Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 491

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICIT1

Mathematical Theory

f!f Elastuzty

1. S. SOKOLNIKOFF
Profe88OT oj Mathematic8
University of California
L08 Angele8

SECOND EDlTlON

TATA McGttAw.tHLL PUBLISHING COMPANY LTD.

",Bomba,-N_ DeIhl

ACC

. i.. >.J.,\'P

tI()._~ ;3,7 98

CL.IIIO._ _.

....

,.,.

------.:::::::':'::-:&:-:.1 ~~~ /

MATHEMATICAL THEORY Of ELASTICITY

Copyright @ 1956 by the McGraw-Hili Book Company, Inc.


Copyright 1946, by the McGraw-Hili Book Company, Inc.

All Rights Reserved.


This book. or parts thereof. may not be reproduced ill any form
without permission of the publishers.

T M H Edition

Reprinted in India by arrangement with McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

New York.

This edition can be exported from India only by the Publishers.


Tata McGraw-Hili Publishing Company Ltd.

Published by Tata McGraw-Hill Publlshl", Company Unltted and


printed by Mohan Mallhllani

at Rekha Printers, Mew Delhl.55

PREFACE
The theory of elasticity, in its broad aspects, deals with a study of the
behavior of those substances that possess the property of recovering their
size and shape when the forces producing deformations are removed.
In common with other branches of applied mathematics, the growth of
this theory proceeded from a synthesis of special ideas and techniques
devised to solve concrete problems. This resulted in a patchwork of
theories treating isolated classes of problems, determined largely by the
geometry of bodies under consideration. The embedding of such diverse
theories in a unified structure, and the construction of the analytical
tools for calculating stresses and deformations in a strained elastic body,
are among the dominant concerns of the mathematical theory of elasticity.
This book represents an attempt to present several aspects of the
heory of elasticity from a unified point of view and to indicate, along
with the familiar methods of solution of the field equations of elasticity,
30me newer general methods of solution of the two-dimensional problems.
The first' edition of this book, published in 1946, had its origin in a
course of lectures I gave in 1941 and 1942 in the Program of Advanced
Instruction and Research in Mechanics conducted by the Graduate
School of Brown University. In those lectures I stressed the contributions to the theory by the RuSsian school of elasticians and, in particular,
the relatively little--known work of great elegance and importance by
N. I. Muskhelishvili. I planned ~o supplement that book by a companion volume dealing with effective methods of attack on the twodimensional and anisotropic problems of elasticity. The developments
in the intervening years, however, were so rapid that I was urged to
puhlish instead a single volume containing an up-to-date treatment of
material presented in the. first edition and supplement it with new topics,
in order to give a rounded idea of the current state of the subject.
The present edition differs from its predecessor by extensive additions
ad ~ Most of the material appearing in the .last three chapters
had no counterpart in the first edition. Throughout r bve tried to give
" .clea1' indieation of the fronti.,rs of the developments, and 1 have constantlY kept in mind those readers whose principal conrero is with prallw.l appication of the theory. While nfo) volume of this size can lay
.... to an _ _ _ve list of referenoos to reeeateh lite~, I bave

vi

PREFACE

selected such references with care so as to give an accurate picture of the


present state of the topics treated in this book.
I deliberately omitted any dis~on of the theory of shells, because a
palatable treatment of the shell theory cannot be made in the space of
fewer than 300 pages. The best available treatment of this subject, in
my opinion, is given in a Rllssian monograph by A. L. Goldenveiser,
Theory of Thin Elastic Shells, .Moscow (1053), 544 pp.
The first three chapters, despite their brevity, contain a comprehensive
treatment of the underlying theory of mechanics of deformahle media.
These chapters are essential to the understanding of the remaining
chapters, which can be read independently of one another. Chapter 4
gives an up-to-date treatment of extension, torsion, and flexure of beams,
including the deformation of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous beams
by loads distributed on their lateral surfaces. Chapter 5 is concerned
with two important categories of plane problems of elasticity. It contains an account of the general modes of attack on such problems with
the aid of the theory of functions of complex variables. Although a clear
indication of the use of such methods in the problems. of transverse
deflection of thin plates is made, illustrations are chosen mainly from
problems on plates in the states of plane strain or generalized plane stress.
Chapter 6, dealing with the three-dimensional problems, is brief for
the simple reason that effective general techniques for the analytic solution of such problems still remain to be developed. The most promising
approach in this connection appears to be (as in Chap. 5) via the use of
general solutions of Navier's equations in terms of harmonic functions.
The chapter contains a formulation of thermoelastic problems and an
introductory account of the theory of vibrations and propagation of
waves in elastic media.
Chapter 7 on Variational Methods contains a treattnent of the energy
theorems in elasticity and their bearing on the variational methods of
solution of elastostatic problems. I have tried to present the variational
techniques of Ritz, Galerkin, Trefftz, Kantorovich, and others in a
unified way, without resorting to function space methods so as to make
matters meaningful to a wider circle of readers. This chapter includeR
a discussion of the method of finite differences and relaxation, which are
frequently used when analytic methods fail.
This volume owes much to the recent contribution to elasticity made
by Russian scholars.. Suitable acknowledgment to sources is made
throughout this volume, but my chief debt is to Academician N. I.
Muskhelishvili, whose unparalleled monograph, "Some Basic Problems
of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," Moscow (1954), originally
published in 1933 and now in the fourth edition, bas left. an indelible
imprint.
A large part of the tnaterial in this volume was prepared in the (lOUl'l!e

vii

PREFACE'

of the investigations and lectures I gave during my tenure as a Guggenheim Fellow during the academic year 1952-1953. I am pleased to
have this opportunity to acknowledge my gratitude to the Guggenheim
Memorial Foundation, whose grant enabled me to discuss this book with
my colleagues in England and on the Continent. I also wish to repeat an
acknowledgment, made in the Preface to the first edition, to the Wisconsin
Alumni Research Foundation for a grant-in-aid that facilitated the
publication of the predecessor of this volume.
I am indebted to Dr. George E. Forsythe, Research Mathematician at
the University of California at Los Arigeles, for material on Relaxation
Methods in Sec. 125, and to Robert K. Froyd, Research Assistant at the
University of California at Los Angeles, for his help in proofreading and
preparing the index matter.
. I.

S. SOKOLNIKOFF

CONTENTS
v

PBml'ACI!l .
HISTORICAL SKETCH.

CHApTI!lR

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

'1.
8.
9.
10.
11.

1.

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

Deformation
Affine Transformations .
Infinitesimal Affine Deformations
A Geometrical Interpretation of the Components of Strain
Strain Quadric of Cauchy
Principal Strains. Invariants
General Infinitesimal Deformation .
Examples of Stmin
Notation
Equations of Compatibility .
Finite Deformations.
2. ANALYSIS OF STRESS
Body and Surface Forces.
Stress Tensor .
Note on Notation and Units.
Equations of Equilibrium
Transformation of Coordinates .
Stress Quadric or Cauchy
Maximum Normal and Shear Stresses.
Examples of Stress

35
36

39
40
42
45

Mohr's Diagram

3. EQUATIONS 01' ELASTICITY.


20. Hooke's Law .
21. Generalized Hooke's Law
22. Homogeneous Isotropic Media
23. Elastic Moduli for ;sotropic Media. Simple Tension. Pure Shear.
Hydrostatic Pressure.
24. Equilibrium Equations 'or an Isotropic Elastic Solid
25. Dynamical Equations o' an Isotropic Elastic Solid .
26. The Strain-Energy Func,ion and Its Connection with Hooke's Law
27. Uniqueness oC Solution. Remarks on Existence of Solution
28. Saint-Venant's Principle.

CHAPTER

CHAPTIIl1l4.

6
9
12
14
16
20
23
25
25
29

35

CIlAPTER

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

5
5

ExTI!lNSION, TORSION, AND FIJilIroRm 01' BEAMS.

29. Statement of Problem


30. Extemon of Beams by Longitudinal Forces
31. Beam Strstehed by Its Own Weight

19

63
56
56
5ll
66

67
71
80
81

86
89
91

91

32. Bending of Beams by Termin&! Couples

96
97
100

33: Torsion of & Circular Shaft .

107
is

CONTENTS

34. Torsion of Cylindrical Bars

109
114
36. Torsion of Elliptical Cylinder
120
124
37. Simple Solutions of the Torsion Problem. Effect of Grooves
38. Torsion of a Rectangular Beam and of a Triangular Prism .
128
39. Complex Form of Fourier Series
134
137
40. Summary of Some Results of the Complex Variable Theory
41. Theorem of Harnack.
143
42. Formulas of Schwarz and Poisson
145
43. Conformal Mapping .
147
44. Solution of the Torsion Problem by Means of Conformal Mapping
151
45. Applications of Conformal Mapping
157
46. Membrane and Other Analogies.
165
47. Torsion of Hollow Beams
169
177
48. Curvilinear Coordinates.
49. Torsion of Shafts of Varying Circular Cross Section .
186
50. Local Effects .
190
51. Torsion of Anisotropic Beams .
193
52. Flexure of Beams by Terminal Loads
198
53. Center of Flexure .
204
54. Bending by a Load along a Principal Axis.
208
55. The Displacement in a Bent Beam.
209
56. Flexure of Circular and Elliptical Beams
213
57. Bending of Rectangular Beams.
. . 217
58. Conformal Mapping and the General Problem of Flexure; the Cll.rdioid
Section.
219
J\9. k-wii."G.<>.f c:.i.',<'.I.\\g.. p.i,<w.
223
60. Stress Functions and Analogies; Beams of Elliptical and Equilateral Triangular Sections .
230
237
61. Flexure of Semicircular Beams .
62. Multiply Connected Domains. Deformation of Nonbomogeneous Beams
231)
with Free Sidee. Other Developments
63. Deformation of Cylinders by Lateral Loads
243
64. Torsion of a Cylinder by Forces on the Lateral Surface .
244

35. Streee Function

CHAPTER 5.

