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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis
Process uses the suns energy to make glucose
Carried out in green plants and some bacteria
Purpose is to trap suns energy and store it in
glucose (food for the plant)
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast
photons

SUN

6CO2 + 12H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O


carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen + water
2

6CO2 + 12H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O


carbon dioxide + water

glucose + oxygen + water

Stomata (stoma)
Pores in a plants cuticle through which
water and gases are exchanged
between the plant and the
atmosphere.
Oxygen
(O2) & Water

Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) & Water

Guard Cell

Guard Cell

Found on the underside of leaves

Chloroplast

Organelle where photosynthesis


takes place.
Stroma: gel filled space
Outer Membrane
Thylakoid: green disks
Granum: stack
Inner Membrane
of thylakoids

Inter
Membrane
Space

Thylakoid stacks are connected together

Thylakoid
Thylakoid Membrane

Granum

Thylakoid Space
(Lumen)

Grana make up the inner membrane

Why are
plants
green?

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Pigments
Pigments are light-absorbing
compounds.
Pigments appear colored because they
absorb light of certain wavelengths
and reflect that of others.
Chlorophyll a and b are the primary
pigments in green plants that absorbs
red and blue/violet light and reflects
green light.

Structure
of
Chlorophyll

Accessory Pigments
Chloroplasts also contain other pigments
called accessory pigments that capture
other wavelengths to absorb more energy.
Carotenoids-yellow/orange
Anthocyanin-red/purple

Photosynthesis Reactions
CO2

Dark Reactions

ATP
NADPH

H2O
+
CO2

Sugars

Light Reactions

O2

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Light and Dark


Reactions

Photosynthesis Steps
1. Light reaction (Light-dependent reaction)
Chlorophyll traps sunlight and makes
electrons and ATP to run the dark
reaction.
2. Dark reaction (Light-independent reaction)
Calvin Cycle uses ATP and electrons from
the light reaction and carbon dioxide from
the air to make glucose.

ATP

All organisms require energy for:


Active transport
Cell division
Movement
Production of proteins

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NADPH
NADP+ is an electron acceptor
NADP+ + 2e- + 2 H+ NADPH + H+

LIGHT REACTION

Requires light
Pigments absorb
photons of light and
excite electrons
Occurs in two
photosystems in the
thylakoid membranes
Photosystem: a unit
of several hundred
chlorophyll molecules
and associated
acceptor molecules

Light Reaction Summary

Input:
light energy
H2O

Output:
ATP
NADPH
O2
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Dark Reaction (Calvin


Cycle)

American scientist Melvin


Calvin
Occurs in the stroma.
Uses ATP and NADPH from
light reactions.
Uses CO2 to produce
glucose (C6H12O6).

To produce 1 glucose: it
takes 6 turns of the cycle and
uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH.

Dark Reactions Summary

Input:
ATP
NADPH
CO2
Output:
ADP
NADP+
H2O
Sugars (glucose)

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Rate of Photosynthesis
The rate at which a plant can carry photosynthesis is affected
by its environment.

1. Temperature enzymes
directly impacted

2. Light intensity no light


= no photosynthesis

3. Water - required
4. [CO2]- Calvin (Dark) cycle
requirements

The End!