Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker

Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015

Case Study:
Jimmy is a grade 3 student. When Jimmy is in class, he is unmotivated to do his school
work and therefore distracts other children in the class. The teacher has tried to help Jimmy by
motivating him and praising him when he is focused and working, though Jimmy still rarely
participates. Jimmy has become a big distraction to the classroom and the teachers techniques
are not helping Jimmy get motivated. What the teacher does not know, is that Jimmy is neglected
at home. His mother barely pays attention to him and takes little interest in his life.

Causes:

When a teacher observes a student that is struggling, the teacher believes that he or she
can reach these difficult students in order to help them learn. This is referred to as the
teachers sense of efficacy (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 379, 2015).
o The teacher in the case study is determined to help Jimmy become motivated
though is having troubles getting through to him.
The Triarchic Reciprocal Causality as discussed in 2015 by Woolfolk, Winne and
Perry include three dynamic influences that can impact a student (p. 370). First,
the personal influences include beliefs, expectations, attitudes and knowledge.
The second, is the physical and social environmental factors including resources,
consequences of actions, other people, models, teachers and different physical
settings. Lastly, the behavioural factors include individual actions, choices and
verbal statements.
o Jimmy is involved with all three influences. He is impacted by other people in his
life, mainly his mother who is neglecting him. This impacts his attitude and
expectations as he feels the neglect from his mother. Finally, his individual
choices to distract other students in the class is because of the neglect he receives
at home.
Jimmy could be considered a hopeless hunter. As defined by Woolfolk, Winne and
Perry, is a student who will not even start an assignment as per usual (p. 400).
o Jimmy feels hopeless and does not feel his schoolwork is important because his
mother is not an active member in his life, and feels there is no need to complete
his assignments because no one will notice, just like whenever he is unnoticed at
home.
The humanistic approach to motivation is needed in order to help Jimmy. Intrinsic
forces of needs of self-actualization are contributing to Jimmys low levels of
motivation.
o Intrinsic motivation: Natural human tendency to seek out and conquer challenges
because the activity itself is satisfying and rewarding - we dont need incentives
or punishments (associated with positive outcomes in school) (Woolfolk, Winne
et. Perry, p. 400, 2015).
o this approach focuses on encouraging people inner resources (p. 402)
Self-esteem, Self-Competence, Self-Worth
An important cause for teacher role, is discussed by Woolfolk, Winne and Perry
that when teachers assume that student failure is attributable to forces beyond the
students control, the teacher most often responds with sympathy as they avoid

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
giving punishments. When these failures, are attributed to a controlled factor such
as participation or effort, the teacher typically responds with anger and enforces
punishments (p. 414).
Therefore, teachers have to be careful in situations such as Jimmys because it is
hard to make the separation between these two sides.
When a students sense of self-worth and self-efficacy is low and they give up,
these students are called failure accepting students (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p.
417, 2015).
Jimmy has given up on his schoolwork, as he has lost his self-worth and selfefficacy due to being neglected at home.
When people conclude that the events and outcomes in their lives are mostly
uncontrollable, it leads them to failure (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 415, 2015).
Jimmy believes that nothing can change with his home life, and therefore is
unmotivated.
Woolfolk, Winne and Perry say that when teachers and parents are responsive
and demonstrate that they care about the childs interests and well being, the
children show high intrinsic motivation (p. 406, 2015).
Students who feel a sense of relatedness to teachers, parents, and peers are more
emotionally engaged in school (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 406, 2015).
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is ranging from lower-level needs for survival and
safety to high-level needs for intellectual achievement and finally selfactualization (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 404, 2015).
The neglect that Jimmy receives at home, affects his deficiency needs and his
sense of belonging. Since Jimmys basic needs are not being met, it is hard for
him to work functionally since these needs are absent.
Maslow's Self-Determination theory suggests that we all need to feel competent
and capable to have some choices and a sense of control over our lives, and to be
connected to others as discussed in 2015 by Woolfolk, Winne and Perry on p.
404. The third basic need represented by this theory is relatedness. As described
on p. 406, the need for relatedness is the desire to establish close emotional
bonds and attachments with others (pg. 406).
Jimmy has had a hard time making relationships, as he is only familiar with the
relationship he has with his mom, which is minimal. Jimmy does not feel like he
relates to the other students, in some ways, because of the way he is treated at
home.

