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CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PRACTICE EXAMPLES

1A

(E)

(a)

Unbalanced reaction:

H 3 PO 4 (aq) + CaO(s)

Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l)

 

Balance Ca & PO 4 3- :

2 H 3 PO 4 (aq) + 3 CaO(s)

Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l)

Balance H atoms:

2 H 3 PO 4 (aq) + 3 CaO(s)

Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (aq) + 3 H 2 O(l)

Self Check:

6 H + 2 P + 11 O + 3 Ca

6 H + 2 P + 11 O + 3 Ca

 

(b)

Unbalanced reaction:

C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g)

CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)

 

Balance C& H:

C 3 H 8 (g) +

O 2 (g)

3 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O(g)

Balance O atoms:

C 3 H 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g)

3 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O(g)

Self Check:

3 C + 8 H + 10 O

3 C + 8 H + 10 O

1B

(E)

(a)

Unbalanced reaction:

NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g)

NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)

 

Balance N and H:

NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g)

NO 2 (g) + 3/2 H 2 O(g)

Balance O atoms:

NH 3 (g) + 7/4 O 2 (g)

NO 2 (g) + 3/2 H 2 O(g)

Multiply by 4 (whole #): 4 NH 3 (g) + 7 O 2 (g)

4 NO 2 (g) + 6 H 2 O(g)

Self Check:

4 N + 12 H + 14 O

4 N + 12 H + 14 O

 

(b)

Unbalanced reaction:

NO 2 (g) + NH 3 (g)

N 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)

 

Balance H atoms:

NO 2 (g) + 2 NH 3 (g)

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(g)

Balance O atoms:

3/2 NO 2 (g) + 2 NH 3 (g)

N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(g)

Balance N atoms:

3/2 NO 2 (g) + 2 NH 3 (g)

7/4 N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(g)

Multiply by 4 (whole #) 6 NO 2 (g) + 8 NH 3 (g)

7 N 2 (g) + 12 H 2 O(g)

Self Check:

14 N + 24 H + 12 O

14 N + 24 H + 12 O

2A

(E) Unbalanced reaction:

HgS(s) +

CaO(s)

CaS(s) + CaSO 4 (s) + Hg(l)

Balance O atoms:

Balance Ca atoms:

Balance S atoms:

Balance Hg atoms:

Self Check:

HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s) HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s) 4 HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s) 4 HgS(s) + 4 CaO(s) 4 Hg + 4 S + 4 O + 4 Ca

112

CaS(s) + CaSO 4 (s) + Hg(l) 3 CaS(s) + CaSO 4 (s) + Hg(l)

3 CaS(s) + CaSO 4 (s) + Hg(l) 3 CaS(s) + CaSO 4 (s) + 4 Hg(l)

4 Hg + 4 S + 4 O + 4 Ca

2B

3A

3B

4A

4B

5A

(E) Unbalanced reaction:

Balance C atoms:

Balance S atoms:

Balance H atoms:

Balance O atoms:

Multiply by 2 (whole #):

Self Check:

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + O 2 (g)

C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + O 2 (g) C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + O 2 (g) C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + O 2 (g)

C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + 8.5 O 2 (g) 7 CO 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) 2 C 7 H 6 O 2 S(l) + 17 O 2 (g) 14 CO 2 (g) + 6 H 2 O(l) + 2 SO 2 (g) 14 C + 12 H + 2 S + 38 O14 C + 12 H + 2 S + 38 O

CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g)

7 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) 7 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g) 7 CO 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O(l) + SO 2 (g)

(E) The balanced chemical equation provides the factor needed to convert from moles

KClO 3 to moles O 2 . Amount O

2

= 1.76 mol KClO

3

3 mol O

2

2 mol KClO

3

= 2.64 mol O

2

(E) First, find the molar mass of Ag O 2 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag+16.00g O = 231.74

2

.

g Ag O / mol

2

amount Ag

= 1.00

1000 g

kg Ag O 

2

1.00 kg

1 mol Ag O

2

2 mol Ag

231.74 g Ag O

2

1 mol Ag O

2

= 8.63

mol Ag

(E) The balanced chemical equation provides the factor to convert from amount of Mg to amount of Mg N 2 . First we must determine the molar mass of Mg N

