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TOPMODEL User Notes

Windows Version 97.01


Keith Beven
Centre for Research on Environmental Systems and Statistics
Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
Tel: (+44) 1524 593892 Fax: (+44) 1524 593985
Email: K.Beven@LANCASTER.AC.UK

Background to TOPMODEL
This program is intended as a demonstration version of TOPMODEL for PC-Windows
and has been developed from versions used for teaching purposes over a number of
years in the Environmental Science degree course at Lancaster University, including
TOPT9502 which is also available at the TOPMODEL Web site (see below) as a DOS
program and FORTRAN source code.
The development of TOPMODEL was initiated by Professor Mike Kirkby at the School
of Geography, University of Leeds under funding from the UK Natural Environment
Research Council in 1974. The first versions were programmed by Keith Beven in
Fortran IV on an ICL 1904S mainframe computer. The punched cards that were the
program hard storage medium at the time have sadly (thankfully?) long since
disappeared. Since 1974 there have been many variants of TOPMODEL developed at
Leeds, Lancaster and elsewhere but never a "definitive" version.
This has been quite intentional. TOPMODEL is not intended to be a traditional model
package but is more a collection of concepts that can be used where appropriate. It is
up to the user to verify that the assumptions made are appropriate (see the discussion
of limitations in Beven et al., 1995). This version of this program will be best suited to
catchments with shallow soils and moderate topography which do not suffer from
excessively long dry periods. Ideally, predicted contributing areas should be checked
against what actually happens in the catchment (at least qualitatively), so get your
wellies on!!
The model supplied here has deliberately not been provided with an automatic
optimisation routine (although since the model source code is available at the Web site,

it will be easy to strip out the graphics code and link the model to any of the available
optimisation routines, see for example, Press et al. , 1989). This is for two reasons:
Firstly, the user is encouraged to view the output from the model and think about how
the model is working. This is made possible, in part, by the fact that the results can be
mapped back into space and viewed by the user in their correct spatial context. In this
way, it may be concluded that this is not a good model to represent a particular
catchment (but by thinking about why it may be possible to improve the representation
in some relatively simple way). This is why the distributed nature of the model
predictions, combined with a simplicity of structure, is very important. Use it firstly as an
aid to understanding before it is used as a predictive tool.
Secondly, we do not believe that there is an optimum set of parameter values, even with
a model that is as parametrically parsimonious as TOPMODEL (see discussion in
Beven,1993) and do not want to encourage the practice of automatic optimisation. At
Lancaster we are now using Bayesian and Fuzzy Monte Carlo simulation to carry out
calibration/sensitivity analysis/uncertainty estimation based on many thousands of runs
(see Beven and Binley,1992; Freer et al., 1996). This version of TOPMODEL provides
an option for output of Monte carlo simulation results for later use with the compatible
GLUE package.
These programs have been prepared for distribution by Keith Beven, but the
TOPMODEL concepts have developed over a long period of time with contributions
from many people who have worked in and with the Lancaster TOPMODEL group :
especially Paul Quinn, Renata Romanowicz, Jim Freer, James Fisher, Rob Lamb, Kev
Buckley, Bruno Ambroise and Georges-Marie Saulnier. A PC version of TOPMODEL
was originally written in Fortran in 1985 and was revised for distribution in 1993 (see the
TOPMODEL Web Site information below). They were further revised in 1995 with the
addition of a number of ancillary programs for the TOPMODEL worskhop held at
Lancaster University. The current version was written during a sabbatical spent in the
HYDRAM group at EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
The program is distributed freely with only two conditions.
1. In any use for commercial or paid consultancy purposes a suitable
royalty agreement must be negotiated with Lancaster University
(contact Keith Beven)
2. In any publication arising from use for research purposes the source
of the program should be properly acknowledged and a pre-print of
the publication sent to Keith Beven at the address below.
The TOPMODEL Web Site

The TOPMODEL Web site can be found on one of the Lancaster University Server Sites
at http://www.es.lancs.ac.uk/es/Freeware/Freeware.html.
The site contains further information about TOPMODEL including a (fairly) complete
bibliography, news bulletins and Frequently Asked Questions pages. Several different
programs can be downloaded, including some Fortran source code for both the model
and the GRIDATB digital terrain analysis program for deriving the topographic index
from raster elevation data. A number of auxillary analysis programs are also available.
TOPSIMPL, another Windows version of TOPMODEL written by Georges-Marie
Saulnier can also available be downloaded directly from the site.