65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

10.
71.
72.
73.
U.
75.
76.
77.
78.
7.
89.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATlC PROBLEMS

Introductory Remarks
Plane Deformation
Plane Stress. Generalized Plane Stress
Plane Elastostatic Problems.
Airy's Stress Function
General Solution of the Biharmonic Equation.
Formulas for Stresses and Displacements .
The Structure of Functions 9'(z) and 1{I(z) .
First and Second Boundary-value Problems in Plane Elasticity
Remarks on the Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions .
.
The Role of Conformal Representation in Plane Problems of Elasti{\ity .
An Elementary Method of Solution of the Basic Problems for Simply Connected Domains .
Solution of Basic Problems for a Circular Region. .
Solution of Problems for the Infinite Region Bounded by a Circle
Infinite Region Bounded by an Ellipse.
Problems for the Interior of an Ellipse.

249
249
250
253
257
259
262
263
266
269
272
273
216
280
2S6
292
296

CONTENTS
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.

Baaic Problems for Doubly Connected Domains .


Integrodifferentisl Equations for the Basic Problems
Integral Equations for the Baaic Problems
Solution of Integrodifferentisl Equations .
Dlustrstive Examples.
Further Developments. Multiply Connected Domains.
Schwarz's Alternating Method .
Applications of the Alternating Method
Concluding Remarks .

CHAPTER

90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.

CHAPTER

105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.

116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.

6.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

General Solutions .
Concentrated Forces .
Deformation of Elastic Half Space by Normal Loads
The Problem of Boussinesq
Spherical Shell under External and Internal Pressures
Spherical Harmonics .
Elastic Equilibrium of a Sphere and Other Problems
Betti's Method of Integration
Existence of Solutions
Thermoelastic Problems
Thermal Stresses in Spherical Bodies
Two-dimensional Thermoelastic Problems.
Vibration of Elastic Solids
Wave Propagation in Infinite Regions .
Surface Waves.
7.

VARIATIONAL METHODS

Introduction .
Variational Problems and Euler's Equations
Theorem of Minimum Potential Energy
Theorem of Minimum Complementary Energy
Theorems of Work and Reciprocity
Illustrative Examples.
Variational Problem Related to the Biharmonic Equation
The Ritz Method. One-dimensional Case
The Ritz Method. Two-dimensional Case
Literature on Direct Methods
The Galerkin Method
Applications to Torsion of Beams and Deformation of Plate.
The Method of Kan1 1rovich.
The Trefftz Method
An Application of the Trefftz Method .
The Rafalson Method 'or the Biharmonic Equation .
The Method of Least Uquares. Collocation
.
The Function Space M thods .
.
The Method of Finite Differences .
An IIlustration of the Method of Finite Differences
Relaxation Methods '

xi
297
303

304

307
311
313
318
322

326
328
328

336
339

341
343
345
350

354
358
358

362
364

367
370
372
377
377
377

382
387
390
397
402
404
409

412
413
416
421

425
430

432
435
440
442
445

454

46i
SuBJEcT INDEX

471

IUSTOBICAL SKETCH
The theory of eiasticity is concerned with the study of the response of
elastic bodies to the action of forces. A body is called elastic if it possesses
the property of recovering its original shape when the forces causing
deformations are removed. The elastic property of material media is
shared by alI substances provided that the deformations do not exceed
certain limits determined by the constitutive characteristics of the body.
The elastic property is characterized mathematically by certain functional relationships connecting forces and deformations. Among such
relationships a linear law stemming from a generalization of Hooke's law l
is of fundamental importance. Hooke's law states, in effect, that the
extensions of springlike bodies, produced by the tensile forces, are proportional to the forces. An identical law was discovered independently
by Mariotte' in 1680 and used by him to investigate the strength of
cantiliver beams. Mariotte concluded that a cantilever beam resists
flexure because some of its longitudinal fibers are extended and others are
contracted. Although Mariotte's assumption regarding force distribution in fibers was correct, his investigations did not include the study of
the shape assumed by the beam's axis. Such a study' was made in 1705
by Jacob Bernoulli, who combined elementary equilibrium considerations
with Hooke's law to obtain the differential equation of the elastica, that is,
the curve assumed by the deformed axis of the beam. His equation implies
that the curvature of the elastica at each point is proportional to the
bending moment acting in the section through the point. It readily
fonows from this result that the work done in bending the beam is proportional to the integral of the square of the curvature taken along the
elastica. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), a strong proponent of the minimum principles that were in the process of formulation at that time, suggested in a letter' to Euler that the equation of elastica should emerge on
minimizing the integral representing the work done in bending the beam.
In this manner Euler deduced Jacob Bernoulli's equation and integrated
it for a number of special cases. 6
I Robert Hooke, De potentia restitutiva (1678).
E. MariQtte, Traite de mouvement des eaux (1686).
J. Bernoulli, Collected Works (1744), voI..2, p. 976.
'The twenty-sixth letter of D. Bernoulli to Euler, October, 1742, in P. H. Fuss'
Correspondence mathematique et physique (184.3), vol. 2.
L. Euler, the addendum to "De eurvis elasticis," in Metodus inveniendi lineas
curvas maximi minimive proprietate gaudentes (1744). This paper and Euler's

MATHEJ4ATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Euler's work in elasticity was confined principally tit the study of


elastica, and it was not concerned with the distribution of stresses in the
cross sections of the beam. The study of the force distribution in long
beams subjected to tension and bending was initiated by Coulomb l
(1736-1806), who was also the first to study the resistance of thin wires
to torsion. 2
During the ISO-year period following the discovery of Hooke's law'
(ca. 1660), the growth of the science of elasticity proceeded from a synthesis of solutions of special problems. This gave in the early nineteenth
~entury a fragmentary theory of flexure of beams, an incomplete theory
of torsion, the rudiments of the theory of stability of columns, and a few
isolated results on bending and vibration of plates.
The first attempt to deduce general equations of equilibrium and
vibration of elastic solids was made by Navier (1785-1836) in a remarkable memoir' read on May 14, 1821. This date marks the birth of the
mathematical theory of elasticity. Starting with the picture of molecular
interaction in which the forces act along the lines joining two particles
and are proportional to the change in distance between them, Navier
deduced a set of three macroscopic differential equations for the components of displacement in the interior of an isotropic elastic solid. The
form of these equations is correct, but, because of the oversimplified
picture of molecular interaction, the Navier equations contain only one
elastic constant. Navier also obtained the equilibrium equations on the
surface of the solid (the boundary conditions) with the aid of Lagrange's
principle of virtual work.
Navier's work attracted the attention of A. Cauchy (1789-1857), who,
proceeding from different assumptions, gave a formulation of the linear
theory of elasticity that remains virtually unchanged to the present day.
Instead of starting with some specific law of molecular interacti~n,
Cauchy shows that the state of stress at an interior point of the deformable body is completely determined by a set of nine functions. When the
further resea.rches, published in Acta Academioo Petropolitanae (1778), provide a.
founda.tion f6r the theory of e1a.stie sta.bility. The work wa.s extended by J. L.
Lagra.nge (1736-1813), who ma.de several basic contributions to the theory of elastic
columns.
1 C. A..Coulomb, Memoires par divers savants (1784), (1787), pp. 229-269.
M lmoiT68 de I' acadtmie des science8, Paris (1784).
'I'his law was sharpened by Thomas Young in 1807. Young's most important
oontn'bution to ela.sticity is in the clear formulation of the modulus of elasticity in
tension. Although Young made an important observation that, in the torsieu of
rods by co.uples, the applied torque is balanced by a distn'bution of the shearing forces
in the etoII8 section of the rod, and that the resulting deformation is proportional to the
ahearlng forces, he failed to introduce the shear modulus.
C,L. M. H. Navier, Mtmoir68 de I'arodtmie d68 sciena8, Paris, vol. 7 (1827). See
also Btdletin de 1a _Ute phiiomatAiqlle, Paris (1823), p. 177.

msromcAL SKETCH

body is in equilibrium, these nine functions are shown to satisfy three


simple partial differential equations and their number reduces to six
because of certain symmetry relations. The state of deformation is likewise determined by six functions, which are simply related to the components of the displacement vector, when the displacements are small.
Now, when the body is elastic and only small deformations are contemplated, one is justified in assuming that the set of functions characterizing
the state of stress is related linearly to the set characterizing the deformation. This assumption represents a far-reaching generalization of
Hooke's law. When the body is elastically isotropic, the linear relationship, just mentioned, turns out to contain only two elastic constants.
On eliminating the functions ooaracterizing the state of stress from
Cauchy's equations, one is led to a set of three differential equations of the
same structure as Navier's equations, but which contain two ellj.Stic constants instead of one. These important results were presented by
Cauchy' to the Paris Academy in 1822.
At a later date' Cauchy used a special law of molecular interaction to
generalize his results to the anisotropic media. The resulting stressstrain relations, for the most general type of anisotropy, turn out to contain 15 elastic constants, instead of 21, because of the restrictive conditions on the arrangement of particles imposed on his model by Cauchy.
The controversy bet ween the proponents of Cauchy's "rariconstant
theory" and the supporters of the "multiconstant theory" raged for
many years. It abated only with the acceptance of George Green's
(1793-1841) revolutionary principle of conservation of elastic energy.
Green proposed to deduce the fundamental equations of elasticity by
following the pattern laid down by Lagrange in Mecanique analytique.
To do this, he introduced the concept of strain energy and deduced, a in
1837, the basic equations of elasticity from the principle of virtual work.
The number of elastic constants necessary to characterize the most
general elastic medium (when the deformation is small) turns out to be
21, because of the connection of the quadratic form representing the strain
energy with stress-strain relations. The existence of Green's energy
function, when the body is in an isothermal state, has been argued by
Lord Kelvin,' and similar arguments have been advanced to establish its
existence for the adiabatic state.
The principle of the conservation of elastic energy has led to the
1 An abstract was published in Bulletin de la 8oci~M philomatkique, Paris (1823), and
details in three papers in the 1827 and 1828 volumes of the ExercisiJ8 de malhematique.
See two papers in the Exerci_ de mathematique, vol. 3 (1828a), p. 213, and vol. 3
(1828b), p. 328.
George Green, Transactions of the Cambridge Philo8ophical Society, vol. 7 (1839),
p. 121, or Mathematical Pap<!'rs (1871), p. 245.
William Thomson, Quarterly Journal oj Math.ematiCf, vol. 5 (1855).