3

molar mass = 3mol Mg

24.305g Mg + 2mol N

14.007g N

2 . = 100.93g Mg N

3

3

2

mass Mg N

3

2

= 3.82g Mg

 1mol Mg 24.31g Mg

1mol Mg N 3mol Mg

32

100.93g Mg N 1mol Mg N

32

3

2

= 5.29g Mg N

3

2

(E) The pivotal conversion is from

equation, which requires that we use the amounts in moles of both substances. The solution involves converting to and from amounts, using molar masses.

H

2

g

to CH OH

3

(l). For this we use the balanced

mass H

mass H

2

2





g

g

= 1.00 kg

CH OH(l)  1000g 1 kg

3

= 126 g H

2

1mol CH OH

3

2 mol H

2

2.016 g H

2

32.04 g CH OH

1mol CH OH

1mol H

332

(M) The equation for the cited reaction is:

The pivotal conversion is from one substance to another, in moles, with the balanced chemical equation providing the conversion factor.

2 NH

3

g

+ 1.5 O

2

g

 N (g) + 3H O

22

 

l

mass NH

3



g

= 1.00g O

2



g

1mol O

2



2 mol NH

3

17.0305g NH

3

32.00g O

1.5 mol O

22

1mol H

2

= 0.710g NH

3

113

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

5B

6A

(M) The equation for the combustion reaction is:

C H

8

18



l

mass O

2

+

25

O

2 2

g

8CO

2

g

+ 9 H O

2



l

= 1.00g C H

8

18

1mol C H 114.23g C H

8

18

18

8

12.5mol O

2



1mol C H

8

18

32.00g O

2

1mol O

2

= 3.50g O

2



g

(M) We must convert mass H

2

amount

of H

2

amount

of Al mass of Al mass of

alloy volume of alloy. The calculation is performed as follows: each arrow in the

6B

7A

7B

8A

preceding sentence requires a conversion factor.

V

alloy

1.000g H

2

1mol H

2

2.016g H

2

 2 mol Al 3mol H

2

26.98g Al

100.0g alloy

3

1cm alloy

1mol Al

93.7 g Al

2.85g alloy

3

Volumeof alloy = 3.34cm alloy

(M) In the example, 0.207

mass. This information provides the conversion factors we need.

mass Cu

100.0 g alloy

Notice that we do not have to consider each step separately. We can simply use values produced in the course of the calculation as conversion factors.

g H

2 is collected from 1.97 g alloy; the alloy is 6.3% Cu by

6.3 g Cu

= 0.79

g Cu

2

1.97 g alloy

= 1.31

g H

0.207 g H

2

(M) The cited reaction is

solution has a density of 1.14 g/mL and contains 28.0% HCl. We need to convert between the substances HCl and H 2 ; the important conversion factor comes from the balanced chemical equation. The sequence of conversions is: volume of HCl(aq) mass of HCl(aq) mass of pure HCl amount of HCl amount of H 2 mass of H 2 .

In the calculation below, each arrow in the sequence is replaced by a conversion factor.

2 Al

s

+ 6 HCl aq 2 AlCl

3

aq + 3H

2



g

. The HCl(aq)

mass H

2

= 0.05mL HCl aq

1.14g sol



1mL soln

28.0g HCl

1mol HCl

3mol H

2

2.016g H

2

100.0g soln

36.46g HCl

6 mol HCl

 

1mol H

2

mass H

= 4

10

g H

4

22



g = 0.4mg H

2



g

(M) Density is necessary to determine the mass of the vinegar, and then the mass of acetic acid.

massCO

2

(g) =5.00mL vinegar×

= 0.15g CO

2

1.01g

×

0.040g acid

1mL

1g vinegar

×

1mol CH

3

C

OOH

×

1mol CO

2

×

44.01g CO

2

60.05g CH

C

OOH

1mol CH

33

C

OOH

1mol CO

2

(M) Determine the amount in moles of acetone and the volume in liters of the solution.

molarity of acetone =

22.3g CH

3

2

CO×

1mol CH

3

2

CO

58.08g CH

3

2

CO

1.25 L soln

114

= 0.307 M

8B

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(M) The molar mass of acetic acid, HC H O

2

32 , is 60.05 g/mol. We begin with the quantity

of acetic acid in the numerator and that of the solution in the denominator, and transform to the appropriate units for each.