About This Version of TOPMODEL


This TOPMODEL package is intended as a teaching tool to give some insight into the
advantages and difficulties of distributed hydrological model in a visual way, in terms of
both presenting hydrographs and maps of the predictions of saturated area in the
catchment under study based on the distribution of the topographic index. It has been
simplified to reduce the number of parameters that need to be supplied or calibrated to
5. These are
m
curve
ln(To)
SRmax
SRinit
of
ChVel

; the parameter of the exponential transmissivity function or recession


(units of depth, m)
; the natural logarithm of the effective transmissivity of the soil when just
saturated. A homogeneous soil through out the catchment is assumed.
(units of m^2/h)
; the soil profile storage available for transpiration, i.e. an available water
capacity (units of depth, m)
; the initial storage deficit in the root zone (an initialisation parameter, units
depth, m)
; an effective surface routing velocity for scaling the distance/area or
network width function. Linear routing is assumed (units of m/h).

Note that the interception/root zone component used here is very simple to reduce the
number of parameters to be specied and that no snowmelt component is included.
Previous versions of the model have included infiltration excess calculations and
parameters but these have been ommitted here for simplicity.
The calculations are made for areal subdivisions based on the NAC ln(a/tanB)
subdivisions. The saturation deficit for each subdivision is calculated from the mean
storage deficit, SBAR, at the start of each time step. Note also that the time step
calculations are explicit ie. SBAR at the start of a time step is used to determine
contributing area for that time step. Thus with long (daily) time steps contributing area
depends on the initial value together with any volume filling effect of daily inputs.
Baseflow at the start of a time step is used to update SBAR at the end of the time step.

Current program limits are:


Number of time steps = 2500
Number of ln(a/tanB) increments = 30
Number of time delay histogram ordinates = 25
Size of subcatchment pixel maps = 100 x 100 (Note that larger sizes can be
reduced before running the model by use of the GRIDREDU ancillary
program)
There are three main options in the program: hydrograph prediction, sensitivity analysis
and a Monte Carlo simulation generator. The hydrograph prediction option also allows
the user to examine maps of the topographic index and predicted contributing areas if a
map of the topographic index is available for input to the program (it is not necessary to
run the program but both CATCHMENT and INPUTs data files are necessary - see
below). A Help file is included in the distribution set for online advice while running the
program by clicking on Help in the menu bar.
The options are chosen from the Control Form by clicking (or double clicking) on one of
the option buttons and then pressing continue. The Cancel button will return to the
opening screen to load a new project file if required.

Project Files
Each catchment application requires a project file. This file has only four lines as
follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Text description of application


Catchment Data filename
Hydrological Input Data filename
Topographic Index Map filename (may be left blank, but line must exist).

An example Project file is supplied as <SLAPTON.PRJ>


Catchment Data File
The TOPMODEL program requires ln(a/tanB) distributions for the catchment or for each
subcatchment. These may be calculated using the GRIDATB program supplied which
requires raster elevation data as input (see section 3). GRIDATB uses the techniques
of digital terrain analysis reported in Quinn et al. (1991) and Quinn et al. (1995).
DESC

; File description

NAC, AREA

; No of ln(a/tanB) increments
; Total catchment area in km

then for each NAC increment:


AC(I), ST(I)
value

; Fractional catchment areas for each ln(a/tanB) class


; Associated ln(a/tanB) value (large to small). ST(1) is the
so that AC(1) should be set to zero.

; maximum

Then for the routing calculations


NCH

; No of distance increments

and for each distance increment J


ACH(J), D(J)

; Cumulative area of catchment (0 -> 1)


; Distance from catchment outlet
; D(1) should be the mainstream distance from the catchment
; outlet to the gauging point (normally 0.), with ACH(1) = 0.