Action Plan:
Goal: Jimmy will be able to positively contribute to the classroom environment and
show respect for himself and others in the classroom community using proactive strategies.
Step 1: Identify the source of the problem, why does Jimmy act out in the way that he
does? Is it an internal or external force or a combination of both? It is important for the teacher to
not act in anger or irritation towards Jimmys continued distraction of the class. The behavior
may be generated by an interplay of a great myriad of different variables. Unbenounced to the
teacher, Jimmys home life has an absence of familial emotional support with his mother having
little to no interaction with him on a daily basis. Jimmys deficiency needs of belonging and self-

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
esteem are not being met by his mother and is subsequently affecting his actions within the
classroom. Jimmys continual acting out, is the dynamic interplay among three kinds of
influence: personal, environmental, and behavioural (pg. 371). It is imperative for the teacher to
have an, incremental view of ability with regards to Jimmys ability to change his actions. The
issues plaguing Jimmy might not be evident within the classroom and Jimmy may be reluctant to
divulge the information. It is crucial for the teacher to get to know the student and become
familiar with some of their day to day struggles. This is a process that may take an indeterminant
amount of time and is only achieved through the teachers good interpersonal skills. Interaction
with the students along with their parents can provide useful insight into the student's life. It is
important to allocate time towards this endeavor while still maintaining a positive learning
environment within the classroom.
Step 2: Implement restorative practices within the classroom to maintain a positive
learning environment. In maintaining a positive learning environment it is crucial that when
Jimmy acts out in class, the teacher makes eye contact with him first. The teacher has to make
sure that eye contact is made with the student. If he continues his behaviour after the first look,
the teacher should slowly walk towards Jimmy and stand close to Jimmy making his or her
physical presence known (p. 455). A verbal remark such as, I need your attention here may be
used towards the student if the behavior persists. If Jimmy continues to act out the teacher may
address him personally in low teacher status by saying, Jimmy, I am trying to teach the class
can you please stop distracting the students around you?. Jimmy may need to be pulled aside
later to have a more personal conversation about what happened in the classroom. During this
conversation, it is important for Jimmy to verbally acknowledge, in his own words, what he did
wrong (p. 455). Teachers can learn a lot by talking to students, by noting the way that students
respond to their questions. In order for the experience to be useful, teachers need to approach
their students in a restorative way. They have to be meaningful in the way that they ask students
questions in order to receive answers to help the student, and to maintain a positive learning
environment for that student.
Step 3: Try to establish the motives behind the behavior and what reasoning is behind the
motives. Many of Jimmys motives can be revealed by asking the right questions during the
private conversation about what transpired in the classroom. Questions oriented towards the root
cause of why he kept talking while the class was in session might lead to more relevant answers
that just getting him to acknowledge what he did. Actions may seem to be adversely affecting the
student but in some cases the behavior accomplishes ulterior objectives that psychologically
benefits them. Jimmy may divulge that he doesnt care about class and thinks that it's pointless.
Jimmy may have experienced significant failure in classes and developed into a failure-avoiding
student that implements self-defeating strategies such as, claiming not to care and talking
during class which imposes, handicaps that block [his] success in order to avoid testing his true
potential (pg. 416). At this point it may still be unclear as to the true reasoning behind the
motives but the repetition of the unruly distractive behavior may need to be dealt with by
involving all relevant stakeholders to Jimmys education.
Step 4: Try to develop a multi pronged approach, with all relevant stakeholders, to
addressing and resolve the issue of Jimmys lack of enthusiasm for class and the resulting
misbehavior in class. A parent teacher interview provides the prime opportunity to develop a
systematic approach to addressing Jimmys issues in class. Though, upon meeting and talking
with Jimmys mom, the teacher realizes that she shows little interest in Jimmys achievements,