9A

9B

molarity =

15.0 mL HC H O 500.0 mL soln

232

 1000 mL 1L soln

1.048g HC H O 1mL HC H O

232

232

1mol HC H O 60.05g HC H O

232

232

= 0.524 M

(E) The molar mass of NaNO 3 is 84.99 g/mol. We recall that “M” stands for “mol /L soln.”

mass NaNO

3

= 125mL soln

 1L

1000 mL

10.8mol NaNO

3

84.99g NaNO

3

1L soln

1mol NaNO

3

= 115g NaNO

3

(E) We begin by determining the molar mass of Na SO

24

10

H O

2

. The amount of solute

needed is computed from the concentration and volume of the solution.

10A

10B

11A

mass Na SO

24

10H O = 355 mL soln

2

 1 L 1000 mL

0.445 mol Na SO

24

1 L soln

1 mol Na SO

24

10H O

2

1 mol Na SO

2

4

322.21 g Na SO

24

10H O

2

1 mol Na SO

24

10H O

2



50.9 g Na SO

24

10H O

2

(E) The amount of solute in the concentrated solution doesn’t change when the solution is diluted. We take advantage of an alternative definition of molarity to answer the question:

millimoles of solute/milliliter of solution. 0.450 mmol K CrO

amount K CrO

2

4

= 15.00

mL

2

4

=

6.75 mmol K CrO

2

4

0.0675 M

1 mL soln 6.75 mmol K CrO

2

4

100.00 mL soln

=

K CrO molarity, dilute solution

2

4

=

(E) We know the initial concentration (0.105 M) and volume (275 mL) of the solution, along with its final volume (237 mL). The final concentration equals the initial concentration times a ratio of the two volumes.

c

f



c

i

V

i

V

f

0105.

M

275mL

0122.

M

 

237 mL

(M) The balanced equation is

The molar mass of Ag CrO 4 is 331.73 g mol . The conversions needed are mass

K

CrO

24

aq 2 AgNO

The conversions needed are mass K CrO 24  aq  2 AgNO 3  

3

aq



Ag CrO

24

s

2 KNO

2

3

Ag CrO

24

amount Ag CrO (moles) amount K CrO (moles)

24

24

volume K CrO

24

V

K CrO

2

4

1.50g Ag CrO



2

4

1mol Ag CrO

2

4

331.73g Ag CrO

24

1000 mL solution =18.1mL 1L solution

 1mol K CrO 1 mol Ag CrO

2

4

24

1Lsoln

0.250mol K CrO

24

115

aq

aq

.

.

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

11B (M) Balanced reaction: 2 AgNO 3 (aq) + K 2 CrO 4 (aq) Ag 2 CrO 4 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq) moles of K 2 CrO 4 = C V = 0.0855 M 0.175 L sol = 0.01496 moles K 2 CrO 4 2 mol AgNO

moles of AgNO 3 = 0.01496 mol K 2 CrO 4

3

1 mol K CrO

2

4

= 0.0299 mol AgNO 3

V AgNO

=

n

= 0.0299 mol AgNO

3

3 C 0.150

mol

L

AgNO

3

= 0.1995 L or 2.00 10 2 mL (0.200 L) of AgNO 3

Mass of Ag 2 CrO 4 formed = 0.01496 moles K 2 CrO 4

Mass of Ag 2 CrO 4 formed = 4.96 g Ag 2 CrO 4

1mol Ag CrO

24

1 mol K CrO

24

331.73 g Ag CrO

24

1mol Ag CrO

24

12A

(M) Reaction:

by each reactant.

P

s

6Cl

42



g 4 PCl

3

 

l . We must determine the mass of PCl 3 formed

mass

PCl

mass PCl

3

3

1

mol P

4

4

mol PCl

3

3

137 33 g PCl

.

