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CHAPTER 4

CHEMICAL REACTIONS
PRACTICE EXAMPLES
1A

(E)
(a)

(b)

1B

(E)
(a)

(b)

2A

Unbalanced reaction:
Balance Ca & PO43-:
Balance H atoms:
Self Check:

H3PO4(aq) + CaO(s)
2 H3PO4(aq) + 3 CaO(s)
2 H3PO4(aq) + 3 CaO(s)
6 H + 2 P + 11 O + 3 Ca

Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + H2O(l)
Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + H2O(l)
Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + 3 H2O(l)
6 H + 2 P + 11 O + 3 Ca

Unbalanced reaction:
Balance C& H:
Balance O atoms:
Self Check:

C3H8(g) + O2(g)
C3H8(g) + O2(g)
C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g)
3 C + 8 H + 10 O

CO2(g) + H2O(g)
3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
3 C + 8 H + 10 O

Unbalanced reaction:
NH3(g) + O2(g)
Balance N and H:
NH3(g) + O2(g)
Balance O atoms:
NH3(g) + 7/4 O2(g)
Multiply by 4 (whole #): 4 NH3(g) + 7 O2(g)
Self Check:
4 N + 12 H + 14 O

NO2(g) + H2O(g)
NO2(g) + 3/2 H2O(g)
NO2(g) + 3/2 H2O(g)
4 NO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)
4 N + 12 H + 14 O

Unbalanced reaction:
Balance H atoms:
Balance O atoms:
Balance N atoms:
Multiply by 4 (whole #)
Self Check:

NO2(g) + NH3(g)
NO2(g) + 2 NH3(g)
3/2 NO2(g) + 2 NH3(g)
3/2 NO2(g) + 2 NH3(g)
6 NO2(g) + 8 NH3(g)
14 N + 24 H + 12 O

N2(g) + H2O(g)
N2(g) + 3 H2O(g)
N2(g) + 3 H2O(g)
7/4 N2(g) + 3 H2O(g)
7 N2(g) + 12 H2O(g)
14 N + 24 H + 12 O

HgS(s) + CaO(s)
HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s)
HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s)
4 HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s)
4 HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s)
4 Hg + 4 S + 4 O + 4 Ca

(E)
Unbalanced reaction:
Balance O atoms:
Balance Ca atoms:
Balance S atoms:
Balance Hg atoms:
Self Check:

112

CaS(s) + CaSO4(s) + Hg(l)


CaS(s) + CaSO4(s) + Hg(l)
3 CaS(s) + CaSO4(s) + Hg(l)
3 CaS(s) + CaSO4(s) + Hg(l)
3 CaS(s) + CaSO4(s) + 4 Hg(l)
4 Hg + 4 S + 4 O + 4 Ca

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

2B

(E)
Unbalanced reaction:
Balance C atoms:
Balance S atoms:
Balance H atoms:
Balance O atoms:
Multiply by 2 (whole #):
Self Check:

3A

(E) The balanced chemical equation provides the factor needed to convert from moles
3 mol O 2
KClO 3 to moles O2. Amount O 2 = 1.76 mol KClO 3
= 2.64 mol O 2
2 mol KClO 3

3B

(E) First, find the molar mass of Ag 2 O .


2 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag +16.00 g O = 231.74 g Ag 2 O / mol

CO2(g) + H2O(l) + SO2(g)


C7H6O2S(l) + O2 (g)
C7H6O2S(l) + O2(g)
7 CO2(g) + H2O(l) + SO2(g)
C7H6O2S(l) + O2(g)
7 CO2(g) + H2O(l) + SO2(g)
7 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) + SO2(g)
C7H6O2S(l) + O2(g)
C7H6O2S(l) + 8.5 O2 (g) 7 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) + SO2(g)
2 C7H6O2S(l) + 17 O2 (g) 14 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) + 2 SO2(g)
14 C + 12 H + 2 S + 38 O 14 C + 12 H + 2 S + 38 O

amount Ag = 1.00 kg Ag 2 O
4A

(E) The balanced chemical equation provides the factor to convert from amount of Mg to
amount of Mg 3 N 2 . First we must determine the molar mass of Mg 3 N 2 .
molar mass = 3mol Mg 24.305g Mg + 2 mol N 14.007 g N = 100.93g Mg 3 N 2

mass Mg 3 N 2 = 3.82g Mg
4B

1000 g
1 mol Ag 2 O
2 mol Ag

= 8.63 mol Ag
1.00 kg 231.74 g Ag 2 O 1 mol Ag 2 O

1mol Mg 1mol Mg 3 N 2 100.93g Mg 3 N 2

= 5.29 g Mg 3 N 2
24.31g Mg
3mol Mg
1mol Mg 3 N 2

(E) The pivotal conversion is from H 2 g to CH 3OH (l). For this we use the balanced

equation, which requires that we use the amounts in moles of both substances. The solution
involves converting to and from amounts, using molar masses.
2 mol H 2
2.016 g H 2
1000 g 1mol CH 3 OH
mass H 2 g = 1.00 kg CH 3 OH(l)

1 kg 32.04 g CH 3 OH 1mol CH 3 OH
1mol H 2
mass H 2 g = 126 g H 2

5A

(M) The equation for the cited reaction is: 2 NH 3 g + 1.5 O 2 g


N 2 (g) + 3H 2 O l

The pivotal conversion is from one substance to another, in moles, with the balanced
chemical equation providing the conversion factor.
2 mol NH 3 17.0305g NH 3
1mol O 2

mass NH 3 g = 1.00 g O 2 g
= 0.710 g NH 3
32.00 g O 2 1.5 mol O 2
1mol H 2

113

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

5B

(M) The equation for the combustion reaction is:


25
C8 H18 l + O 2 g 8 CO 2 g + 9 H 2 O l
2
1mol C8 H18
12.5 mol O 2 32.00 g O 2
mass O 2 = 1.00 g C8 H18
= 3.50 g O 2 g

114.23g C8 H18 1mol C8 H18 1mol O 2

6A

(M) We must convert mass H 2 amount of H 2 amount of Al mass of Al mass of


alloy volume of alloy. The calculation is performed as follows: each arrow in the
preceding sentence requires a conversion factor.
1mol H 2
2 mol Al 26.98g Al 100.0 g alloy 1cm3alloy
Valloy 1.000 g H 2

2.016 g H 2 3mol H 2
1mol Al
93.7 g Al
2.85g alloy

6B

7A

Volume of alloy = 3.34 cm3 alloy


(M) In the example, 0.207 g H 2 is collected from 1.97 g alloy; the alloy is 6.3% Cu by
mass. This information provides the conversion factors we need.
1.97 g alloy
6.3 g Cu
mass Cu = 1.31g H 2

= 0.79 g Cu
0.207 g H 2 100.0 g alloy
Notice that we do not have to consider each step separately. We can simply use values
produced in the course of the calculation as conversion factors.

(M) The cited reaction is 2 Al s + 6 HCl aq 2 AlCl3 aq + 3 H 2 g . The HCl(aq)

solution has a density of 1.14 g/mL and contains 28.0% HCl. We need to convert between
the substances HCl and H 2 ; the important conversion factor comes from the balanced
chemical equation. The sequence of conversions is: volume of HCl(aq) mass of HCl(aq)
mass of pure HCl amount of HCl amount of H 2 mass of H 2 .
In the calculation below, each arrow in the sequence is replaced by a conversion factor.
1.14 g sol 28.0 g HCl 1mol HCl
3mol H 2 2.016 g H 2

mass H 2 = 0.05 mL HCl aq


1mL soln 100.0 g soln 36.46 g HCl 6 mol HCl 1mol H 2
mass H 2 = 4 104 g H 2 g = 0.4 mg H 2 g
7B

(M) Density is necessary to determine the mass of the vinegar, and then the mass of acetic
acid.
mass CO 2 (g) = 5.00 mL vinegar

1mol CO2
44.01g CO 2
1.01g 0.040g acid 1mol CH3COOH

1mL 1g vinegar 60.05g CH3COOH 1mol CH3COOH 1mol CO2

= 0.15g CO2

8A

(M) Determine the amount in moles of acetone and the volume in liters of the solution.
22.3g CH 3 2 CO
molarity of acetone =

1mol CH 3 2 CO

58.08g CH 3 2 CO

1.25 L soln

114

= 0.307 M

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

8B

(M) The molar mass of acetic acid, HC 2 H 3O 2 , is 60.05 g/mol. We begin with the quantity
of acetic acid in the numerator and that of the solution in the denominator, and transform to
the appropriate units for each.
molarity =

15.0 mL HC 2 H 3O 2 1000 mL 1.048g HC 2 H 3O 2 1mol HC 2 H 3O 2

= 0.524 M
500.0 mL soln
1L soln
1mL HC 2 H 3O 2
60.05g HC 2 H 3O 2

9A

(E) The molar mass of NaNO 3 is 84.99 g/mol. We recall that M stands for mol /L soln.
10.8 mol NaNO3 84.99 g NaNO3
1L
mass NaNO3 = 125 mL soln

= 115 g NaNO3
1000 mL
1L soln
1mol NaNO3

9B

(E) We begin by determining the molar mass of Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O . The amount of solute
needed is computed from the concentration and volume of the solution.
mass Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O = 355 mL soln

1L
1000 mL

322.21 g Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O


1 mol Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O

0.445 mol Na 2SO 4


1 L soln

1 mol Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O


1 mol Na 2SO 4

50.9 g Na 2SO 4 10H 2 O

10A (E) The amount of solute in the concentrated solution doesnt change when the solution is
diluted. We take advantage of an alternative definition of molarity to answer the question:
millimoles of solute/milliliter of solution.
0.450 mmol K 2 CrO 4
amount K 2 CrO 4 = 15.00 mL
= 6.75 mmol K 2 CrO 4
1 mL soln
6.75 mmol K 2 CrO 4
K 2 CrO 4 molarity, dilute solution =
= 0.0675 M
100.00 mL soln
10B (E) We know the initial concentration (0.105 M) and volume (275 mL) of the solution,
along with its final volume (237 mL). The final concentration equals the initial
concentration times a ratio of the two volumes.
V
275mL
cf ci i 0105
. M
0122
.
M
Vf
237 mL
11A (M) The balanced equation is K 2 CrO 4 aq 2 AgNO3 aq Ag 2 CrO 4 s 2 KNO3 aq .

The molar mass of Ag 2 CrO 4 is 331.73 g mol . The conversions needed are mass
Ag 2 CrO 4 amount Ag 2 CrO 4 (moles) amount K 2 CrO 4 (moles) volume K 2 CrO 4 aq .
VK 2CrO4 1.50 g Ag 2 CrO 4

1mol Ag 2 CrO 4

331.73g Ag 2CrO 4
1000 mL solution

=18.1mL
1L solution

115

1mol K 2CrO 4
1L soln

1 mol Ag 2 CrO 4 0.250 mol K 2 CrO 4

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

11B (M) Balanced reaction: 2 AgNO3(aq) + K2CrO4(aq) Ag2CrO4(s) + 2 KNO3(aq)


moles of K2CrO4 = C V = 0.0855 M 0.175 L sol = 0.01496 moles K2CrO4
2 mol AgNO3
= 0.0299 mol AgNO3
moles of AgNO3 = 0.01496 mol K2CrO4
1 mol K 2 CrO 4
0.0299 mol AgNO3
n
= 0.1995 L or 2.00 102 mL (0.200 L) of AgNO3
VAgNO3 =
=
C 0.150 mol AgNO
3
L
1mol Ag 2 CrO 4 331.73 g Ag 2 CrO 4
Mass of Ag2CrO4 formed = 0.01496 moles K2CrO4

1 mol K 2 CrO 4
1mol Ag 2 CrO 4
Mass of Ag2CrO4 formed = 4.96 g Ag2CrO4
12A (M) Reaction: P4 s 6 Cl2 g 4 PCl3 l . We must determine the mass of PCl 3 formed

by each reactant.
1 mol P4
4 mol PCl 3 137.33 g PCl 3

953 g PCl 3
123.90g P4
1mol P4
1 mol PCl 3
1 mol Cl 2 4 mol PCl 3 137.33 g PCl 3
mass PCl 3 725 g Cl 2

936 g PCl 3
70.91g Cl 2 6 mol Cl 2
1 mol PCl 3
Thus, a maximum of 936g PCl 3 can be produced; there is not enough Cl 2 to produce any
more.
mass PCl 3 215 g P4

12B (M) Since data are supplied and the answer is requested in kilograms (thousands of grams),
we can use kilomoles (thousands of moles) to solve the problem. We calculate the amount
in kilomoles of POCl 3 that would be produced if each of the reactants were completely
converted to product. The smallest of these amounts is the one that is actually produced
(this is a limiting reactant question).
1kmol PCl3 10 kmol POCl3
amount POCl3 1.00 kg PCl3

0.0121kmol POCl3
137.33kg PCl3
6 kmol PCl3
10 kmol POCl3
1kmol Cl2

0.0235 kmol POCl3


amount POCl3 1.00 kg Cl2
70.905 kg Cl2
6 kmol Cl2
1kmol P4 O10
10 kmol POCl3
amount POCl3 1.00 kg P4 O10

0.0352 kmol POCl3


283.89 kg P4 O10 1kmol P4 O10

Thus, a maximum of 0.0121 kmol POCl3 can be produced.