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
issues, or progress in school. The parental neglect becomes apparent at this point and gives
insight into the underlying reasoning behind Jimmys motives. Students with caring parents who
actively, demonstrate that they care about the [students] interests and well-being exhibit
higher levels of, intrinsic motivation and are, more emotionally engaged in school (Furrer &
Skinner, 2003) (pg. 406). Conversely, the absence of parental care experienced by Jimmy has
resulted in his lack of intrinsic motivation towards participating in class and has subsequently
generated his disruptive behaviors within class. Though, remaining objective towards the issue is
important for developing a remedial plan with the parent. Expressing that her involvement in
facilitating Jimmys learning is of the utmost importance because it is essential in establishing his
mother as an integral part of the process. With the support of Jimmys mother in fulfilling his
deficiency needs, additional plans can be implemented over time within the classroom to help
Jimmy.
Step 5: Enact an approach to help Jimmy become an active participant in the classroom
and help him build his self-esteem and self efficacy. This approach could be enacted by direct
reinforcement of constructive behavior with comments such as, you must be very proud of
yourself instead of externally attributed comments of praise such as, I am very proud of you.
This can allow for Jimmy to slowly develop intrinsic motivations towards his education. Goals
should be, set for the activity [that] will reflect Jimmys understanding of what he is doing (pg.
410). This will internalize the motive behind participating in class activity. Engaging Jimmy in
classroom activity by doing group projects or partner work will transition him from a,
legitimate peripheral [participant] to a, central [participant] who actively participates in
classroom activity with a competent understanding of the material and outcomes (pg. 403). Over
the course of the year, this will increase his motivation and affirm his classroom identity through
the active fulfillment of self-actualization. Cumulatively, this may result in Jimmys transition
from being a failure-avoiding student to a mastery-oriented student who attributes, success to
his own effort (pg. 416).
Reflection:
It is the teachers responsibility to make sure their students are learning throughout the
year. Teachers will find there are many roadblocks that prevent their students from focusing on
their learning. In Jimmys scenario, the teacher makes important cues such as eye contact, low
teacher status, and verbal remarks in order to show Jimmy that his behaviour is incorrect.
Students could view the role of the teacher as an authoritative figure but also as a caring person.
Jimmy may perceive the teachers efforts as being intrusive and controlling of his personal life.
Jimmy may be unaware of the importance of these changes and act in a manner that resists
progress out of spite. He may be additionally unaware of the underlying causes of his behaviour.
Though teachers need to maintain control of their classroom, and be able to effectively teach
their students the curriculum, the teacher must also show that they care about the students wellbeing as well. Jimmy, being a distraction to the class, could break the atmosphere of the positive
learning environment, depending on how the teacher reacts to his bad behaviour. Teachers need
to make sure they remain calm when disciplining children, as they want students to still view
them as a place they can go to for help. Restorative practices appropriate for the severity of the
disturbance were implemented in the plan to maintain a positive classroom community or
environment.

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
Some ways that could prevent this problem in the first place would be for the teacher to
actively reach out to the students parents in order to get an understanding of what their home
lives are like. The teacher in this scenario understands more about Jimmy once interacting with
his mother, and seeing how she negatively treated Jimmy. If the teacher, had previously known
about Jimmys poor interactions with his mother, than the teacher could have worked with
Jimmy earlier on to help prevent him from being a distraction in the classroom. All relevant
stakeholders in Jimmys education (mother, teacher, counselor, or school administrators) need to
be aware of the difficulty and the proposed solution.

Strategies Handout:

Home-school connections:
o A home-school connection requires students to be able to connect what they are
learning in school to their personal lives. Because Jimmy does not have a
supportive family at home, he is not as engaged in the classroom, therefore
creating a disconnect between his home and school learning.
o One example of this home-school connection from the text is, As part of math
science unit, a recycling activity asks families to keep a chart of everything they
recycle in a week (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 430, 2015).
o Another example of this home-school connection that would be difficult for
Jimmy to participate in, would be having students ask their parents what they do
to help the environment, and record their answers. Do we recycle? What do we
recycle? Do we compost? Jimmy would have a hard time with this activity as his
mother takes little interest in his life and typically ignores him.
Positive classroom management, praise, private reprimands:
o Positive classroom management, praise and private reprimands, requires a
relationship between the student and the teacher where everyone feels safe, secure
and comfortable to voice their opinions and take risks.
o One example of this positive classroom management, praise, private reprimands
from the text is, Thumbs up when you are ready to work. Table 7 has thumbs up.
I like the way table is waiting patiently (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 430,
2015).
o Another example of this positive classroom management, praise, private
reprimands is, When I see your eyes on me, I know you are ready to listen. I see
the beautiful colours of Brian and Kaylas eyes!. Because Jimmy is unmotivated
and does not participate in class, Jimmy tends to ignore all of the teachers
commands.
Opportunities for choice:
o By giving students opportunities to make a choice, it will benefit students because
they will be more focused and interested if they choose the topic, and will
therefore, typically do better on the assignment. Students also have the choice in
what way they will behave within the classroom, which will also impact their
learning.
o One example of opportunities for choice from the text is, Students can use to use
prompts for their journal writing or pick their own topic (Woolfolk, Winne et.
Perry, p. 430, 2015).

