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CALCULATIONS :

Sr.

Resistance

Voltage

Current

Measure

No.
1
2

(R)
2.7 k
3.9 k

(V)
4.96
4.96 V

(I)
1.83 mA
1.27 mA

Current (I)
1.85 mA
1.28 mA

Difference
1.08%
0.93%

6.8 k

4.95 V

0.72 mA

0.73 mA

1.36%

10 k

4.94 V

0.49 mA

0.50 mA

1.2%

33 k

4.95 V

0.15 mA

0.151 m

0.66%

CALCULATIONS:
Voltag
e
V

0.2%

1.392
V
1.391
V
4.54 V

1.395
V
1.395
V
4.61 V

4.59 V

4.61 V

0.28
%
1.5%
0.43
%

%
Dif
.

Measu
re
Req

Measure
Resistan
ce

Resistan
ce
(R)

SR.
No.

0.98 k

1 k

0.99 k

1 k

3.3 k

3.3 k

3.28 k
3.28 k

Req

8.6 k

Measu
re
Voltag
e

8.53k

%
Dif.

0.80%

Curren
t
I

1.395 mA

Measur
e
Curren
t

1.38 mA

1.07%

%
Dif
.

CALCULATION:
%
Dif.

Measu
re
Dif.

Curre
nt

%
Dif.

Measu
re
Voltag
e

Voltag
e
V

%
Dif.

Measu
re

Measu
re

Req

Resista
nce

Req

Resista
nce
(R)

0.98 k
0.99 k

0.383 k

0.377k

1.50%

12 mA

11.9
8 mA
3.61
mA
3.61
2 mA

12 V

0.16
%
0.71
%
0.66
%

11.90 V

12 mA

0.83%

0.25 11.9
% 7 mA

1 k
1 k

3.636
mA

3.28 k

3.3 k

3.636
mA

3.28 k

3.3 k

CALCULATIONS:

Dif.

Curren
t

Curren
t

%
Dif.

Measur
e

Voltag
e

Voltag
e

%
Dif
.

Measur
e

Measure

Req

Resista
ce

Req

Resistan
ce

(R)

4.02k

Measur
e

0.98%

3.27 k

3.3 k

2.93
mA

2.953
mA

0.36
%

9.71 V

9.746
V

1.95
%

2.21
mA

2.254
mA

2.30
%

2.20 V

2.254
V

4.10
%

0.67
mA

0.699
mA

5.70
%

0.66 V

0.7 V

0.98 k

1 k

7.80
%

0.21
mA

0.228
mA

2.10
%

1.52 V

1.554
V

6.6 k

6.8 k

7.30
%

0.38
mA

0.41
mA

2.10
%

1.52 V

1.554
V

3.28 k

3.3 k

0.97 k

CALCULATIONS:
%
Dif.

Measur Curren
e
t

%
Dif.

Measure
Resistanc

Resistanc
e

SR.
No.

4.06 k

0.77
%

1 k

Dif.

0.92% 11.89
mA
2.50% 0.867
mA
3.70% 0.857
mA
3.90% 1.72
mA

(R)

12 mA

4.53% 0.95 k

1 k

0.89
mA
0.89
mA
1.79
mA

1.40% 6.704 k

6.8 k

1.20% 6.716 k

6.8 k

2.13% 3.22k

3.3 k

Prove of Kirchhoff current law


Actual Current through battery is 13.8
Measured Current through battery is 13.69
Node no

Equation

Value

result

Node 1

I = I3 +I1

K.Law hold

Node 2

I3 = I4 +I2

Node 3

I5 =I1+I2+I4

13.69 = 11.89
+ 1.723
1.723
=0.857+0.86
13.69=11.89
+0.857+0.86

K.Law hold
K. law hold

CALCULATIONS:

3.57 V

2.10% 1.39 V

1.42 V

0.76% 5.22 V

5.26 V

Req

Resistan
ce
3.24 k
6.69 k
2.67 k
9.87 k

Req

Resistan
ce

SR.
No.

(R)
22.8 k

0.84% 3.54 V

Measu
Measure
re

22.47k

Measu Voltag %
re
e
Dif.
Dif.
Voltag
V
e
3.40% 1.68 V 1.74 V
1.40%

3.3 k

6.8 k

2.7 k

10 k

Prove of Kirchhof voltage law


Actual Voltage through battery is 12
Measured voltage through battery is 11.95
Kirchh
result
Voltage drop =
voltage rise

V5 =
V1+V2+V3+V4

11.95 =1.68+3.54+5.22+1.39

Kirchhoff
voltage law
hold

CALCULATIONS:

Measur
e

Dif.
2.14%
3.70%
1.80%
3.27%

Current
6.85
mA
1.28
mA
0.108
mA
1.18
mA

Current
(I)

%
Dif.