We next determine the mass of the product.
153.33kg POCl3
mass POCl3 0.0121kmol POCl3
1.86 kg POCl3
1 kmol POCl3

116

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

13A (M) The 725 g Cl 2 limits the mass of product formed. The P4 s therefore is the reactant in

excess. From the quantity of excess reactant we can find the amount of product formed:
953 g PCl 3 936 g PCl 3 = 17 g PCl 3 . We calculate how much P4 this is, both in the
traditional way and by using the initial 215 g P4 and final 953 g PCl3 values of the
previous calculation.
mass P4 17 g PCl 3

1 mol PCl 3
1 mol P4
123.90 g P4

38
. g P4
137.33g PCl 3 4 mol PCl 3
1 mol P4

13B (M) Find the amount of H2O(l) formed by each reactant, to determine the limiting reactant.
1mol H 2
2 mol H 2 O
amount H 2 O 12.2 g H 2

6.05 mol H 2 O
2.016 g H 2 2 mol H 2
1mol O 2
2 mol H 2 O
amount H 2 O 154 g O 2

9.63 mol H 2 O
32.00 g O 2 1 mol O 2
Since H 2 is limiting, we must compute the mass of O 2 needed to react with all of the H 2
1mol O 2 32.00 g O 2
mass O 2 reacting = 6.05 mol H 2 O produced

96.8g O 2 reacting
2 mol H 2 O 1mol O 2
mass O 2 remaining = 154 g originally present 96.8g O 2 reacting =57 g O 2 remaining
14A (M)
(a) The theoretical yield is the calculated maximum mass of product expected if we were
to assume that the reaction has no losses (100% reaction).
1mol CH 2 O 30.03g CH 2 O
mass CH 2 O g 1.00 mol CH 3OH

30.0 g CH 2 O
1mol CH 3OH 1mol CH 2 O
(b) The actual yield is what is obtained experimentally: 25.7 g CH2O (g).
(c) The percent yield is the ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%:
25.7 g CH 2O produced
% yield =
100 % = 85.6 % yield
30.0 g CH 2 O calculated
14B (M) First determine the mass of product formed by each reactant.
1mol P4
4 mol PCl3 137.33g PCl3

mass PCl3 = 25.0 g P4


= 111g PCl3
123.90 g P4
1mol P4
1mol PCl3

1mol Cl2 4 mol PCl3 137.33g PCl3

= 118g PCl3
70.91g Cl2 6 mol Cl 2
1mol PCl3
Thus, the limiting reactant is P4 , and 111 g PCl 3 should be produced. This is the theoretical
maximum yield. The actual yield is 104 g PCl 3 . Thus, the percent yield of the reaction is
104 g PCl 3 produced
100 % 93.7% yield.
111g PCl 3 calculated
mass PCl3 = 91.5g Cl 2

117

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

15A (M) The reaction is 2 NH 3 (g) + CO 2 (g) CO NH 2 2 (s) + H 2 O(l) . We need to distinguish

between mass of urea produced (actual yield) and mass of urea predicted (theoretical yield).
mass CO 2 = 50.0 g CO NH 2 2 produced

44.01g CO 2
1mol CO 2

100.0 g predicted
87.5 g produced

1mol CO NH 2 2

60.1g CO NH 2 2

1mol CO 2

1mol CO NH 2 2

41.8 g CO 2 needed

15B (M) Care must be taken to use the proper units/labels in each conversion factor. Note, you
cannot calculate the molar mass of an impure material or mixture.
mass C6 H11OH = 45.0 g C 6 H10 produced

100.0 g C6 H10 cal'd

1mol C 6 H10

86.2 g C 6 H10 produc'd 82.1g C 6 H10

1mol C 6 H11OH
1mol C6 H10

100.2 g pure C6 H11OH 100.0 g impure C 6 H11OH

69.0 g impure C 6 H11OH


1mol C 6 H11OH
92.3 g pure C 6 H11OH

16A (M) We can trace the nitrogen through the sequence of reactions. We notice that 4 moles of
N (as 4 mol NH 3 ) are consumed in the first reaction, and 4 moles of N (as 4 mol NO) are
produced. In the second reaction, 2 moles of N (as 2 mol NO) are consumed and 2 moles of
N (as 2 mol NO 2 ) are produced. In the last reaction, 3 moles of N (as 3 mol NO 2 ) are
consumed and just 2 moles of N (as 2 mol HNO 3 ) are produced.
1000 g NH 3 1mol NH 3
4 mol NO 2 mol NO 2
mass HNO3 = 1.00 kg NH 3

1kg NH 3
17.03g NH 3 4 mol NH 3 2 mol NO
2 mol HNO 3 63.01g HNO 3

= 2.47 103 g HNO 3


3 mol NO 2
1 mol HNO 3
16B (M)
mass KNO3 = 95 g NaN 3

1 mol NaN 3
2 mol KNO3
102 g KNO3
2 mol Na

65.03 g NaN3
2 mol NaN 3
10 mol Na
1 mol KNO3

29.80 30 g KNO3

mass SiO 2 (1) = 1.461 mol NaN 3

2 mol Na
1 mol K 2 O
1 mol SiO 2
64.06 g SiO 2

2 mol NaN 3
10 mol Na
1 mol K 2 O
1 mol SiO 2

9.36 g 9.4 g SiO 2


mass SiO 2 (2) = 1.461 mol NaN 3

2 mol Na
5 mol Na 2 O
1 mol SiO 2
64.06 g SiO 2

2 mol NaN 3
10 mol Na
1 mol Na 2 O
1 mol SiO 2

46.80 g 47 g SiO 2
Therefore, the total mass of SiO2 is the sum of the above two results. Approximately 56 g
of SiO2 and 30 g of KNO3 are needed.

118

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

17A

(D) To determine the mass% for each element,


1 mol Al 3 mol H 2 2.016 g H 2
mass Al = (m) g Al

= (m) 0.1121 g Al
26.98 g Al 2 mol Al 1 mol H 2

mass Mg = (1.00-m) g Al

1 mol Mg

1 mol H 2

24.305 g Mg 1 mol Mg

2.016 g H 2
1 mol H 2

= (1.00-m) 0.0829 g Mg
Now, we note that the total mass of H2 generated is 0.107 g. Therefore,
Mass H2 = (m)(0.1121) + (1.00-m)(0.0829) = 0.107
Solving for m gives a value of 0.82 g.
Therefore, mass of Al = 0.83 g. Since the sample is 1.00 g, Mg is 17 wt%..
mass of Mg = 1.00 0.83 = 0.17 g, or 17 wt%.
17B (D) Mass of CuO and Cu2O is done in identical fashion to the above problem:
mass CuO = (1.500-x) g CuO

1 mol CuO

1 mol Cu

79.545 g CuO 1 mol CuO

63.546 g Cu
1 mol Cu

= (1.500-x) 0.7989
mass Cu 2 O = (x) g Cu 2 O

1 mol Cu 2 O

2 mol Cu

143.091 g Cu 2 O 1 mol Cu 2 O

63.546 g Cu
1 mol Cu

= (x) 0.8882 g Cu 2 O
Now, we note that the total mass of pure Cu is 1.2244 g. Therefore,

Mass Cu = (1.500-x)(0.7989) + (x)(0.8882) = 1.2244


Solving for x gives a value of 0.292 g.
Therefore, mass of Cu2O = 0.292
mass % of Cu2O = 0.292/1.500 100 = 19.47%

119

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

INTEGRATIVE EXAMPLE
A. (D)

Balancing the equation gives the following:


C6 H10 O 4 (l) 2NH 3 (g) 4H 2 C6 H16 N 2 (l) 4H 2 O
Stepwise approach:

The first step is to calculate the number of moles of each reactant from the masses given.
1000 g
1 mol.

28.4 mol
1 kg
146.16 g
1000 g
1 mol.
mol NH 3 = 0.547 kg

32.1 mol
1 kg
17.03 g
1000 g
1 mol.
mol H 2 = 0.172 kg

85.3 mol
1 kg
2.016 g
To determine the limiting reagent, calculate the number of moles of product that can be obtained
from each of the reactants. The reactant yielding the least amount of product is the limiting
reagent.
mol C6 H10 O 4 = 4.15 kg

mol of C6 H16 N 2 from C6 H10 O4 = 28.4 mol


mol of C6 H16 N 2 from NH3 = 32.1 mol

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
28.4 mol
1 mol C6 H10 O 4

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
16.05 mol
2 mol NH 3

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
21.3 mol
4 mol H 2
NH3 yields the fewest moles of product, and is the limiting reagent.
mol of C6 H16 N 2 from H 2 = 85.3

To calculate the % yield, the theoretical yield must first be calculated using the limiting reagent:
Theoretical yield = 16.05 mol C6 H16 N 2
% yield =

116.22 g C6 H16 N 2
1 kg

1.865 kg
1 mol C6 H16 N 2
1000 g

1.46 kg
78.3% yield
1.865 kg

120

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Conversion pathway Approach:

mol of C6 H16 N 2 from C6 H10 O 4 = 4.15 kg C6 H10 O4


mol of C6 H16 N 2 from NH 3 = 0.547 kg NH3

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
1000 g
1 mol.

28.4 mol
1 kg
146.16 g
1 mol C6 H10 O 4

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
1000 g
1 mol.
16.05 mol

1 kg
17.03 g
2 mol NH 3

1 mol C6 H16 N 2
1000 g
1 mol.

21.3 mol
1 kg
2.016 g
4 mol H 2
NH3 yields the fewest moles of product and is therefore the limiting reagent
The % yield is determined exactly as above
mol of C6 H16 N 2 from H 2 = 0.172 kg H 2

B. (M)
Balancing the equation gives the following:

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H 2 (g)


Stepwise approach:

To determine the amount of zinc in sample, the amount of HCl reacted has to be calculated first:
1L
0.0134 mol HCl
1000 mL
1L
After reaction: 0.0043 M HCl 750.0 mL
0.00323 mol HCl
1000 mL

Before reaction: 0.0179 M HCl 750.0 mL

moles of HCl consumed = 0.0134 0.00323 = 0.0102 mol


Based on the number of moles of HCl consumed, the number of moles of Zn reacted can be
determined:
1 mol Zn
65.39 g Zn

0.3335 g Zn
2 mol HCl
1 mol Zn
0.3335 g Zn reacted
Purity of Zn =
100 = 83.4% pure
0.4000 g Zn in sample

0.0102 mol HCl

Conversion pathway Approach:

0.0179 - 0.0043 M HCl

750.0 mL

1L
1000 mL

0.0102 mol HCl

121

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Note that we can only subtract concentrations in the above example because the volume has not
changed. Had there been a volume change, we would have to individually convert each
concentration to moles first.
1 mol Zn
65.39 g Zn

0.0102 mol HCl


/ 0.4000 g 100 83.4 % Zn
2 mol HCl
1 mol Zn

EXERCISES
Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
1.

(E) (a) 2 SO3


2 SO 2 O 2
(b) Cl2 O7 H 2 O
2 HClO 4
(c) 3 NO 2 H 2 O
2 HNO3 NO
(d) PCl3 3 H 2 O
H 3 PO3 3 HCl

2.

(E) (a) 3 P2 H 4
4 PH 3 1 2 P4 or 6 P2 H 4
8 PH3 P4
(b) P4 6 Cl2
4 PCl3
(c) 2 FeCl3 3 H 2S
Fe 2 S3 6 HCl
(d) Mg 3 N 2 6 H 2 O
3 Mg(OH)2 2 NH3

3.

(E) (a) 3 PbO + 2 NH 3


3 Pb + N 2 + 3 H 2 O
(b) 2 FeSO4
Fe 2 O3 2 SO 2 +

O 2 or 4 FeSO 4
2 Fe 2 O3 4 SO 2 + O 2

(c) 6 S2 Cl2 16 NH3


N 4 S4 12 NH 4 Cl +S8
(d) C3 H 7 CHOHCH(C2 H 5 )CH 2 OH 23 2 O 2
8 CO 2 + 9 H 2 O
or

4.

2 C3 H 7 CHOHCH(C2 H 5 )CH 2 OH 23 O 2
16 CO 2 +18 H 2 O

(E) (a) SO 2 Cl2 + 8 HI H 2 S + 2 H 2 O + 2 HCl + 4 I 2


(b) FeTiO3 2 H 2SO 4 5 H 2 O
FeSO 4 7H 2 O + TiOSO 4
(c) 2 Fe3 O 4 12 HCl +3 Cl2
6 FeCl3 6 H 2 O + O2
(d) C6 H 5 CH 2 SSCH 2 C6 H 5 39 2 O 2
14 CO 2 2 SO 2 7 H 2 O
or

2 C6 H 5 CH 2 SSCH 2 C6 H 5 39 O 2
28 CO 2 4 SO 2 14 H 2 O

122

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

5.

(E) (a) 2 Mg s + O 2 g 2 MgO s


(b) 2 NO g + O 2 g 2 NO 2 g
(c) 2 C2 H 6 g + 7 O 2 g 4 CO 2 g + 6 H 2 O l
(d) Ag 2 SO 4 aq + BaI2 aq BaSO4 s + 2 AgI s

6.

(E) (a) 3Mg s + N 2 g Mg 3 N 2 s


(b) KClO3 s
KCl s +

O2 g or

2 KClO3 s
2 KCl s + 3 O2 g

(c) NaOH(s) + NH 4 Cl(s)


NaCl(s) + NH 3 (g) + H 2 O g
(d) 2 Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l)
2 NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g)
7.

(E) (a) 2 C4 H10 (l) +13O 2 g 8CO 2 g +10 H 2 O l


(b) 2 CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 (l) + 9 O 2 g 6 CO 2 g + 8 H 2 O l
(c) CH 3 CH(OH)COOH s + 3O 2 g 3CO 2 g + 3H 2 O l

8.

(E) (a) 2 C3 H 6 g + 9 O 2 g 6 CO 2 g + 6 H 2 O l
(b) C6 H 5 COSH s + 9 O 2 g 7 CO 2 g + 3 H 2 O l + SO 2 g
(c) 2 CH 2 (OH)CH(OH)CH 2 OH l + 7 O 2 g 6 CO 2 g + 8 H 2 O l

9.

(E) (a) NH 4 NO3 s


N2 O g + 2 H2 O g

(b) Na 2 CO3 aq + 2 HCl aq 2 NaCl aq + H 2 O l + CO 2 g


(c) 2 CH 4 g + 2 NH 3 g + 3O 2 g 2 HCN g + 6 H 2 O g
10.

(E) (a) 2SO 2 g + O 2 g 2SO3 g


(b) CaCO3 s + H 2 O l + CO 2 aq Ca HCO3 2 aq
(c) 4 NH 3 g + 6 NO g 5 N 2 g + 6 H 2 O g

11.

(E)

Unbalanced reaction:
Balance H atoms:
Balance O atoms:
Balance N atoms:
Multiply by 2 (whole #)
Self Check:

N2H4(g) + N2O4(g) H2O(g) + N2(g)


N2H4(g) + N2O4(g) 2 H2O(g) + N2(g)
N2H4(g) + 1/2 N2O4(g) 2 H2O(g) + N2(g)
N2H4(g) + 1/2 N2O4(g) 2 H2O(g) + 3/2 N2(g)
2 N2H4(g) + N2O4(g) 4 H2O(g) + 3 N2(g)
6N+8H+4O
6N+8H+4O

123

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

12.