3

215

g P

gCl

725

4

2

123.90g P

4

1

mol Cl

2

1mol P

4

4

mol PCl

1 mol PCl 137 33 g PCl 1 mol PCl

.

3

3

953 g PCl

3

936 g PCl

70.91gCl

2

6mol Cl

2

3

3

Thus, a maximum of 936g PCl 3 can be produced; there is not enough Cl 2 to produce any more.

12B

(M) Since data are supplied and the answer is requested in kilograms (thousands of grams), we can use kilomoles (thousands of moles) to solve the problem. We calculate the amount in kilomoles of POCl 3 that would be produced if each of the reactants were completely converted to product. The smallest of these amounts is the one that is actually produced (this is a limiting reactant question).

amount POCl

amount POCl

amount POCl

3

3

3

1kmol PCl

3

10kmol POCl

3

6kmol PCl

3

3

10kmol POCl

1.00kg PCl



3

1.00kg Cl



2

137.33kg PCl

3

1kmolCl

2

70.905kg Cl

2

6kmolCl

2

0.0121kmol POCl

0.0235kmol POCl

3

3

1.00kg P O



4

10

1kmol P O

4

10

10 kmol POCl 1kmol P O

4

10

3

283.89 kg P O

4

10

0.0352kmol POCl

Thus, a maximum of 0.0121 kmol POCl

We next determine the mass of the product. 153.33kg POCl

3 can be produced.

3

mass POCl

0.0121kmol POCl

33

 1 kmol POCl

3

1.86kg POCl

3

116

3

13A

13B

14A

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(M) The 725 g Cl 2 limits the mass of product formed. The

excess. From the quantity of excess reactant we can find the amount of product formed:

. We calculate how much P 4 this is, both in the

values of the

P

4

s

therefore is the reactant in

953 g PCl

3

.

38

g

P

4

4

953 g PCl

3

936 g PCl

=

17 g PCl

33

1

mol PCl

3

1

traditional way and by using the initial

previous calculation.

mass P g PCl

215 g P

mol P

4

4

and final

123 90 gP

.

4

17

3

137.33g PCl

3

4 mol PCl

3

1 mol P

4

(M) Find the amount of H 2 O(l) formed by each reactant, to determine the limiting reactant.

1mol H 2.016 g H

1molO

2 mol H O 2 mol H

2 mol H O

amount H O

amount H O

2

2

32.00 g O

2

6.05 mol H O

2

9.63 mol H O

2

22

154 g O





12.2g H

2

2

2

2

2

1 molO

Since H 2 is limiting, we must compute the mass of O 2 needed to react with all of the H 2

22

mass O reacting = 6.05mol H O produced

2

2

1molO

2

32.00g O

2



2 mol H O

2

1molO

2

96.8g O

2

reacting

mass O remaining =

2

154

g originally present

96.8g O reacting =57 g O remaining

2

2

(M)

(a) The theoretical yield is the calculated maximum mass of product expected if we were to assume that the reaction has no losses (100% reaction).

mass CH O

2



g

1.00molCH OH

3

 1molCH O 1molCH OH

3

2

30.03g CH O 1molCH O

2

2

30.0g CH O

2

(b) The actual yield is what is obtained experimentally: 25.7 g CH 2 O (g).

(c) The percent yield is the ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%:

14B

% yield =

25.7 g CH O produced

30.0g CH O calculated

2

2

100% = 85.6% yield

(M) First determine the mass of product formed by each reactant.

mass PCl = 25.0g P

3

4

mass PCl = 91.5g Cl

3

1mol P

4

4mol PCl

3

137.33g PCl

3

1mol PCl

137.33g PCl

3

3

1mol PCl

3



123.90g P

1mol P

44

1mol Cl

2

4mol PCl

3

2



70.91g Cl

6mol Cl

22

= 111g PCl

3

= 118g PCl

3

Thus, the limiting reactant is P 4 , and 111 g PCl 3 should be produced. This is the theoretical maximum yield. The actual yield is 104g PCl 3 . Thus, the percent yield of the reaction is 104 g PCl produced

3

111g PCl calculated

3

100

%

93 . 7%

yield.