Finally for initalising the parameter values


PARAM(k),Min(k),Max(k) ; initial value of each parameter, minimum and maximum of a range, in the order
; M, LnTo, SRmax, SRinit, ChVel

A example Catchment Data file is provided as <$CATCH.CAT>


Inputs Data File
The Inputs Data file provides the rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and observed
discharge data required for a particular application of TOPMODEL. The current limit for
the number of times steps in the program is 2500. The file is made up as follows:
NSTEP, DT
R(IT),E(IT),QOBS(IT)

; Number of time steps, length of time step in hours


; Rainfall, evapotranspiration and discharge rates in m/h (IT=1,NSTEP)

An example Inputs data file is provided as < $INPUTS.PEQ >


Topographic Index Map Data File
This files should be the map of the topographic index values from which the distribution
input as part of the Catchment Data File was derived. It is input as a matrix of values,
with values outside the catchment being given a value of 9999 or greater.
NX,NY,DX
ATB(I,J) values

; Number of pixels in X direction, number of pixels in Y direction, grid size


; Topographic index values

An example topographic index file is provided as < $MAPFILE.ATB >


Note that the program will run without the topographic index map file but in this case a
blank line should be left for the filename in the Project file.

The Hydrograph Prediction Option


This option allows the model to be run and hydrographs displayed. Parameter values
can be changed on screen and the model run again (see figure 1). After each run four
indices of goodness of fit are given for evaluation. These are
EFF
SSE
SLE
SAE

The Nash and Sutcliffe Efficiency Criterion (1 - residual variance/observed


variance)
Sum of squared residuals (observed - simulated flow) over all time steps
Sum of squared log residuals (log(observed) - log(simulated) flow) over all time
steps
Sum of absolute errors |observed - simulated flow| over all time steps.

Not that improved fits should move the EFF criterion towards a maximum value of 1
while all the other criterion should move closer to zero.
If not all the time period of the simulation can be diplayed at one time, the hydrograph
can be scanned backwards and forwards using the arrow buttons (figure 1)
If a Topographic Index Map file is available then a map button is displayed. Clicking on
this button brings up a map of the topographic index and a map of the number of time
steps that a pixel is predicted as being saturated.
The saturated area can also be animated. Clicking on the animation button will bring up
a set of three control buttons. The stop button will return to the hydrograph screen; the
forward button steps through the simulation showing the saturated areas time step by
time step for periods of 50 time steps at a time; the fast forward button steps through
every 10 time steps. The period to be displayed can be set by the user in the
appropriate boxes. Clicking on the forward or fast forward buttons without resetting the
time counter will step through the period immediately following.
The Sensitivity Analysis Option
This screen allows the sensitivity of the objective functions to changes of one or more of
the parameters to be explored. An initial run of the model is made with the current
values of the parameters. Then each chosen parameter is varied across its range,
keeping the values of the other parameters constant. The results are displayed as small
graphs (see figure 3).
Click on the check boxes by each parameter name to include a parameter in the
analysis. Any of the current parameter values or minimum and maximum of the range
to be included can be changed on screen. Clicking on the Run Model button will start
the analysis.

The objective function to be investigated can be changed by using the Objective


Function item on the Menu Bar. The default is the EFF efficiency measure.
The Monte Carlo Analysis Option
In this option a large number of runs of the model can be made (limited only by storage
capacity of the results file!!) using uniform random samples of the parameters chosen
for inclusion in the analysis. Values of the other parameters are kept constant at their
current values (see figure 4).
Click on the check boxes for the objective functions to include one or more of these in
the output results.
Click on the check boxes for the simulated variables to include on or more of these in
the
output results. If the box for output of flows at different time steps is chosen then up to
5 different time steps (integer values) may be chosen. The predicted flows for these
time steps will be added to the output results for each parameter set.
The results file produced will be compatible with the GLUE analysis software package.

