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Brandon Clark
Kelly Turnbeaugh
English 1010
December 9th, 2015
Annotated Bibliography: DNA Modification
This semester is my first semester at Salt Lake Community College. Beginning my
college experience, I am considering the career path I am to pursue. I have decided I want to
attend medical school because I enjoy helping people as well as learning about technology such
as progress in biomedicine. Once issue dealing with the medical field I want to learn more about
is DNA modification. DNA modification is an issue which covers recent events and I would like
to research more.. These sources are organized in chronological order from which I found them.
Anthes, Emily. "Don't Be Afraid of Genetic Modification." The New York Times 9 Mar. 2013.
Web. 9 Nov. 2015.
Summary: This article written in 2013, informs its readers about the progress of Genetically
Modified Salmon and provides other GMO examples from the past. Aquabounty Technologies
has genetically engineered a salmon to grow quicker than normal salmon. Anthes discusses the
political hold ups of the genetically modified salmon which have held them back since the 90s.
Anthes believes that the salmon should be approved because it is healthy and cheap.
Evaluation: This article provides the perspective of a proponent to GMO approval. Anthes
ethos is made stronger in her article because she provides a skeptical analysis and accepts the
negatives of GMOs. She shares reasoning supported by facts to create her argument. She
believes that GMOs should undergo extensive testing. She shares her opinion that
Genetically engineered animals could do real good for the world. Her argument is based on

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the positive testing thus far (from 2013). Although the genetically engineered salmon have still
not been approved (early Nov 2015), this article makes a good pro-perspective for my research.
Reflection: For my research, I am thinking about how I can stay as open minded as possible for
when I begin writing my final research paper on DNA modification. Experiments in the past
have gone bad, so skepticism is valid for this subject. As a writer, I want to develop a persuasive
paper which provides insight to my readers on the facts of DNA modification. My research so
far has been informative to me on helping me gather facts and eliminate my own
misunderstandings.
Fader, Carole. "Fact Check: Lovebugs aren't a UF experiment gone bad." Florida Times-Union,
The (Jacksonville, FL) 22 Sept. 2013: Points of View Reference Center. Web. 10 Nov.
2015.
Summary: Experts on lovebugs say that they migrated from Central America to Florida in 1949.
The belief that lovebugs were genetically engineered by the University of Florida to eliminate
the mosquito population is made up. The issue that lovebugs cause damage to car paint if they
get stuck is real.
Evaluation: I found this article through the SLCC library database. Fader gives an accurate
history of lovebugs from what I have heard myself. However, if this article be true, then I was
misinformed on the origin of lovebugs. So, I google searched the origins of the myth and I
found other articles supporting the fallacy of the myth.
Reflection: Reviewing this article confused me a little. Fader claims, lovebugs arent a UF
experiment gone bad. This made me question the rumor. I lived in Florida and I heard the
University of Florida accident story. I believe the potential concern raised by the myth
provides a valid or invalid (neutral) perspective to me in doing this research. The results of

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nature over time vs the results from genetically modifying organisms are issues which need to be
dealt with both separately and together.
Rack, Jessie. "Genetically Modified Salmon, Coming to a River Near You?" NPR 24 June 2015.
Web. 10 Nov. 2015.
Summary: Rack talks about Robert Devlin who led a team of researches which observed the
behavior and trait differences of normal fish and modified fish. After 80 studies, Devlins team
observed that changing the genes of a fish also changes other traits. Rack concludes his article
by quoting multiple environmentalists talking about containment concerns of the modified
salmon.
Evaluation: This article provides a good counter to proponents of GMOs. While I want to
confront the issue of DNA modification, GMOs relate to this topic. In this article, the examples
provide valid contradictions supporting the logos appeal to reason as to why GMOs should be
monitored extensively. The logic in this article will be helpful in developing my thesis and side
of DNA modification. I first read Emily Thanes NYT article which talked about this company.
This article from NPR helped me to understand that Aquabounty has still not gained approval for
the genetically modified salmon.
Reflection: People do oppose GMOs. This article helped me ask myself the same questions that
skeptics to Modified organisms ask themselves. I understand that we must consider the side
effects when altering gene make up of a living organism. Even though a desired trait could be
sought after when modifying DNA, side effects in the long run need to be accounted for. I stand
on a neutral ground with the issue of DNA modification after reading this article and the NYT
article.