(E)

Unbalanced reaction:
Balance H atoms:
Balance N atoms:
Balance O atoms:
Multiply by 2 (whole #)
Self Check:

NH3(g) + O2(g)
2 NH3(g) + O2(g)
2 NH3(g) + O2(g)
2 NH3(g) + 5/2 O2(g)
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g)
4 N + 12 H + 10 O

H2O(g) + NO(g)
3 H2O(g) + NO(g)
3 H2O(g) + 2 NO(g)
3 H2O(g) + 2 NO(g)
6 H2O(g) + 4 NO(g)
4 N + 12 H + 10 O

Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions


13.

(E) In order to write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction, we will need to
determine the formula of the chromium oxide product.

First determine the number of moles of chromium and oxygen, and then calculate the mole
ratio.
1 mol Cr
0.01325 mol Cr
52.00 g Cr
1 mol O 2
2 mol O
# mol O 0.636 g O 2

0.03975 mol O
32.00 g O 2 1 mol O 2

# mol Cr 0.689 g Cr

0.03975 mol O
3 mol O
=
Therefore, the formula for the product is CrO3.
0.01325 mol Cr 1 mol Cr
Balanced equation =

14.

2 Cr(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 CrO3(s)

(E) In order to write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction, we will need to
determine the formula of the manganese oxide product.

First determine the number of moles of manganese and oxygen, and then calculate the mole
ratio.
# mol O 1.142 g O

1 mol O
0.071375 mol O
16.00 g O

# g Mn = 3.104 g oxide 1.142 g O = 1.962 g Mn


1 mol Mn
# mol Mn 1.962 g Mn
0.03571 mol Mn
54.94 g Mn
0.071375 mol O
2 mol O
=
Therefore, the formula of the product is MnO2.
0.03571 mol Mn 1 mol Mn
Balanced equation =

Mn(s) + O2(g) MnO2(s)

124

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

15.

(E) The conversion factor is obtained from the balanced chemical equation.

1mol Cl2
7.26 mol Cl2
70.90 g Cl2
2 mol FeCl 3
moles FeCl 3 = 7.26 mol Cl 2
= 4.84 mol FeCl 3
3 mol Cl 2
515 g Cl2

(E) Each calculation uses the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced chemical
equation and the molar mass of the reactant.
1 mol PCl3
Moles PCl3 = 46.3g
= 0.337 mol PCl3
137.32 g PCl3
6 mol Cl 2 70.91g Cl 2
mass Cl 2 = 0.337 mol PCl 3

= 35.8 g Cl 2
4 mol PCl 3 1 mol Cl 2
1 mol P4
123.9 g P4
mass P4 = 0.337 mol PCl 3

= 10.4 g P4
4 mol PCl 3 1 mol P4
17. (E)
(a) Conversion pathway approach:
1mol KClO3
3mol O2
32.8g KClO3

= 0.401mol O2
122.6 g KClO3
2 mol KClO3
Stepwise approach:
1mol KClO3
32.8g KClO3
= 0.268 mol KClO3
122.6 g KClO3
16.

0.268 mol KClO3


(b)

3mol O 2
= 0.402 mol O 2
2 mol KClO3

Conversion pathway approach:


mass KClO3 = 50.0 g O 2

1mol O 2
32.00 g O 2

2 mol KClO3 122.6 g KClO3


128g KClO 3

3 mol O 2
1mol KClO3

Stepwise approach:
50.0 g O 2

1mol O 2
32.00 g O 2

1.56 mol O 2

= 1.56 mol O 2

2 mol KClO3
3 mol O 2

1.04 mol KClO3

= 1.04 mol KClO3

122.6 g KClO3
1mol KClO3

125

= 128 g KClO3

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(c)

Conversion pathway approach:

mass KCl = 28.3g O 2

1mol O 2 2 mol KCl 74.55g KCl

= 43.9 g KCl
32.00 g O 2 3mol O 2
1mol KCl

Stepwise approach:
28.3g O 2

1mol O 2
= 0.884 mol O 2
32.00 g O 2

0.884 mol O 2

2 mol KCl
= 0.589 mol KCl
3mol O 2

0.589 mol KCl

74.55g KCl
= 43.9 g KCl
1mol KCl

1mol Fe 4 mol H 2 2.016 g H 2

2.06 g H 2
55.85g Fe 3mol Fe
1 mol H 2
1 mol Fe 4 mol H 2 O 18.02 g H 2 O
(b) mass H 2 O = 63.5 g Fe

= 27.3 g H 2 O
55.85 g Fe
3 mol Fe
1 mol H 2 O
1 mol H 2 1mol Fe3O 4 231.54 g Fe3O 4
mass Fe3O 4 = 14.82 g H 2

2.016 g H 2
4 mol H 2
1mol Fe3O 4
(c)
= 425g Fe3O 4

18.

(M) (a) mass H 2 = 42.7 g Fe

19.

(M) Balance the given equation, and then solve the problem.

2 Ag 2 CO3 s
4Ag s + 2 CO 2 g + O 2 g
mass Ag 2 CO3 = 75.1g Ag

20.

1mol Ag
107.87 g Ag

2 mol Ag 2 CO3
4 mol Ag

275.75 g Ag 2 CO3
1mol Ag 2 CO3

= 96.0 g Ag 2 CO3

(E) The balanced equation is


Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 4 HNO3(aq) Ca(H2PO4)2(s) + 2 Ca(NO3)2(aq)

mass HNO3 = 125 kg Ca(H2PO4)2

1 kmol Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2
234.05 kg Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2

4 kmol HNO 3
1 kmol Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2

63.01 kg HNO3
1 kmol HNO3

mass HNO3 = 135 kg HNO3


21.

The balanced equation is CaH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)


1mol CaH 2
2 mol H 2
2.016 g H 2
(a) mass H 2 = 127 g CaH 2

= 12.2 g H 2
42.094 g CaH 2 1mol CaH 2 1mol H 2
1mol CaH 2
2 mol H 2 O 18.0153 g H 2 O
(b) mass H 2 O = 56.2 g CaH 2
= 48.1 g H 2 O

42.094 g CaH 2 1mol CaH 2


1 mol H 2 O
(M)

126

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(c)

mass CaH 2 = 8.121024 molecules H 2

1mol H 2
6.02210

23

molecules H 2

1mol CaH 2
2 mol H 2

42.094 g CaH 2
1mol CaH 2

mass CaH 2 = 284 g CaH 2

22.

(E)
amount O 2 = 156 g CO 2

(b)

mass KO 2 = 100.0 g CO 2

(c)

no. O 2 molecules = 1.00 mg KO 2

23.

1 mol CO 2
3 mol O 2

= 5.32 mol O 2
44.01 g CO 2 2 mol CO 2

(a)

1mol CO 2
44.01g CO 2

4 mol KO 2
2 mol CO 2

71.10 g KO 2
1mol KO 2

= 323.1g KO 2

1 g KO 2
1 mol KO 2
3 mol O 2

1000 mg 71.10 g KO 2 4 mol KO 2

6.022 1023 molecules


= 6.35 1018 O 2 molecules
1mol O 2

(M) The balanced equation is Fe 2 O3 s + 3C s


2 Fe l + 3CO g

1 kmol Fe 1 kmol Fe 2 O 3 159.7 kg Fe 2 O 3

= 748 kg Fe 2 O 3
55.85 kg Fe
2 kmol Fe
1 kmol Fe 2 O 3
748 kg Fe 2 O 3
% Fe 2 O 3 in ore =
100% = 79.7% Fe 2 O 3
938 kg ore
mass Fe 2 O 3 = 523 kg Fe

24.

heat
(M) The following reaction occurs: 2 Ag 2 O s

4 Ag s + O 2 g

mass Ag 2O = 0.187g O 2
% Ag 2 O =
25.

1mol O 2 2 mol Ag 2 O 231.7 g Ag 2 O

= 2.71g Ag 2 O
32.0 g O 2
1mol O 2
1mol Ag 2 O

2.71g Ag 2 O
100% = 86.6% Ag 2 O
3.13 g sample

(M) B10H14 + 11 O2 5 B2O3 + 7 H2O

% by mass B10 H14 =

# g B10 H14
100
# g B10 H14 + # g O 2

1 mol B10H14 reacts with 11 mol O2 (exactly)


mass B10 H14 = 1 mol B10 H14

mass O 2 = 11 mol O 2

% by mass B10 H14 =

122.22 g B10 H14


= 122.22 g B10 H14
1 mol B10 H14

32.00 g O 2
= 352.00 g O 2
1 mol O 2

122.22 g B10 H14


100 = 25.8%
122.22 g B10 H14 + 352.00 g O 2

127

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

26.

(M) 10 Al(s) + 6 NH4ClO4(s) 4 Al2O3(s) + 2 AlCl3(s) + 12 H2O(l) + 3 N2(g)

1 kg Al

27.

1000 g Al 1 mol Al 6 mol NH 4 ClO 4 117.49 g NH 4ClO 4

2.61103 g NH 4ClO 4
1 kg Al 26.98 g Al
10 mol Al
1 mol NH 4 ClO 4

(E) 2 Al s + 6 HCl aq 2 AlCl3 aq + 3H 2 g . First determine the mass of Al in the foil.

1cm 2.70 g

= 9.15g Al
10 mm 1cm3
1 mol Al 3 mol H 2 2.016 g H 2
mass H 2 = 9.15 g Al

= 1.03 g H 2
26.98 g Al 2 mol Al 1 mol H 2

mass Al = 10.25cm 5.50 cm 0.601mm

28.

(E) 2 Al s + 6 HCl aq 2 AlCl3 aq + 3 H 2 g

mass H 2 = 225 mL soln

1.088 g 18.0 g HCl


1 mol HCl
3 mol H 2 2.016 g H 2

1 mL 100.0 g soln 36.46 g HCl 6 mol HCl 1 mol H 2

= 1.22 g H 2
29.

(E) First write the balanced chemical equation for each reaction.
2 Na s + 2 HCl aq 2 NaCl aq + H 2 g

2 Al s + 6 HCl aq 2 AlCl3 aq + 3 H 2 g

Mg s + 2 HCl aq MgCl 2 aq + H 2 g
Zn s + 2 HCl aq ZnCl 2 aq + H 2 g

Three of the reactionsthose of Na, Mg, and Znproduce 1 mole of H2(g). The one of
these three that produces the most hydrogen per gram of metal is the one for which the
metals atomic mass is the smallest, remembering to compare twice the atomic mass for Na.
The atomic masses are: 2 23 u for Na, 24.3 u for Mg, and 65.4 u for Zn. Thus, among
these three, Mg produces the most H 2 per gram of metal, specifically 1 mol H 2 per 24.3 g
Mg. In the case of Al, 3 moles of H 2 are produced by 2 moles of the metal, or 54 g Al. This
reduces as follows: 3 mol H 2 / 54 g Al = 1 mol H 2 / 18 g Al. Thus, Al produces the largest
amount of H 2 per gram of metal.
30.

(E) In order for a substance to yield the same mass of CO2(g) per gram of compound as does
ethanol when combusted in excess oxygen, the substance must have the same empirical
formula. Compound (d), CH3OCH3, is the only compound that fits the description. In fact,
compound (d) has the same formula as ethanol, CH3CH2OH, as they are structural isomers,
and they should give the same amount of CO2(g) when combusted in excess O2.

128

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Molarity
31.

(M)
(a)
(b)
(c)

32.

2.92 mol CH 3 OH
= 0.408 M
7.16 L
7.69 mmol CH 3CH 2OH
CH 3CH 2 OH molarity (M) =
= 0.154 M
50.00 mL
CH 3 OH molarity (M) =

CO NH 2 2 molarity (M) =

25.2 g CO NH 2 2
275 mL

1mol CO NH 2 2

60.06 g CO NH 2 2

1000 mL
1L

= 1.53 M

(E)
(a) CH 3CH 2OH molarity (M) =
(b)

CH3 2 CO molarity (M) =

(c) C3 H 5 OH 3 molarity (M) =


33.

2.25 104 mol CH 3CH 2OH 1000 mL

= 0.00180 M
125 mL
1L

57.5 g CH 3 2 CO
525 mL

1mol CH 3 2 CO

58.08 g CH 3 2 CO

1000 mL
1L

18.5 mL C3 H 5 OH 3 1.26 g 1mol C3 H 5 OH 3 1000 mL

= 0.675 M
375 mL soln
1 mL 92.0 9 g C 3 H 5 OH 3
1L

(E)
(a) Conversion pathway approach:
150.0 g C12 H 22 O11 1000 mL 1 mol C12 H 22 O11
[C12 H 22 O11 ] =

= 1.753 M
250.0 mL soln
1L
342.3 g C12 H 22 O11

Stepwise approach:
150.0 g C12 H 22 O11

1 mol C12 H 22 O11


= 0.4382 mol C12 H 22 O11
342.3 g C12 H 22 O11

1L
= 0.2500 L
1000 mL
0.4382 mol C12 H 22 O11
[C12 H 22 O11 ] =
= 1.753 M
0.2500 L
250.0 mL soln

(b)

= 1.886 M

Conversion pathway approach:


98.3 mg solid 97.9 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2 1 mmol CO(NH 2 ) 2
[CO(NH 2 ) 2 ] =

5.00 mL soln
100 mg solid
60.06 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2

= 0.320 M CO(NH 2 ) 2

129

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Stepwise approach:
98.3 mg solid

97.9 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2
96.2 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2
100 mg solid

96.2 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2

1 g CO(NH 2 ) 2
= 0.0962 g CO(NH 2 ) 2
1000 mg CO(NH 2 ) 2

0.0962 g CO(NH 2 ) 2

1 mol CO(NH 2 ) 2
= 1.60 10-3 mol CO(NH 2 ) 2
60.06 g CO(NH 2 ) 2

1L
= 0.00500 L
1000 mL
1.60 10-3 mol CO(NH 2 ) 2
[CO(NH 2 ) 2 ] =
= 0.320 M
0.00500 L
5.00 mL soln

(c)

Conversion pathway approach:


125.0 mL CH 3 OH 0.792 g 1 mol CH 3 OH
[CH 3 OH] =

= 0.206 M
15.0 L soln
1 mL 32.04 g CH 3 OH
Stepwise approach:
125.0 mL CH 3OH 0.792 g 1 mol CH 3OH
[CH 3OH] =

= 0.206 M
15.0 L soln
1 mL 32.04 g CH 3OH
0.792 g
= 99.0 g CH 3OH
1 mL
1 mol CH 3OH
99.0 g CH 3OH
= 3.09 mol CH 3OH
32.04 g CH 3OH

125.0 mL CH 3OH

[CH 3OH] =

34.

(E)
(a)
(b)
(c)

35.

