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common law

(also case law /


judge made law)
civil law

criminal law /
penal law
constitutional
law

Strafrecht

inheritance law /
law of succession
law of
obligations
administrative
law

Erbrecht

stare decisis (lat.)

precedent

Verfassungsrecht

Schuldrecht
Verwaltungsrecht

bei frheren Entscheidungen


bleiben
Przedenzfall

facts

Sachverhalt

equity
regulation
directive
recommendation
decision

Gerechtigkeit
Verordnung
Richtlinie
Empfehlung
Entscheidung

enemy alien

feindlicher Auslnder

to mislead

tuschen / irrefhren

undue

unangemessen / ungebhrlich

intent
negligence

Vorsatz
Fahrlssigkeit

defendant /
respondent
judge

Angeklagter

bailiff

Gerichtsdiener

Richter

body of law formed through court


decisions, as opposed to law formed
through statutes or written legislation
1. legal system developed from Roman
codified law, established by a state; 2.
area of the law concerned with noncriminal matters, rights and remedies
are of the law that deals with crimes
and their punishments
body of law which defines the
relationship of different entities within
a state, namely, the executive, the
legislature, and the judiciary.
the laws regulating the inheritance of
property
component of private law
the body of law that governs the
activities of administrative agencies of
government
lower courts are bound to decisions
made by higher courts (-> common
law)
a previous case or legal decision that
may be or must be followed in
subsequent similar cases (-> binding
jurisdiction)
the truth about events / information
used as evidence
the quality of being fair and impartial
immediately binding for EU-members
needs to be transposed to national law
non binding character
a conclusion or resolution reached
after consideration
citizen of a country which is in a state
of conflict with the land in which he or
she is located
cause (someone) to have a wrong idea
or impression
unwarranted or inappropriate because
excessive or disproportionate
doing something on purpose
breach of a duty of care which results
in damage
person who is sued in a lawsuit
public official who has authority to
hear and decide cases
officer of the court whose duties
include keeping order and assisting the
judge and jurors

repatriation

Rckfhrung (ins Heimatland)

legal capacity

Rechtsfhigkeit

enforcable
offeror
offeree
consideration

vollstreckbar
Angebotssteller
Angebotsempfnger
Gegenleistung

rejection
counter offer
essential terms
indefinite
express contract

Ablehnung
Gegenangebot
essentialia negotii
unbestimmt
ausdrcklicher Vertrag

implied contract
peppercorn

konkludenter Vertrag

Statute of Frauds
real property
fraud in the
inducement
duress

Immobilien
List

assignment of
rights

Abtretung von Rechten

delegation of
duties
assignee

Weitergabe von Pflichten

assignor

Zedent

Acceleration

Beschleunigung; Flligkeitsklausel

Assignment

Abtretung

Ntigung

Rechtsnachfolger / Zessionar

action of sending someone back to


his/her home country
capacity of both natural and legal
persons determines whether they may
make binding amendments to their
rights, duties and obligations
capable of being observed or obeyed
makes an offer
accepts the offer
something of value given by one party
to another in order to induce the other
to contract (necessary element for
enforceable contract in common law ->
offer+acceptance+consideration=contr
act)
refusal to accept an offer
an offer made in response to another
price + subject matter
not clearly expressed or defined; vague
agreement manifested in oral or
written words
agreement manifested by conduct
very small payment used to satisfy the
requirements for the creation of a legal
contract
-> contracts involving real property
must be written
land, including anything attached to it
act of misleading someone so as to
enter into contract / agreement
unlawful threat used to force someone
to enter into a contract
transfer of rights to another person
such that the person to whom the
rights have been transferred receives
full benefits under the contract
transfer of responsibilities to be
performed under a contract to another
third party who receives the right /
duty
party that makes an assignment to
pass on right to another
clause in a contract requireing the
obligor to pay all or a part of a payable
amount sooner tha as agreed upon the
occurrence of some event or
circumstance stated in the contract,
usually failure to make payment
clause prohibiting or permitting
assignment under certain conditions

