- Gantry Beam DesignTransféré parSanjeev Kumar Pillai
- Design of Gantry GirderTransféré pars_bharathkumar
- Raft Foundation Analysis and Design ExampleTransféré parEng Obadah Harastani
- Eurocode Design Example BookTransféré parGianni Iotu
- Steel Design BS5950-1Transféré parronison78
- BS5950 - Connections HandbookTransféré parphuongkq832

- Shear and Moment in Beams Ch No 4Transféré parMaqsood
- Minimum Horizontal Loads for BalustradesTransféré parsbandara77
- bolt design for steel connections as per AISCTransféré parJayachandra Pelluru
- Topic -Connections -typical joints.pdfTransféré parMaqsood
- Strength of Materials- Quick ReviewTransféré parMaqsood
- InFaSo Design-manual II EnTransféré parliviutase
- Bolted Connections – IITransféré parJoey Johnson
- Structural Steel Engineering Basic ConceptsTransféré parMaqsood
- Design Guide for Metal Roofing and CladdingTransféré parMaqsood
- Article - Structural BoltsTransféré paralmeteck
- Guide to Design Criteria for Bolts and Riveted JointsTransféré parHomero Silva
- Welding CalculationTransféré parMaqsood
- Steel Sheds IntroductionTransféré parMaqsood
- Pad Footing Analysis & Design (BS8110)Transféré parMaqsood
- Bs 6399-2-1997 Loads on Bldgs WindTransféré parMaqsood
- Tekla Structural Modeling 140 EnuTransféré parMaqsood
- Tensile Test and Stress-Strain DiagramTransféré parMaqsood
- Spiral StaircasesTransféré parAhmed Tawfik Mohamed
- SSB04 Detailed Design of Portal Frames 2010-05-24 PDFTransféré parTom Wilcock
- Structural Steel Construction ManualTransféré parMaqsood
- MD-ENG-340Transféré parMaqsood
- Chap 2Transféré paramin66932250
- Connection FailureTransféré parMaqsood
- Physics Grade 10Transféré parJan

- Thin Film CharacterizationTransféré parPurti Savardekar
- A790.pdfTransféré parrizairawan09
- METHODS Lab Report Enviro Water PollutionTransféré parThinesh Bolt
- Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened With FRP CompositesTransféré parJiabin
- Chp19,ElectrolysisTransféré parJinaan Qaanith
- CodesTransféré parRajesh Babu
- A Guide for ReCertification of Ground based Pressure Vessel and Liquid Holding Tanks.pdfTransféré parMichael Shelton
- 2000_ifa_neworleans_granquist.PDFTransféré parRyan Scott
- Schaeffler Technology rapport om skader på IC4 aksellejekasser, 28. marts 2011Transféré parIngenioeren
- Final Chemistry Project WaterTransféré parSaurabh Suman
- Acid-base Equilibria and CalculationsTransféré parKiss Levi
- West Systems Fiberglass Boat Repair & MaintenanceTransféré parDonát Nagy
- Analytical and Finite Element Modeling of Pressure Vessels for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination PlantsTransféré parAhmed Hassan
- Air Tanah Dan TanamanTransféré parDesi Triyoga Ratri
- is.iso.17088.2008.pdfTransféré parTreissy Alejandro
- 11801 1 Acid Base ConceptsTransféré pardamannaughty
- TDC and TC_1Transféré parShalini
- Chem ProjectTransféré parDeryneTee
- OCFT MT.pdfTransféré parArfan Ali Dhamraho
- 1Transféré parnghiasipra
- Fuel Oil Compatibility ProbedTransféré parabhijit_11
- Study of Scale and Corrosion Inhibition Performances of Polyaspartic AcidTransféré parabrahan
- Report Material SelectionTransféré parSofwan Juewek
- Kuliah Session 3Transféré parWidyastuty
- 2011 C2 H2 Chemistry Paper 3Transféré parthngzys
- Cable Splicing 1-STANDARDSTransféré parNadeem Khalid
- Epoxy_Catalogue_2007.pdfTransféré parbreno_gc
- Haufe_DYNAmoreTransféré paresonmez357
- D 2487-6 Classifaication system of soil.pdfTransféré parWaqas Ahmad Abbasi
- msma 6Transféré parangeldelosperdedores