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A TYPE OF DISTURBANCE produced by an oscillating or vibrating motion

in which a point or body moves back and forth along a line about a fixed
central point produces waves.
A PROCESS of TRANSFERRING ENERGY from one location to another
(produced by oscillation/vibrating motion)

Wave front

LINE OR PLANE on which the vibrations of every points are

In phase and are at the same distance from the source of the wave.
In phase =same direction, same displacement
Direction of propagation of waves in relation of wave fronts is

Transverse Wave

WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is

to the direction of propagation of the wave(water waves, light waves,
electromagnetic waves)

Longitudinal Wave

WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is

parallel to
the direction of propagation of the wave(sound waves, ultrasound)

Amplitude, a

MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT from its equilibrium position / MEASURE of

height of the wave crest or depth of the wave trough.
higher amplitude, higher energy of wave
SI unit : meter, m

Period, T

TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme point to the

other and back to the same position.
SI unit : seconds, s

Frequency, f

NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating system in one

SI unit : Hertz, Hz

Relation w period : T= 1/f


DISTANCE between successive points of the same phase in a wave

Wave Speed, v

MEASUREMENT of how fast crest is moving from a fixed point

SI unit : m/s


DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system when its energy is

drained out as heat energy (gradually , becomes 0 when oscillation
Loss of energy : (Internal damping: extension and compression of
molecules)( External damping: frictional force/ air resistance)


Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency

equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force.
The resonating system oscillates at its maximum amplitude.

Natural frequency

FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of which an object vibrates. It is the

frequency of a system which oscillates freely without external force

Reflection of wave

Reflection of wave occurs when a wave strike an obstacle

Waves undergo change in direction of propagation
Law : i = r

Refraction of wave

Refraction of wave occurs when a wave travel from one medium to

another with change in direction (speed of wave changes)
Water depth changes (shallow & deep)
Relationship : v = f , f = v/
f = ; v ; ; direction (propagation)

Diffraction of waves

PHENOMENON in which waves spread out as they passed through an

aperture or round a small circle
f = ; = ; speed = ; v ; direction

Interference of waves

SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherent sources

=same frequency, wavelength, amplitude and in phase (constant phase

How? : 2 waves meet while propagating along same medium

Constructive interference occurs when the both crests/ troughs of both

waves coincide to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum


Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave coincides

with the trough of the other wave, thus cancelling each other with the
result that the resultant amplitude is 0


POINT where constructive interference occurs.


POINT where destructive interference occurs.

Electromagnetic waves

PROPAGATING WAVES in space with electric and magnetic components.

These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the
direction of propagation of wave.
Produced when electric & magnetic field vibrate @ 90 to each other
Properties ; -transfer e form each other
-transverse waves
-can travel along vacuum w same speed (light; c= 3x


CONSISTS of a group of waves with similar natures

Monochromatic light

LIGHT with only one wavelength and color.

ARRANGED in increasing(f) & decreasing wavelengths ( radio waves,

microwaves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, gamma
rays )

Principle of

Principle of superposition states that at any instant, the resulting

displacement of the medium at any location is the algebraic sum of the
displacements of the individual wave.

Youngs Formula

a = distance between 2 coherent sources

= wavelength
x = distance between 2 consecutive node ( or antinode) lines
D = distance from the 2 sources to point of measurement of x
; = ax/D


Charge, Q

WORK DONE to move a unit of voltage in a circuit

Current, I

RATE of flow of charge

I = charge,Q / time,t

Potential difference, V

SI unit :ampere, A

WORK DONE in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another
in an electric field
V= energy,E/Q

SI unit :Volt, V

Electric field

A FIELD in which electric charge experiences an electric force

(attraction/repulsion) / A FIELD in which electric force acts in a particle
with electric charge


CLOSED LOOP through which charge can continuously flow

Resistance, R

RATIO of the potential difference across the conductor to the current

flowing through it / MEASURE of the ability of the conductor to resist the
flow of an electric current through it

unit : ohm,


CONDUCTOR in which its resistance will suddenly become zero when it is

cooled below a certain temperature called the critical temperature


TOTAL ENERGY supplied by a cell to move a unit of electrical charge from

one terminal to the other through the cell and the external circuit
WORK DONE by a coulomb of charge around a complete circuit
Unit : Volt, V = J/C

Power rating

RATE at which it consumes electrical energy.