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

formulation of the basic problems of elasticity as certain minimum


principles. I
The contributions of Navier, Cauchy, and Green were concerned not
SO much with the solution of specific types of boundary-value problems
as with the formulation of foundations and general theories. In the
domain of problems concerned with the torsion and flexure of cylinders
monumental contributions have been made by Barre de Saint-Venant t
(1797-1886).
Important developments in the kinematic theory of thin rods and in
the study of the deflection of plates were initiated by G. Kirchhoff'
(1824-1887).
The developments during this century were concerned principally with
the problems of the existence of solutions and the integration of several
broad categories of the boundary-value problems. A definitive treatment of the fundamental problems in plane elasticity (primarily by the
school of Russian mathematicians influenced by N. 1. Muskhelishvili)
was given and significant strides made in the theory of shells and in the
construction of nonlinear theories of elasticity.4
1 See Chap. 7 of this book.
These are treated in Chap. 4 of this book. Saint-Venant's work on torsion and
bending of prisms is contained in two extensive memoirs published in Mhnoire8 de I'
acadtmie des 8cience. de8 8avants ttranger8, vo!. 14 (1855), pp. 233-560, and in Journal
de matMmatique. de Liouville, ser. 2, vo!. 1 (1856), pp. 89-189. Many original contrihutions, representing about one-third of the volume, are also contained in SaintVenant's translation of A. Clebsch's Theorie der Elasticitat fester Korper (1862),
which was published in 1883 under the title Theorie de l'tliasticite des corps solides.
G. Kirchhoff, Vorlesungen liber matematische Physik (1897). An account of the
current state of thin rods is contained in a monograph by E. P. Popoff, Non-linear
Static Problems of Thin Rods (1948) (in Russian). A survey of the recent work in the
theory of plate. is contained in a paper by G. Dzanelidze, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 12 (1948), pp. 109-124, which was translated by the American
Mathematical Society, Translation 6 (1950).
A synoptic account of the contribution of Russian mathematicians in the domain
of two-dimensional problems was prepared by D. I. Sherman in the collection Mechanics
in SSSR fur Thirty Years (1950), pp. 192--225 (in Russian). See also Chap. 5 of this
book. A critical summary of developments in nonlinear elasticity was published by
C. A. Truesdell, Journal of Rational Mechanic8, vol. 1 (1952), pp. 125--300, vol. 2
(1953), pp. 593--616; and a systematic account will be found in the English translation
of the 1948 edition of V. V. Novozhilov's Russian monograph entitled Foundations of
Nonlinear Theory of Elasticity (1953). The theory of shells is still in the formative,
patchy state characterUed by conflicting approximations. A rea.dable acoount of a
fairly general theory of shells is contained on pp. 375-437 of Theoretical E1asticity,
by A. E. Green and W. Zema (1954). A comprehensive trea.tment of the shen theory
is given in the Theory of Thin Elastic Shells, by A. L. Goldenveiser (1953) (in
ltuaslan).

CHAPTER

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

1. Deformation.

The fir.st two chapters of this book are not specifi-

cally concerned with elastic media. In a great many problems the


atomistic structure of matter can be disregarded and the body replaced
by a continuous mathematical model whose geometrical points are
identified with material poil1ts of the body. The study of such models
is in the province of the mechanics of continuous media, which covers a
vast range of problems in elasticity, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics,
plasticity, and electrodynamics.
When the relative position of points in a continuous body is altered,
we say that the body is strained. The change in the relative position of
points is a deformation, and the study of deformations is the province of
the analysis of strain.
Although aU material bodies are to some extent deformable, it is useful
to introduce an abstraction of a nondeformable, or rigid, body. A rigid
body is an ideal body such that the distance between every pair of its
points remains invariant throughout the history of the body. The
behavior of rigid bodies subjected to the action of forces is investigated
in the mechanics of rigid bodies, where it is shown that the possible displacements in a rigid body consist of translations and rotations. Such
displacements are termed rigid displacement.s, and although they are of
minor concern in the analysis of strain, it is important to learn how to
characterize them analytically.
Let the body r, occupying in the undeformed state some region H, be
referred to an orthogonal set of cartesian axes o-X tX ,X 3 (Fig. 1) fixed in
space. The coordinates of typical point P of 7" in the unstrained state arc
(Xl, X2, xs).
In the strained state the points of 7" will occupy some region
H', and we denote the coordinates of the same material point P by
(x;, x~, x~). We shall be concerned only with continuous deformations
of H into R' and shall write the equations characterizing the deformation
in the form,
(1.1)

(i ==.1, 2, 3).

We shall further suppose that Eqs. (1.1) have a single-valued inverse


{1.2}

Xi

= x.(x;, x;, x;) "'" x.(r},


5

(i = 1, 2, 3),

MATH~;MATlCAL

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

that the transformation of points from R into R' is one-to-one. This


restriction is based solely on our desire to deal with the single-valued
displacements. l To ensure the existence of the single-valued inverse, it
. would suffice to assume that the functions x: (x ) are of class Cl in Rand
have a nonvanishing Jacobian in that region. 2 We shall assume that
this is so.
Part of the transformation defined by Eqs. (1.1) may represent rigid
body motions (that is, translations and rotations) of the body as a whole.
This part of the deformation leaves unchanged the length of every vector
joining a pair of points within the body and is of no interest in the analysis
of strain. The remaining part of the transformation (1.1) will be called
pure deformation. It will be important to learn how to distinguish
between pure deformations and rigid body motions when the latter are
present in the equation of transformation (1.1). To this end we shall
consider first the simplest case of (1.1), that in which the functions
appearing therein are linear functions of the eoordinates Xl, X2, X.. The
Eqs. (1.1) in which the functions are linear defiue what is called all affine
transformation.
2. Affine Transfonnations. The properties of the general linear transformation of points,
SO

auXa,
+ (1 + all)x, +
"loX. +
a2aX3,
+
a"XI + (1 + a..):r. +
a.o +
""Xl +
a, .... + (1 + a.,)xI,

X; = a,o
x; = a.o

x; =

or, written more ("ompactly,'


(i,j = 1,2,3),

(2.1)

, Although, at fil'8t gla" .. e. Uw single-valued charaet!'r of displacements appears tu


he demandpd by tbe physics of the situation, 'it proves convenient to consider multivalued displacements in several important physical problems. Multivalued displacements in two-dimensional "lastostatic problems were first considered by A. Timpe,
Zeit8chrift fur Mathematik ,md Physik, vol. 52 (1905), pp, 348-383, and, in a more
general way, by V. Volterra, Annal.s de Ncole normale 8uperieur., vol. 24 (1907), pp.
401-517. An account of Volterra's "theory of dislocation," concerned with thf'
deformation of initially strained multiply connected regions, is given by A. E, H. Love,
A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1927), pp. 221-228. A brief,
but highly illnminating, account of multi valued displacements arising in thermoelastic problems is contained in N. I. Muskhelishvili's Some Basic Problems of the
Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953), pp. 157-165.
I See, for example, 1. S. Sokolnikoff, Advanced Calculus (1939), p, 422.
A function
F(x"
x.) is said to he of the class
in the region R if it is continuous and has
continuous partial d"rivatives with respect to x" Xt, and x, up to and including those

x.,

c-

of order n.

A repeated subscript indicates summation as the index thatis repeated takes thfl

valu. 1, 2, 3. Thus
The symbol lit;, the Krrineckrr delta, is defined to have the vah,e one if i equal!! j,

,.

ANALYSIS OJ' STRAIN

where the coefficients 4,; are constants, are well known. Since it is
desirable to demand the existence of an inverse, Eqs. (2.1) must be solvable
for the variables :1:1, X2, X3 as functions of x~, x~, x;. 1t follows that the
determinant 18#
a;;1 of the coefficients of the unknowns entering into
the right-hand member of (2.1) must not vanish. It is obvious that, t.he
inverse transformation

(i, j = 1, 2, 3),

(2.2)

is likewise linear.
It is easy to see from (2.1) and (2.2) that an affine transformation
carries planes into planes, and hence a rectilinear segment joining the

FlO. 1

points rO(x~, xg, xg) and P(Xl, X2, x.) is transformed into a rectilinear I;legment joining the corresponding points pO'(xr, xg', xg') and P'(x;, x;, x~)
(Fig. 1). This follows from the fact that the rectilinear segment pop can
be thought of as joining two points po and P on the intersection of two
planCl;! 8 1 and 8 2 ; under the transformation (2.1) points po and P go over
into points po' and P', which lie on the intersection of the planes S~ and
S;, into which the planes Sl and S. are carried by the transformation.
We shall denote the unit base vectors, directed along the coordinate
axes Xl, x., and Xa, by el, e2, and e., respectively. Thus, a vector A whose
components along the coordinate axes are At, AI, As can be written as
(i = 1,2,3).
Since the vector A = e,A, is uniquely determined once its components
A. (i = 1, 2, 3) are prescribed, we can represent the vector A by the
symbol A;. Under the transformation (2.1) the vector A; = x; - x?,
joining the points PO(X O) and P(x), is carried into another vector
A~

x~

- xf' .