3.09 mol CH 3OH


= 0.206 M
15.0 L soln

0.405g H 2 C4 H 5 NO 4 1000 mL 1mol H 2 C 4 H 5 NO 4

= 0.0304 M
100.0 mL
1L
133.10 g H 2 C4 H 5 NO 4
35.0 mL C3 H 6 O 1000 mL 0.790 g C3 H 6 O
1mol
[C3 H 6 O] =

= 1.12 M
425 mL soln
1L
1mL
58.08g C3 H 6 O

[H 2 C 4 H 5 NO 4 ] =

[ C 2 H 5 2 O] =

8.8 mg C 2 H 5 2 O
3.00 L soln

1g
1000 mg

1mol C 2 H 5 2 O

74.12 g C 2 H 5 2 O

= 4.0 105 M

(E)
(a)

mass C6 H12 O 6 = 75.0 mL soln

(b)

VCH3OH = 2.25 L soln

1L
1000 mL

0.350 mol C6 H12 O 6


1L soln

180.16 g C6 H12 O 6
1mol C6 H12 O 6

= 4.73g

0.485 mol 32.04 g CH 3OH 1mL

= 44.1 mL CH 3OH
1L
1mol CH 3OH 0.792 g

130

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

36.

(E)
(a)

VCH CH OH = 200.0 L soln


3

1L
1000 mL

VHCl = 12.0 L
37.

1.65 mol CH 3 CH 2 OH
1L

46.07 g CH 3 CH 2 OH
1mol CH 3CH 2 OH

1mL
0.789 g

= 19.3 L (b)

0.234 mol HCl 36.46 g HCl 100 g soln 1mL soln

= 241mL
1L
1mol HCl 36.0 g HCl
1.18g

(M)
(a)

85 mg C6 H12 O6
1 mmol C6 H12 O6
1g
10 dL 1 mol C6 H12 O6

1 dL blood
1000 mg 1 L 180.16 g C6 H12 O6 110-3 mol C6 H12 O6

= 4.7

mmol C6 H12 O6
L

(b) Molarity 4.7 103

38. (M) (a) Molarity

mol C6 H12 O6
L

1.2 mg F
1g
1 mol F
5 mol F
=
6.3
10

1L
1000 mg 19.00 g F
L

6.3 105 mol F1 mol KF 58.1 g KF


1.6 108 L water

5.9 105 g KF
(b) # g KF

1 L water
1 mol F
1 mol KF
39.

(E) First we determine each concentration in moles per liter and find the 0.500 M solution.
0.500 g KCl
1 mol KCl
1000 mL
= 6.71 M KCl
(a) [KCl] =

1 mL
74.551 g KCl
1L
36.0 g KCl
1 mol KCl
= 0.483 M KCl
(b) [KCl] =

1L
74.551 g KCl
7.46 mg KCl
1 g KCl
1 mol KCl
1000 mL
= 0.100 M KCl
(c) [KCl] =

1 mL
1000 mg KCl 74.551 g KCl
1L
373 g KCl
1 mol KCl
= 0.500 M KCl
(d) [KCl] =

10.00 L
74.551 g KCl
Solution (d) is a 0.500 M KCl solution.

40.

(E) By inspection, we see that (b) and (c) are the only two that are not per volume of
solution. These two solutions need not be considered. A close inspection of the remaining
choices reveals that the units for (a) are equivalent to those for (d), that is g NaCl per liter of
solution is equivalent to mg NaCl per mL of solution (the mass:volume ratio is the same).

131

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

41.

42.

(E) We determine the molar concentration for the 46% by mass sucrose solution.
1 mol C12 H 22 O11
46 g C12 H 22 O11
342.3 g C12 H 22 O11
[C12 H 22 O11 ] =
= 1.6 M
1 mL
1L
100 g soln

1.21 g soln 1000 mL


The 46% by mass sucrose solution is the more concentrated.
(E) Here we must calculate the CH 3CH 2 OH in the white wine and compare it with

1.71 M CH 3CH 2OH , the concentration of the solution described in Example 4-8.
11 g CH 3CH 2OH 0.95 g soln 1000 mL 1 mol CH 3CH 2 OH

CH3CH 2OH =
100.0 g soln
1 mL
1L
46.1 g CH 3CH 2 OH

= 2.3 M CH 3CH 2 OH
Thus, the white wine has a greater ethyl alcohol content.
2.05 mol KNO3
1L
= 0.0820 M
0.250 L diluted solution

0.01000 L conc'd soln


43.

(E) [KNO3 ] =

44.

(E)
Volume of concentrated AgNO3 solution
0.425 mmol AgNO3
1 mL conc. soln.
VAgNO3 = 250.0 mL dilute soln

= 142 mL conc. soln


1 mL dilute soln
0.750 mmol AgNO3

45.

(E) Both the diluted and concentrated solutions contain the same number of moles of K 2SO 4 . This
number is given in the numerator of the following expression.
0.198 mol K 2 SO 4
0.125 L
1L
K 2 SO 4 molarity =
= 0.236 M K2SO4
0.105 L

0.085 mol HCl


1L soln
= 1.7 M
0.0250 L

0.500 L dilute sol'n


[HCl] =

46.

(E)

47.

(E) Let us compute how many mL of dilute (d) solution we obtain from each mL of
concentrated (c) solution. Vc Cc = Vd Cd becomes 1.00 mL 0.250M = x mL 0.0125 M
and x = 20 Thus, the ratio of the volume of the volumetric flask to that of the pipet would
be 20:1. We could use a 100.0-mL flask and a 5.00-mL pipet, a 1000.0-mL flask and a
50.00-mL pipet, or a 500.0-mL flask and a 25.00-mL pipet. There are many combinations
that could be used.

132

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

48.

(E) First we must determine the amount of solute in the final solution and then the volume
of the initial, more concentrated, solution that must be used.
0.175 mmol KCl 1 mL concd soln
volume concd soln = 250.0 mL

= 88.2 mL
1 mL dil soln
0.496 mmol KCl
Thus the instructions are as follows: Place 88.2 mL of 0.496 M KCl in a 250-mL volumetric
flask. Dilute to the mark with distilled water, stopping to mix thoroughly several times
during the addition of water.

Chemical Reactions in Solutions


49.

(M)
1L
0.163 mol AgNO 3
1 mol Na 2S

1000 mL
1 L soln
2 mol AgNO 3
78.05g Na 2S
= 0.177 g Na 2 S

1mol Na 2 S

(a) mass Na 2S = 27.8 mL

(b) mass Ag 2S = 0.177 g Na 2S


50.

1mol Na 2S

1mol Ag 2S 247.80 g Ag 2S

= 0.562 g Ag 2S
78.05 g Na 2S 1mol Na 2S
1mol Ag 2S

(M) The balanced chemical equation provides us with the conversion factor between the
two compounds.
(a) mass NaHCO3 = 525 mL solution

0.220 mol Cu NO3 2 2 mol NaHCO3


1L solution

1000 mL solution
1L solution
1mol Cu NO3 2

84.00694 g NaHCO3
= 19.4 g NaHCO3
1 mol NaHCO3
0.220 mol Cu NO3 2
1mol CuCO3
1L solution
= 525 mL solution

1000 mL solution
1L
1mol Cu NO3 2

(b) mass CuCO


3

123.6 g CuCO3
= 14.3 g CuCO3
1mol CuCO3

51. (M) The molarity can be expressed as millimoles of solute per milliliter of solution.
0.186 mmol AgNO3 1mmol K 2 CrO 4 1mL K 2 CrO 4 aq
VK CrO = 415 mL

2
4
1mL soln
2 mmol AgNO3 0.650 mmol K 2 CrO 4

VK

52.

2CrO4

= 59.4 mL K 2CrO 4
1L
0.477 mol HCl 1mol Ca OH 2

1000 mL
1L soln
2 mol HCl
74.1g Ca OH 2
= 7.33g Ca OH 2

1mol Ca OH 2

(D) (a) mass Ca OH 2 = 415 mL

133

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

1.12 kg 24.28 kg HCl


1kmol HCl

1L
100.00 kg soln 36.46 kg HCl
1kmol Ca OH 2 74.10 kg Ca OH 2
= 89.5 kg Ca OH 2

2 kmol HCl
1kmol Ca OH 2

(b) mass Ca OH = 324 L


2

53.

(D) The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:


2 HNO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
# mol HNO3 0.02978 L soln

0.0142 mol Ca(OH) 2 2 mol HNO3

8.46 104 mol HNO3


1 L soln
1 mol Ca(OH) 2

All of the HNO3 that reacts was contained in the initial, undiluted 1.00 mL sample. Since
the moles of HNO3 are the same in the diluted and undiluted solutions, one can divide the
moles of HNO3 by the volume of the undiluted solution to obtain the molarity.
8.46 104 mol HNO3
mol HNO3
8.46 103
Molarity
0.00100 L
L
54.

(M) The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:


H3PO4(aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na2HPO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
0.217 mol NaOH 1 mol HPO 24
1

1.06 M HPO 24
0.0491 L soln
1 L soln
2 mol NaOH 0.005 L

55.

(M)
(a) We know that the Al forms the AlCl 3 .
1mol Al 1mol AlCl3
mol AlCl3 = 1.87 g Al
= 0.0693mol AlCl3

26.98g Al
1mol Al
0.0693 mol AlCl3 1000 mL
(b) [AlCl3 ] =
= 2.91 M AlCl3

23.8 mL
1L

56.

(M) The balanced chemical reaction indicates that 4 mol NaNO 2 are formed from 2
mol Na 2 CO 3 .
138 g Na 2 CO 3 1 mol Na 2 CO 3
4 mol NaNO 2
NaNO 2 =

= 1.83 M NaNO 2
1.42 L soln
106.0 g Na 2 CO 3 2 mol Na 2 CO 3

134

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

57.

(M) The volume of solution determines the amount of product.


0.186 mol AgNO3 1mol Ag 2 CrO 4 331.73g Ag 2 CrO 4
1L

mass Ag 2 CrO 4 = 415 mL


1000 mL
1L soln
2 mol AgNO3
1mol Ag 2 CrO 4
mass Ag 2 CrO 4 = 12.8 g Ag 2 CrO 4

58.

(M) VKMnO4 9.13 g KI

59.

(M)

2 mol KMnO 4
1 L KMnO 4
1 mol KI
= 0.138 L KMnO 4

166.0023 g KI
10 mol KI
0.0797 mol KMnO 4

mass Na = 155mL soln

1L
0.175mol NaOH
2 mol Na
22.99g Na

1000 mL
1L soln
2 mol NaOH 1mol Na

= 0.624g Na
(M) We determine the amount of HCl present initially, and the amount desired.
1.023 mmol HCl
amount HCl present = 250.0 mL
= 255.8 mmol HCl
1 mL soln
1.000 mmol HCl
amount HCl desired = 250.0 mL
= 250.0 mmol HCl
1 mL soln
1mmol Mg 24.3mg Mg

mass Mg = 255.8 250.0 mmol HCl


= 70. mg Mg
2 mmol HCl 1mmol Mg
61. (M) The mass of oxalic acid enables us to determine the amount of NaOH in the solution.
0.3126 g H 2 C 2O 4 1000 mL 1mol H 2C 2 O 4
2 mol NaOH

= 0.2649 M
NaOH =
26.21mL soln
1L soln 90.04 g H 2 C2 O 4 1mol H 2 C2 O 4
60.

62.

(D) The total amount of HCl present is the amount that reacted with the CaCO 3 plus the
amount that reacted with the Ba(OH)2 (aq).
moles HCl from
1mol CaCO3
2 mol HCl 1000 mmol

= 0.1000 g CaCO3
CaCO3 reaction
100.09 g CaCO3 1mol CaCO3
1mol
= 1.998 mmol HCl
moles HCl from
0.01185 mmol Ba OH 2
2 mmol HCl
= 43.82 mL

Ba OH 2 reaction
1mL soln
1mmol Ba OH 2
= 1.039 mmol HCl
The HCl molarity is this total mmol of HCl divided by the total volume of 25.00 mL.
1.998 +1.039 mmol HCl = 0.1215 M
[HCl] =
25.00 mL

135

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Determining the Limiting Reactant


63.

(E) The limiting reactant is NH 3 . For every mole of NH3(g) that reacts, a mole of NO(g)
forms. Since 3.00 moles of NH3(g) reacts, 3.00 moles of NO(g) forms (1:1 mole ratio).

64.

(E) The reaction of interest is: CaH2(s) + 2 H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 H2(g)


The limiting reactant is H2O(l). The mole ratio between water and hydrogen gas is 1:1.
Hence, if 1.54 moles of H2O(l) reacts, 1.54 moles of H2(g) forms (1:1 mole ratio).

65.

(M) First we must determine the number of moles of NO produced by each reactant. The
one producing the smaller amount of NO is the limiting reactant.
2 mol NO
mol NO = 0.696 mol Cu
= 0.464 mol NO
3mol Cu
Conversion pathway approach:
mol NO = 136 mL HNO3 aq

6.0 mol HNO3


1L
2 mol NO

= 0.204 mol NO
1000 mL
1L
8 mol HNO3

Stepwise approach:

1L
0.136 L HNO3
1000 mL
6.0 mol HNO3
0.136 L
0.816 mol HNO3
1L
2 mol NO
0.816 mol HNO3
= 0.204 mol NO
8 mol HNO3

136 mL HNO3 aq

Since HNO3(aq) is the limiting reactant, it will be completely consumed, leaving some Cu
unreacted.

66.

(M) First determine the mass of H 2 produced from each of the reactants. The smaller mass
is that produced by the limiting reactant, which is the mass that should be produced.
1mol Al 3mol H 2 2.016g H 2
mass H 2 (Al) = 1.84g Al

= 0.206g H 2
26.98g Al 2 mol Al 1mol H 2
2.95mol HCl 3mol H 2 2.016g H 2
1L
mass H 2 (HCl) = 75.0 mL

= 0.223g H 2
1000 mL
1L
6 mol HCl 1mol H 2
Thus, 0.206 g H 2 should be produced.

136

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

67.

(M) First we need to determine the amount of Na 2 CS3 produced from each of the reactants.
2 mol Na 2 CS3
1.26 g 1mol CS2
n Na 2CS3 (from CS2 ) = 92.5 mL CS2

= 1.02 mol Na 2 CS3


1mL 76.14 g CS2
3mol CS2
2 mol Na 2 CS3
n Na 2CS3 (from NaOH) = 2.78 mol NaOH
= 0.927 mol Na 2 CS3
6 mol NaOH
154.2 g Na 2 CS3
Thus, the mass produced is 0.927 mol Na 2 CS3
= 143g Na 2 CS3
1mol Na 2 CS3

68.

