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PRODUCTION OF GUMMY CANDIES FROM SPINACH

LIST OF MEMBER:
NAME
NURUL FAHADIS BT MOHAMMAD YUSOFF

MATRIC NUMBER
D20141066892

AIN SOFEA SYAHIRAH BINTI MAHADI

D20141066891

LIM LEE WEN

D20141066909

MOHAMMAD ALIF BIN AZMI MURAT

D20141066890

WONG PUI YEE

D20141066893

ABSTRACT
The project is about the analysis of concentration iron in spinach on the production of
gummy candies as supplement for those who usually not consume vegetable to get the
iron for their body development. Due to its high iron rich nature, the spinach is
selected for our gummy candy product. The amount of iron required for the children is
higher than the amount of iron required for the adult. There is no difference between
the absorbance value of the gummy candies made with spinach and raw spinach
because iron are not destroyed by heat. Gummy was produce using the spinach
extract and gelatine as the main source. The standard solution is prepare by using
0.001M Fe(NO3)3 in HCL with 2.5mL of 0.1 M KSCN. The spinach of 2.6g gives the
same absorbance value as 0.955mM/L of 0.001M Fe(NO3)3 ,the 2.6g of spinach is
determined to have 0.09mg of iron Fe 3+ measure using spectrometer at absorbance
458nm. Hence, 100g of spinach will give 3.46mg of iron. 250g of spinach was used, in
which 70 cubes of candy were produced. This makes one cube contains 0.12mg of
iron. To reach the optimum intake of child at 9-13 years, they must take 66 cubes per
day to get 8mg iron. To get a feedback, the gummy were distributed for trial to 33
respondent, most of them which is 33% think the candy is tasty. However, 36% which
is 12 of them want to buy this products. They mostly will buy it because of the
usefulness and taste of the product which they have deemed satisfying.

Keywords : Spinach, Gummy Candies, Standard Solution, Iron Concentration

_____________________________________________________________________
________________________
essential component of haemoglobin,
INTRODUCTION
an erythrocyte protein that transfers
In this experiment, the first
oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
objective is to produce a gummy
Iron is also necessary for growth,
candies by using spinach. Secondly, is
development,
normal
cellular
to determine the concentration of iron
functioning, and synthesis of some
in spinach. Lastly, to get the feedback
hormones and connective tissue.
from respondent on the taste and their
willingness to buy this product. The
gummy candies was produce from the
gelatine and spinach extract as the
main source and added with milk to
reduced the taste and smell of spinach.
Spinach (Spinacia
edible flowering

oleracea)
plant in

is

an
the

to central and western Asia. It is one of


the most iron rich vegetable in the
world. The website provided the info
that 100g of boiled spinach contains
36mg of iron. Iron is simply an
element, so it cannot be destroyed by
cooking (or generally temperature
changes), as vitamins and other organic
potentially

can.

We

hypothesized that there is no difference


between the absorbance value of the
gummy candies made with spinach and
raw spinach. Iron is a mineral that is
naturally present in many foods, added
to some food products, and available as
a dietary supplement. Iron is an

0.001 M Fe(NO3)3
0.1 M KSCN
0.1 M HCl
2.0 M HCl
Distilled water
Spinach

family Amaranthaceae native

structures

MATERIAL

crucible
ring stand, ring,
Bunsen burner
funnel
filter paper
beakers
20x150 mm test tubes/test tube rack
Spectrophotometer
Cuvettes
Cream of tartar
Spinach
Corn syrup /powdered sugar
Food colouring
Gelatine
Salt
Cold water
Gummy mold

Measuring cup

3.

Once cool, the burner are removed

Blender

and the ash allowed to cooled was

Filter/ cheesecloth

transferred to a small beaker.


4.

METHODS

and carefully stir for one minute.

Preparing the standard solutions


1.

The

following

10 mL of distilled water is added

solutions

is

prepared in five test tubes. Each

and the solution was stir agained.


5.

was mixed thoroughly with a

0.1 M KSCN was added and

Test

0.001 M

0.1 M

Concentrati

Tube

Fe(NO3)3

HCL

on (mM/L)

(mL)
0
5

(mL)
20
15

0.00
0.25

10

10

0.50

4
5

15
20

5
0

0.75
1.00

mixed well.
6.

The absorbance value was found


by used a spectrophotometer at a
wavelength of 458 nm.

7.

Each standard solution and food


solution

were

placed

into

separate cuvette.
8.

2.