.zero if i durers {rom j. The reason for friting the coefficients of x" x" and x, in the
first, second, and third lines as 1 + "'", 1 + au, 1 + a .. will appear later.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

In general, vectors -Ai and A~ differ in direction and magnitude. From


(2.1), which we write in the form

+ z. + tJt;jej,

z: "" a.o

we have

+ +

A: = ~ - x2' = (<%i0
Xi
<%i;Xi) - (a.o + x1
= (x, - xf) + a,/(xi - ~) = A, + <%iiA;,

+ I%>;X~)

or
(i, j = 1, 2, 3).

(2.3)

It is clear from (2.3) that two vectors Ai and B, whose components are
and
whose components are again
equal transform into two vectors
equal. Also two parallel vectors obviously transform into parallel
vectors. Hence, two equal and similarly oriented rectilinear polygons
located in different parts of the region R will be transformed into two
equal and similarly oriented polygons in the transformed region R'.
Thus, the different parts of the body T, when the latter is subjected to the
transformation (2.1), experience the same deformation independently of
the position of the parts of the body. For this reason, the deformation
characterized by (2.1) is called a homogeneous def()7'mation.
Consider the transformation (2.1), and let the variables be SUbjected
to another affine transformation,

A:

B:

x:

x~' = 'YkO

(2.4)

(6w

+ 'Yo;)x:.

Recalling the definition of the Kronecker delta, we can write (2.4) as


x~' = 'Y10

+ x~ + 'Y1.-3:;.

Let A" be the transform of the vector


A" IE x~' - x~" = ('YkO + x~
= (xl - x:') + 'Yo;(x: -

A~;

then

+ 'Y..xi)

xn =

Al

('Y'o + x2' + 'Y..xn


+ 'YwA;,

or
(i, k = 1, 2, 3).

(2.5)

The product of the two successive affine transformations (2.1) and (2.4)
is equivalent to the single transformation obtained by substituting in
(2.4) the values of in terms of Xi from (2.1). Thus one has

x:

x~' = 'YkO
=

a10

+ (6.,. + 'Yw){a;o + (6" + a;;)Xi]


+ 'Y1O + (Oti + ati + 'Yki)Xi
+ <%ioYo; + <%ilYo;Xi'

Now if the coefficients Ct;i and 'Yii are so small that one is justified in
neglecting their products in comparison with the coefficients themselves,
then

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN'

The product transformation likewise carries the point (.zt


point (zt", .zl", .zf') where

zt"

akO

+ 'Y.a + zt + (Cl,tj + 'Y~).z'.

The vector A. = .z. - xl ill thlli! transformed into the


A~'

x~'

At

.zt .zl) to the

- x~" = (Xk - xl)


+ (a.; + 'Yk;)A;,

vecto~

+ (ak} + 'Y.t,;)(Xj

- x~)

or
(i, k = 1, 2, 3).

(2.6)

Thus, if one neglects products of the ll;; and 'Y;;, then the Cl>efficients in
the resultant transformation (2.6) are obtained by adding the corresponding coefficients ll;; and 'Y;! in the component transformatiol\s (2.3) and
(2.5). In this event, it is said that the product transformation (2.6) is
obtained by superposition of the original transformations. It is clear ftom
the structure of the formulas (2.6) that the resultant transtormation is
independent of the order in which the transformations are performed.
One of the chief sources of the difficulty that confronts one ~n the study
of finite as distinguished from infinitesimal deformations arilses from the
fact that the principle of superposition of effects and the ir.dependence
of the order of transformations are no longer valid.
A transformation of the type (2.1), in which the coefficients are so small
that their products can be neglected in comparison with the linear terms,
is called an injiniteBimal affine transformation.
S. Infinitesimal Affine Deformations. In this section we flhall be concerned with. the problem of separating the infinitesimal affine transformation defined by Eq. (2.3);
(3.1)

6A i

...

A: - Ai = aijA j ,

into two component transformations: one of these corresponds to Ii rigid


body motion; the other, which we have termed pure deformation, will be
investigated in detail in the next section. We seek first th~ conditions
on the coefficients ai, if the deformation is to be one of rigid [lody motion
(that is, one consisting of rotation and translation) alone.
A rigid body motion is characterized by the fact that the length
A=IAI=~
of any vector A is unchanged by the transformation. If W(\ replace the
Ai in this formula by Ai
IiAi and denote the change in length A by
IiA, we get

(3.2)

AliA = AillAi

plus terms of higher order in IIA" which are neglected, since we are concerned with the infinitesimal affine transformation. When the expres-

10

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

sions for &A, given by (3.1) are inserted in (3.2), one finds that
A iA = avA,As,

or when written out in full,

"llAr + a .. Ai + aa>A: + (au + a,,)AIA.


+ (0113 + (32)A.A s + (au + al3)AaAI.

A aA =

Since for a rigid body transformation IlA vaniRhes for all values of AI, A.,
As, we must have
(l11

au

(l"

(l ..

= 0,

+ au = a.3 + a32 = au + au =

O.

Hence a necessary and sufficient condition that the infinitesimal transformation (3.1) represent a rigid body motion is
(3.3)

lXii

(i,j = 1,2,3).

-ai',

In this case, the set of quantities lXii is said to be skew-symmetric. When


the coefficients aij are skew-symmetric, the transformation (3.1) takes
the form
aA I =
- a.,A.
/lA. =
a.IA I
/lA. = -a"AI

+ a32A.

This transformation can be written as the vector product of the infinitesimal rotation vector Cd = e."Wj and the vector A, namely I

IlA=CdXA=

if we take
\

= -a23 = ~(a32 - au),


= - a n = 7\I(a13 - au),
a21 = -au = ~(a21 - au).

WI"" (l32

(3.4)

w. ==
W3

==

(l13

The eque.tions representing the rigid body motion can be obtained by


observing that Ai = x, - x? and that

Mi = A: - A,

= (x: - xf;) - (x. - xl')


"" (x: - Xi) - (x~' = &x, - Ilx2

or
Ox;

ox~

+ &Ai =

xn

Ilx~

+ (Cd X A),.

I We reeall that when a rigid body rotates with the angular velocity 0, the linear
velocity ... is ... - 0 X A and 8A - 0 X A at - .. X A, where", _.Q Uis the infinitesimal angle of rotation.

11

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

Then the rigid body portion of the infinitesimal affine transformation (2.1)
can be written as
(3.5)

8x, = 8xt
- ",.(Xt - x~) + "'2(X, - xl).,
6x. = 8xg + "'3(X, - xY)
- w,(xa - x~),
{
6X3 = 6x3 - "'.(X1 - xV + ",,(x. - xi).

The quantities oxf "" x2' - x? are the components of the displacement
vector representing the translation of the point PO(x) (see Fig. 1), while
t,he remaining terms of (3.5) represent rotation about the point po.
At the beginning of this section, we proposed the problem of separatirig
the infinitesimal affine transformation oA, = a;,;Aj into two component
transformations, one of which is to represent rigid body motion alone; we
have seen that this rigid body motion corresponds to a transformation in
which the coefficients are skew-symmetric; that is, lXij = -aj'. Now,any
set of quantities a'j may be decomposed into a symmetric and a SKewsymmetric set in one, and only one, way.1 We can thus write
aij

Yz(ai;

+ aj,) + Yz(ai;

- aji).

Then Eq. (3.1) can be written as

oA,

= a'jA; = [Yz(lXi;

+ aj,) + Yz(lXi;

- aji)]A j ,

or
(3.6)
where
eij =
Wij

eji
-Wji

==
==

Yz (ai,
aji) ,
%(aij - (Xji).

The skew-symmetric coefficients "'i; correspond to a rigid body motion,


and from (3.4) it can be seen that they are connected with the components
of rotation, WI, W2, W3, by the relations

It is clear from Eqs. (3.6) for the transformation of the components of a


vector that an infinitesimal affine transformation of the vector Ai can be
decomposed into transformation /lA, = wijAi , representing rigid body
motion, and into transformation
(3.7)

/JA, = evA;,

representing pure deformation.


The symmetric coefficients i!;j are called components of the strain tensor,
and they characterize pure deformation. We shall investigate the
properties of the strain tensor in the next section.
1

See Prob. 1 at the end of this chapter.

12

MATBElUTICAL THEOllT OJ' ELASTICITY

t. A Geometrical Interpretation of tile Componeats of Strain. The


geometrical significance of the components of strain 8iJ entering into (3.7)
can be readily determined by inserting the expressions (3.7) in the formula
(3.2), which then takes the form A aA = Ai aA, = eo/A,A i, or
(4.1)

&A

evA,Ai

A=~'

If initially the vector A is parallel to the Xl-axis, so that A = Al and


At == A, = 0, then it follows from (4.1) that

OA

A = ell

(4.2)

Thus, the component ell of the strain tensor rep1'esents the extension, or
change in length per unit length, of a vector originally parallel to the Xl-axis.
~a

FIG. 2

Hence, if all components of the strain tensor with the exception of el1
vanish, then all unit vectors parallel to the Xl-axis will be extended by an
amount 611 if this strain component is positive and contracted by the same
amount if ell is negative. In this event, one has a homogeneous deformation of material in the direction of the :kaxis. A cube of material whose
edges before deformation are I units long will become a rectangular
parallelepiped whose dimensions in the x1-direction are 1(1 + ell) units
and whose dimensions in the directions of the Xr and x,-axes are unaltered.
A similar significance can be ascribed to the components e22 and e83.
In order to interpret geometrically such strain components as e23, consider two vectors A = etAs and B = eaR. (Fig. 2), initially directed along
the Xr and x,-axes respectively . Upon deformation, these vectors become
A' = el BAt
BI == el &B t

+ e,(A + 6A,) + e, flA.,


+ e, 6B
+ ea(Ba + 4B.).
I

We denote the angle between AI and B' by

II and consider the change


/2) - II in the right angle between A and B. From thedefinition

CII", ... ( ..