Confidentiality

Geheimhaltung

Consideration

Erwhnung

Force Majeure
liquidated /
stipulated
damages

vis major
pauschalierter Schadenersatz

damage

Schadenersatz

liquidated
Entire Agreement
Severability

Termination

ganze Vereinbarung;
Vollstndigkeitsklausel
salvatorische Klausel
(Teilnichtigkeitsklausel)

Kndigung

Payment of Costs

Kostenaufteilung

liability

Haftung

remedy

Rechtsmittel

delay
default
legal age

Verzug
Nichterfllung (Unmglichkeit)

allegation

Anschuldigung

representation
to supersede
to be due

Zusicherung / Erklrung
etw. ersetzen
fllig sein

hereunder

unter diesen Bedingungen

obligor / debtor
obligee

Schuldner
Glubiger

confidential = to keep sth. secret do


not disclose/make it public
clause concerning the treatment of
information as private
motive; reason
clause expressing the cause, motive,..
which induces one party to enter into
an agreement
out of control of the parties
clause referring to an amount
predetermined by the parties as the
total amount of compensation a nonbreaching party should receive if the
other party breaches a part of the
contract (-> lump sum)
compensation you got for being
injured
getting a lump sum
make sure that everything important
to you is in the contract
to take out one clause
clause providing that, in the event that
one or more provisions of the
agreement are declared
unenforceable, the balance of the
agreement remains in force
clause outlining when and under which
circumstances the contract may be
terminated
clause setting out which party is
responsible for payment of costs
related to preparation of the
agreement and ancillary documents
the state of being legally responsible
for something
means of preventing / redressing /
compensating a violation of a right
something is late or postponed
failure to perform a duty
time of life at which a person acquires
full legal capacity
claim or assertion that someone has
done something illegal or wrong,
typically one made without proof
statement / promise
to replace something
expected at or planned for at a certain
time
as provided for under the terms of this
document
person who owes a right
person to whom a right is owed

subsidiary
company
to abstain from
warranty
breach of
contract

damage
monetary /
pecuniary relief /
damages /
compensation
expectation
damages /
benefit of the
bargain damages
reliance damages

Tochtergesellschaft
sich enthalten
Garantie / Gewhr
Vertragsbruch

Schaden
monetrer Schadenersatz

compensation for the loss of benefits


that a person would have received had
the contract been performed

restitution
damages
forseeability

Vorhersehbarkeit

plaintiff

Klger

general damages

special /
consequential
damages
punitive /
exemplary
damages
tort law
specific
performance
GATT (WTO)

Schadenersatzrecht
Vertragserfllung

MFN (WTO)
national
treatment (WTO)
pledged

a company controlled by a holding


company
to keep away from doing something
guarantee
failure to perform a contractual
obligation or interfereance with
another party's performance which
incurs a right for the other party to
claim damages
loss or harm as a result of injury
remedy that involves compensation
through money

verpfndet

compensation necessary to reimburse


the non-breaching party for efforts
expended in the reasonable belief that
the contract will be performed
compensation determined by the
amount of benefit unjustly received by
the breaching party
reasonable anticipation of possible
results of an action
a person who brings a case against
another in a court of law
compensation for a loss that is the
natural consequence of the breach of
contract
compensation for losses that are a
result of special facts and
circumstances
compensation designed to punish the
breaching party
law concerning wrong committed
between private individuals
court orders breaching party to
perform its part of a contract
General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade
Most Favoured Nation rule
treatment of foreign companies must
be equal to the one of national
companies
given as security for the fulfilment of a
contract or the payment of a debt and
is liable to forfeiture in the event of
failure

to rescind a
contract
employment law
labour law
to entail

vom Vertrag zurcktreten

to enact
to construe
Termination of
Employment
employment
tribunals
recruitment
disability