The mixture was filtered and the


filtrate was collected. 2.5 mL of

stirring rod.

1
2

10 mL of 2.0 M HCl was added

Mixed 2.5 mL of 0.1 M KSCN is

The absorbance of each solution is


measured and recorded.

added to each test tube. A red


colour

was

seen

from

the

formation of the FeSCN2+ ion.

Preparation of corn syrup


1.

2 cup of white sugar, cup of


water, teaspoon cream of tartar

Preparing the food samples

and 1 pinch of salt was added in a

1.

large saucepan.

2.

About 2.6g of the spinach are


weighed out and placed in a

2.

Bring to a boil, stir constantly.

crucible.

3.

Heat are reduced to a simmer and

The crucible was being heated

put cover for 3 minutes to get

with a hot burner flame until the

sugar crystals off the sides of the

food

pan. Uncover and simmer, stir

sample

approximately

turned
5-20

to

ash

minutes

depending on the food sample


used.

until it reached the soft ball stage.


4.

Stored in a covered container at


room temperature when it had
cooled.

9.
Preparation of gummy candies
1.

mold.

250g spinach are chopped into


small pieces was placed into
blender with 390g of daily milk is
added

inside

to

make

concentrated spinach juice extract.


2.

Blend using the highest speed until


the

material

are

thoroughly

ground.
3.

The ground extract was strained


and strained are poured into
beaker.

4.

Spoon mixture into lightly oiled

To make a gummy, cup of corn


syrup is added into 2 cup cold
water in a jar then the solution are
mixed well until water completely
clear. Cold water help the jelly

10. It are allowed to cooled in


refrigerator for 3 hours after it
become solid, then was removed
from mold.
11. Optional:

lightly

coat

with

powdered sugar/corn starch/a mix


there of (depending on desired
sweetness).

This

keeps

the

gummies from sticking together.


Optional: Corn starch and paintbrush
(to keep the gummies from sticking to
one another)
RESULTS
Concentratio
n of 0.001M

separated properly while corn

Fe(NO3)3
Absorbance

syrup make the gummy smooth

value

0
0.12

0.25
0.18

0.5
0.50

0.75
0.92

1
1.34

texture at room temperature.


5.

The vegetable juice was poured in

Standard solutions

a pot. 100g of gelatine and 8g agar


powder are added.
6.

Let sit for 1 minute for gelatine


soften, then both solution are
mixed into pot.

7.

At medium low heat, the solution


was stir the slowly until all the
jelly dissolved.

8.

Let it boil, until it looks like the


bubbles are having real difficulty
exiting the mixture.

f(x) = 1.25x
f(x) = 0.81 ln(x) + 1.22

2.6g of spinach is used to make the


testing food sample. The absorbance
value

of

food

sample,

is

1.19.

According to the standard solution


graph, y=1.2463x, when absorbance
value is 1.19, the concentration of food
sample is 0.995.

Figure 1: standard solution

Calculation
First, find mg/L of 0.001M Fe(NO3)3
[Molar mass of Fe(NO3)3, nonahydrate,
is 403.999g/mol]
Let A be, 0.001M of Fe(NO3)3 ,
To find its molar mass = 0.001 x

Figure 2: production of gummies

403.999g/mol = 0.404g/mol

candy

= 404mg/mol
0.955mM/L = (9.55 x 10-4) M/L
For mass in 0.955mM/L of A, the
answer is
(9.55 x 10-4) M/L x 404g/mol
= 0.38582mg
= 0.39mg (2d.p.)

Figure 3: production of gummies

Since the spinach of 2.6g gives the

candy

same absorbance value as 0.955mM/L


of 0.001M Fe(NO3)3 , the 2.6g of
spinach is determined to have 0.09mg
of iron Fe3+. After the calculation was
made, 100g of spinach will give
3.46mg of iron.

Figure 4 : Spinacia gummy candies

Feedback

of the candy. However, some remark

Taste of gummy candies

that the taste of vegetable is too heavy.

1 Very not tasty

Some comments suggest that the candy

2 Not Tasty

should have more fine texture and

3 Okay

reduce the taste of vegetable.