Other Versions of TOPMODEL


Consistent with the philosophy of using an appropriate model structure for a particular
catchment during the development of the TOPMODEL concepts many other versions of
TOPMODEL have been tested in different catchments. Versions available or developed
at Lancaster or elsewhere include:
1. A version as a component of the Institute of Hydrology's Water Information System
(WIS) (see Romanowicz et al., 1993a,b; Beven et al., 1995).
2. A version that incorporates the "reference level" concept and subcatchment band
structure outlined in Quinn et al. (1991).
3. Versions that use a more sophisticated root zone component including variable
available water capacity and interception calculations and using water table depth rather
than storage deficit as the internal state variable.
4. A version that is coupled to transport calculations for conservative solutes (see also
Robson et al., 1992)

5. A version written in MATLAB/SIMULINK by Renata Romanowicz, complete with


animated contributing areas (Romanowicz, 1997 to appear).
6. A version using different transmissivity functions and incorporating a version of the
ETH snowmelt component (see Ambroise et al., 1996a,b; Freer et al., 1996)
7. A version using a generalised recession curve storage/discharge relationship written
by Rob Lamb. An interactive program for identification of a master recession curve
from observed hydrographs (MRCtool) has been written in MATLAB.
In addition, various forms of the model have been developed elsewhere, notably at
Princeton University where macroscale, dimensionless and fully distributed versions
have been used (see Sivapalan et al., 1988; Wood et al., 1990; Famiglietti et al., 1991);
at Grenoble where it has been combined with transfer function runoff routing (Obled et
al., 1994); and at the University of Virginia where a modular version has been linked to
geochemical calculations and various optimisation strategies (e.g. Hornberger et al.,
1985; Wolock and Hornberger, 1990).
Other TOPMODEL implementations within a GIS framework have been made using the
SPANS Modelling Language SML (Stuart and Stocks, 1993); using GRASS routines
(Chairat and Delleur, 1993); the PVWave modelling and visualisation system (Clapp et
al., 1992); the RHESSys system of Band et al. (1993) which also includes distributed
ecological modelling components; the TAPES-G system of Moore et al. (1993) and the
Modular Hydrological Modelling System (MMS) of Leavesley et al. (1992).
TOPMODEL Bibliography
These are selected References (for a full bibliography see the TOPMODEL Web site).
A special issue of Hydrological Processes was devoted to TOPMODEL (v.11, no. 9,
1997) and the papers, together with some additional papers issued as a book: Beven,
K J (Ed.), 1997, Distributed Modelling in Hydrology: Applications of the TOPMODEL
concepts, Wiley, Chichester, 1997 (ISBN 0471-97724-1)
Beven, K J and Kirkby, M J. 1979 A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology
Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24(1),43-69.
Beven, K J, Kirkby, M J, Schoffield, N, and Tagg, A. 1984 Testing a Physically-based Flood Forecasting
Model (TOPMODEL) for Three UK Catchments, J. Hydrol. 69; 119-143
Hornberger, G M, Beven, K J, Cosby, B J and Sappington, D E. 1985 Shenandoah Watershed Study:
Calibration of a Topography-Based, Variable Contributing Area Hydrological Model to a Small
Forested
Catchment, Water Resour. Res. 21; 1841-1850.
Beven, K J. 1986a Hillslope Runoff Processes and Flood Frequency Characteristics. In A. D. Abrahams
(ed.) Hillslope Processes, 187-202, Allen and Unwin, Boston.

