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EarlyRepublicOutline

TheFirst5Presidents
1. GeorgeWashington(17891797)
2. JohnAdams(17971801)
3. ThomasJefferson(18011809)
4. JamesMadison(18091817)
5. JamesMonroe(18171825)

GeorgeWashingtonsPresidency
Article3oftheConstitutionestablishedaSupremeCourt,buttheJudiciaryActof1789createdthe
structureandjurisdictionofthefederalcourtsystemaswellasthepositionofattorneygeneral.
WashingtonsSecretaryofTreasury,AlexanderHamilton,wasconcernedwithgettingAmericaoutof
debt.Hecreatedafinancialplanbasedonthecreationofanationalbank,protectivetariffs,andexcise
taxes.
Pennsylvaniafarmers,angeredbyaspecialtaxonwhiskeymadefromcorn,attackedtaxcollectorsand
burneddownbuildings(thisbecameknownastheWhiskeyRebellion.)GeorgeWashingtoncrushedthe
rebellionandletitbeknownthattochanginglawmustbedonepeacefully.
AnearlyindicationofAmericasfutureforeignpolicywasGeorgeWashingtonsannouncementin1793
thatAmericawouldstayneutralintheconflictbetweenFranceandGreatBritain.
InhisFarewellAddress,GeorgeWashingtonwarnedofforeignalliancesandpoliticalparties.

JohnAdamssPresidency
InanefforttorepairtradeproblemswithFrance,JohnAdamssent3mentonegotiatewithFrench
officials.TheFrenchofficials,labelledX,Y,andZbytheAdamsadministration,attemptedtobribethe
Americans.ThiseventiscalledtheXYZAffairandledtoaQuasiWarbetweenFranceandAmerica
(17981800).
TheAlienandSeditionActs,underJohnAdams,madeitacrimeforanyonetocriticizethePresident,
Congress,andforeignerswhoweretreatedunfairly.
ThomasJeffersonandJamesMadisoncreateddocuments,calledtheVirginia&KentuckyResolutions,
statingthatCongresshadactedunconstitutionallybypassingtheAlien&SeditionActs.

ThomasJeffersonsPresidency
ThomasJeffersondoubledthesizeoftheUnitedStatesin1803whenhepaid$15millionforthe
LouisianaPurchase.
JeffersonsentLewisandClarktoexploretheLouisianaPurchaseandfindawaterroutewesttothe
PacificOcean.
InanefforttogetBritain&FrancetoeconomicallyrespectAmerica,PresidentJeffersonandCongress
createdtheEmbargoActthatmadeitillegaltoexportgoods.

JamesMadisonsPresidency
JamesMadisonwasPresidentduringtheWarof1812.

PresidentMadisonreceivedalotofpressurefromCongress,mainlybySouthern&Westernwarhawks,
todeclarewaronGreatBritain.ThewarhawksbelievedthatGreatBritainwassupportingand
financingNativeAmericantribesandusedimpressmenttostirfeelingsofwarwithinAmerica.

JamesMonroesPresidency
TheMonroeDoctrinestatingthattheUnitedStateswouldnotinterferewithanyEuropeancoloniesin
NorthandSouthAmerica,butitwouldopposeanynewcolonies.

CreationofPoliticalParties
PoliticalpartiesdevelopedinAmericaduetothedifferingviewsofgovernmentfromourcountrysfirst
SecretaryofStateThomasJeffersonandSecretaryofTreasuryAlexanderHamilton.
TheFederalistParty,whichwasinspiredbyHamiltonsviewofgovernment,emphasizedastrong
centralgovernmentwiththewealthyandwelleducatedleadingthenation.
TheDemocraticRepublicanParty,whichwasinspiredbyJeffersonsviewofgovernment,emphasized
strongstategovernmentsandaneconomybasedonagriculture.
The12thAmendmentwascreatedbecauseofhowmuchpoliticalpartiesaffectedpresidentialelections.
ThenewamendmentrequiredtheElectoralCollegetovoteforaPresidentandaVicePresidentinstead
ofvotingfor2differentpeopleforPresident.
AftertheWarof1812,manyAmericansviewedtheFederalistPartymembersastraitorscausingthe
partytocollapse.

Warof1812
BritishtroopsinvadedWashingtonDCandburnedthecapitolandWhiteHouseduringtheWarof1812.
FrancisScottKeywrotethe
StarSpangledBanner
whilebeingheldcaptiveonashipinBaltimore
HarborduringtheWarof1812.
AftertheWarof1812,Americaexperiencedasenseofnationalunityandanabsenceofpolitical
divisions.ThistimebecameknownastheEraofGoodFeelings.

ImportantSupremeCourtCases
Marburyv.Madison
establishedjudicialreview.
a. JudicialreviewallowstheSupremeCourttodetermineifalawviolatestheConstitution.
McCullochv.Maryland
establishedthenecessaryandproperclause,allowingCongresstoachieve
dutiessetforthintheConstitution.
In
Gibbonsv.Ogden
determinedCongresshasauthoritytoregulateinterstateandintrastatecommerce.

ChiefJusticeJohnMarshall
JohnMarshallwasthefirstChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourtandexpandedthepowerofthejudiciary,
aswellasthefederalgovernmentspowerovertheindividualstates.