4 Tasty

Willingness to buy

5 Very tasty

1 Very not willing

Rate

Number of

2 Not willing

respondent
0 0%
4 (12%)
9 (27%)
11 (33%)
9 (27%)

3 Okay

1
2
3
4
5

4 Willing
5 Very willing

Number of respondent

Rate

Number

1
2
3
4
5

respondent
1 (3%)
5 (15%)
12 (36%)
9 (27%)
6 (18%)

of

Based on the feedback from 33


respondents, 36% which is 12 of them
are okay on buying the products. 27%
Number of respondent

which is 9 of them is willing to buy


whereas 18% of them (6 person) are

33 respondent had gave their feedback.

very willing to buy it. They mostly will

Most of them which is 33% think the

buy it because of the usefulness and

candy is tasty which is 11 person while

taste of the product which they have

27% which is 9 of them think the

deemed satisfying. 15% (5 person) and

candy is very tasty. 9 person (27%)

3% (1 person) are not willing and not

think the candy tasted okay. Only 4

very willing to buy this product

person which is 12% of respondent

separately. This is mostly due to the

think the candy is not tasty. All in all,

taste and their need of the products.

the

taste

of

candy

product

is

acceptable. Some feedback were that


they were satisfied with the sweetness

DISCUSSION
Iron Diet

In this experiment, we would

iron-fortified foods contain nonheme

like to choose spinach as a main source

iron only, whereas meat, seafood, and

to make a gummy. This is an effective

poultry

way to attract adults and children

nonheme iron . Heme iron, which is

especially to get iron source from the

formed when iron combines with

vegetable. This gummy is a best

protoporphyrin IX, contributes about

supplement they can take in daily

10% to 15% of total iron intakes in

nutrient because it is so sweet like a

western populations. However, it is to

candy.

this

be found that, the absorption of non-

gummy is very important for their

heme iron can be higher than the one

development process.

of heme iron through the aiding

Furthermore,

iron

in

Iron is a mineral that is

contain

both

heme

and

consumption of Vitamin C.

naturally present in many foods, added

Deficiency of iron can lead to

to some food products, and available as

symptoms

a dietary supplement. Iron is an

dizziness, and iron deficiency anemia.

essential component of haemoglobin,

It may also include brittle nails,

which is the iron-containing oxygen-

swelling or soreness of the tongue,

transport metalloprotein in the red

cracks in the sides of the mouth, an

blood cells of all vertebrates (with the

enlarged

exception

infections. People who have iron-

of

the

fish

family

like

headache,

spleen,

deficiency

of some invertebrates. As a component

unusual craving for nonfood items,

of myoglobin, a protein that provides

such as ice, dirt, paint, or starch. This

oxygen to muscles, iron supports

craving is called pica (PI-ka or PE-ka).

metabolism. Iron is also necessary for

Iron-deficiency

growth, development, normal cellular

children at greater risk for lead

functioning, and synthesis of some

poisoning and infections.

hormones and connective tissue .You

The

can enhance your body's absorption of

recommended

iron by drinking citrus juice or eating

(RDA) for iron.

same time that you eat high-iron foods.


Dietary iron has two main
forms: heme and nonheme. Plants and

following

may

frequent

Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues

other foods rich in vitamin C at the

anemia

and

fatigue,

anemia

table
dietary

have

can

shows

an

put

the

allowances

gastrointestinal side effects, such as


nausea and constipation. Other forms
of supplemental iron, such as heme
iron polypeptides, carbonyl iron, iron
amino-acid

chelates,

and

polysaccharide-iron complexes, might


have fewer gastrointestinal side effects
than ferrous or ferric salts.
The using of spinach in making food
product
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an

Dietary supplements
Iron nowadays is available in

edible flowering plant which is in the

manyproduct of dietary supplements.

family Amaranthaceae native

Multivitamin/multimineral

to central and western Asia. It is one of

supplements with iron, especially those

the most iron rich vegetable in the

designed for women, typically provide

world. The website provided the info

18 mg iron (100% of the DV).

that 100g of boiled spinach contains

Multivitamin/multimineral

36mg of iron. Our result obtains that


seniors

100g of the burned spinach contains

frequently contain less or no iron. Iron-

34.5mg of iron. The result is derived

only supplements usually deliver more

from the other data, most probably due

than the DV, with many providing 65

to the deviation in the procedure of

mg iron (360% of the DV).

experiment, or that the spinach from

supplements

for

men

or

Frequently used forms of iron

different area contains a different range

in supplements include ferrous and

of iron. Due to its high iron rich nature,

ferric iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate,

the spinach is selected for our gummy

ferrous gluconate, ferric citrate, and

candy product.

ferric sulfate. Because of its higher


solubility, ferrous iron in dietary
supplements is more bioavailable than
ferric iron. High doses of supplemental