(D) Since the two reactants combine in an equimolar basis, the one present with the fewer
number of moles is the limiting reactant and determines the mass of the products.
0.275 mol ZnSO 4
1L
mol ZnSO 4 = 315 mL
= 0.0866 mol ZnSO 4

1000 mL
1L soln
1L
0.315 mol BaS

mol BaS = 285 mL


= 0.0898 mol BaS
1000 mL
1L soln
Thus, ZnSO4 is the limiting reactant and 0.0866 mol of each of the products will be produced.

233.4 g BaSO 4
97.46 g ZnS
mass products = 0.0866 mol BaSO 4
+ 0.0866 mol ZnS

1mol BaSO 4
1mol ZnS

= 28.7 g product mixture lithopone

69.

(D)
Ca OH 2 s + 2 NH 4 Cl s CaCl2 aq + 2 H 2 O(l) + 2 NH 3 g
First compute the amount of NH 3 formed from each reactant in this limiting reactant problem.
2 mol NH 3
1mol NH 4 Cl
n NH3 (from NH 4 Cl) = 33.0 g NH 4 Cl

= 0.617 mol NH 3
53.49 g NH 4 Cl 2 mol NH 4 Cl
1mol Ca OH 2

2 mol NH 3
= 0.891mol NH 3
74.09 g Ca OH 2 1mol Ca OH 2
Thus, 0.617 mol NH 3 should be produced as NH4Cl is the limiting reagent.
n NH3 (from Ca(OH) 2 ) = 33.0 g Ca OH 2

mass NH 3 = 0.617 mol NH 3

17.03g NH 3
1mol NH 3

= 10.5 g NH 3

Now we will determine the mass of reactant in excess, Ca(OH)2.


1mol Ca OH 2 74.09 g Ca OH 2
Ca OH 2 used = 0.617 mol NH3

= 22.9 g Ca OH
2 mol NH3
1mol Ca OH 2

b g

excess mass Ca OH 2 = 33.0 g Ca OH 2 22.9 g Ca OH 2 = 10.1 g excess Ca OH 2

137

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

70.

(D) The balanced chemical equation is:


Ca(OCl)2(s) + 4 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 Cl2(g)
n Cl2 (from Ca(OCl) 2 ) = 50.0 g Ca OCl 2

n Cl2 (from HCl) = 275 mL

1L
1000 mL

1mol Ca OCl 2

142.98 g Ca OCl 2

6.00 mol HCl

1L soln

2 mol Cl 2

1mol Ca OCl 2

2 mol Cl 2
4 mol HCl

= 0.699 mol Cl 2

= 0.825 mol Cl 2

70.91g Cl2
= 49.6 g Cl2
1mol Cl2
The excess reactant is the one that produces the most Cl 2 , namely HCl(aq). The quantity of
excess HCl(aq) is determined from the amount of excess Cl2(g) it theoretically could
produce (if it were the limiting reagent).

Thus, mass Cl2 expected = 0.699 mol Cl2

4 mol HCl
1000 mL
V
= 0.825-0.699 mol Cl2

excess HCl
2 mol Cl 6.00 mol HCl
V
= 42.0 mL excess 6.00 M HCl aq
excess HCl

mass excess HCl = 0.825 0.699 mol Cl2


71.

4mol HCl 36.46g HCl

= 9.19 g excess HCl


2mol Cl2
1mol HCl

(M) The number of grams of CrSO4 that can be made from the reaction mixture is
determined by finding the limiting reagent, and using the limiting reagent to calculate the
mass of product that can be formed. The limiting reagent can determined by calculating the
amount of product formed from each of the reactants. Whichever reactant produces the
smallest amount of product is the limiting reagent.
2 mol CrSO 4 148.06 g CrSO 4

= 236.90 g CrSO 4
4 mol Zn
1 mol CrSO 4
2 mol CrSO 4
148.06 g CrSO 4

1.7 mol K 2 Cr2 O7


= 503.40 g CrSO 4
1 mol K 2 Cr2 O7
1 mol CrSO 4
3.2 mol Zn

5.0 mol H 2SO 4

2 mol CrSO 4 148.06 g CrSO 4

= 211.51 g CrSO 4
7 mol H 2SO 4
1 mol CrSO 4

H2SO4 is the limiting reagent since it produces the least amount of CrSO4. Therefore, the
maximum number of grams of CrSO4 that can be made is 211.51 g.

138

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

72.

(M) The number of grams of TiCl4 that can be made from the reaction mixture is
determined by finding the limiting reagent, and using the limiting reagent to calculate the
mass of product that can be formed. The limiting reagent can determined by calculating the
amount of product formed from each of the reactants. Whichever reactant produces the
smallest amount of product is the limiting reagent.
1 mol TiO 2 3 mol TiCl4 189.68 g TiCl4

83.1 g TiCl4
79.88 g TiO2 3 mol TiO 2
1 mol TiCl4
1 mol Cl2
3 mol TiCl4 189.68 g TiCl4
45 g Cl2

60.2 g TiCl4
70.90 g Cl2
6 mol Cl2
1 mol TiCl4
1 mol Cl2 3 mol TiCl4 189.68 g TiCl4

130 g TiCl4
11 g C
12.01 g C
4 mol C
1 mol TiCl4
35 g TiO 2

Cl2 is the limiting reagent. Therefore, 6.0101 g TiCl4 is expected.

Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields


73.

(M)
1 mol CCl4
= 1.80 mol CCl4
153.81g CCl4
Since the stoichiometry indicates that 1 mole CCl 2 F2 is produced per mole CCl 4 , the
use of 1.80 mole CCl 4 should produce 1.80 mole CCl2 F2 . This is the theoretical yield
of the reaction.
1mol CCl2 F2
(b) 187g CCl2 F2
= 1.55 mol CCl2 F2
120.91g CCl2 F2
The actual yield of the reaction is the amount actually produced, 1.55 mol CCl2 F2 .
1.55mol CCl 2 F2 obtained
(c) % yield =
100 % 861%
. yield
1.80 mol CCl 2 F2 calculated

(a)

74.

277 grams CCl4

(M) (a)

mass C 6 H 10 = 100.0 g C 6 H 11OH

1 mol C 6 H 11OH
1 mol C 6 H 10

100.16 g C 6 H 11OH 1 mol C 6 H 11OH

82.146g C6 H10
= 82.01g C6 H10 = theoretical yield
1mol C6 H10
64.0g C 6 H 10 produced
(b) percent yield =
100 % 78.0% yield
82.01g C 6 H 10 calculated
1.000 g calculated 1 mol C 6 H 10
(c) mass C 6 H11OH = 100.0 g C6 H10 produced

0.780 g produced 82.15 g C 6 H 10


1mol C6 H11OH 100.2 g C6 H11OH
= 156 g C6 H11OH are needed

1mol C6 H10
1mol C6 H11OH

139

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

75.

actual yield
100 %
theoretical yield
The actual yield is given in the problem and is equal to 28.2 g.
In order to determine the theoretical yield, we must find the limiting reagent and do
stoichiometry.

(D) % yield =

Conversion pathway approach:


1 mol Al 2 O3
2 mol Na 3 AlF6 209.94 g Na 3 AlF6

32.2 g Na 3 AlF6
7.81 g Al 2 O3
101.96 g Al 2 O3 1 mol Al 2 O3
1 mol Na 3 AlF6
0.141 mol 2 mol Na 3 AlF6 209.94 g Na 3 AlF6

34.5 g Na 3 AlF6
3.50 L
1L
6 mol NaOH
1 mol Na 3 AlF6
Stepwise approach:
Amount of Na3AlF6 produced from Al2O3 if all Al2O3 reacts
1 mol Al 2 O3
7.81 g Al 2 O3
= 0.0766 mol Al 2 O3
101.96 g Al 2 O3

0.0766 mol Al 2 O3

2 mol Na 3 AlF6
= 0.153 mol Na 3 AlF6
1 mol Al 2 O3

209.94 g Na 3 AlF6
32.1 g Na 3AlF6
1 mol Na 3 AlF6
Amount of Na3AlF6 produced from NaOH if all NaOH reacts
0.141 mol NaOH
0.494 mol NaOH
3.50 L
1L
2 mol Na 3 AlF6
0.494 mol NaOH
= 0.165 mol Na 3 AlF6
6 mol NaOH
209.94 g Na 3 AlF6
0.165 mol Na 3 AlF6
34.5 g Na 3AlF6
1 mol Na 3 AlF6
0.153 mol Na 3AlF6

Al2O3 is the limiting reagent.


76.

% yield =

28.2 g
100 % 87.6%
32.2 g

(D) The balanced equation is 2 NH3(g) + 3 CuO(s) N2(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H2O(g)


6.63 g
100 %
theoretical yield
1 mol NH 3
1 mol N 2 28.01 g N 2

14.9 g N 2
18.1 g NH 3
17.03 g NH 3 2 mol NH 3 1 mol N 2
% yield =

140

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

1 mol N 2 28.01 g N 2
1 mol CuO

10.6 g N 2
79.55 g CuO 3 mol CuO 1 mol N 2
CuO is the limiting reagent. The theoretical yield of N2 is 10.6 grams.
90.4 g CuO

% yield =

6.63 g
100 % 62.5 %
10.6 g

77.

(M) (a) We first need to solve the limiting reactant problem involved here.
1mol C4 H9 OH
1mol C4 H9 Br
n C4H9Br (from C 4 H 9 OH) = 15.0 g C4 H9 OH

= 0.202 mol C4 H9 Br
74.12 g C4 H 9 OH 1mol C4 H 9 OH
1mol NaBr 1mol C4 H 9 Br
n C4 H9 Br (from NaBr) = 22.4 g NaBr

= 0.218 mol C4 H 9 Br
102.9 g NaBr 1mol NaBr
1mol H 2 SO 4 1mol C4 H 9 Br
n C4 H9 Br (from H 2 SO 4 ) = 32.7 g H 2 SO 4

= 0.333 mol C 4 H 9 Br
98.1g H 2 SO 4 1mol H 2 SO 4
137.0 g C4 H9 Br
Thus the theoretical yield of C4 H9 Br = 0.202 mol C4 H9 Br
= 27.7 g C4 H9 Br
1mol C4 H9 Br
(b) The actual yield is the mass obtained, 17.1 g C4 H 9 Br .
17.1g C 4 H 9 Br produced
(c) Then, % yield =
100% = 61.7% yield
27.7 g C 4 H 9 Br expected

78.

(M) (a) Again, we solve the limiting reactant problem first.


1000 mL 1.20 g 1mol C6 H 5 NO 2

n C6 H5 N (from C 6 H 5 NO 2 ) = 0.10 L C6 H 5 NO 2
2
1L
1mL 123.1g C6 H 5 NO 2

n C6 H 5 N

(from C 6 H14 O 4 )

1mol C6 H 5 N 2

= 0.49 mol C6 H 5 N 2

2 mol C6 H 5 NO 2

= 0.30 L C6 H14 O 4

1mol C6 H 5 N 2
4 mol C6 H14 O 4

1000 mL 1.12 g 1mol C6 H14 O 4

1L
1mL 150.2 g C6 H14 O 4

= 0.56 mol C6 H 5 N 2

Thus the theoretical yield for C6 H 5 N 2 = 0.49 mol C 6 H 5 N 2

(b)

actual yield = 55 g C6 H 5 N 2 produced

(c)

percent yield =

55g C6 H 5 N 2 produced
89 g C6 H 5 N 2 expected

141

182.2 g C 6 H 5 N 2
1mol C 6 H 5 N 2

100% 62% yield

= 89 g C 6 H 5 N 2

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

79.

(M) Balanced equation: 3CH 3COOH + PCl3 3CH 3COCl + H 3 PO3


100.0 g calculated 1mol CH 3COCl 3mol CH 3COOH

mass acid = 75g CH 3COCl


78.2 g produced 78.5g CH3COCl 3mol CH3COCl
60.1g pure CH 3COOH
100 g commercial

= 76 g commercial CH3COOH
1mol CH 3COOH
97 g pure CH 3COOH

80.

(M) mass CH 2 Cl 2 = 112 g CH 4

81.

(E) A less-than-100% yield of desired product in synthesis reactions is always the case. This is
because of side reactions that yield products other than those desired and because of the loss of
material on the glassware, on filter paper, etc. during the various steps of the procedure. A main
criterion for choosing a synthesis reaction is how economically it can be run. In the analysis of a
compound, on the other hand, it is essential that all of the material present be detected. Therefore, a
100% yield is required; none of the material present in the sample can be lost during the analysis.
Therefore analysis reactions are carefully chosen to meet this 100 % yield criterion; they need not
be economical to run.

82.

(M) The theoretical yield is 2.07 g Ag 2 CrO 4 . If the mass actually obtained is less than this, it is likely
that some of the pure material was not recovered, perhaps stuck to the walls of the flask in which the
reaction occurred, or left suspended in the solution. Thus while it is almost a certainty that less than
2.07 g will be obtained, the absolute maximum mass of Ag2CrO4 expected is 2.07 g. If the precipitate
weighs more than 2.07 g, the extra mass must be impurities (e.g., the precipitate was not thoroughly
dried).

1 mol CH 4 1 mol CH 3Cl 0.92 mol CH 3Cl produced

16.04 g CH 4
1 mol CH 4
1.00 mol CH 3Cl expected
1mol CH 2 Cl2 84.93g CH 2 Cl2 0.92 g CH 2 Cl2 produced

= 5.0 102 g CH 2 Cl2


1mol CH 3Cl 1mol CH 2 Cl2 1.00 g CH 2 Cl 2 calculated

Consecutive Reactions, Simultaneous Reactions


83.

(D) We must determine the amount of HCl needed to react with each component of the mixture.
Mg OH 2 (s) + 2 HCl(aq)
MgCl 2 (aq) + 2 H 2O(l)

MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2O(l) + CO 2 (g)


35.2 g MgCO3 1mol MgCO3
2 mol HCl
n HCl (consumed by MgCO 3 ) = 425g mixt.

= 3.55 mol HCl


100.0 g mixt. 84.3g MgCO3 1mol MgCO3
MgCO3 (s) + 2 HCl(aq)

n HCl (consumed by Mg(OH) 2 ) = 425 g mixt.