117

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

15A (M) The reaction is

2 NH (g) + CO (g) CO NH

32

2

2

(s) + H O(l) . We need to distinguish

2

between mass of urea produced (actual yield) and mass of urea predicted (theoretical yield).

15B

16A

16B

mass CO = 50.0g CO NH

2

44.01g CO

2

1mol CO

2

2

2

produced  100.0 g predicted

87.5g produced

41.8g CO needed

2

1mol CO NH

2

2

60.1g CO NH

2

2

1mol CO

2

1mol CO NH

2

2

(M) Care must be taken to use the proper units/labels in each conversion factor. Note, you cannot calculate the molar mass of an impure material or mixture.

mass C H OH = 45.0 g C H

6

11

6

10

produced

100.0g C H

6

10

cal'd

86.2g C H

6

10

produc'd

 1mol C H 82.1g C H

6

6

10

10

1mol C H OH

6

11

1mol C H

6

10

 100.2 g pure C H OH

1mol C H OH

6

11

6

11

100.0 g impure C H OH

6

11

92.3 g pure C H OH

6

11

69.0

g impure C H

6

11

OH

(M) We can trace the nitrogen through the sequence of reactions. We notice that 4 moles of

N (as 4 mol NH 3 ) are consumed in the first reaction, and 4 moles of N (as 4 mol NO) are

produced. In the second reaction, 2 moles of N (as 2 mol NO) are consumed and 2 moles of

N (as 2 mol NO 2 ) are produced. In the last reaction, 3 moles of N (as 3 mol NO 2 ) are

consumed and just 2 moles of N (as 2 mol HNO 3 ) are produced.

mass HNO

(M)

mass KNO

mass SiO

mass SiO

2

2

3

3

= 1.00 kg NH

3

1000g NH

3

1kg NH

3

1mol NH

3

 4 mol NO 4 mol NH

33

17.03g NH

 2 mol HNO 3 mol NO

2

3

63.01 g HNO 1 mol HNO

3

3

= 2.47

10

3

g HNO

3

2 mol NO

2

2 mol NO

2 mol NO

= 95 g NaN

29.80

3

1 mol NaN 65.03 g NaN

3

 2 mol Na 2 mol NaN

33

30 g KNO

3

2 mol KNO 10 mol Na

102 g KNO 1 mol KNO

33

3

2 mol Na

2 mol NaN

2

3

(1) = 1.461 mol NaN

9.36 g

3

9.4 g SiO

(2) = 1.461 mol NaN

3

2 mol Na

2 mol NaN

3

46.80 g

47 g SiO

2

 1 mol K O

10 mol Na

1 mol SiO

64.06 g SiO

2

1 mol SiO

22

1 mol K O

22

5 mol Na O

1 mol SiO

22

10 mol Na

1 mol Na O

2

64.06 g SiO

2

1 mol SiO

2

Therefore, the total mass of SiO 2 is the sum of the above two results. Approximately 56 g of SiO 2 and 30 g of KNO 3 are needed.

118

17A

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

(D) To determine the mass% for each element,

mass

Al

mass

Mg

= (m) g Al ×

1 mol Al

3 mol H

×

2

×

2.016 g H

2

26.98 g Al

2 mol Al

1 mol H

2

= (m) 0.1121 g Al

= (1.00-m) g Al ×

1 mol Mg

1 mol H

×

2

×

2.016 g H

2

24.305 g Mg

1 mol Mg

1 mol H

2

= (1.00-m) 0.0829 g Mg

Now, we note that the total mass of H 2 generated is 0.107 g. Therefore,

Mass H 2 = (m)(0.1121) + (1.00-m)(0.0829) = 0.107 Solving for m gives a value of 0.82 g.

Therefore, mass of Al = 0.83 g. Since the sample is 1.00 g, Mg is 17 wt% mass of Mg = 1.00 – 0.83 = 0.17 g, or 17 wt%.