13

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

of the scalar product of A' and B', we have


A'B' COIl

e ... A' . B'

+ (A. + M,) aB. + (B. + liB.) M.


+ B. IiAa,

'" aA I aBI
:, A2 liB.

if we neglect the products of the cha.nges in the components of the vectors


A and B. To the same a.pproximation, we ha.ve

cos

(4.3)

e=

A'B'
A'B'

V(M 1) ' + (A. + oA.) + (M.)' V(IlB 1)' + (oB.)


:, (A. aB. + B. IiAs)(A. + 1iA.)-I(B s + IiB.)-1
:, A, IiB z + Bs liA. = liB. + liAs.
A.Bs
B.
A.

+ (B. + liB,)'

Since all increments in the components of A and B have been neglected


except liA. and liB" the deformation can be represented as shown in Fig.
3. If we remember that
Al

As = BI = B. = 0,

,xa

then Eqs. (3.7) yield


(4.4)

oB 2

= eB.,

6B~B'

liAs

= e23A .

cos (~ - a )

.
= au

liB.

__ ~

_. (/
I

R -..:' .::::::::': ___ ,Q "


I
I

From (4.3) we have


cos 9

~ ~

I
I

I I

II

liA.

"P
,-;, IiAa

sin a ..

= If; + L =

2e
fI,

or
Hence a positive value of 2e23 represents a decrease in the right angle
between the vectors A and B, which were initially directed along the positive Xr and x.-axes.
Again, from (4.4) and Fig. 3 we see that
LPOP' :, tan POP' =

1i:

= 6.s,

, &B

LROR' :, tan ROR' = B: = en.

Since the angles POP' a.nd ROR' a,reequa.l, it follows tha.t, by rota.ting the
parallelogram R'OP'Q' through an a.ngle 623 about the origin, one can
obtain the configuration shown in Fig. 4. Obviously it represents a. slide
or a shear of the elements parallel to the zlxrpiane, where the amount of
slide is proportional to the distance x, of the element from the xlxrplane.

14

AlA'l'BEMATICAL 'l'BEORY OF ELASTICITY

A similar interpret.ation can obviously be made in regard to the components e12 and e31.
It is dear that the areas of the rectangle and the parallelogram in Fig. 4
are equal. Likewise an element of volume originally cubical is deformed
into a parallelepiped. and the volumes of the cube and parallelepiped are
equal if one disregards the products of the
changes in the linear elements. Such deformation is called pure shear.
The characterization of strain presented
in Secs. 3 and 4 is essentially due to Cauchy.
It should be noted that the strain components e'i refer to the chosen set of coordinate
.r2
axes; if the axes are changed, the eij will, in
general, assume different values.
FIG. 4
5. Strain Quadric of Cauchy. With eac):;
point PO(XO) of a continuous medium, we shall associate a quadric surface,
the quadric of deformation, which enables one to determine the elongation
of any vector
A

= e,(x,

- x?)

that runs from the point PO(XO) to some point P(x).


Now if a local system of axes Xi is introduced, with origin at the initial
point pO(XO) of the vector A and with axes parallel to the space-fixed axes,
then formula (4.1) characterizing the extension e = 8A/ A of A can be
written as
(5.1)
eA' = e,jXixi.
We consider the quadratic function
(5.2)

and constrain the end point P(x) of the vector A, as yet unspecified, to
lie on the quadric surface
(5.3)

2G(Xl, x., x.)

= k',

where k is any real constant and the sign is chosen so as to make the surface real. Comparison of (5.3) with (5.1) leads to the relation
(5.4)

and the strain quadric takes the form


(5.5)

From (3.4) we see that the extension of anllline througk PO(XO) ill irwer8elg
along the line frem the
point (~O), at wkick the Btrain is being Bttldied, to a peint (x) on the qttadric

~ to tkufjtlare of the radim vector tkat TUm

15

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

surface. Accordingly, the maximum and minimum elongations Will be in


the directions of the axes of the quadric (5.5).
We refer the quadric surface of deformation (5.5) to a new coordinate
system x~, x;, x;, obtained from the old by a rotation of axes. Let the
directions of the new coordinate axes
be specified relative to the old
system Xi by the table of direction cosines

x:

_ _x_' I~_:_
x~

111

x~

z.,

X~

131

112

113

122

I
133

1,2

in which l;j is the cosine of the angle between the x;- and the xraxes.
old and the new coordinates are related by the equations

x, = lllx~
x. = lux;
x, = lux;

The

+ 121X; + lux;,
+ lux; + 1,,,:1:;,
+ 1.,,:1:; + laax;,

or, more compactly,


(5.6)

Xi

It i5.retJ,dily shown that the

in~'erse

l...z~.

trnnsformtJ,tion is of the formJ

The well-known orthogonality relations between the direction cosines can


be written in the form
(5.7)

x:

When the quadric surface (5.5) is referred to the coordinate system,


a new set of strains e;j is determined and (5.5) is replaced hy the new
equation of the surface, namely,
e~p:xi =

k2

The right-hand member of (5.5), however, has a geometrical meaning


that is independent of the choice of coordinate system ( k' = eA');
consequently
(5.8)
In other words, the quadratic form e;jXaj is invariant with respect to an
orthogonal transformation of coordinates.
Equations (5.6) and (5.8) together yield

e;tl...lf1iX~
1

See Prob. 5 at the end of this chapter.

= e~~:.xft,

16

MATHEMATICAL THEOBY OF ELASTICITY

and since the x~ are arbitrary,


e~=~.

(5.9)

Similarly it can be shown that


(5.10)

6/1

= UJ~J'

A set of quantities e;J transforming according to the law (5:9 ) is said to


represent a cartesian tensor of rank 2. We shall meet several jjuch tensors
in the subsequent discussion.
Differentiating 2O(xl, X2, X3) = e,j%;%J and noting from (3.1) that for a
pure deformation ~A, = e;;A j = e;j%}, we find that
(5.11)

aG

-a
x,

e;j%J

==

~A,.

But~ are the direction ratios of the normal v to the quadric ~rface (5.5)

"x.

at the point (x,), and it follows that the vector 6A is directed along the normal to the
2
Af"--~v
plane tangent to the surface eifX;%j = k
(see Fig. 5). This property of the 8t~aiU
quadric will prove useful in. the Ilext sectIon,
~\:..""~ ~"" ~~ ~"" 1>~",<6.1>~\. 'U:ea.. 'If. t,ru._
quadric surface and their signifieance for the
FIG. 6
deformation.
S. Principal Strains. Invariants. We seek now the direcfion ratios of
the lines through (X O) whose orientation is left unchanged by jlhe deformation SA, == e;;A;. If the direction of the vector A is not aH,ered by the
strain, then ~A and A are parallel and their components are pfoportional.l
Therefore

It should be noted that e = aA i is the extension of each cowponent of A


Ai
and is thus the extension of A itself, or e = M/ A. Equation (5.1) then
shows that the extension e is given by the expression e = e;j%f;/ A 2. We
return now to aA. == e;;AJ. from which it is seen that
(6.1)

or
(6.2)
ThhI set (6.2) of three homogeneous equations in the u"mowns AI
ptlI!S6IiIIteI a nonvanishing solution if, and only if, th", determJ.nant of the
t In other WOrds, the directions we seek are those of the axes m the quadric (6.6);
that., we wek the directions yielding the extreme values at t-he.elQaptiOlIIlS

17

ANALYSIS OF 8'l'IlAIN

coefficients of the AJ is equal to zero; that is,-

lev -

(6.3)

elql == 0,

or
en-e en
en
\
ell
en - e en
= O.
\ en
e"
en - e

We prove next that the three roots el, eo, ea of this cubic equation in the
elongation e are all real.
Let the three directions determined by the three numbers ej be given
i

by the vectors l A.

In this notation, formula (6.1) becomes, (or any root


1

e1 A j

ej.A .

We mUltiply both sides by Ai and sum over j, getting


1 z
1 1I
(6.4)
61A j A j = ej.A.A,.
2

Similarly, from e.A; = e;.A. we have


12

12

12

12

e.AJA; = e,.A;A. = e.;A.A; = e;.A.A;,

(6.5)

wherej and k have been interchanged and the symmetry of e;. exploited.
Comparsion of (6.4) and (6.5) shows that
1

(el - e.)AjA; = O.

(6.6)

Now if we assume tentatively that (6.3) has complex roots, then these
can be written
where 'El' E I , e. are real.

If e, = El - iE. is substituted for e in (6.2),


2

it will be found that the resulting solutions A; ...

O-j -'

ib; are the complex

conjugates of AJ ... a, + ibj , where the latter are obtained by putting


e = el = E, + iE~. Therefore
1 2

A;A; == (a;
= af

+ ibs)(a; - Wj)
+ iii + al + bf + bi + b: ~ O.

Hence it follows from (6.6) that e, - e, ... 2iEs = 0, or E. "" 0, and the
roots I!i are all real.
l The indexi over It. indicates not the jth compo_t but rather the jth vector and ita
depeude_ ul)OIl the root 'I of the determinantal equation (6.S).