64.8 g Mg OH 2
100.0 g mixt.

mass HCl = 3.55 + 9.45 mol HCl

1mol Mg OH 2

58.3 g Mg OH 2

36.46 g HCl
= 474 g HCl
1mol HCl

142

2 mol HCl
1mol MgCO 3

= 9.45 mol HCl

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

84. (D) Here we need to determine the amount of CO 2 produced from each reactant.
C3 H8 g + 5O 2 g
3CO 2 g + 4 H 2 O l

2 C4 H10 g +13O 2 g
8CO 2 g +10 H 2 O l
72.7g C3 H8
1mol C3 H8
3mol CO 2

= 20.1mol CO 2
100.0 g mixt. 44.10 g C3 H8 1mol C3 H8
27.3g C4 H10 1mol C4 H10
8 mol CO 2
n CO2 (from C 4 H10 ) = 406 g mixt.

= 7.63mol CO 2
100.0 g mixt 58.12 g C4 H10 2 mol C4 H10
44.01g CO 2
mass CO 2 = 20.1 + 7.63 mol CO 2
= 1.22 103 g CO 2
1mol CO 2

n CO2 (from C3 H 8 ) = 406 g mixt.

85. (M) The molar ratios given by the stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical
equations are used in the solution, namely
CH4(g) + 4 Cl2(g) CCl4(g) + 4 HCl(g)
CCl4(g) + 2 HF (g) CCl2F2(g) + 2 HCl(g)
1mol CCl 2 F2
1mol CCl 4
4 mol Cl 2
amount Cl2 = 2.25 103 g CCl2 F2

= 74.4 mol Cl2


120.91g CCl2 F2 1mol CCl2 F2 1mol CCl4
86. (M) Balanced Equations:
C2H6(g) + 7 2 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l)
CO2(g) + Ba(OH)2(aq) BaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
Conversion pathway approach:
mass C2 H6 = 0.506 g BaCO3

1mol BaCO3
197.3g BaCO3

1mol CO 2
1mol BaCO3

Stepwise approach:
0.506 g BaCO 3

1mol BaCO3
197.3g BaCO3

2.56 10-3mol BaCO3


2.56 10-3mol CO 2

= 2.56 10-3 mol BaCO3

1mol CO 2
1mol BaCO3

2 mol C 2 H 6
4 mol CO 2

1.28 10-3 mol C 2 H 6

= 2.56 10-3 mol CO 2

= 1.28 10-3 mol C2 H 6

30.07 g C 2 H 6
= 0.0386 g C 2 H 6
1 mol C 2 H 6

143

2 mol C 2 H 6
4 mol CO 2

30.07 g C 2 H 6
1mol C 2 H 6

= 0.0386 g C 2 H 6

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

87. (D) NaI(aq)+ AgNO3(aq)


AgI(s )+ NaNO3(aq)
(multiply by 4)
(multiply by 2)
2 AgI(s) + Fe(s)
FeI2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
(unchanged)
2 FeI2(aq) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 FeCl3(aq) + 2 I2(s)
4NaI(aq) + 4AgNO3(aq) + 2Fe(s) + 3Cl2(g) 4NaNO3(aq) + 4Ag(s) + 2FeCl3(aq) + 2I2(s)

For every 4 moles of AgNO3, 2 moles of I2(s) are produced. The mass of AgNO3 required
1 mol I 2 (s)
4 mol AgNO3 (s) 169.873 g AgNO3 (s)
1000 g I 2 (s)

= 1.00 kg I2(s)
1 kg I 2 (s)
253.809 g I 2 (s)
2 mol I 2 (s)
1 mol AgNO3 (s)
= 1338.59 g AgNO3 per kg of I2 produced or 1.34 kg AgNO3 per kg of I2 produced
88. (D) Fe + Br2
FeBr2
(multiply by 3)
Fe3Br8
3 FeBr2 + Br2
Fe3Br8 + 4 Na2CO3 8 NaBr + 4 CO2 + Fe3O4
3 Fe + 4 Br2 + 4 Na2CO3 8 NaBr + 4 CO2 + Fe3O4
Hence, 3 moles Fe(s) forms 8 mol NaBr

MassFe consumed = 2.50103 kg NaBr


= 509103 g Fe

1000 g NaBr
1 kg NaBr

1 mol NaBr
102.894 g NaBr

3 mol Fe
8 mol NaBr

55.847 g Fe
1 mol Fe

1 kg Fe
= 509 kg Fe required to produce 2.5 103 kg KBr
1000 g Fe

89. (M)
(a)

Si(s) + 2 CO(g)
SiO2(s) + 2 C(s)
Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g)
SiCl4(l)
SiCl4(l) + 2 H2(g) Si(s, ultrapure) + 4 HCl(g)
(b)
1 kg Si (ultrapure, s)

1 mol SiCl 4
1000 g
1 mol Si
1 mol Si

1kg
28.09 g
1 mol Si ultrapure
1 mol SiCl4

2 mol C
12.01 g C

= 885 g C
1 mol Si
1 mol C
1 mol SiCl 4
2 mol Cl2
1000 g
1 mol Si
1 kg Si (ultrapure, s)

1kg
28.09 g
1 mol Si ultrapure
1 mol SiCl4

70.91 g Cl2
= 5.05 103 g Cl 2
1 mol Cl2

1 kg Si (ultrapure, s)

1000 g
1 mol Si
2 mol H 2
2.016 g H 2

= 144 g H 2
1kg
28.09 g
1 mol Si ultrapure
1 mol H 2

144

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

90. (D)

1 kg HNO3

1 mol HNO3
3 mol NO 2
1000 g
2 mol NO

1 kg
63.02 g HNO3
2 mol HNO3
2 mol NO 2

4 mol NH 3
3 mol H 2
2.016 g H 2

= 71.98 g H 2
4 mol NO
2 mol NH3
1mol
1 mol HNO3
1000 g
3 mol NO 2
2 mol NO
1 kg HNO3

1 kg
63.02 g HNO3
2 mol HNO3
2 mol NO 2
4 mol NH 3
1 mol N 2
28.02 g N 2

= 333.5 g N 2
4 mol NO
2 mol NH3
1mol
In order to determine the mole ratio between O2 and HNO3, it is helpful to sum the
individual steps and write the overall reaction, since O2 is listed as a reactant in two
different steps. The four reactions cannot simply be added together. Rather, we must
figure out how to add all four steps so that N2, H2 an O2 are the only reactants, and NO is
not an intermediate but is one of the final products.
First, multiply step 1 by a factor of two and add it to step 2:
2 [ N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) ]
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
The resulting reaction is:
2N2 + 6H2 + 5O2 6 H2O + 4 NO
Which can be summed with step 3 multiplied by a factor of two:
2 [2 NO + O2 2NO2]
The resulting reaction is: 2 N2 + 6 H2 + 7 O2 6 H2O + 4 NO2
Multiply the resulting reaction by a factor of three:
3 [2 N2 + 6 H2 + 7 O2 6 H2O + 4 NO2 ]
Sum the above reaction with step 4 multiplied by a factor of four:
4 [3 NO2 + H2O 2 HNO3 + NO]
The overall reaction is therefore:
6 N2 + 18 H2 + 21 O2
1 kg HNO3

8 HNO3 + 4 NO + 14 H2O

1 mol HNO3
21 mol O 2
31.995 g O 2
1000 g

= 1333 g O 2
1 kg
63.02 g HNO3
8 mol HNO3
1mol

Alternatively, another method of solving for the number of grams of O2 is:


number of mol HNO3 = 1000 g / 63.02 g mol1 = 15.87 mol

15.87 mol HNO3

3 mol NO 2
5 mol O 2 32.00 g O 2
2 mol NO 1 mol O 2

1.33 103 g O 2
2 mol HNO3 2 mol NO 2 2 mol NO 4 mol NO 1 mol O 2

145

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

91. (D) The reactions are as follows.


MgCO3(s) MgO(s) + CO2(g)
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)

% by mass of MgCO3 =

g MgCO3
100 %
g MgCO3 + g CaCO3

Let m = mass, in grams, of MgCO3 in the mixture and


let 24.00 m = mass in grams of CaCO3 in the mixture.
Convert from g MgCO3 to g CO2 to obtain an expression for the mass of CO2 produced by
the first reaction.
1 mol MgCO3
1 mol CO 2
44.01 g CO 2
g CO 2 from MgCO3 m g MgCO3

84.32 g MgCO3 1 mol MgCO3 1 mol CO 2


Convert from g CaCO3 to g CO2 to obtain an expression for the mass of CO2 produced by
the second reaction.
1 mol CaCO3
1 mol CO 2
44.01 g CO 2
g CO 2 from CaCO3 (24.00 m) g CaCO3

100.09 g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 1 mol CO 2


The sum of these two expressions is equal to 12.00 g CO2. Thus:
44.01
44.01

m 84.32 (24.00 m) 100.09 12.00


Solve for m: m = 17.60 g
% by mass of MgCO3 =

17.60 g
100 % = 73.33 %
24.00 g

92. (D) Assuming the mass of the sample is 100.0 g, the sample contains 72.0 g Fe.

% by mass of Fe 2 O3 =

g Fe 2 O3
100 %
g Fe 2 O3 + g FeO

Total mass of Fe in sample = mass of Fe from Fe2O3 + mass of Fe from FeO


Let m be the mass, in grams, of Fe2O3 in the mixture.
1 mol Fe 2 O3
2 mol Fe
55.85 g Fe
g Fe from Fe 2 O3 m g Fe 2 O3

159.7 g Fe 2 O3 1 mol Fe 2 O3 1 mol Fe


The mass of FeO is (100 m) grams.

146

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

g Fe from FeO (100 m) g FeO

1 mol FeO
1 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe

71.85 g FeO 1 mol FeO 1 mol Fe

The sum of these two expressions is equal to 72.0 g Fe. Thus:


55.85
55.85

72.0 = m 2

(100.0

m)

159.7
71.85

Solve for m:

% by mass of Fe 2O3 =

73.6 g

73.6 g
100 % = 73.6%
100.0 g

Integrative and Advanced Exercises


93. (E)

CaO(s) CO 2 (g)
(a) CaCO 3 (s)

(b) 2 ZnS(s) 3 O 2 (g)

2 ZnO(s) 2 SO 2 (g)
(c) C 3 H 8 (g) 3 H 2 O(g)
3 CO(g) 7 H 2 (g)

(d) 4 SO2(g) + 2 Na2S(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)


CO2(g) + 3 Na2S2O3(aq)
94. (E)

(a) 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 )2 12 SiO 2 (s) + 20 C(s)


12 CaSiO3 (s) 2 P4 (g) 20 CO(g)
P4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g)
4 PCl3 (g)
PCl3 (g) +3 H 2 O(l)
H 3 PO3 (aq) + 3 HCl(aq)

(b) 2 Cu(s) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) H 2 O(g)


Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 (s)
6 H2O
(c) P4(s) + 5 O2(g)
P4O10(s)
4 H3PO4(aq)

(d) 3Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (aq) 8 NaHCO3 (aq)


Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (aq) 4 Na 2 HPO 4 (aq) 8 CO 2 (g) 8 H 2 O(l)

95. (M) The balanced equation is as follows:

2 LiOH(s) + CO2(g) Li2CO3(s) + H2O(l)

Conversion pathway approach:


g LiOH

1.00 103 g CO 2
1 mol CO 2
2 mol LiOH 23.95 g LiOH

3 astronauts 6 days

astronaut day
44.01 g CO2
1 mol CO2
1 mol LiOH

1.96 104 g LiOH

147

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Stepwise approach:
1.00 103 g CO 2
1 mol CO 2
mol CO 2
= 22.7

astronaut day
44.01 g CO 2
astronaut day
mol CO 2
mol CO 2
22.7
3 astronauts 68.2
astronaut day
day
mol CO 2
68.2
6 days 409 mol CO 2
day
2 mol LiOH
409 mol CO 2
= 818 mol LiOH
1 mol CO 2
23.95 g LiOH
818 mol LiOH
1.96 104 g LiOH
1 mol LiOH
96. (M) mass CaCO3 = 0.981g CO 2

% CaCO 3 =

1mol CO 2
44.01g CO 2

1mol CaCO3 100.1g CaCO3


= 2.23g CaCO3

1mol CO 2
1mol CaCO3

2.23 g CaCO 3
100% = 68.0% CaCO 3 (by mass)
3.28 g sample

97. (D) We determine the empirical formula, basing our calculation on 100.0 g of the compound.
1 mol Fe
amount Fe 72.3 g Fe
1.29 mol Fe
1.29
1.00 mol Fe
55.85 g Fe
1 mol O
amount O 27.7 g O
1.73 mol O
1.29
1.34 mol O
16.00 g O
The empirical formula is Fe 3 O 4 and the balanced equation is as follows.
3Fe 2 O3 (s) + H 2 (g)
2 Fe3 O 4 (s) + H 2 O(g)
98. (D) Assume 100g of the compound FexSy, then:
Number of moles of S atoms = 36.5g/32.066 g S/mol = 1.138 moles
Number of moles of Fe atoms = 63.5g/ 55.847g Fe/mol = 1.137 moles
So the empirical formula for the iron containing reactant is FeS
Assume 100g of the compound FexOy, then:
Number of moles of O atoms = 27.6g/16.0 g O/mol = 1.725 moles
Number of moles of Fe atoms = 72.4g/ 55.847g Fe/mol = 1.296 moles
So the empirical formula for the iron-containing product is Fe3O4
Balanced equation: 3 FeS + 5 O2 Fe3O4 + 3 SO2

148

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

99.

(M)

M CH 3CH 2OH =

mol CH 3CH 2 OH
volume of solution

mol CH 3CH 2OH 50.0 mL 0.7893

Molarity

g CH 3CH 2 OH 1 mol CH 3CH 2 OH

= 0.857 mol
mL
46.07 g CH 3CH 2 OH

0.857 mol CH 3CH 2OH


8.88 M CH 3CH 2 OH
0.0965 L solution

100. (M)
(a) H2O volume = 72.061 g 1 mL / 0.99705 g = 72.274 mL.
CH3OH volume = 192.25 g 1 mL / 0.78706 g = 244.26 mL.
The volume sum of the two pure liquids is 316.53 mL.

Masses are always additive.


Mass of solution = 72.061 g + 192.25 g = 264.31 g.
Volume of solution = 264.31 g 1 mL / 0.86070 g = 307.09 mL.
The volume of the solution is 9.44 mL less than the sum of the pure liquid volumes.
The volumes are not additive.
1 mol CH 3OH
32.0422 g CH 3OH
mol CH 3OH
19.538
0.30709 L
L

192.25 g CH 3OH
(b)

101.