17B (D) Mass of CuO and Cu 2 O is done in identical fashion to the above problem:

mass

CuO

mass

Cu O

2

1 mol CuO

1 mol Cu

×

×

63.546 g Cu

79.545 g CuO

1 mol CuO

1 mol Cu

2

×

2 mol Cu

×

63.546 g Cu

1 mol Cu O

2

1 mol Cu

= (1.500-x) g CuO ×

(1.500-x) 0.7989 1 mol Cu O

=

= (x) g

Cu O

2

×

143.091 g Cu O

2

= (x) 0.8882 g Cu

2 O

Now, we note that the total mass of pure Cu is 1.2244 g. Therefore,

Mass Cu = (1.500-x)(0.7989) + (x)(0.8882) = 1.2244 Solving for x gives a value of 0.292 g.

Therefore, mass of Cu 2 O = 0.292 mass % of Cu 2 O = 0.292/1.500 × 100 = 19.47%

119

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

INTEGRATIVE EXAMPLE

A. (D)

Balancing the equation gives the following:

C

6

H O (l) 2NH (g) 4H

10

4

3

2

Stepwise approach:

C H

6

16

N

2

(l) 4H O

2

The first step is to calculate the number of moles of each reactant from the masses given.

mol C H

6

10

O = 4.15 kg

4

1000 g



1 kg

1 mol.

146.16 g

28.4 mol

mol NH = 0.547 kg

3

1000 g



1 kg

1 mol.

17.03 g

32.1 mol

mol H = 0.172 kg

2

1000 g



1 kg

1 mol.

2.016 g

85.3 mol

To determine the limiting reagent, calculate the number of moles of product that can be obtained from each of the reactants. The reactant yielding the least amount of product is the limiting reagent.

mol of C H

6

16

N

2

mol of C H

6 16

N

2

from C H O = 28.4 mol

6

10

4

from NH = 32.1 mol

3

1

mol C

6

H

16

N

2

28.4 mol

1

mol C

6

1 mol C H

6

16

H

N

10

2

O

4

16.05 mol

2 mol NH

3

1 mol C H

6

16

N

2

mol of C H

6

16

N

2

from H = 85.3

2

21

.3 mol

4 mol H NH 3 yields the fewest moles of product, and is the limiting reagent.

2

To calculate the % yield, the theoretical yield must first be calculated using the limiting reagent:

Theoretical yield = 16.05 mol C H

6

% yield =

1.46 kg

1.865 kg

78.3% yield

16

N

2

116.22 g C H

6

16

N

2

1 mol C H

6

120

16

N

2

1 kg



1000 g

1.865 kg

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Conversion pathway Approach:

mol of C H

6

16

N

2

from C H

6

10

O

4

= 4.15 kg C H

6

10

O

4

1000 g



1 kg

1 mol.

146.16 g

1 mol C H

6

16

N

2

1 mol C H

6

10

O

4

28.4 mol

mol of C H

6

16

mol of C H

6 16

N

N

2

2

1000 g



1 mol.

17.03 g

from NH = 0.547 kg NH

3

from H = 0.172 kg H

2

2

3

1 kg

1000 g



1 kg

1 mol.

2.016 g

1 mol C H

6

16

N

2

2 mol NH

3

16.05 mol

1 mol C H

6

16

N

2

4 mol H

2

21.3 mol

NH 3 yields the fewest moles of product and is therefore the limiting reagent The % yield is determined exactly as above

B. (M)

Balancing the equation gives the following:

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl (aq) + H (g)

2

2

Stepwise approach:

To determine the amount of zinc in sample, the amount of HCl reacted has to be calculated first:

Before reaction:

0.0179 M HCl

After reaction:

0.0043 M HCl

750.0 mL

 1 L 1000 mL

0.0134 mol HCl

750.0 mL

1 L



1000 mL

0.00323 mol HCl

moles of HCl consumed = 0.0134 – 0.00323 = 0.0102 mol

Based on the number of moles of HCl consumed, the number of moles of Zn reacted can be determined:

0.0102 mol HCl

1 mol Zn



2 mol HCl

65.39 g Zn

1 mol Zn

0.3335 g Zn

Purity of Zn =

0.3335 g Zn reacted

0.4000 g Zn in sample

100 = 83.4% pure

Conversion pathway Approach:

0.0179 - 0.0043 M HCl

0.0102 mol HCl

750.0 mL

1 L

1000 mL

121

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Note that we can only subtract concentrations in the above example because the volume has not changed. Had there been a volume change, we would have to individually convert each concentration to moles first.