etw. erlassen
als etw. deuten
Kndigung des Arbeitsverhltnisses

genuine
occupational
qualification
(GOQ)
holiday
entitlement
unfair dismissal

Individualarbeitsrecht
kollektives Arbeitsrecht
etw. mit sich bringen

Personalaufbau
Behinderung

Urlaubsanspruch
ungerechtfertigte Kndigung

discriminatory
dismissal
redundancy
dismissal (layoff)
trade union
arbitration

strike

Streik

injunction

richterliche Verfgung

lockout

Aussperrung

due process

ordentliches Gerichtsverfahren

Bribery; to bribe

Bestechung

enlightment

Aufklrung

revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order,


or agreement)
refers to individual contract
collective bargain rules
involve (something) as a necessary or
inevitable part or consequence
make (a bill or other proposal)
to interpret
end of the work term or employment
judical body that resolves disputes
between employers and employees
hiring new employees
condition of bein unable to do
something due to a physical or mental
impairment
limited circumstances where sex or
marital status may be used as job
requirement
right of an employee to take paid time
off from his/her employment
unjust termination of an empoyee's
employment contract
termination of employment contract
based on prejudice or bias
termination of an employment
contract because the position ceases
to exist
association of employees formed to
further their mutual interests
form of dispute resolution, decided by
impartial arbitrator chosen by the
parties
a refusal to work organized by a body
of employees as a form of protest
a judicial order restraining a person
from beginning or continuing an action
threatening or invading the legal right
of another
preventing people from entering a
building such that employees cannot
work
a fundamental principle of fairness in
all legal matters, both civil and
criminal, especially in the court
offering, giving, receiving of any item
of value to influence the actions.
ducation that results in understanding
and the spread of knowledge

League of
Nations

Vlkerbund

General
Assembly
tribunal
commitees

Generalversammlung
Tribunal
Kommission

preamble

Vorwort

ordinance
operative
restriction

Verordnung
rechtswirksam
Vorbehalt

legal entity

Juristische Person

morality
unanimously
stockpile

Moral
einstimmig
ansparen

unfettered

uneingeschrnkt

proxy states
rogue nations
accountability

Stellvertretende Staaten
Schurkenstaat
Verantwortlichkeit

pacific
fraud
inducement

friedlich
Betrug
Anlass, Anreiz

lack of legal
capacity
void
voidable
exceed
sole judgement
credit standing

Geschftsunfhigkeit

impair
insurrection
covenant
to remedy
schedule
exhibits
surveillance
persistent
objector
privity
confer

Nichtig
anfechtbar
grer sein als
alleiniges Urteil
Bonitt
beeintrchtigen
Aufstnde
Abkommen
Beseitigen, beheben
Ablauf
Beweismittel
berwachung
Permanenter Widersprecher
Vertragsbeziehung
bertragen

A world organization establishedto


promote international cooperation and
peace.
body of the United Nations
court
a group of persons elected or
appointed to perform some service or
functio
A preliminary statement, especially the
introduction to a formal document
that serves to explain its purpose
an authoritative rule
to be legally valid
a principle that limits the extent of
something
an individual or group that is allowed
by law to take legal action
accepted standard of rights and wrong
everyone agreed
to acquire and store a large quantity of
(something)
To set free or keep free from
restrictions or bonds

responsibility to someone or for some


activity
peaceful
a cheat
incentive; Something that helps bring
about a desired result
No ability to performe legal acts.
invalid
Be higher than
One party decides alone
reputation for discharging financial
obligations
Get worse
rebelions
International agreement
Not solved to the suppliers content
program
Item of evidence
Spy, bug