Beven, K J. 1987, Towards the use of catchment geomorphology in flood frequency predictions, Earth
Surf. Process. Landf., 12, 69-82.
Wolock, D M, Hornberger, G M, Beven, K J and Campbell, W G. 1989 The relationship of catchment
topography and soil hydraulic characteristics to lake alkalinity in the Northeastern United States, Water
Resour. Res., 25, 829-837.
Wolock, D M, Hornberger, G M and T Musgrove, T. 1990, Topographic controls on episodic streamwater
acidification in Wales, J. Hydrol., 115, 243-259.
Wood, E F, Sivapalan, M and Beven, K J. 1990 Similarity and scale in catchment storm response, Rev.
Geophys. 28, 1-18
Sivapalan, M, Wood, E F and Beven, K J. 1990 On Hydrological Similarity: 3. A dimensionless flood
frequency distribution, Water Resour. Res., 26, 43-58.
Famiglietti, J S and Wood, E F. 1991 Evapotranspiration and runoff from large land areas: land surface
hydrology for atmospheric general circulation models. Surv. Geophys., 12, 179-204.
Quinn, P F, Beven, K, Chevallier, P and Planchon, O. 1991 The Prediction of Hillslope Flow Paths for
Distributed Hydrological Modelling Using Digital Terrain Models, Hydrological Processes,Water Resour.
Res. 5;59-79.
Wolock, D M and Hornberger, G M. 1991 Hydrological effects of changes in levels of atmospheric carbon
dioxide, J. Forecasting, 10, 105-116.
Famiglietti, J S, Wood, E F, Sivapalan, M and Thongs, D J. 1992 A catchment scale water balance model
for FIFE, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D17), 18997-19007.
Robson, A, Beven, K J and Neal, C. 1992 Towards identifying sources of subsurface flow: a comparison
of components identified by a physically based runoff model and those determined by chemical mixing
techniques, Hydro. Process., 6, 199-214.
Quinn, P F and K J Beven, 1993, Spatial and temporal predictions of soil moisture dynamics, runoff,
variable source areas and evapotranspiration for Plynlimon, mid- Wales, Hydrol. Process., 7, 425-448.
Robson, A J, Whitehead, P G and Johnson, R C. 1993 An application of a physically based semidistributed model to the Balquhidder catchments, J. Hydrol., 145, 357-370.
Romanowicz, R, Beven, K J and Moore, R V. 1993b, GIS and distributed hydrological models, in P M
Mather (Ed.), Geographical Information Handling - Research and Applications, Wiley, Chichester, 197205.
Wolock, D M, 1993, Simulating the variable-source-area concept of streamflow generation with the
watershed model TOPMODEL, U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4124,
Lawrence, Kansas, 33 pp.
Iorgulescu, I and Jordan, J-P, 1994, Validation of TOPMODEL on a small Swiss catchment, J. Hydrol.,
159, 255-273.
Obled, Ch, Wendling, J and Beven, K J, 1994, The sensitivity of hydrological models to spatial rainfall
patterns: an evaluation using observed data, J. Hydrology, 159, 305-333.
Romanowicz, R, K J Beven and J Tawn, 1994, Evaluation of predictive uncertainty in nonlinear
hydrological models using a Bayesian approach, in V Barnett and K F Turkman (Eds.), Statistics for the
Environment. II. Water Reslated Issues, Wiley, Chichester, 297-317.

