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To Study Common Adulterants In Sugar, Turmeric

Powder, Chili Powder and Pepper

(A) TO TEST THE PRESENCE OF ADULTERANT IN GIVEN


SAMPLE OF SUGAR.
Theory:

Common adulterants of sugar are chalk

powder

and semolina sugar is soluble in water. So if

any

undissolved substance is left on dissolving

sugar in

water.
Then it is indication of adulterant in it. Chalk

powder

given effervescence with dil. HCL, Hence its


presence

in

the

sugar

sample

can

be

detecte3d by treating small amount of sugar


HCL.

Apparatus and Chemicals:

Test tubes and test tube stand dilute hydrochloric acid and distilled water.

with dil.

Procedure:

a) Take about two grams of the sugar sample in a test tube and add about 10ml of water
into it. Shake the tube for about 5 minutes. Presence of undissolved substance
indicates adulteration in the sugar.

b) Take about two grams of the sugar


clean and dry test tube. Add to it

sample in a
about 5ml

of dilute hydrochloric acid.


Effervescence an addition of acid

indicates

the presence of chalk powder in

the sugar.

(B) TO FIND OUT ADULTERATION IN GIVEN SAMPLE OF CHILLI


POWDER.

Theory:

Red chili powder is adulterated with either coloured powder of bricks. Brick powder being
heavy than chili powder, settles at the bottom on dissolving it in a glass of water. If colour is
added to the chili powder, then water will become coloured.

Apparatus and Chemicals:


One glass or beaker, a glass rod and water.

Procedure:
Add small amount of the given chili powder in a glass
full of water. Stir the contents with a glass rod for a
minute and wait for 2-3 minutes. Setting of brick
powder at bottom and appearance of red colour
indicates adulteration in the given sample.

(C) TO FIND OUT THE ADULTERATION IN GIVEN SAMPLE OF


TRUMERIC POWDER.

Theory:
Yellow chalk powder, a common adulterant, of the turmeric powder gives effervescence with
dilute hydrochloric acid.

Apparatus and Chemicals:


Test tubes and test tube stand dilute hydrochloric acid and water.

Procedure:
a) Take about 100g of the powdered sample ion a test tube and add to it about 10ml of
dilute hydrochloric acid. Effervescence indicates the presence of chalk powder in the
sample.

b) Dilute the contents of the tube with 30-40ml of water. Disappearance of the violet
colour formed previously indicates the purity of turmeric powder. B if violet first formed
with dil. HCL persists, and then it is contaminated with yellow dye.

(D) TO FIND THE


ADULTERATION IN THE
SAMPLE OF PEPPER.

GIVEN

Apparatus and Chemicals:


Test tubes, test tube stand, pepper

powder etc.

Procedure:
Add a small amount of the given sample in a test tube and fill it with water. Dried papaya
seeds will floatation on the surface of water while the pure pepper will settle down at the
bottom of the test tube.

Precautions:
1. Petroleum is inflammable liquid. So, while performing experiment with it, it may be
extinguish all the flames.

2. Always hold the test tube with a test tube holder because oil catches fire easily.

(E) TO FIND THE ADULTERATION IN THE GIVEN SAMPLE OF


GHEE.

1. Butyrorefractometer reading (BR Value)


Properly filtered ghee whose reading temperature is around 40oC is taken; 2-3 drops of it is
poured in to the Butyrorefractometer by the side of the glass rod. Now, the reading is noted
by the scale placed above the meter. Care has to be exercised to maintain the temperature
of water that is flowing over the thermometer to be at 40oC. If the temperature deviates,
then the results obtained may not be accurate. The normal BR value of ghee ranges between
40 and 43.

2. Baudoin Test (Detection of adulteration of ghee with vanaspathi or hydrogenated


vegetable oil)

As per the prevention of food adulteration act, it has been made mandatory to add 5%
sesame oil o vanaspathi in order to detect the presence of vanaspathi in ghee through
Baudoin test. The principle behind the test is development of permanent crimson red colour
with furfural in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid in ghee adulterated with
vanaspathi.

How to Detect?

Take 5g of molten filtered ghee in a test tube and add 5ml of concentrated HCL acid and
0.1ml of furfural solution in alcohol (2%) and mix the contents thoroughly and it is allowed to
remain undisturbed for 10 min. development of crimson red colour shows that the ghee is
adulterated with vanaspathi.

3. Detection of mineral oil in ghee.

About 2g of ghee is saponified with 25ml of 50% alcoholic potassium hydroxide for one hour.
Then the saponified content is transferred to a beaker containing 100 ml of water.
Development of turbidity indicates the adulteration of mineral oil in ghee.