Relation between the contract parties


transfer

incidental
benficiary
assigner
assignee
delegation
delegator
delegatee

shareholders will not be held


personally liable for corporate debts
Abtretender
Abtretungsempfnger
Vertretung
Delegierer
Beauftragter

certificate of
incorporation

Grndungsurkunde

Pass on duty

statutory forms
nominal capital /
authorised
capital
annual general
meetings
extraordinary
general meetings

satzungsgeme Ausgestaltung?
eingetragenes Kapital

duty of care

Sorgfaltspflicht

discharge a duty
hire
genuine
occupational
render
prospective
earnings
sale of goods
tangible/intangib
le
chattel
merchant
fitness
merchantability
waiver

Erlschen einer Schuld


anheuern
originr
beruflich
verknden
erwartete Einnahmen

person authorized to act as


representative for another
Get rid of a duty by performance
recruite
Right from the beginning
profession
officially announce a decision
Money expected to be earned

Krperlich/unkrplerich

Physical, immaterial

Krperliche bewegliche Sache


Hndler

disclaimer
apparent
authority
impose

Ablehnung eines Anspruchs


Vertretungsvollmacht

Tangible, moveable object


Someone who sells goods etc.
Good is suitable for its purpose
Suitable for buying and selling
a formal written statement of
relinquishment
denying of a claim
power to act for another party

lift
pierce
veil
memorandum of
association
articles of
association
board
chief executive
officers
fiduciary

anheben
durchdringen
Schleier
Gesellschaftsvertrag

shareholders
dividend
legal person
personal liability

Aktionr
Gewinnverteilung
Juristische Person
Persnliche Haftung

ultra vires

ber Befugnisse hinausgehend

corporate veil

Haftungsbeschrnkung

Gerbauchstauglichkeit
Erlass , Verzichtserklrung

durchsetzen

Vereinssatzung
Balken

Treuhand

force (an unwelcome decision or


ruling) on someone
to raise
to interfuse
contract of association
the constitution and regulations of a
registered company
a plank
have the duty of care
a person bound to act for another's
benefit
One that owns or holds a share
A share of profit
Legal entity
state of being legally obliged out of
ones own personal assets
unauthorised; beyond a person's legal
power
separation between the corporation
and its shareholders such that the

Jahreshauptversammlung

fiduciary duty
balance sheet

Bilanz

profit and loss


account
bonus

Bonus

capitalisation
issue

liquidation
auditor

Auflsung
Rechnungsprfer

company
secretary

Prokurist

director

Mitglied des Board of Directors

liquidator

Abwickler

managing
director
official receiver

Hauptgeschftsfhrer
Konkursverwalter

promoter

Grnder

proxy

Bevollmchtigter

document issued by a governmental


authority granting a company status as
a legal entity
forms required by law
total amount of stock a company may
offer its shareholders
yearly meeting of shareholders of a
company
any meeting of the shareholders other
than the AGM to discuss certain special
issues
obligation of a person to act with
reasonable caution or prudence
obligation to act solely in the best
interests of another
financial statement showing a
company's assets, liabilities and equity
statement summarizing a company's
revenues and expenses over a period
of time
payment above what was due or
expected
process whereby a company's money
is converted into capital and then
distributed to shareholders as new
shares
dissolution of a company
check profit-loss accounts / balance
sheets
an official on the board of a company
who deals with financial and legal
issues
member of the board of people that
manages or oversees the affairs of a
business
a person appointed to wind up the
affairs of a company or firm
chief executive or most senior
employee of a company
a person appointed by a court to
manage property pending the outcome
of litigation, during the infancy of the
owner, or after the owner(s) has been
declared bankrupt or of unsound mind
a person who helps to organize,
develop, or finance an undertaking
a person authorized to act on behalf of
someone else

sole proprietor

Einzelunternehmer

general
partnership
limited
partnership

OG
KG

C corporation
S corporation
(stock
corporation)
private limited
company
public limited
company
bylaws
revised
drawback
accounting
requirements
accountancy
contribution
omissions
proscribe
elapsing
ensuing
subsequent
obligation
prerequisite
preceding
margin
leeway
latitude
forestall
omit
impose
third-partybeneficiary
to vest
enforceable right
promisee
promisor
recipient
intendend
beneficiary
incidental
beneficiary
assignor