The testing of iron in food sample

iron (45 mg/day or more) may cause

The 0.0001M Fe(NO3)3 solution is


mixed with the 0.1M KSCN solution to

create a standard solution be used in

gives 3.45g iron is used in the

the spectrometer absorbance value

production of 70 candy cubes, a male

checking. The KSCN solution are be

adult which have to take 8mg iron a

able to combine with the Ferric (III)

day, can take just 5~6 cubes per day,

Nitrate to form a colour ranged from

which is the same with the children.

yellow to dark red through the


References

following equation.
Fe3+ + SCN- = Fe(SCN)2A higher amount of ferric (III) nitrate
or KSCN will let the solution equation
foes to the left, causing a deeper colour
to develop, which can be inspected by

Wessling-Resnick M, Ross AC,


Caballero B, Cousins RJ,
Tucker KL, Ziegler RG. (2014),
Modern Nutrition in Health
and Disease. Baltimore, MD:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
(11th Ed.), 176-88.

the spectrometer. The HCl is used to


bind with the free Fe2+ in the solution
to create more accurate result.
The Beer-Lambert Law plots the curve
of

absorbance

value

against

the

concentration of 0.001M Fe(NO3)3,


where the line starts from the x,y (0,0).
And the absorbance value of food
sample used can be found by using the
standard graph.
The gummy candy product
To produce gummy candies product,
250g of spinach was used, in which 70
cubes of candy were produced. This
makes one cube contains 0.12mg of
iron. To reach the optimum intake of
child at 9-13 years, they must take 66
cubes per day to get 8mg iron. In our
further research, it is to be suggested
that the concentration of spinach used
in the production of spinach can be
increased. If 1kg of spinach which

Aggett PJ, Erdman JW, Macdonald IA,


Zeisel SH. (2012), Present
Knowledge in Nutrition.
Washington, DC: WileyBlackwell (10th Ed.), 506-20.
Baker RD, Greer FR. (2010),
Diagnosis and prevention of
iron deficiency and irondeficiency anemia in infants
and young children (0-3 years
of age). Pediatrics, 126:104050.
Gillooly M, Bothwell TH, Torrance
JD, MacPhail AP, Derman DP,
Bezwoda WR. (1983),
The effects of organic acids,
phytates and polyphenols on
the absorption of iron from
vegetables. Br J Nutr, 49:331
42.
Bailey RL, Gahche JJ, Lentino CV,
Dwyer JT, Engel JS, Thomas
PR, (2011), Dietary
supplement use in the United

States, 2003-2006. J Nutr,


141:261-6.
Blanck HM, Cogswell ME, Gillespie
C, Reyes M. (2005), Iron
supplement use and iron status
among US adults: results from
the third National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey.
Am J Clin Nutr, 82:1024-31.
Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet
(November 24, 2015) Retrieved from
URL
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/IronHealthProfessional/
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of
Iron-Deficiency Anemia? (March 26,
2014) Retrieved from URL
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health
-topics/topics/ida/signs
Iron (September 09, 2014) Retrieved
fromURL
https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/iron
TEAM RESPONSIBILITY
NAME

NURUL
FAHADIS

RESPONSIBILITY
-Prepared the lab manual for
experiment
-Booking date for
experiment and apparatus
-Bought the ingredients and
apparatus needed.
-Involve in experiment and
production of products
-Prepared the poster and
logo for exhibition.
-Meeting with Dr. Shakinaz
to update the experiment
draft
-Responsible in preparations
and setup during the
exhibition

-Bought the ingredients and


apparatus needed
-Responsible to prepare the
method for experiment
-Involve in experiment and
product making
-Prepared the poster and
logo for exhibition
-Meeting with Dr. Shakinaz
to update the experiment
draft
-Responsible in preparations
AIN
and setup during the
SOFEA
exhibition
-Booking date for
experiment and apparatus
-Involve in experiment and
product making
-Preparing the standard
solution
-Meeting with Dr. Shakinaz
to update the experiment
draft
-Responsible in making
product pamphlet
-Responsible in preparations
WONG
and setup during the
PUI YEE
exhibition
-Preparing the standard
solution
-Involve in experiment and
product making
-Responsible in making
product pamphlet
-Meeting with Dr. Shakinaz
to update the experiment
draft
-Responsible in preparations
LEE WEN and during the exhibition
MOHAM -Buying ingredient need for
MAD
experiment
ALIF
-Prepared the video for
exhibition
-Meeting with Dr. Shakinaz

to update the experiment


draft
-Responsible in preparations
and setup during the
exhibition