Ohms Law

Ohms law states that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor
is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of
conductor, if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant.
That is, V



DEVICE in which magnetism is produced by an electric current

TEMPORARY MAGNET ( made by a coil of wire wound round a soft iron coil
) which acts as a magnet when the current is switched on and ceases to
be a magnet when the current is switched off

Magnetic field

REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of

a magnet or a current-carrying conductor

Radial field

MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away from the
centre of a circle.


PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic field

(conductor cuts across a magnetic flux OR a change of magnetic flux
linkage with a coil)

Root mean square

current / voltage

VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the same

heating effect in a given resistor.


EQUIPMENT to raise or lower the potential difference of an

alternating voltage based on the principle of electromagnetic induction

Flemings Left Hand

Forefinger, second finger, and the thumb of left hand are extended at
90to each other
-forefinger in direction of magnetic field
-second finger in direction of current
-thumb in direction of force, F / motion

Faradays Law

The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is directly

proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the
solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic
by moving magnet/solenoid at higher speed
increase no. of turns on solenoid
increase the strength of magnetic field (use stronger magnet)

Lenzs Law

Lenzs law states that an induced electric current always flows in such a
direction so as to oppose the change (or motion) producing it


Thermionic emission

EMISSION of electrons from heated metal surface

Work function

MINIMUM ENERGY required to eject electrons from surface

Cathode ray

Fast moving ELECTRONS travel in a straight line in vacuum from cathode

to anode (connected by an extra high tension, EHT voltage supply)

Cathode ray

measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of electricity and

USES a cathode ray tube (electron gun, deflection system, fluorescent
coated screen)
that converts electronic/electrical signals into a visual display


MATERIAL which allows current to flow through them


MATERIAL whose resistance/electrical conductivity is between good

conductor and insulator


MATERIAL which does not conduct electric current

Semiconductor Diodes

PROCESS of ADDING a certain amount of specific impurities (dopants) to

pure a semiconductor to increase its electrical conductivity
JOINING p-type and n-type semiconductor
DEVICE that allows current to flow in one direction only

Junction voltage

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE acting from n-type to p-type material of a diode

across the depletion layer


CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode

-half wave ; process where only half of every cycle of a.c is made to flow
in 1 direction only
-full wave ; process where both halves of every cycle of a.c is made to
flow in = direction


PROCESS where output is smoothed by connecting a capacitor across

load that acts as a reservoir and maintains potential difference across

Logic gates

ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one output



An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons,

with electrons orbiting the nucleus.
Net charge ; 0 atom is neutral due to = no. of vely charged electron


TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon number

Proton number, Z

NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Nucleon number, A

NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom


ATOMS of an element which have the same proton number but different
nucleon number(similar chemical properties but differs in physical


SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION /random decay of unstable nucleus into

a more stable
Not triggered by any external factors ie. Temperature of pressure
nucleus with the emission of energetic particles or protons (alpha, beta
or gamma radiation)

Radioactive decay

PROCESS where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable nucleus by

emitting radiations


ISOTOPE that has unstable nucleus that tends to undergo radioactive

Artificial are produced when certain nuclides are bombarded by high
energy particles

Half life

TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original value
TIME TAKEN for half the atoms in a given sample to decay

Nuclear fission

PROCESS involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclei of

roughly equal mass (lighter) and shooting out several neutrons at the
same time.

Chain Reaction

Self-sustaining reactions in which the products of a reaction can initiate

a similar reaction

Nuclear fusion

PROCESS involving the fusion of two or more small and light nuclei come
together to form a heavier nucleus
RELEASES large amounts of energy

Einsteins Principle of

The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the equation

E = energy released, in joules, J
m = loss of mass or mass defect, in kg
c = speed of light = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s