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
o Another example of opportunities for choice is, when a student is behaving badly,
a teacher could ask them By acting in this way, is it benefiting your learning? or
By acting in a negative manner, will this help you complete your assignment?
By asking students these kinds of questions, it gives students a chance to rethink
their attitude and perhaps change their behaviour in the class. This could be
effective in getting Jimmy to realize how distracting others is not benefiting
anyone in the end.
Value students - communicate caring:
o In order for there to be a positive classroom environment, the teacher needs to
communicate to the students that they value their opinions. It is important for the
teacher to be friendly, but not a friend towards the students to uphold their
authority and respect as a teacher.
o One example of value students - communicate caring is, The teacher allows a
new student to sit with a buddy for the day (Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 430,
2015).
o Another example of value students - communicate caring is, the teacher asks
Jimmy why he may be disrupting the class as a way to communicate caring about
Jimmys personal well-being and finding the underlying cause of his behaviour.
The teacher needs to show that they care about the students both academically and
personally.
Messages of accountability and high expectations:
o The teacher needs to ensure that the students are completing what is asked of
them in the classroom. In order to do this, there might need to be parent-studentteacher communication inside and outside of the classroom so that the
expectations are clear.
o One example of messages of accountability and high expectations from the text is,
The teacher asks students to have parents review and sign some assignments
(Woolfolk, Winne et. Perry, p. 430, 2015).
o Another example of messages of accountability and high expectations is, in
regards to scaffolding (Vygotsky), teachers may ask students to inquire help and
guidance from family members. Jimmy would have a difficult time getting the
scaffolding at home, as his mother is his only primary caregiver, who neglects
him.

Presentation:
Script:
Narrator: Today we visit a classroom where learning, understanding, and.
Jimmy: Does anyone have some gum? (to the class)
Narrator: Uh-hem as I was saying this classroom is much like any other, its students are
unique, individuals who

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
Jimmy: BORING!
Narrator: Jimmy! We haven't even introduced the scene yet and you are already disrupting the
class! Now then Jimmy was a student much like any other except he thrived on disrupting the
classroom. He liked to distract his classmates as he never wanted to participate in classroom
activities and assignments. The teacher could see that he had potential though could not
understand why Jimmy was so unmotivated to do his schoolwork.
Mrs. Applebottom: Today we shall be discussing the impact that the environment has on our
lives, and how we in turn impact it. Now if everyone can show me their homework from last
night, we can begin.
Narrator: perhaps today will be the day that Jimmy turns in his homework his teacher thought
perhaps I have finally made it through to him.
Mrs. Applebottom walks around to check that the homework was done.
Jimmy: talking to his neighbour about something completely unrelated, does not get his
homework out like the rest of the students.
Mrs. Applebottom: walks over to jimmy. Do you have your homework done for class today
Jimmy?|
Jimmy: Nope
Mrs. Applebottom: why not? I told the entire class that it was due today.
Jimmy: I just didn't want to do it, so I didn't do it.
Mrs. Applebottom: In that case you can come see me after class.
Narrator: It is the same old story over and over again, Mrs. Applebottom was beginning to
think that there was no way to get through to Jimmy.
Mrs. Applebottom has to have an incremental view of ability in that she believes that Jimmy can
change his actions and she must keep in mind that there could be underlying factors to Jimmys
behavior, and therefore she must remain calm.
Mrs. Applebottom: turns and walks to the front of the class, Now class please turn your books
to page 47 and we will continue our discussion from last class
Jimmy: continues to distract those around him and does not pull out his text book
Narrator: Mrs. Applebottom was tired, she had tried many restorative practices such as:
Making eye contact, walking towards Jimmy, making verbal cues and pulling Jimmy aside to
ensure a positive classroom environment.