Molarity

(D) Let V be the volume of 0.149 M HCl(aq) that is required.

moles of HCl in solution C = moles HCl in solution A + moles HCl in solution B


(V + 0.100) 0.205 M =
(V 0.149 M ) + (0.100 0.285 M)
Solve for V:

V = 0.143 L = 143 mL

102. (D) Let V be the volume of 0.0175 M CH3OH(aq) that is required.

moles CH3OH in solution C


(V + 0.0500) 0.0200 M

= moles CH3OH in solution A + moles CH3OH in solution B


=
(V 0.0175 M)
+
(0.050 0.0248 M)

Solve for V: V = 0.0960 L = 96.0 mL

149

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

103. (M) 1.52 g Na 1 g sol 1000 mL 1 mol Na 1 mol NaCl 58.4425 g NaCl
1106 g sol 1 mL sol
1L
22.9898 g Na 1 mol Na
1 mol NaCl
= 0.003864 M NaCl
104.

(D)
mass Ca(NO 3 ) 2 50.0 L soln

1000 mL 1.00 g soln 2.35 g Ca 1 mol Ca

1L
1 mL soln 10 6 g soln 40.08 g Ca

1 mol Ca(NO 3 ) 2 164.09 g Ca(NO 3 ) 2 1000 mg

481 mg Ca(NO 3 ) 2
1 mol Ca
1 mol Ca(NO 3 ) 2
1g

105. (D) We can compute the volume of Al that reacts with the given quantity of HCl.
1L
12.0 mol HCl 2 mol Al 27.0 g Al
1cm3
VAl 0.05 mL

0.002 cm3
1000 mL
1L
6 mol HCl 1mol Al 2.70 g Al

0.002 cm3 10 mm
volume
area

0.2 cm 2
thickness
0.10 mm
1cm
106.

(D) Here we need to determine the amount of HCl before and after reaction; the
difference is the amount of HCl that reacted.
1.035 mol HCl
initial amount HCl 0.05000 L
0.05175 mol HCl
1L
0.812 mol HCl
final amount HCl 0.05000 L
0.0406 mol HCl
1L
1 mol Zn 65.39 g Zn
mass Zn (0.05175 0.0406) mol HCl

0.365 g Zn
2 mol HCl 1 mol Zn

107.

Let us first determine the moles of NH4NO3 in the dilute solution.


2.3710-3 g N 1 mol N 1 mol NH 4 NO3
mass NH4 NO3 = 1000 mL

= 0.0846 mol NH 4 NO3


1 mL
14.007 g N
2 mol N
1 L soln
1000 mL

118 mL soln
volume of solution 0.0846 mol NH 4 NO 3
0.715 mol NH 4 NO 3
1L
(M)

108. (D) First we determine the molarity of seawater.


2.8 g NaCl
1.03 g
1000 mL 1 mol NaCl

0.49 M NaCl
concentration
100.0 g soln 1 mL soln 1 L soln 58.44 g NaCl

0.49 M 1.00 10 6 L
9.0 10 4 L
5.45 M
6
4
5
Volume to be evaporated 1.00 10 L 9.0 10 L 9.1 10 L of water to be evaporated
Then the volume of the final solution: c1V1 c 2V2

150

V2

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

109. (D) Here we must determine the amount of PbI 2 produced from each solute in this limiting
reactant problem.
1mol PbI 2
1.093g 0.120 g KI
1mol KI
n PbI2 (from KI) 99.8 mL

0.0394 mol
1mL soln
1g soln
166.00 g KI 2 mol KI
1mol PbI 2
1.134 g 0.140 g Pb(NO3 ) 2 1mol Pb(NO3 ) 2
n PbI2 (from Pb(NO3 ) 2 ) 96.7 mL

1mL soln
1g soln
331.2 g
1mol Pb(NO3 ) 2
0.0464 mol PbI 2
Then the mass of PbI 2 is computed from the smaller amount produced.
461.0 g PbI 2
mass PbI 2 0.0394 mol PbI 2
18.2 g PbI 2
1 mol PbI 2

CaCO 3 (s) 2 HCl(aq)


CaCl 2 (aq) H 2 O CO 2 (g)
1 mol CaCO 3
2 mol HCl
Amount of HCl reacted 45.0 g CaCO 3

0.899 mol HCl


100.09 g CaCO 3 1 mol CaCO 3
1000 mL 1.13 g 0.257g HCl 1 mol HCl
Init. amt. of HCl 1.25 L soln

9.96 mol HCl


1L
1 mL
1 g soln
36.46 g HCl
9.96 mol HCl 0.899 mol HCl
Final HCl concentration
7.25 M HCl
1.25 L soln

110. (D)

111. (D) We allow the mass of Al in the alloy to be represented by x. We then set up an
expression for determining the mass of H2 and solve this expression for x.

1 mol Fe 1 mol H 2 2.02 g H 2


0.105 g H 2 (2.05 x ) g Fe

55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 1 mol H 2

1 mol Al 3 mol H 2 2.02 g H 2


x g Al

27.0 g Al 2 mol Al
1 mol H 2

0.105 g H 2 (2.05 x)0.0362 0.112 x 0.0742 (0.112 0.0362) x 0.0742 0.076 x

0.076 x 0.105 0.0742 0.031


%Al

0.41 g Al
20.% Al (by mass)
2.05 g alloy

151

0.031
0.41 g Al
0.076
and the alloy is also 80. % Fe (by mass).

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

112. (D)

Mg(s) 2 HCl(aq)
MgCl2 (aq) H 2 (g)
2 Al(s) 6 HCl(aq)
2 AlCl 3 (aq) 3 H 2 (g)

Let x represent the mass of Mg.


0.0163 g H 2

1 mol H 2
2.016 g H 2

x g Mg

1 mol Mg

0.0367 g Mg
0.155 g alloy

1 mol H 2

24.305 g Mg 1 mol Mg

0.00809 0.041144 x 0.00862 0.055593 x


% Mg

(0.155 x)g Al

0.00862 0.00809
0.055593 0.041144

1 mol Al
26.982 g Al

3 mol H 2
2 mol Al

0.0367 g Mg

100% 23.7% Mg or~24% Mg (by mass).

113. (D) One way to solve this problem would be to calculate the mass of CO2 produced from a 0.220 g
sample of each alcohol. The results are 0.303 g CO2 from 0.220 g CH3OH and 0.421 g CO2 from
0.220 g CH3CH2OH. Obviously a mixture has been burned. But we have sufficient information to
determine the composition of the mixture. First we need the balanced equations for the combustion
reactions. Then, we represent the mass of CH3OH by x.
2 CH 3OH(l) 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) 4 H 2O(l)

CH 3CH 2 OH(l) 3 O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) 3 H 2O(l)

1 mol CH 3OH
2 mol CO 2
44.01 g CO 2
mass CO 2 0.352 g CO 2 x g CH 3OH

32.04 g CH 3OH 2 mol CH 3OH 1 mol CO 2

1 mol CH 3CH 2 OH
2 mol CO 2
44.01 g CO 2
(0.220 x) g CH 3CH 2 OH

46.07 g CH 3CH 2OH 1 mol C 2 H 5OH 1 mol CO 2

1.374 x (0.220 x)1.911 0.421 0.537 x


0.068
0.127 g CH 3OH
0.537
By difference, the mass of CH3CH 2 OH is 0.220 g 0.127 g 0.093 g CH 3OH
0.537 x 0.352 0.420 0.068 or x

114. (D) CH 3CH 2OH(l) 3O 2 (g)


2 CO 2 (g) 3 H 2 O(l)

(CH 3CH 2 ) 2 O (l) 6 O 2 (g)


4 CO 2 (g) 5 H 2O(l)
Since this is classic mixture problem, we can use the systems of equations method to find the mass
percents. First we let x be the mass of (C2H5)2O and y be the mass of CH3CH2OH. Thus,
x + y = 1.005 g or y = 1.005 g x
We then construct a second equation involving x that relates the mass of carbon dioxide formed to
the masses of ethanol and diethyl ether., viz.

152

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

1.963 g CO 2

1 mol C2 H 5 2 O
1 mol CO 2
4 mol CO 2
x g (C2 H 5 ) 2 O

44.010 g CO 2
74.123 g C2 H 5 2 O 1 mol C2 H 5 2 O

(1.005 x) g CH3CH 2 OH
0.04460 0.05396 x 0.04363 0.04341x

1 mol CH 3CH 2 OH
2 mol CO 2

46.07 g CH3CH 2 OH 1 mol CH3CH 2 OH


x

0.092 g C2 H 5 2 O

0.04460 0.04363
0.092 g C2 H 5 2 O
0.05396 0.04341

100% 9.2% C2 H 5 2 O
1.005 g mixture
% CH 3CH 2 OH (by mass) 100.0% 9.2% (C2 H5 )2 O 90.8% CH 3CH 2 OH
% (CH3CH 2 )2 O (by mass)

115. (D) % Cu (by mass)

# g Cu
100
0.7391 g mixture

Let x = the mass, in grams, of CuCl2 in the mixture.


Let 0.7391 x = mass in grams of FeCl3.
Total moles AgNO3 = mol AgNO3 react with CuCl2 + mol AgNO3 react with FeCl3
Total moles AgNO3 = 0.8691 L

0.1463 mol
= 0.01271 mol AgNO3
1L

To obtain an expression for the amount of AgNO3 consumed by the first reaction, convert from
grams of CuCl2 to moles of AgCl:
2 mol AgNO3
1 mol CuCl2
mol AgNO3 that reacts with CuCl2 x g CuCl2

134.45 g CuCl2 1 mol CuCl2


2x
mol AgNO3 that reacts with CuCl 2
= 0.014875x
134.45
To obtain an expression for the amount of AgNO3 consumed by the second reaction, convert from
grams of FeCl3 to moles of AgNO3:
1 mol FeCl3
3 mol AgNO3

162.21 g FeCl3 1 mol FeCl3


mol AgNO3 that reacts with FeCl3 (0.7391 x) 0.018496 = 0.013668 0.018496x
The sum of these two expressions is equal to the total number of moles of AgNO3 :
mol AgNO3 that reacts with FeCl3 (0.7391 x) g FeCl3

Total moles AgNO3 = 0.014875x + 0.013668 0.018496x = 0.01271


x = 0.2646 g CuCl2
This is the mass of CuCl2 in the mixture. We must now convert this to the mass of Cu in the
mixture.
153

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

# g Cu 0.2646 g CuCl2

% Cu

1 mol CuCl2
1 mol Cu
63.546 g Cu

0.1253 g Cu
134.45 g CuCl2 1 mol CuCl2
1 mol Cu

0.1253 g Cu
100 % 16.95 %
0.7391 g

116. (D)
1 mol Cu 2
0.766 mol Cu 2 0.307
2.50 mol Cu 2
63.55 g Cu 2
222- 1 mol CrO 4
mol CrO 4 =35.6 g CrO 4
= 0.307 mol CrO 4 2- 0.307
1.00 mol CrO 4 2115.99 g

(a) mol Cu 2 48.7 g Cu 2

1 mol OH mol OH =15.7 g OH


= 0.923 mol OH - 0.307
3.01 mol OH 17.01 g OH
Empirical formula: Cu 5 (CrO 4 ) 2 (OH)6
-

(b) 5 CuSO 4 (aq) 2 K 2 CrO 4 (aq) 6 H 2O (l)

Cu 5 (CrO 4 ) 2 (OH)6 (s) 2 K 2SO 4 (aq) 3 H 2SO 4 (aq)


117. (D) We first need to compute the empirical formula of malonic acid.
1 mol C
34.62 g C
2.883 mol C
2.883
1.000 mol C
12.01 g C
1 mol O
3.88 g H
3.84 mol O
2.883
1.33 mol H
1.01 g H
1 mol O
3.844 mol O
2.883
1.333 mol O
61.50 g O
16.00 g O
Multiply each of these mole numbers by 3 to obtain the empirical formula C3H4O4.
Combustion reaction: C3 H 4 O 4 (l) 2 O 2 (g)
3 CO 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l)
118. (D)
2 Al (s) + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2 Fe
1 mol Fe 2 O3
159.69 g Fe 2 O3
1 mol Al
mass of Fe 2 O3 2.5 g Al

7.4 g Fe 2O3 needed


26.982 g Al
2 mol Al
2 mol Fe 2 O3
Using 2.5 g Al2O3, only 7.4 g of Fe2O3 needed, but there are 9.5 g available. Therefore, Al
is the limiting reagent.
1 mol Al
2 mol Fe
55.85 g Fe

5.2 g Fe
26.982 g Al
2 mol Al
1 mol Fe 2 O3
(b) Mass of excess Fe2O3 = 9.5 g 7.4 = 2.1 g

(a) Mass of Fe 2.5 g Al

154

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

119. (M) Compute the amount of AgNO3 in the solution on hand and the amount of AgNO3 in
the desired solution. the difference is the amount of AgNO3 that must be added; simply
convert this amount to a mass.
0.0500 mmol AgNO 3
amount AgNO 3 present 50.00 mL
2.50 mmol AgNO 3
1 mL soln
0.0750 mmol AgNO 3
amount AgNO 3 desired 100.0 mL
7.50 mmol AgNO 3
1 mL soln
1 mol AgNO 3
169.9 g Ag NO 3
mass AgNO 3 (7.50 2.50) mmol AgNO 3

1000 mmol AgNO 3


1 mol AgNO 3

0.850 g AgNO 3
120. (E) The balanced equation for the reaction is: S8(s) + 4 Cl2(g) 4 S2Cl2(l)
Both a and b are consistent with the stoichiometry of this equation. Neither bottom row
box is valid. Box (c) does not account for all the S8, since we started out with 3 molecules,
but end up with 1 S8 molecule and 4 S2Cl2 molecules. Box (d) shows a yield of 2 S8
molecules and 8 S2Cl2 molecules so we ended up with more sulfur atoms than we started
with. This, of course, violates the Law of Conservation of Mass.
121. (D) The pertinent equations are as follows:

C3 N 3 OH 3
3 HNCO (g)

8 HNCO + 6 NO 2
7 N 2 + 8 CO 2 + 4 H 2 O

The above mole ratios are used to calculate moles of C3N3(OH)3 assuming 1.00 g of NO2.
1 mol C3 N 3 (OH)3
1 mol NO 2
8 mol HNCO
mass C3 N 3 (OH)3 1.00 g NO 2

46.00 g NO 2
6 mol NO 2
3 mol HNCO

129.1 g mol C3 N 3 (OH)3


1.25 g C3 N 3 (OH)3
1 mol C3 N 3 (OH)3

122. (D) The ammonium dichromate reaction is an example of an internal redox reaction. Both the
oxidizing agent (Cr2O72-) and the reducing agent (NH4+) are found in the compound in the
correct stoichiometry. The third product is N2(g).

