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EDU555 CURRICULUM AND

INSTRUCTION

WEEK
10

INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS: PRINCIPLES,
DESIGN , UTILIZATION AND
EVALUTION

Why Do We Need Instructional


Materials??

Information received by the brain


comes
through
1)Sight oursenses in following
proportion:
83%
2)Heari
ng

11%
3)Smell

4)Touch
3.5%
5)Taste

1.5%

Why Do We Need Instructional


Materials??

ASSURE MODEL
This model is intended to as a guide to
design instructional materials and
assure effective use of media and
materials in instruction
A Analyze Learners
S State Objectives
S Select Methods, Media, and
Materials
U- Utilize Media and Materials
R Require Learner Participation

Analyze Learners
1. General characteristics
background, etc
2. Specific entry competencies
prerequisite knowledge and skill
entry test or preassessment
measure
3. Learning Syles

Analyze Learners
1) Who are they?
-what they already know
-what are their learning
characteristics
-what they need or want to learn
- why they need it
- in what environment will they
apply the learning

Analyze Learners
2)What knowledge, skills and attitudes
need to
be taught??
3)How much content do you need in
your
instruction??
- set the scope of the content to be
covered
time required and topic areas

State Objectives
Why it is important??
1. We must know our objectives in
order to make appropriate
selection of method and media
2. To help assure proper evaluation
whether students achieved an
objectives
3. Learning and teaching become
objective
oriented

State Objective
1) What are your objectives?
2) What skills, knowledge and
attitudes are you trying to
develop?
3) What resources and strategies will
you see in
your instruction?
4) How will you structure the content
of your learning materials?

State Objectives
ABCDs of well stated objectives
Audience
Behaviour
Conditions
Degree

State Objectives
REMEMBER:
Objectives are not intended to limit
what students learn but rather to
provide a minimum level of
expected achievement
Therefore: acknowledge individual
differences in stating the objectives

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

3 steps:
1) Deciding on the appropriate
method
2) Choosing a media format that is
suitable for carrying out the
method
3) Selecting, modifying or designing
specific
materials within that media format

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

1) Deciding on the
appropriate teaching
methods lecture??
Simulation? Discussion??
2) Choosing a media format
- the physical form in which a
message is incorporated and
displayed

Select Methods, Media and


Materials
2) Choosing a media format
-media format include flip
charts, slides, audio, film,
video, computer
- each has different strengths
and
limitations
- Consider instructional setting
or situation, learner variables,
nature of the objectives

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

2)Selecting, modifying or
designing specific
materials within that media
format

a)Selecting available materials


- off the shelf: ready made and
available

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

a)Selecting available materials


how to make an appropriate
choice from available
materials??
- involving the Media Specialist
- surveying the sources through 3
types of guides: 1) Compressive
guide, 2)Selective guides and 3)
Evaluative guide

a)

Select Methods,
Media and
Materials
Selecting available
materials
Selection criteria:
- does it match the curriculum?
- Is it accurate and current?
- does it contain clear and concise
language?
- will it arouse motivation and
maintain
interest?

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

a) Selecting available materials


Selection criteria:
- is there evidence of its
effectiveness?
-is it free from objectionable bias
and advertising?
- is a user guide or other
documentation
included?

Select Methods, Media and


Materials

b) Modifying available materials


-if we cannot locate entirely suitable
materials off the shelf, we might be
modify what is available
WARNING: do not violate copyright
laws and restrictions

Select Methods, Media and


Materials
c) Designing new
materials Consider:
- Objectives
- Audience
- Cost
- Technical expertise
to design and
produce
the
materials

- Equipment to
produce or use the
materials
- Facilities
available or
not??
- Time do have a
time to
design new
materials??

Utilize Media and


Materials

Involved in teaching students how


to make
use of learning materials

Utilize Media and


Materials
Follow
the 5 Ps:
1)Preview the materials
- to avoid embarrassment
- to avoid sensitive content
2)Prepare the materials
-determine in what sequence the
materials
will be used

Utilize Media and


Materials

3)Prepare the environment


- location
- situation
4)Prepare the
learners Proper
warm-up:
-overview of the
lesson, rationale
of the

Utilize Media and


Materials

5) Provide the learning experience


- showmanship
-teacher centred or students
centred??

Require Learner
Participation

Some media formats can attract


students to
participate more than others

Evaluate and Revise


1)Evaluation of learner
achievement
- whether the students are
learned what supposed to be
learned?
- method of evaluation
depending on the
nature of the objectives

Evaluate and Revise


By both teachers and students
Provide the basis for improvement
and development of the
materials (instruction)

Evaluate and Revise


2) Evaluation of Media and
Methods
- were the instructional media and
method effective??
-could they be improved?
-through: class discussion, interviews
and
observation of student behaviour

Evaluate and Revise


Revision
-Sit back and look at the
results of our evaluation data
gathering
- where are there
discrepancies between what
we intended to happen and
what did happen?
- how did the students react to
our materials?