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The first article is by Krathwohl (2002) entitled A revision of Blooms Taxonomy : An

overview. Bloom's taxonomy states that there are six cognitive (mental) processes which
constitute thinking skills. These mental processes start from the easiest and simplest mental
process right up to the most complex one. The original taxonomy are : Knowledge (i.e.
knowing), Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation. The first three
cognitive processes are collectively known as the Lower-Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) while
the other three are known collectively as the Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). In 2001,
Krathwohl, one of the original authors with together with Bloom that came up with the
taxonomy provided a revision of the taxonomy which he prepared with the help of other
contemporary experts on the matter. This 2002 article was a concise explanation by
Krathwohl as to the revision that his team carried out on the taxonomy. The taxonomy still
retain the structure of hierarchy of thinking skills that is found in the original taxonomy.
The hierarchy is gradual in nature i.e. mastery of each simpler category is a prerequisite to
mastery of the next more complex one. The original Bloom Taxonomy of cognitive processes
(or levels of thinking) as well as the revised version is illustrated in the mind map below.