Band, L E and Moore, I D, 1995, Scale: landscape attributes and geographical information systems,
Hydrol. Process., 9, 401-422.
Beven, K.J. (1995) Linking parameters across scales:sub-grid parameterisations and scale dependent
hydrological models. Hydrological Processes, 9, 507-525.
Beven, K J, Lamb, R, Quinn, P F, Romanowicz, R and Freer, J, 1995, TOPMODEL, in V P Singh (Ed).
Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, Water Resources Publications, 1995, 627-668.
Blazkova, S. & Beven, K.J. (1995) Modelovani car prekroceni maximalnich prutoku frekvencni verzi
TOPMODELU. J Hydrol Hydromech, 43, 148-172 (in Czech).
Blazkova, S, and Beven, K J, 1995, Frequency version of TOPMODEL as a tool for assessing the impact
of climate variability on flow sources and flood peaks, J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 43, 392-411.
Bruneau, P, Gascuel-Odoux, C, Robin, P, Merot, Ph, and Beven, K J, 1995 The sensitivity to space and
time resolution of a hydrological model using digital elevation data, Hydrological Processes, 9, 69-81.
Dietrich, W E, Reiss, R, Hsu, M-L, and Montgomery, D R, 1995, A process-based model for colluvial soil
depth and shallow landsliding using digitial elevation data, Hydrol. Process., 9, 383-400.
Fisher, J, 1995, The use of remote sensing and other system state estimates in the calibration of a
distributed hydrological model, Ph D Thesis, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
Fisher, J and Beven, K J, 1996, Modelling of streamflow at Slapton Wood using TOPMODEL
within an uncertainty estimation framework, Field Studies. 577-584.
Gyasi-Agyei, Y, Willgoose, G and de Troch, F P, 1995, Effects of vertical resolution and map scale of
digital elevation models on geomorphological parameters used in hydrology, Hydrol. Process., 9, 363382.
Kubota, J and Sivapalan, M, 1995, Towards a catchment-scale model of subsurface runoff generation
based on synthesis of small-scale process-based modelling and field studies, Hydrol. Process., 9, 541554.
Merot, Ph, B Ezzahar, C Walter and P Aurousseau, 1995, Mapping waterlogging of soils using digital
terrain models, Hydrological Processes, 9, 27-34.
Ostendorf, B., Quinn, P., Beven, K.J. & Tenhunen, J.D. (1995) Hydrological controls on ecosystem gas
exchange in an arctic landscape. In: Landscape Function and Disturbance in Arctic Tundra, Eds.
Reynolds, J.R. and Tenhunen, J.D., pp. , Ecological Studies 120, Springer-Verlag.
Quinn, P F, Beven, K J and Culf, A. 1995, The introduction of macroscale hydrological complexity into
land surface-atmosphere transfer function models and the effect on planetary boundary layer
development, J. Hydrology, 166, 421-444
Quinn, P F, Beven, K J and Lamb, R, 1995, The ln(a/tan) index: how to calculate it and how to use it in the
TOPMODEL framework. Hydrol. Process, 9, 161-182.
Robson, A J, Neal, C and Beven, K J, 1995, Linking mixing techniques to a hydrological framework - an
upland application, to appear in S Trudgill (Ed.) Solute Modelling in Catchment Systems, Wiley, 347-370
Robinson, J S and Sivapalan, M, 1995, Catchment-scale runoff generation model by agregation and
similarity analyses, Hydrol. Process. 9, 555-574.
Wolock, D M, and McCabe, G J, 1995, Comparison of single and multiple flow direction algorithms for
computing topographic parameters in TOPMODEL, Water Resources Research, 31, 5:1315-1324.

Wolock, D M, 1995, Effects of subbasin size on topographic characteristics and simulated flow paths in
Sleepers River watershed, Vermont, Water Resources Research, 31, 8:1989-1998.
Wood, E F, 1995, Scaling behaviour of hydrological fluxes and variables: empirical studies using a
hydrological model and remote sensing data Hydrol. Process., 9, 331-346.
Woods, R, Sivapalan, M and Duncan, M, 1995, Investigating the representative elementary area concept:
an approach based on field data, Hydrol. Process. 9, 291-312.
Ambroise, B, Beven, K J, and Freer, J, 1996, Towards a generalisation of the TOPMODEL concepts:
topographic indices of hydrological similarity, Water Resources Research, 32(7), 2135-2145.
Ambroise, B, Freer, J and Beven, K, 1996. Application of a generalised TOPMODEL to the small
Ringelbach catchment, Vosges, France, Water Resources Research, 32(7), 2147-2159.
.
Beven, K. J. 1996, Process, heterogeneity and scale in modelling soil moisture fluxes, in S. Sorooshian
and V K Gupta (Eds.) Global Environmental Change and Land Surface Process in Hydrology: The trials
and Tribulations of Modelling and Measuring. Proc. NATO ARW, Tucson, Arizona, to be published by
Springer-Verlag.
Florinsky, I and Kuryakova, G A, 1996, Influence of topography on some vegetation cover properties
Catena, 27, 123-141, 1996
Franchini, M, Wendling, J, Obled, C and Todini, E, 1996, Physical interpretation and sesitivity analysis of
the TOPMODEL, J. Hydrology,175, 293-338.
Freer, J, Beven, K J and Ambroise, B, 1996, Bayesian estimation of uncertainty in runoff prediction and
the value of data: an aplication of the GLUE approach, , Water Resources Research, 32(7), 2161-2173.
Lamb, R, 1996, Distributed hydrological prediction using generalised TOPMODEL concepts, PhD Thesis,
Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
Lepisto, A, 1996, Hydrological processes contributing to nitrogen leaching from forested catchments in
Nordic conditions, Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research No. 1, Finnish Environment Institute,
Helsinki, Finland.
Mller-Wohlfeil, D I, W. Lahmer, V. Krysanova, A. Becker., 1996, Topography based Hydrological
Modeling in the Elbe Drainage Basin. In: Proceedings, Third International Conference/Workshop on
Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, NM, January 21-26
Nyberg, L, 1996, Spatial variability of soil water content in the covered catchment at Gardsjon Sweden,
Hydrol. Process., 10(1), 89-104.
Ostendorf, B. 1996, Modelling the influence of hydrological processes on spatial and temporal patterns of
CO2 soil efflux from an arctic tundra cathment. Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 28(3), 318-327.
Saulnier, G-M, 1996, Information pedologique spatialisee et traitements topographiques ameliores dans la
modelisation hydrologique par TOPMODEL, PhD Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble,
Grenoble, France.
Watson, F G R, Vertessy, R A and Band, L E, 1996, Distributed parameterization of a large scale water
balance model for an Australian forested region, in HydroGIS 96, Application of
Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management, IAHS Publ. No. 235,
157-166.