 

0.0102 mol HCl

1 mol Zn

2 mol HCl

65.39 g Zn

1 mol Zn

 

/ 0.4000 g

 100

83.4 % Zn

EXERCISES

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

1. 2 SO

3

(E)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

 2 SO O

22

Cl

3 NO H O  2 HNO NO

PCl

O H O  2 HClO

27

2

4

22

3

3 H O

2

3

 H PO 3 HCl

33

2. (E)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3 P H

P

2

Mg N 6 H O 3 Mg(OH) 2 NH

 4 PH

3

 4 PCl

3

3

1 2
1
2

P

4

6 P H

24

8 PH P

3

4

24

or

6 Cl

42

FeCl 3 H

32

2

2

S  Fe S 6 HCl

23

2

3

3. PbO + 2 NH

(E)

(a)

(b) 2

6

3

(c)

(d)

FeSO

S Cl

2

2

4

3

3

3 Pb + N + 3 H O

22

2 SO

2

+

1 2
1
2

O

2

or

 Fe O

23

16 NH

4 FeSO

8 CO

 N S 12 NH Cl +S

44

4

8

23 2
23
2

O

2



C H CHOHCH(C H )CH OH

37

25

2

4

2

 2 Fe O

23

+9 H O

2

4 SO

or

2 C H CHOHCH(C H )CH OH

37

25

2

23 O

2



16 CO

2

+18 H O

2

4. SO Cl

(E)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

22

+ 8 HI H S + 2 H O + 2 HCl + 4 I

7H

 6 FeCl 6 H

2

2

FeTiO 2 H SO 5 H O  FeSO

3

24

2

2 Fe O 12 HCl +3 Cl

34

2

C H CH

6

5

2

SSCH C H

26

5

39 2
39
2

O

2



3

4

14 CO

2

2

2

2

O +TiOSO

O +O

2

4

2 SO



2

7 H O

2

or

2 C H CH SSCH C H

6

5

2

26

5

39 O

2



28 CO

2

4 SO



2

14 H O

2

122

2

+ O

2

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

5. 2 Mg

(E)

(a)



s

+ O

2

g

2 MgO s

(b)

(c)

(d)

2 NO

2C H



g

+ O



g

2



g

+ 7 O

2

26

2 NO

2

g



g 4CO

2

g

Ag SO

24



aq + BaI

2



aq BaSO

4

+ 6 H O

2

 

l

s

+ 2 AgI

s

6. 3Mg s

(E)

(a)



+ N

2

g

Mg N

32

s

(b) KClO

3

s  KCl s

+

3 2
3
2

O

g

2 KClO

23

or

s  2 KCl

(c)

(d)

NaOH(s) + NH Cl(s)  NaCl(s) + NH (g) + H O g

4

32

2 Na(s) + 2H O(l)  2 NaOH(aq) + H (g)

2

2

7. 2C H

4

10

(E)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(l) +13O

2

g 8CO

2

g

+10 H O 6 CO 3CO

2

2

g

g

 

l

2

CH CH(OH)COOH s + 3O

CH CH(OH)CH (l) + 9 O

3

32

3

2

g

g

+ 8 H O + 3H O

2

 

l

 

l

22

8. 2C H

36

C

(E)

(a)

(b)

(c)



g

+ 9O

2



g 6CO

2

g

2

g

2

7 CO

 

2

g

2

+ 6 H O

2

+ 3H O

2

 

l

g 6CO

+ SO

g

2

 

l

+ 9 O

2CH (OH)CH(OH)CH OH l + 7 O

H COSH s

65

2

g + 8H O

22

9. NH NO

43



Na CO

23

2 CH

4

g

(E)

(a)

(b)

(c)

s

aq



N O

2

g

+ 2 H O

2



g

+ 3O

32

g

+ 2 HCl aq 2 NaCl

g

aq 2 HCN g

2

+ H O