Aktiengesellschaft

the owner of the business when it is


owned by only one person
a business partnership in which the
parties share liability
a partner in the company or venture
whose liability towards its debts is
legally limited to the extent of their
investment
corporation that is taxed separately
from its owners
the corporation's income or losses are
divided among and passed through to
its shareholders; shareholders pay the
taxes

Verordnung
abgendert
Nachteil
Erfordernis der Buchfhrung

a regulation of a company
to change, alter, or amend
disadvantage
book keeping is needed

Buchhaltung
Beitrag
Unterlassung, Aussparen
verbieten,verbannen
ablaufend,vergehend
darauf folgend
anschlieend
Pflicht
Bedingung
vorangehend
begrenzen
Spielraum
Ermessensspielraum
vorwegnehmen
unterlassen, aussparen
aufdrngen,auferlegen

book keeping
to have a share in something
something has been left undone
to prohibit

bertragen
durchsetzbares Recht
Versprechensempfnger
Versprechensgeber
Empfnger

following
following
duty
condition
antecedent
to limit
leeway in decision-making
allowance at discretion
to anticipate
to leave something undone
to force

to transfer
to accept a promise
to give a promise
acceptor

assignee
discharge
novation
reliance
gather
sue
lease
arbitrary
consideration
credibility of
witnesses
predicated on a
dispute
defendant
asserts
attempt is
unavailing
commercial lease
rebut
enact
exclude
obligation
draft
demised
premises
inclusions of the
lease
exclusions
sale and goods
transfer of title
passage of title
implied
warranties
express
warranties
disclaimers of
warranties
delivery
acceptance
passing of risk
requirements
amendments
contractual
provisions
apparent
authority

Abtretender
ausstoen
Novation
Vertrauen
versammeln
klagen
Pacht

to eject
trust
to assemble
to accuse

wiederlegen, entkrften
beschlieen
ausschlieen
Pflicht,Verpflichtung
Entwurf

to refute
to decide
to expulse
duty
bill

Ausschluss
Verkauf von Waren
Rechtsbergang,Eigentumsbertrag
ung
Eigentumsbertragung,
Rechtsbergang
gesetzliche Gewhrleistung

debarment
sale of products
transfer of ownership/rights

legal guarantuee

vertragliche Gewhrleistung

contractual guarantuee

Haftungsausschluss

liability exclusion

Lieferannahme

receiving of the delivery

bergang der
Gefahr,Gefahrbergang
Ansprche, Forderungen
Verbesserung, Nachbesserung
vertragliche Bestimmung

the risk of loss and damage passes on


from the seller to the buyer

Anscheinsvollmacht

refers to a situation where a


reasonable person would understand
that an agent had authority to ac

transfer of ownership/rights

remediation of a defect

warranty of
fitness for a
particular
purpose
sales by sample
foster
vendor
retailer
wares
supplier
indemnification
of vendor
retention of title
proprietary
pressure vessels
indebtedness
adduced
evidence
petitioner
retain
ascertain
by virtue
faulty goods

Zusicherung der erforderlichen


Gebrauchstauglichkeit

warranty of merchantability

Verkauf nach Muster


untersttzen
Verkufer
Hndler
die Waren
Lieferant
Wiedergutmachung durch den
Verkufer
Eigentumsvorbehalt

sale to pattern
to support
seller
merchant
products
deliverer
compensation by the seller

Eigentum
Druckbehlter ?? :D
Schuldenlast, Verschuldung
Beweis erbringen

if somebody reservates his proprietary


rights
ownership
pressure container
level of debt
to show proof

Antragsteller, Klger
behalten, aufbewahren
feststellen
aufgrund, laut
fehlerhafte Ware

claimant
to keep something
to determine
based on
defective products