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Schwartz, William B. Life Without Disease The Pursuit of Medical Utopia. London, England:
University of California Press, 1998. 127-148. Print.
Summary: From the years 1950-2050, Schwartz investigates the progress of molecular medicine
and its future impacts on society. In this book, Schwartz goes over economic and political
influence to discuss their role in medical progress. He proposes that it is possible for mankind to
fight off all disease by the year 2050. He through the methods of molecular biology, doctors
and physicians will be able to alter genetics to prevent diseases and conditions such as heart
disease, stroke, and cancer from surfacing in individuals.
Evaluation: I do not find it particularly persuasive that all disease will be eliminated by the year
2050. The logos in Schwartzs book is fairly conservative, making it a dual perspective book.
He looks at the retrospective progress in the last 50 years and discusses problems society has to
overcome in this century to make Utopia a reality. He is more credible as he speculates at
economic and political issues that may serve as hold ups in the progress of molecular biology.
Reflection: I find this source interesting for my research. Though I do not find it likely for
society to eliminate disease by 2050, the possibility would generate new opportunity and
problems for society to face in the future. Schwartz discusses longer lifespans and how society
would need to adapt as well as financial stability of our future. Schwartz discusses perspectives
contrary to genetic modifications, and takes a neutral stand on the ethical issues on DNA
Modification.
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, New
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2004. 200. Print.

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Summary: In Robert Adlers book Medical Firsts, he writes about the medical successes by
humans since 400 BC. Hippocrates, a Greek physician, was the first to take a scientific approach
to medicine. Adler begins at this point in time and expounds on discoveries which occurred
since the time of Hippocrates. Adler focuses on stories of how imperfect humans have made the
impossible possible in the field of medicine.
Evaluation: In Medical Firsts, there is no persuasive point being drilled into the reader. For the
most part, it provides a valuable historical context to medicine. While this source covers the
achievements in the history of medicine, it covers topics important to my research. Adler has an
effective way of telling stories to inform his audience on the progress of medicine over the past
2500 years.
Reflection: Viewing this book has helped me to understand better where our world stands on
medical progress. 2 chapters in this book are important to my research. Chapter 24 talks about
how the world successfully eliminated the disease smallpox. In addition, Chapter 27 gives a
breakdown of the Human Genome. In beginning the stages of my research, I want to be able to
present in my paper progress in the future based off success in the past.
Tatton-Brown, Katrina, et al. "Mutations In The DNA Methyltransferase Gene DNMT3A Cause
An Overgrowth Syndrome With Intellectual Disability." Nature Genetics 46.4 (2014):
385-388. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Summary: This article provides information on the rare mutation in the DNA gene DNMT3A
which causes an overgrowth syndrome. DNA make up of several individuals explain physical
and intellectual differences in individuals found with the mutation of this gene. Carriers of the

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mutation had similar characteristics such as taller height, greater head circumference, and more
intellectual disability compared to those not carrying this mutation.
Evaluation: This paper is a peer reviewed medical observational report. Many medical terms
and DNA make up terms are used in which I am unfamiliar with. These doctors and genetic
researchers who wrote the paper are from several countries in Europe. It was a combined effort,
giving greater credibility to the source.
Reflection: Genetics fascinate me. Hundreds of years ago, disabled individuals were menaces to
society. Parents of a children with disabilities would abandon or even kill their child. However,
today geneticists are finding the causes of disabilities through genetics. Knowing how to cope
with and treat disabled people has allowed longer life spans and greater quality of life.
Li, Yibo, et al. "Chalk5 Encodes A Vacuolar H+-Translocating Pyrophosphatase Influencing
Grain Chalkiness In Rice." Nature Genetics 46.4 (2014): 398-404. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 12 Nov. 2015
Summary: This article provides information on Chalk5, a trait of rice which has an impact on
the chalkiness of rice. Several genes affect this trait with no direct correlation with one specific
gene. Observations on altering genes for preferred chalkiness show that other traits are affected
as a result. This article shows research and results of changing the genetic makeup of rice and its
results on physical traits of the rice.
Evaluation: This article was very specific on the terms of genetics. Many of the terms went over
my head. Looking up terms like quantitative trait helped me to know that it is a phenotype or
physical trait of an organism. It is fairly obvious that this paper was done by experienced
geneticists and formulated professionally.

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Reflection: To me, after reading this article, it seems that DNA modification can have a domino
effect. When the makeup is changed one way, physical traits as well as the makeup of the
organism can change in an inalterable way. In this case, the DNA of rice could be adjusted to
remove its chalkiness, however unforeseen consequences can result from this decision.
National Research Council, (U.S.). Biological Confinement Of Genetically Engineered
Organisms. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004. eBook Collection
(EBSCOhost). Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Summary: This online book explains the term bioconfinement and goes into the details of what
is being done in research to ensure safety of DNA testing. The research is admittedly in its
infancy.
Evaluation: This research was completed by the U.S. National Research Council; they are
credible. They explain complicated research on measures of confinement in fine detail. Most of
the research and events described took place from the 1980s-2000. These years are when
genetics became a bigger field of research.
Reflection: After reviewing the amount of research done to complete this book, I became
overwhelmed with my own research. I eventually realized that each person conducting research
had years of experience. I would like to learn more about genetics and methods to confine
genetically engineered organisms.