18

IlATBEATICAL 'rHEOltY OJ' EL.\STICITY

From (6.6) it follows that, if the roots el and e, are distinct, then
1 1I

A,A, = A A = 0,
j

so that the corresponding directions are orthogonal. These directions A


are called the principal directioml of strain, and the strains e" which are
i

the extensions of the vectors A in the principal directions, are termed the
principal strains.

We have seen that at any point (XO) there are three mutually perpen-

.i

dicular directions (assuming, for the moment, that the eo are distinct)
that are left unaltered by the deformation; consequently the vectors
i

A, the deformed vectors A + liA, and 8A are collinear. But (5.11) shows
that liA is always normal to the quadric surface (5.5), and therefore the
principal directions of strain are also normal to the surface and must be
the three principal axes of the quadric ei.jXixi = eA 2. If some of the
principal strains Ii; are equal, then the associated directions become
indeterminate but one can always select three directions that are mutually
orthogonal. If the quadric surface is a surface of revolution, then one
1

direction A, say, will be directed along the axis of revolution and any two
I

mutually perpendicular vectors lying in the plane normal to A may be


taken as the other two principal axes. If e1 = e2 = ea, the quadric is a
sphere and any three orthogonal lines may be chosen as the principal axes.
We recall that 61,62, e, are the extensions of vectors along the principal
axes, while ell, e22, e" are the extensions of vectors along the coordinate
axes. If the coordinate axes Xi are taken along the principal axes of the
quadric, then the shear strains eu, e23, e3l disappear from the equation of
the quadric surface and the latter takes the form

The cubic equation (6.3) can be written in the form


(6.7)

where 6 1, "2, ". are the sums of the products of the roots taken one, two,
and three at a time:
(6.8)

"I
{

+ +
+ +

= e1
e2
e. "" 6,
U2 = ese.
esel
ele.,
" .... 'lete

,fty expanding the determinant (6.7), we see that these expressions "Can
be written as

19

ANALYBIS Ql!' STBAlN


" ... 611

+ 6.1 + 6 .,
+ eu6'u + ellell -

iJs = 61tBaa

(6.8)

eil - eft - ef.

I I

en enl
eu en
eu ell
= e.. e.. + eu en + e12 e22'
". = eueue,s + 2elle..e31 - en4. - ene:l - eaaef.,

eu

eu

e12

The expressions for '" and ". can be written compactly by introducing
the generalized Kronecker deUa, B''!o~:::, which we now define. If the subscripts p, q, r, . . . are distinct and if the superscripts i, j, k, . . . are the
same set of numbers as the subscripts, then the value of 0:/':::: is defined to
be + 1 or -1 according as the subscripts and superscripts differ by an even
or an odd permutation; the value is zero in all other cases. We can now
rewrite the formulas (6.9) in the form
{} =
(6.10)

(i = 1, 2, 3),

eii,

""

fl. =

21 B'Jqe",.eq;,

(i, j, p, q = 1, 2, 3),

". =

~ o~:repie ojerk,

(i, j, k, p, q, r = 1, 2, 3).

Since the principal strains, that is, the roots e" e., e. of (6.7), have a
geometrical meaning that is independent of the choice of coordinate
system, it is clear that ", "" and ". are invariant with respect to an
orthogonal transformation of coordinates. [Note that this invariance
could have been used to derive expressions (6.8) from (6.9).]
The quantity " has a simple geometrical meaning. Consider as a
volume element a rectangular parallelepiped whese edges are parallel to
the principal directions of strain, and let the length!! of these edges be h,
I" l.. Upon deformation, this element becomes again a" rectangular
parallelepiped but with edges of lengths ll(l + el), l2(1 + e.), l.(l + e.).
Hence the change oV in the volume V of the element is

OV = I,Z.za(l

+ el)(1 + e2)(1 + e.)

= 1Il.l.(el

plus terms of higher order in

~l

+ ell + e.)
eo.

- hZ.z.

Thus

BY

+ e, +61 - " - V'

and the first strain invariant" represents ;he expansion of;i unit ~olume

20

MA.THEMATICAL TllEORY OF ELASTICITY

due to strain produced in the medium, For this reason , ill CAlled the
cubical dilatation or simply the dilatation,
PROBLEMS
1. Determine the principal directions by finding the extremlll values of

Note that the x,/ A - P, are the direction cosines so that e - 6;/PiPj, }'Iaximize this
Bubject to the constraining condition
1.
1I. Refer the quadric of deformation to a set of principal axes, and dismISS the nature
of deformation when the quadric is an ellipsoid and when it is a hyperbOloid, Draw
appropriate figures and note that if 61 > 0, e. > 0, e. < 0, then, depending on the
direction of the vector A from the origin of the quadric, one must consider the surfaces
e1~ + es4 - le,lz: - kt ,

.,V, -

'1. General Infinitesimal Deformation. In the preceding ~ections, we


have discussed the infinitesimal affine transformation (3,7), which carries
the vector Ai into the vector A: ... Ai + 6A" where
(7.1)

6A,

",;-+2lX;i- + -a.;--21%;;)
= a.;Aj = (- Ai
= (e;j

+ "',j)A;;

the 6;J and "'ii were constants and so small that their produ()ts could be
neglected in comparison with their first powers, Now we <,onsider the
general functional transformation and its relation to the affine deformation,
Consider an arbitrary material point PO(x~, xi, xB) in a continuous
medium, and let the same material point assume after deformation the
position PO/(X~', xt',
(see Fig, 1). We denote the small d1splacement
of the point po by

xn

u,(x, xi,

~)

== x2' - xf.

The quantities UI, UI, u, are called the component8 of di8p~' It is


clear from physical considerations that it is desirable to dema)ld that the
functions u; be single-valued and continuous throughout the region
occupied by the body. For reasons that will become apparent in Sec. 10,
it will be assumed that the functions U,(Xl, X2, xs) are of cltlSS C' (that
is, the u; together with their first, second, a.nd third deri~atives are
continuous) .
The character of the deforma.tion in the neighborhood of ttle point po
ean be determined by a.naIyzing the change in the vt)Ctor A joining the
point PO(xY, x~, xl) with an arbitrary neighboring point P(Xl, :t2, x.) of the
undeformed medium. If P'(~, x'" :11,) is the deformed osUioll of P, then
the displacement u, at the point P is

21

ANAL'iSIS OF STRAIN

The deformed vector. A' has components


ponents of IJA = A' - A we have

Ai

X2', and for the com-

= xi -

M, = (xi - x~') - (x, - xf)


= (xi - x.,) - (x2' - x?)
= u;(xY
=

+ At, xi + At, x~ + A

(au,)
ax;

3) -

u;(x,

4, x~)

Ai
0

plus the remainder in the Taylor's expansion of the function u,(xY + At,
xg + Aa). The subscript zero indicates that the derivative is

xi + A 2 ,

to be evaluated at the point po.

The derivative ~Ui will be written by


"X;

introducing the symbol u,,; so that


(7.2)

::; ==

U;,j,

and the subscript can be dropped without confusion, since we shall deal
only with vectors at po. If the region in the vicinity of po is chosen
sufficiently small, that is, if A is sufficiently small, then one has the
formulas analogous to (7.1),
<lA, = u,.;Aj.

(7.3)

Comparison of formulas (7.3) and (7.1) shows that the transformation


of the neighborhood of the point po is affine and that
Cl:j

U',j'

Now if we assume further that the displacements u" as well as their partial derivatives, are so small that their products can be neglected then
(7.3) defines an infinitesimal affine transformation of the neighborhood
of the point in question. Hence the considerations of the earlier sections
are immediately applicable; the transformation (7.3) can be decomposed
into pure deformation and rigid body motion,
(7.4)

6A = u;.A =

.1

1
<=

+2 UJ.' + U;,j -2 UJ,') A


(eij + "'\I)A/,

(u"j

where
(7.5)

#I;d = ~(U;,j

+ UJ,'),

C/J;j

= ~(u;'J -

UJ.).

It follows from (3.5) that if U; is a small displacement at P(x), then


1.'1

41 .;. C&lJZJ -

t.oIJX!,

Ut

==

lis

f1ttSl,
t.oIJXl,

+ Wa%1 1.'10& 41 + fD!Z1 -

22

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 01' ELASTICITY

where c.), is the infinitesimal rotation vector about (0, 0, 0) and the Go are
constants representing a trsnslation. It is clear that the transformation
defined by (7.5) is in general no longer homogeneous, inasmuch as both
the strain components /3;; and the components of rotation c.)'J are functions
of the coordinates of the medium. The dilatation
" = ell

OUI
= OXI

+ Eiu + en
+ OU, + oU.

ox. = U;

OX2

or the divergence of the displacement vector u, will likewise differ, in


general, from point to point of the body}
In order to indicate the advantages of notation adopted here over the
customary one in use by writers of technical treatises on elasticity and
hydrodynamics, we rewrite (7.5) by setting
Xl

== x,

X2 = y,

ell

= ea:s,

en = e"", etc.,

and denote the components of the displacement vector (Ul, Us, u.) by
(u, II, w). The components of the strain tensor become:
AU

8v

ew. = oy'

e... = ox'

eo. = !20y
(ow + OZ~),

=!20z
(au + oXow),

...

owoz'
e"" =

!20x
(811 + 8y
au),

1 Some of the important relations of vector analysis will now be written in tensor
notation. In cartesian coordinates the divergence, gradient, and Laplacian operators
can be written as follows:
div A .. v A _ aA. + aA, + "A, _ aA, _ A',l,

ax.

a.,
grad ." - V." -

ax,

ax,

a".,

at.,

ax,

ax, .. "",
a"."

v." - div (v.,,) - a~

as.,

+ ax: + aX: - ax. ax; - .",...