Measur
e

Voltage

Measure

Dif.

Resistanc
e
0.967 k

7 mA

2.10%

Voltage
6.85 V

1.33
mA
0.11
mA
1.22
mA

4.44%

6.23 V

6.52 V

1.04%

4.65k

4.7 k

1.35%

0.73 V

0.74 V

1.17%

6.72k

6.8 k

0.34%

5.72 V

5.74 V

0.85%

4.66 k

4.7 k

Calculation

7V

3.26%

Nodal

Result

Nodal
Equation

1.28-1.28

1.28=0.108+1.18

I2=13+14

CALCULATIONS:
%

Measure

Diff.

Current

Resistanc
e
(R)

Current

Measured

Resistance

SR.

Diff.

Resistance

(R)

No.

1 k

2.14%

6.85 mA

7 mA

3.26%

0.967 k

1 k

3.70%

1.28 mA

1.33 mA

1.04%

4.65k

4.7 k

1.80%

0.108 mA

0.11 mA

1.17%

6.72k

6.8 k

3.27%

1.18 mA

1.22 mA

0.85%

4.66 k

4.7 k

LOOP CURRENT
% Dif.

Measure loop
current
(mA)

Actual loop
current
(mA)

Sr.no

1.57%
1.20%
3.10%

6.89 mA
8.23 mA
6.98 mA

7 mA
8.33 mA
7.11 mA

Ia
Ib
Ic

CALCULATIONS:
%
Diff.
10.52%
4%
2%
3.60%
9.60%

Measure
Current
0.34 mA
0.93 mA
0.58 mA
1.11 mA
1.60 mA

Current
(I)
0.38 mA
0.97 mA
0.59 mA
1.15 mA
1.77 mA

%
Diff.
5%
5%
5%
2.90%
1.80%

Measure Voltage
Voltage
(V)
1.7
1.79
3.05
3.21
0.56
0.59
3.69
3.802
8.05
8.198

Resistance

Sr.
No.

4.7k
3.3k
1k
3.3k
4.7k

1
2
3
4
5

Circuit with 5V
%

Measure

Current

Measure

Voltage

Diff.

Current

(I)

Diff.

Voltage

(V)

Resistance

Sr.
No.

12.00% 0.69 mA

0.79 mA

3%

3.65

3.75 4.7k

13% 0.33 mA

0.38 mA

6.60%

1.16

1.243 3.3k

7% 0.39 mA

0.42 mA

19%

0.34

0.424 1k

4.00% 0.24 mA

0.25 mA

1.10%

0.81

0.819 3.3k

13.30% -0.15 mA 0.17 mA

1.10%

0.81

0.819 4.7k

Circuit with 12 V

Measure

Current

Measure

Voltage

Diff.

Current

(I)

Diff.

Voltage

(V)

Resistance

Sr.
No.

14.30% 0.35 mA

0.41 mA

12%

1.73

1.96 4.7k

8% 0.54 mA

0.59 mA

12.00%

1.73

1.96 3.3k

4% 0.97 mA

1.01 mA

4%

0.97

1.014 1k

3.30% 0.87 mA

0.90 mA

3.40%

2.88

2.982 3.3k

8.30% 1.75 mA

1.91mA

9.10%

8.19

9.018 4.7k

CALCULATIONS:
Actual Current across load resistance =0.89 mA
%
Diff

Measured

Measured

Req
Req

Measured

Diff

Voc

Voc

Load
Resistance

Isc
Diff.

Isc

0.40%

2.79 k

2.8k

0.34

3.07 mA

0.40%

2.79 k

2.8 k

1.12%

0.88mA

3.08 mA

1.20%

8.57 V

8.63 V

Without RL

1.20%

8.57 V

8.63 V

with RL

Measured

Voc

Load
Resistance

Diff

Voc

0.89 mA

CALCULATIONS:
Actual Current across load resistance =0.89 mA
%
Diff

Measured

Measured

Req
Req

Isc
Diff.

Isc

0.40%

2.79 k

2.8k

0.34

3.07 mA

0.40%

2.79 k

2.8 k

1.12%

0.88mA

3.08 mA
0.89 mA

1.20%

8.57 V

8.63 V

Without RL

1.20%

8.57 V

8.63 V

with RL