2 NH4+ N2 + 8 H+ + 6 e8 H + 6 e + Cr2O72- Cr2O3 + 4 H2O


+

(NH4)2Cr2O7(s) Cr2O3(s) + 4 H2O(l) + N2(g)


1000 g (NH4)2Cr2O7

1 mol (NH 4 ) 2 Cr2 O 7


1 mol N 2
28.0134 g N 2
= 111.1 g N2

252.065 g (NH 4 ) 2 Cr2 O 7 1 mol (NH 4 ) 2 Cr2 O 7


1 mol N 2

155

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

123. (D) There are many ways one can go about answering this question. We must use all of the
most concentrated solution and dilute this solution down using the next most concentrated
solution. Hence, start with 345 mL of 01.29 M then add x mL of the 0.775 M solution. The
value of x is obtained by solving the following equation.
1.29 M 0.345 L 0.775 M x
1.25 M =
(0.345 x) L

1.25 M (0.345 x) L = 1.29 M 0.345 L 0.775 M x


043125 + 1.25x 0.44505 0.775 x Thus, 0.0138 0.475 x
x 0.029 L or 29 mL
A total of (29 mL + 345 mL) = 374 mL may be prepared this way.
124. (M)

balanced equation: FeTiO3 + 2H2SO4 + 4H2O = TiOSO4 + FeSO47H2O


1.00103 kg FeTiO3

1 kmol FeTiO3
151.725 kg FeTiO3

1 kmol FeSO 4 7 H 2 O
1 kmol FeTiO3

278.018 kg FeSO 4 7 H 2 O
1 kmol FeSO 4 7 H 2 O

= 1.8310 kg FeSO 4 7 H 2 O
3

125. (M)
mass of Fe 2 O3 = 1.00103 kg FeSO 4 7 H 2 O

1 kmol Fe 2 O3
1 kmol FeSO 4 7 H 2 O

278.018 kg FeSO 4 7 H 2 O 2 kmol FeSO 4 7 H 2 O

159.692 kg Fe 2 O3
= 287 kg kg Fe 2 O3
1 kmol Fe 2 O3

126. (D)
(a) 6 CO(NH2)2(l) 6 HNCO(l) + 6 NH3(g) C3N3(NH2)3(l) + 3 CO2(g)
(b) mass C3 N 3 (NH 2 ) = 100.0 kg CO(NH 2 ) 2

127.

1 kmol CO(NH 2 ) 2
60.063 kg CO(NH 2 ) 2

126.121 kg C 3 N 3 (NH 2 )3
1 kmol C3 N 3 (NH 2 )3

1 kmol C3 N 3 (NH 2 )3
6 kmol CO(NH 2 ) 2

84 g actual yield
29.4 kg C3 N 3 (NH 2 )3
100 g theoretical yield

(M)
(a) 2 C3H6(g) + 2 NH3(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 C3H3N(l) + 6 H2O(l)
(b) For every kilogram of propylene we get 0.73 kilogram of acrylonitrile; we can also say that
for every gram of propylene we get 0.73 gram of acrylonitrile. One gram of propylene is
0.0238 mol of propylene. The corresponding quantity of NH3 is 0.0238 mol or 0.405 g; then
because NH3 and C3H6 are required in the same molar amount (2:2) for the reaction, 0.405 of a
kg of NH3 will be required for every 0.73 of a kg of acrylonitrile. To get 1000 kg of
acrylonitrile we need, by simple proportion, 1000(0.405)/0.73 = 555 kg NH3.

156

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

128.

(E) If the sample that was caught is representative of all fish in the lake, there are five
marked fish for every 18 fish. Thus, the total number of fish in the lake is determined.
18fish
total fish = 100 marked fish
= 360 fish 4 102 fish
5 marked fish

FEATURE PROBLEMS
129. (D)
(a) The graph obtained is one of two straight lines, meeting at a peak of about 2.50 g
Pb(NO3)2, corresponding to about 3.5 g PbI2. Maximum mass of PbI2 (calculated)
1mol KI 1mol PbI 2 461.01g PbI 2
= 2.503g KI

= 3.476 g PbI 2
166.0 g KI 2 mol KI
1mol PbI 2
(b) The total quantity of reactant is limited to 5.000 g. If either reactant is in excess, the amount
in excess will be wasted, because it cannot be used to form product. Thus, we obtain the
maximum amount of product when neither reactant is in excess ( i.e., when there is a
stoichiometric amount of each present). The balanced chemical equation for this reaction,
2 KI + Pb NO3 2 2 KNO3 + PbI 2 , shows that stoichiometric quantities are two moles of

KI (166.00 g/mol) for each mole of Pb(NO3)2 (331.21 g/mol). If we have 5.000 g total, we
can let the mass of KI equal x g, so that the mass of
1mol KI
x
=
Pb NO3 2 5.000 x g. and the amount KI = x g KI
166.00 g 166.00
amount Pb NO3 2 = 5.000 - x g Pb NO3 2

1mol Pb NO3 2
331.21g

5.000 - x
331.21

b g

At the point of stoichiometric balance, amount KI = 2 amount Pb NO 3

x
5.000 - x
=2
OR 331.21 x = 10.00 166.00-332.00 x
166.00
331.21
1660.0
1mol KI
x=
= 2.503g KI
= 0.01508 mol KI
331.21+332.00
166.00 g KI
5.000 - x = 2.497 g Pb NO3 2

1mol Pb NO3 2

= 0.007539 mol Pb NO3 2


331.21g Pb NO3 2
2.503g KI
1.002 g KI
As a mass ratio we have:

2.497 g Pb(NO3 ) 2 1g Pb(NO3 ) 2


0.01508 mol KI
2 mol KI
=
As a molar ratio we have:
0.007539 mol Pb(NO3 ) 2 1 mol Pb(NO3 ) 2
(c) The molar ratio just determined in part (b) is the same as the ratio of the
coefficients for KI and Pb(NO3)2 in the balanced chemical equation. To determine the
proportions precisely, we simply use the balanced chemical equation.

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Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

130. (M) The reaction is:


2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 NH3(aq) N2H4(aq) + 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
32.045 g per mole reaction
100% = 17.32 %
(a) The theoretical maximum =
184.9607 g per mole reaction
(b) The actual AE is less owing to side reactions that lower the yield of the product (N2H4).
(c) The addition of acetone changes the mechanism, resulting in the elimination of the
side reactions between N2H4 and NH2Cl. This result in an increase in yield from
~70% to nearly 100%
(d) 2 H2 + N2 N2H4 has an AE of 100%, neglecting any side reactions.
131. (M) The more HCl used, the more impure the sample (compared to NaHCO3, twice as
much HCl is needed to neutralize Na2CO3).
Sample from trona: 6.93 g sample forms 11.89 g AgCl or 1.72 g AgCl per gram sample.
Sample derived from manufactured sodium bicarbonate: 6.78 g sample forms 11.77 g AgCl
or 1.74 g AgCl per gram sample.
Thus the trona sample is purer (i.e., it has the greater mass percent NaHCO3 ).

SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISES
132. (E)

(a) : A reaction proceeds when heated, that is, heat is playing the role of one of the
reactants.
(b) (aq): The species is fully soluble in water and the reaction has water present to make
the dissociation happen
(c) stoichiometric coefficient: number of moles of a species that reacts or forms for an ideal
balanced equation
(d) overall equation: the combination of several related reaction equations to give one
reaction
133. (E)
(a) Balancing a chemical equations: making the total number of each type of atoms on both
sides of the reaction be equal

(b) Making a solution by dilution: making a solution of known concentration by taking a


known volume of a more concentrated solution and diluting it to a known volume
(c) Limiting reagent: the reactant that is completely consumed in a reaction
134. (E)
(a) Chemical formula is the number and kind of each atom constituting a molecule or
formula unit, whereas a chemical equation is the relative number of moles of various
reactants and the products they yield

158

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(b) Stoichiometric factor is the mole ratio of reactants reacting with each other while
stoichiometric coefficient is the number of moles reactants and products needed to balance a
chemical equation
(c) Solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent. A solvent is the component of the
solution which determines the solutions phase (i.e. solid, liquid or gas)
(d) Actual yield is the mass of product collected after a reaction, and percent yield is the
ratio between actual and theoretical yields multiplied by 100.
(e) Consecutive reactions are reactions that occur one after the other in a specific order,
simultaneous reactions occur at the same time
135. (E) The answer is (d). Start balancing in the following order: N, O, H and Cu

3 Cu (s) + 8 HNO3 3 Cu(NO3 ) 2 + 4 H 2 O + 2 NO


136. (E) The answer is (d). To determine the number of moles of NH3, used the balanced
equation:
2 mol NH 3
# moles NH 3 = 1 mol H 2 O
= 0.666
3 mol H 2 O
137. (M) The answer is (a). To determine the number of moles of NH3, use the balanced
equation:

2 KMnO4 (s) + 10 KI + 8 H 2SO4 6 K 2SO4 + 2 MnSO4 + 5 I2 + 8 H 2O


5 KMnO 4

6 mol K 2SO 4
= 15 mol K 2SO 4
2 mol KMnO 4

6 mol K 2SO 4
= 3 mol K 2SO 4
10 mol KI
6 mol K 2SO 4
5 H 2SO 4
= 3.75 mol K 2SO 4
8 mol H 2SO 4
5 KI

138. (E) The answer is (a). To determine the answer, used the balanced equation:
2 Ag 2 (CO3 ) (s) 4 Ag + 2 CO 2 + O 2

The ratio between O2 and CO2 is 1:2.

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Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

139. (E) The answer is (c). To solve this, calculate the number of moles of NaNO3.

mol NaNO3 = 1.00 M 1.00 L = 1.00 mol.


85.0 g
1.00 mol NaNO3
= 85.0 g NaNO3
1 mol
Concentration = 85.0 g NaNO3/L. While (b) also technically gives you the correct value at
25 C, it is not the definition of molarity.
140. (E) The answer is (d). There is no need for calculation, because a starting solution of 0.4 M
is needed to make a 0.50 M solution, and the only way to make a more concentrated
solution is to evaporate off some of the water.
141. (M) The answer is (b). To determine the molarity, number of moles of LiBr need to be
determined first. Therefore, weight% concentration needs to be converted to number of
moles with the aid of the density:

Conc. = 5.30% by mass = 5.30 g LiBr/100 g solution


Volume of solution = mass / Density = 100 g sol'n

1 mL
= 96.15 mL
1.040g

1 mol LiBr
= 0.0610 mol
86.84 g LiBr
0.0610 mol
1000 mL
Molarity =
= 0.635 M

96.15 mL
1L
mol LiBr = 5.30 g LiBr

142. (M) The answer is (d). To determine % yield, calculate the theoretical mole yield:
1 mol CCl2 F
mol CCl2 F = 2.00 mol CCl 4
= 2.00 mol CCl2 F
1 mol CCl4

% yield =

1.70 mol
100 = 85.0%
2.00 mol

143. (D) To balance the below equations, balance C first, then O and finally H.
(a) 2 C8H18 + 25 O2 16 CO2 + 18 H2O

(b) For this part, we note that 25% of the available carbon atoms in C8H18 form CO and the
remainder for CO2. Therefore,
2 C8H18 + 25 O2 12 CO2 + 4 CO + 18 H2O

160

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

144. (D) To determine the compound, the number of moles of each compound needs to be
determined, which then helps determine number of moles of emitted CO2:

mass CO 2 = 1.000 g CaCO3

1 mol CaCO3
1 mol CO 2
44.0 g CO 2

100.08 g CaCO3
1 mol CaCO3
1 mol CO 2

= 0.4396 g CO 2
mass CO 2 = 1.000 g MgCO3

1 mol MgCO3
1 mol CO 2
44.0 g CO 2

1 mol CO 2
84.30 g MgCO3
1 mol CaCO3

= 0.5219 g CO 2
mass CO 2 = 1.000 g CaCO3 MgCO3

2 mol CO 2
1 mol dolomite

184.38 g dolomite
1 mol dolomite

44.0 g CO 2
= 0.4773 g CO 2
1 mol CO 2

Therefore, dolomite is the compound.


145. (D) The answer is (b). First, the total amount of carbon in our mixture of CH4 and C2H6
must be determined by using the amount of CO2

1 mol CO 2
1 mol C
12.01 g C

= 0.758 g C
44.01 g CO2
1 mol CO 2
1 mol C
Then, the amounts of CH4 and C2H6 can be determined by making sure that the moles of
carbon for both add up to 0.0631:
mass of C = 2.776 g CO 2

1 mol CH 4
1 mol C
12.01 g C

xg

1 mol CH 4
1 mol C
16.05 g CH 4
1 mol C2 H 6
2 mol C
12.01 g C

+ (1.000-x)
= 0.757 g C (from CO 2 )
1 mol C 2 H 6
1 mol C
30.08 g C2 H 6
0.748 x + (1-x)(0.798) = 0.757
x = mass of CH 4 = 0.82 g, or 82% of a 1.00 g sample

146. (D) The answer is (c). To do this, perform a stepwise conversion of moles of reactants to
moles of products, as shown below:

4.00 mol NH 3

2 mol HNO3
2 mol NO 2
4 mol NO

= 2.67 mol HNO3


4 mol NH 3
2 mol NO
3 mol NO 2

161

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

147. (M) To construct a concept map, one must first start with the most general concepts. These
concepts contain other more specific concepts discussed in those sections. Looking at
sections 4-3, 4-4, and 4-5, it is apparent that the concepts of solution concentration and
reaction stoichiometry are the most general ones being discussed. The next stage is to
consider more specific concepts that derive from the general ones. In the case of solution
concentration, the concept of molarity is a more specific case, and solution dilution yet
another. For reaction stoichiometry, the most obvious more specific concept is limiting
reagents. Afterwards, link the general and more specific concepts with one or two simple
words. For example, molarity is an expression of concentration. Take a look at the
subsection headings and problems for more refining of the general and specific concepts.

162