The Green-Gauss Theorem, namely,

takes the form

tA.,.tltr - tA,r;du,
where du is an element of are..., dT is an element of volume, and " is the exterior normal
to the surface fT.

If we set A, - ::. _ "'" then there results the identity

L"'." tltr... L

'1','" duo

23

ANALYSIS OJ!' STRAIN

so that the dilatation" is

ou av iJw
"=e,...+ew+ e.. =-+-+_
ax a1l az

The components of rotation

'" =.!:2

(J)ij

read:

(aw _~),
OZ

i)y

",". =

~(:~ -

=.!:2

(au _axaw),
OZ

:;}

While the unabridged notation, just explained, has some advantages


in the discussion of specific problems, the compactness of the tensor notation and the economy of though. to which it leads in general developments are unquestionable.
8. Examples of Strain. Several important examples of strain will be
considered next, and since there are no great advantages in using tensor
notation in specific problems, we make use of the unabridged notation
explained in the closing paragraphs of the preceding section.
a. Uniform Dilatation. If the strain quadric is a sphere, then any
three orthogonal lines through the point may be used as the principal
axes. In this case, the strain quadric has the equation
(8.1)

where e = e.. = e.. == e and e = e = e = O. The linear extension


(or contraction) in any direction is the same and is equal to one-third of
the dilatation, since
" = e

+ e.. + e..

= 3e.

b. Simple Extenm'on. Consider a simple extension of magnitude e in


the direction of the x'-axis, whose direction cosines relative to the system
of axes x, y, z are (lll, l12, l13)' Referred to the x', y', z' coordinate system,
the strain quadric has the equation ex'i = kl. By use of the transformation equations (5.10), we obtain in the x, y, z-system
(8.2)

e.., = el~l'
{ e.. = elul It,

e.. = elf!,
e = elul13,

eu = elf.,
en = el 13ltt.

Thus, a simple extension in the direction (Ill, l12, I13) may be specified in
any x, y, z coordinate system by means of the six strain components given
in (8.2).
c. Shearing Strain. Let the equation of the strain quadric when
referred to the x', 1/', z'-system of coordiuates be given by
(8.3)

so that the only strain component is a shearing strain of magnitude 8 along

the directions of the 3/- and y'-axes. This is the equation of a hyperbolie
eylinder l18ymptotic to the x'z'- a.nd y'z'-pl&nes. The equation of the
quadric (8.S) l181!umes the form

u' -

8Y'

k'

when the axes are rotated through an.angle of 45 about the z'-axis.- A
comparison of this equation with the general equation of the strain
quadric when the latter is referred to the principal axes of strain,

ez.;c'

+ e""y' + e.z' =

k',

shows that we must have e.. = 0, eu = -e = 8. Thus equal extension


and eontraction of two orthogonal linear elements is equivalent to a
shearing strain of equal magnitude, which is associated with directions
bisecting the angles between the elements.
d. Plane Strain. Suppose that the principal extension in the direction
of the z'-axis is zero. Then for the x, y, z-system (assuming the directions
of the z'- and z-axes to be the same), the strain quadric has the form
ez.;t'

+ e..y2 + 2e".xy

P,

corresponding to
in the x',

y', z' -system,

e:".. and

e~,., being principal extensions. In the case of simple extension


(see part 11), the quadric consists of two parallel planes; in the case of
shearing strain (see part c), it consists of a rectangular hyperbolic cylinder.
If the quadric is a circular cylinder, the state of strain is such that there
is equal extension (or contraction) in all diref'tions perpendicular to that
of the z'-axis.
In the case of plane strain, the relative displacements u and v are functions of x and y alone, and w is a constant.

PROBLEMS
1. Verify the invanance of the functions
in the case of simple estension.

{J, {J"

and ".

lsee Eqs.

(6.10)J of the strains

a. Find the dile.tation and the prineips.l strs.ins, and deserihe the strain quadric for
the case of simple extension.
S. Show that the examples of strain given in this seetion ce.n he described by the
fonowin( dispJa.eement components:
a. Uniform dilats.tion, v .. n, II = 61/, W - ez.
b. Simple extension, v' .. n', If' - Wi - O.
c.. Shee.ring strain, ",' -= 2Iy', v' - tJ1' .. O.
d. Plane strain, u - v(.:a:. 11), " .. 11(2:, 11), w = O.
'" Show th.at in the examples of strain given in this sect,ion the rotatioa components
are given by:
Uniform dih1.tation, Wn - . . . . . . . . . . - O.
0. 8iDlPle~, _:. - ~... w~ - (l~

$.

ANALYStS OJ' STRAlN

c. Shearing strain, ..~ .. 8, fIf~.

d. Plaueetr&in..... -

~ (~ -

o.

"':. -

ii)..... - - - 0.

9. Notation. The values of the shear components e,..., e...., e.,. of the
strain tensor e.;, defined in (7.5), differ from the quantities e.." e.., e.. used
hy Love, l who writes
e

..

au

ihI

-+_.
ax
ay

The factor ~ was inserted in the formulas (7.5) in order that the set 'of
quantities may transform accorqing to the tensor laws.
Trefftz2 writes for the components of his strain tensor
'Y... = 2

au

ax'

aw
'Y.. =

ay

'Y"" == 2

ihI

+ liZ'

'Y... =

au

ay'

au

'Y.. = 2

az'

av

aw

az + ax'

aw

'Y.. =

lJU

ax + ay'

while Timoshenko' uses


E.

==

/Ju

ax'

for the components of normal strain and agrees in notation with Trefftz
for the components of shearing strain.
llBF.BllENCBS FOR COLtATBRAL llBADING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 1-14, pp. 32-46.
R. V. Southwell: Theory of Elasticity for Engineers and Physicists, Olcford University Press, New York, Sees. 292-307, pp. 285---297.
A. G. Webster' Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Verlag von Julius Springer,
Berlin, See. 169.

10. Equations of Compatibility.


components e.i, namely

The defining formulas for the strain

(10.1)
will be looked upon in this section as a system of partial differential equations for the determination of the displacements u; when the strain components e;; are prescribed functions Of the coordinates. We shall discuss
first a necessary condition for the uniqueness of the solutions u. of Eqs.
(10.1). Thereupon we shall raise the question:
1 A. E. H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematieal Theory of Elasticity.
IE. "I'retttI, HaI:Idbuch der Phyaik, vol. 6, Meehanik der ela.sti~.hen g6rper.
S. 'rimoBbeQko a.nd J. N. Goodier, Theory of l!laetieity.

26

MATHEMA'l1CAL THEORY OF ELAS'l1CITY

Wha.t restrictions must be placed on the given funetions e;;(xl, Xt, %.)
to ensure the existence of single-valued continuous solutions U,(Xl'
x" XI) of Eqa. (10.1)?
it is clear ,rat of all that specification of the e;j does not determine the
displacementi u; uniquely, for the strain components characterize the pure
deformation ,'of the medium in the neighborhood of the point (x), while
the functions 1'< may involve rigid body motions which do not affect the ~-;.;.
In fact, if one obtains some solution
(10.2)

of the system (10.1), and if PO(x, x~, xg) is an arbitrary point of the body,
then the addition to the right-hand member of (10.2) of the terms'
(10.3)

u; = u~

+ ",MXk -

x),

representing the motion of the body as a whole, will not affect the values
of the prescribed components of strain entering into (10.1). It thus
becomes clear that the solution of the system (10.1) cannot be unique
unless one specifies the components of displacement uS and the components of rotation ",1j of some point po of the medium, and we shall suppose
in the following discussion that this has been done.
Inasmuch as there are six conditions imposed on the three functions
u; by Eqs. (10.1), one eannot expect in general that the system (10.1) will
possess a solution for an arbitrary choice of the functions e'j. We seek the
further conditions that must be imposed on the functions if the system
of Eqs. (10.1) is to possess a solution for the triplet of functions u,.
The fact that the strain components e,; cannot be prescribed arbitrarily
can be seen from the following rough geometrical considerations: Imagine
that a body .. is subdivided into small volume elements, which in the
interior of .. may be assumed to have the form of cubes. The strain components e;j are given on the faces of each cube, and the displacements u;
of those faces are to be calculated. If each individual cube is subjected
to a deformation so that it becomes a parallelepiped, then it may happen
that it is impossible to arrange the parallelepipeds to form a continuous
distorted body .. '. The points that were coincident on,the interfaces of
the eubes may no longer coincide on the interfaces of the parallelepipeds.
In fact, there may even be gaps between the pairs of initially coincident
points. The requirements of continuity and single-valuedness imposed
on the components of displacement place some restrictions on the choice
of the strain components e"j if the differential equations (10.1) are to
posseIIB solutions.
Let P"(zt, xl, 4) be some point of a simply connected region' .., at
1 Of. formulaa (3.5)

e"

A tegion of space is said to be simply connected if fWery eloaed curve drawn in the
be shrunk to a point, by continuous deformation, without paasing out of the

l'IIIion _

27

ANALYSIS OF STltAIN

which the displacements uJ(x!, x~, xl) and the components of rotation
We determine the displacements 'UJ at any other
point P'(x~, x~, x~) in terms of the known functions I eo; by means of a line
integral over a simple' continuous curve C joining the points po and pI:

wf;(xt, xt xg) are known.

'UJ(x~, x~, x;) = u, +


= u~

r::

f:

d'UJ = u~ +
UI . dx.
+ jPfI
(P' elk dx. + jpo
(P' "'I. dx.,

where the last step comes from the definition (7.5).


parts yields

f: "'i dXk "" f: "';. d(x. = (x~ - x)"'7.

x~)

+ f: (x~ -

and hence
(lOA)

u;(x~, x;, x.) =

uJ

+ (x~ -

An integration by

x2)"'7.

