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CHLOROPLAST

Chloroplast
aka energy converter of the cell
from the Greek word chloros
means green and plastis which
means the one who forms
are
organelles,
specialized
subunits in plant and algal cells
where photosynthesis occurs
are the food producers of the cell
are
members of a class of

Every

green plantyou see


is working to convert the
energy of the sun into
sugars. Plants are the basis
of all life on Earth. They
create sugars, and the
byproduct of that process
is the oxygen that we
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iscovery of the
chloroplast

first suggested by
Russian biologist
Konstantin Mereschkowski
in 1905 after Andreas
Schimper observed in 1883
that chloroplast closely
resemble cyanobacteria

Cyanobacterial
ancestor

considered the ancestor of


chloroplast
sometimes called blue-green
algae even though they are
prokaryotes

they are diverse phylum


capable of carrying out
photosynthesis

Endosymbiotic theory

Chloroplasts
- capture light energy, store
it in the energy storage
molecules ATP and NADPH
and use it in the process
called photosynthesis to make
organic molecules and free
oxygen from carbon dioxide
and water.
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The Structure of
Chloroplast

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The Structure of
Chloroplast

3 types of
membrane
stroma
thylakoid system

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3 types of
Outer
membrane:
membrane

semi-porous membrane and


is permeable to small
molecules and ions, which
diffuses easily

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3 types of
Intermembrane
membrane:
space

usually thin about 10-20 nm and


it is present between the outer
and the inner membrane of the
chloroplast

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3 types of
Inner membrane:
membrane

forms a border to the stroma


which contains many transporters:
integral membrane proteins that
regulate the passage of materials in
an out of the chloroplast

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Stroma
aka matrix
is an alkaline, aqueous and
liquid transparent substance
that filled the inner space of
the chloroplast

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Thylakoid
suspended in the stroma

Stacks of discs found inside the


chloroplasts
they are compared to stacks of coins
within the walls of the chloroplast, and
they act to trap the energy from
sunlight.
The stacks of thylakoids are called
grana.
They are connected with an extensive system
of tubules.
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The

Thylakoid

thylakoid
membranes
contain chlorophyll and other
pigments arranged in antenna
arrays to capture light energy.
The
stacks
of
sacs
are
connected by stromal lamellae.
The lamellae act like the
skeleton of the chloroplast,
keeping all of the sacs a safe
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Chlorophyll

is a green pigment found in


cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of
algae and plants.
is an extremely important biomolecule,
critical in photosynthesis, which allows
plants to absorb energy from light.
absorbs light most strongly in the blue
portion
of
the
electromagnetic
spectrum, followed by the red portion.
molecules are specifically arranged in
and around photosystems that are
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Chlorophyll
Two primary functions:
- vast majority of chlorophyll
(up
to
several
hundred
molecules per photosystem) is
to absorb light and
- transfer that light energy by
resonance energy transfer to a
specific chlorophyll pair in the
reaction
center
of
the
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Functions of
chloroplast

site of photosynthesis
CO2

+ H2O + Sunlight = O2 + H2O +


C6H12O6
food is prepared in the form of sugars

immune defense
One

of the key organelles in pathogen


defense
in plants all the cells participate in
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Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis

from the Greek [photo-], "light,"


and [synthesis], "putting together",
"composition
is a process used by plants and
other organisms to convert the light
energy captured from the sun into
chemical energy that can be used to
fuel the organism's activities.
occurs in plants, algae, and many
species of bacteria, but not in

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Oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS
vs. Anoxygenic

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Oxygenic
photosynthesis
process
where carbon dioxide is reduced to a
carbohydrate and electrons are removed
from water, releasing oxygen into the air.
Anoxygenic
photosynthesis
is
performed by specialized bacteria.
During this process the light energy is
used to remove electrons from other
sources, not water. These sources
include hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide
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Steps of
Photosynthesis
occurs
in two main stages: light
reaction and the Calvin Benson
Cycle
In short the light reactions
capture the light energy and
utilize it to make high-energy
molecules, which in turn are used
by the Calvin-Benson Cycle to
capture carbon dioxide and make
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The Light-Dependent
Reactions (Light Reaction)

take place on the thylakoid


membrane inside a chloroplast. The
thylakoid membrane contains some
integral membrane protein complexes
that catalyze the light reactions.
This phase is the initial stage, which
converts solar energy into potential
energy.
This step require sample sunlight for
the process
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The Light-Independent
Reactions (Calvin cycle)

or

the reactions of the Calvin


Benison cycle
occur in the stroma
these reactions do not require
the presence of light and hence
the name, light-independent
reactions.
In this cycle the end products of
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