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
(During narrator above, Jimmy and teacher are showing her attempts at using these restorative
practices)
Mrs. Applebottom: Jimmy, this is not acceptable behaviour and if you continue to act this way
I will have to ask you to go to the office.
Mrs. Applebottom: now class can anyone tell me what the answer to question 1 is on pg. 47?
Jimmy: raises his hand
Narrator: maybe now Jimmy would be willing to participate, maybe just maybe.
Mrs. Applebottom: Yes Jimmy?
Jimmy: This is boring can we do something fun?
Narrator: Then again maybe not.
Mrs. Applebottom: to herself this is going to be a long day
Narrator: Later when Jimmy and Mrs. Applebottom speak one-on-one their conversation goes
somewhat like this.
Mrs. Applebottom: Jimmy do you know why you are having this conversation right now?
Jimmy: No
Mrs. Applebottom: Well, Jimmy, you were being disrespectful towards me and your classmates
and disrupting their learning as well as your own.
Jimmy: I dont care, its pointless.
Mrs. Applebottom: Why?
Jimmy: mumbles off..
Narrator: Based off of the Mrs. Applebottoms knowledge, Jimmy has not been doing well in
his classes. He might have developed into a failure-accepting or failure-avoiding student that
employs self-defeating strategies such as claiming not to care and disturbing the class. Due to the
frequent repetition of the behaviour, it was time to get all the stakeholders in Jimmys education
involved.
Flash forward to the end of the day

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
Narrator: It was time to try something new, so at lunch (the teacher) called Jimmys mother
asking her to come in after school. This problem needed to be addressed and while (the teacher)
had wished to solve the problem in class, more drastic measures needed to be taken.
Mrs. Applebottom: Jimmy, your behaviour as of late has been unacceptable and since you will
not talk to me I have called in your mother.
Jimmy: *looks scared*
Jimmys Mother: walks in the classroom while talking on her phone and sits down Ill have to
call you back Sarah, ya Ill be like five min...k bye. To Jimmy alright lets go Jimmy.
Continues to text throughout entire conversation with teacher.
Mrs. Applebottom: Actually, Mrs Hopkins i was hoping we could talk for a bit about Jimmy
and his behaviour in class
Jimmys Mother: Look just do whatever you can with him in class but we have to go, theres
nothing to discuss here. gets up and leaves the classroom while texting on her phone, on her
way out says I will be in the car Jimmy, hurry up.
Mrs. Applebottom: Uh Mrs. Hopkins? Mrs. Hopkins!
Jimmys Mother: What? (ANNOYED w/ hair flip)
Mrs. Applebottom: We need to discuss Jimmys disruptive behaviour within the classroom
because there may be some ways that you can help him at home.
Jimmys Mother: I am working two jobs, and have three other kids at home, I do not have time
to help Jimmy. (Leaves classroom and calls back) Come on Jimmy we are late enough as it is.
Lets go!
Narrator: WOW
Jimmy: gets up to leave. see you tomorrow Mrs. Applebottom in a somber voice then walks
out of the room.
Narrator: And just like that everything made sense, the disturbing of classmates, the refusal to
do any work, being the class clown. It was all so that he could get attention from someone,
anyone. Mrs. Applebottom knew what she had to do to help Jimmy.
The next day at school after lunch
Narrator: It was after lunch, the children have been working on a group project and it was time
for (the teacher) to make an impact on Jimmys life.

Megan Axford, Kayla Matkowski, Lawrence Schmidt and Clay Walker


Ed Psych 3502
Case Study
Due: November 3, 2015
Mrs. Applebottom: walks by Jimmy that looks great Jimmy, I love how you have contributed
to the assignment, you must be so proud of yourself
Jimmy: smiles slightly thanks!
Narrator: Starting today Mrs. Applebottom knew that although it would be hard, she could
help Jimmy become an amazing student. Jimmy has started to contribute positively to his groups
and the classroom environment after receiving support from Mrs. Applebottom. KSA G) is
addressed at this point: students needs for physical, social, cultural and psychological security.
They know how to engage students in creating effective classroom routines. They know how and
when to apply a variety of management strategies that are in keeping with the situation, and that
provide for minimal disruptions to students learning. Mrs. Applebottom has scheduled more
meetings with Mrs. Hopkins in effort to get her more involved in Jimmys education. Jimmys
mom is slowly realized the impact that she has on Jimmys future. KSA L) is addressed at this
point: the importance of engaging parents, purposefully and meaningfully, in all aspects of
teaching and learning. They know how to develop and implement strategies that create and
enhance partnerships among teachers, parents and students. Tomorrow will be a new day, a new
chance, a new experience.
References:
Woolfolk, A., Winne., & Perry, N. (2015). Educational Psychology: 6th Canadian Edition.
Toronto, ON: Pearson.