Beven, K J, (Ed.), 1997, Distributed Modelling in Hydrology: Applications of TOPMODEL, Wiley,


Chichester.
Beven, K J, 1997, TOPMODEL: a critique, Hydrol. Process., 11(9), 1069-1086
Blazkova, S and Beven, K, 1997, Flood frequency prediction for data limited catchments in the Czech
Republic using a stochastic rainfall model and TOPMODEL, J. Hydrol. 195, 256-278.
Coles, N A et al. 1997, Modelling runoff generation on small agricultural catchments: can real world runoff
responses be captured? Hydrol. Process. 11(2), 111-136.
Crave, A and Gascuel-Odoux, C, 1997, The influence of topography on time and space distribution of soil
surface water content, Hydrol. Process. 11(2), 203-210, 1997
Creed I F et al., 1997, Regulation of nitrate-N release from temperate forests: A test of the N flushing
hypothesis, Water Resources Research, 32(11), 3337-3354.
Duan, J and Miller, N L, 1997, A generalised power function for the subsurface transmissivity profile in
TOPMODEL, Water Resources Research, 33(11), 2559-2562.
Franks, S.W., Beven, K.J., Chappell, N.A., and Gineste, P., 1997. The utility of multi-objective conditioning
of a distributed hydrological model using uncertain estimates of saturated areas. In A.D. McDonald, and
M.McAleer (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM '97),
Hobart, 8-11 December 1997, Volume 1, 335-340.
Freer, J, McDonnell, J, Beven, K J, Brammer, D, Burns, D, Hooper, R P and Kendal, C, 1997,
Topographic controls on subsurface stormflow at the hillslope scale for two hydrologically distinct small
catchments, Hydrol. Process., 11(9), 1347-1352
Holko, L, Lepisto, A, 1997, Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a mountain catchment using
TOPMODEL, J.Hydrol., 196, 363, 1997.
Holko, L., Kostka, Z., Buchtele, J., Lepistoe, A., 1997, Runoff modelling in mountain catchment
Proceedings of the ERB'96 Conference in Strasbourg (France), Viville, D. & Littlewood, I. (eds.),
UNESCO.
Iorgulescu, Ion, 1997, Analyse du comportement hydrologique par une approche integree l'echelle du
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(eds.), UNESCO.
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Saulnier, G-M, Beven, K J and Obled, Ch., 1998, Including spatially variable soil depths in TOPMODEL,
J. Hydrology, 202, 158-172

TOPMODEL
Windows version 97.01
BUG REPORT
Name:
Address:

Program Version Number:

Details of Bug:

Please return this form to Keith Beven at the address below, ideally with an example
dataset which causes the bug.
Centre for Research on Environmental Systems and Statistics
Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
Tel: (+44) 524 593892 Fax: (+44) 524 843854
Email: K.Beven@LANCASTER.AC.UK