X.)"'ik,l dx"

+ f: [ejl + (x~ -

x.)w;. 1] dx,.

We express the derivatives of the components of rotation "'i. 1 in terms of


the known functions e,; by using the definitions (7.5) and writing
"'i.1

a 1

2 ('UJ.

==

aXI

2 ('UJ.kl

a 1
ax. 2 (UI,; + U;,I)

- u.;)
U.,;I)

+ 21 (UI,I. -

UI,;k)

a 1
ax; 2 (U.,I + Ul,k),

where the continuity of the mixed derivatives has been used.


from the preceding equation that

It follows

(10,5)

When (10.5) is inserted in (lOA), it is seen that the determination of the


displacements u, at any point (x) has now been reduced to a quadrature,
(lO,6)

'UJ(x~, x;, x.)

u~

+ (x~ - x2)"'J. + f::' Uil dx1,

where the integrand


(10.7)
UjI = ~1 + (x~ - x.)(el; - Bw./)
is a known function.
Inasmuch as the displacements u; must be independent of the path of
integration, the integrands U,l dx1 must be exact differentials. Hence,
applying a necessary and sufficient condition that the integrands in
boundaries of the region. Thus the region between two concentric spheres ill simply
conneeted, bnt the interior of an anchor ring (toruli) is not.
1 The flmctiona e.1 are a8IIUmed to be of cla.se (11 (see Sec. 7).
We WIll .the term nmpie curve in the sense of recti;fi.tibk curve.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

(10.6) be exact differentials, namely


we have
(10.8)

6j;.1 -

8kl(I!;,.k -

e....,) - 8ft + 3..(el;.1o

+ (x~ -

ekU)

x')(l!;j.kl - e"'.jl - elU..

+ ekl.;;)

= O.

The first line of (10.8) vanishes identically, and since this equation must
be true for s.n s.rbitrll.ry choice of x~ - x~, it follows ths.t
(10.9).

eij,kl

+ ekl.ij -

Bik.;l -

Elil." = O.

The system (10.9) consists of 3 = 81 equations, but some of these s.re


identically satisfied, and some are repetitions because of the symmetry in
indices ij and kl. A little reflection will show that only 6 of the 81 equations (10.9) are essential, and when these are written out in unabridged
notation, one has
4

(10.10)

The six equations (10.10) ensuring the continuity of displacements are


known as the equations of compatibility and were obtained by SaintVenant in 1860, in a way different from that outlined above.'
One ee.n verify by direct substitution ths.t the displacements given by
(10.6) ~tually satisfy the differential equations (10.1). We have already
seen that the displacements specified by (10.3) contribute nothing to the
strain components I!;j. Equation (10.6) shows that, conversely, if the I!;j
vanish identically, then the resUlting solutions are given by Eqs. (10.3),
and these obviously represent a rigid body motion.
, 'JJhe _tIal featurea of the method of derivation of the COmpAtibility equations
givea above are due to E. Cesaro, Rendictm.u> t2ll' acca.demitt delk .a- ji8ic1u e
~ (&ciel4 reale tU NapolI) (1906). See also ,. DleJJloir by V. olterra,
"UEquih"bre des oorpe Qastiquell," AnnaleB de l'kole fWI"IfIfI18 ~e, vol. 24
(19(7). The necessity of conditions (lO.lO) ean be proved 8IIBily. See Frob. 6 ,.t
the end of thl8 ebapter.

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

29

H the region of integration r is multiply connected, then the functions


u.; may turn out to be multiple-valued. As is well known, a mUltiply
connected region may be reduced to a simply connected one, provided
suitable barriers or crosscuts are introduced. In this case, the displacements u; will be single-valued functions of the coordinates when .evaluated
by means of a line integral taken along any curve C that does not pass
through one of these crosscuts. If the curve C does intersect the crosscut,
then, to ensure that the 14 be single-valued, we must demand in addition
to the satisfaction of the compatibility relations that the limiting values
of 14(Xl. X2, X3) be the same when the cut is approached from either side.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 17-18, pp. 48-51.
R. V. Southwell: Theory of Elasticity for Engineers and Physicists, Oxford University
Press, New York, Sec. 308, p. 297.

11. Finite Deformations. The preceding sections of this chapter contain all the principal results of the classical theory of infinitesimal strain.
It is clear from the general discussion of the affine transformation in Sec. 2
that the linearization of the equations appearing there led to a consideration of infinitesimal transformations that permits the application of the
principle of superposition of effects. Many technically important problems in elasticity, includipg those of buckling and stability, call for a consideration of finite deformations, that is, deformations in which the displacements u together with their derivatives are no longer small. This
section contains only a brief introduction to the theory of finite strains
and provides an admirable iilustration of the complications that appear
in the development of a theory when the fundamental equations bee orne
nonlinear.
There are two modes of description of the deformation of a continuous
medium, the Lagrangian and the Eulerian. The Lagrangian description
employs the coordinates a; of a typical particle in the initial state !1S the
independent variables, while in the case of Eulerian coordinates the independent variables are the coordinates Xi of a material point in the
deformed state.
In the preceding sections, we have used the Lagrangian viewpoint as
the natural means of describing the deformation of the neighborhood of
the point (al' a2, aa). When we come, in the next chapter, to the discussion of the stresses acting throughout the medium, we shall find that these
stresses must satisfy equilibrium conditions in the deformed body and
hence Enlerian coordinates are indicated. In this section, we shall
describe the deformation from both points of view, and we shall see that
when the deformation is infinitesimal (that is, when products of the

30

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

derivatives of the displacements can be neglected" these two viewpoints,


Lagrangian and Eulerian, coalesce, and we need make no distinction
between them.
Consider an aggregate of particles in a continuous medium that lie
along a curve C in the undeformed state. Just as in the preceding sectiona, it will be convenient to use the same reference frame for the location
of particles in the deformed and undeformed states. Let the coordinates
of a particle lying on a curve Co (before deformation) be denoted by
(ah a2, a.), and let the coordinates of the same particle after deformation
(now lying on some curve C) be (Xl, X2, X.). Then the elements of arc
of the curves Co and C are given, respectively, by
(11.1)

dB: = daf

+ dai + dai =

do.; do.;,

and
(11.2)
0.;

ds' = dx, dx,.

We consider first the Eulerian description of the strain and write


= o.;(Xl, X2, x,). Substituting I do.; = o.;,i dxi = o.;,k dx. in (11.1) yields
dS5

a',ia',k dXj dx.,

while ds' = dx, dx; = Ojk dxj dx.. It is evident that the equality of ds'
and ds: for all curves Co is the necessary and sufficient condition that the
transforma~ion 0.; = o.;(XI, x" x.) be one of rigid body motion; hence we
shall take the difference ds' - d8~ as the measure of the strain and write
(11.3)
From the expressions given above for ds' and dsg, we get
21);' =

~jk

o.;,,.a;,"

We now write the strains 11;. in terms of the displacement components


u. = X, - 0.;. Since 0.; = x, - u., we have
0.;,,.0.;,.

= (Oi, - u.,,.) (Oil - u.,.)


=

0,.. -

'Uj,k -

Uk,;

+ u.".l;,'

and hence
(11.4)

The functions 'I,.. are called the Eulerian strain component8.


H, on the other hand, Lagrangian coordinates are used, so that the 0.;
are regarded as the independent variables and the equations of transformation are of the form Xi = Xi(at, at, a.), then we can write dx; =- Xi,i da; and

ds' = dx; dx; = X',JXi,. da; da.,


notation "<,I - atl.;/lJZj denotes ditTerentiation with respect to the jth independent V$riable, whinh in tlUs case is "'I.
1 The

31

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

while dsij = da; da; =


jk are defined by

daj da..

ajk

The Lagrangian components of strain

(11.5)

and since

x;

a;

+ U;, we have
(liij

X;,jX;,k =

+ U;,j)(liik + U;,k)

+ 14,. + Uk,j + U;,jU;,k,

liik

2E;k da; dak

(Uj,k

and
ds 2

d8~

+ Uk,j + U;,jU;,.) du; dak,

with
(11.6)

2E;. = U;,k

+ Uk,j + U;,jU;,

In order to exhibit the fact that the differentiation in (11.4) is carried out
with respect to the variables Xi, while in (11.6) the a; are regarded as the
independent variables, we write out the typical expressions for '/Uj and E;j
in unabridged notation,

~ =
E04

~ [(:;)' + (:;)' + (~;)1


:~ + ~ [(:~)' +
+ (::)}

:: -

(::Y

2
Eab

av ~
iJx iJy

+ oW aw),

+ (iJU iJu +

iJv ~
iJa iJb

+ ~l1! ?!!!),

au
iJy

av _ (au au
iJx
iJx iJy

iJu
iJb

iJv
iJa

'1..

iJa iJb

ax iJy

iJa iJb

It was shown in Sec, 4 that ell, e22, and e33 can be interpreted as extensions of vectors originally parallel to the coordinate axes, while en, e.a, and
eu represent shears or changes of angle between vectors originally at right
angles. When the strain components are large, however, it is no longer
possible to give simple geometrical interpretations of the functions E;j
and"lij.
Consider a line element with dso = da da. = daa = 0, and define the
extension E, of this element by E, = (ds" - dso)/ds., or
ds = (1

(11.7)

+ E,) ds.

From (11.5) we have


ds' - dsg = 2.;. daj dak =' 2E11 da~,
and the insertion of (11.7) in this expression yields
(1

+ E,)2 "" 1 + ~11,

or
(11.8)

E, ""

VI + 2eu -

1.

32
When

MATHlilYATlCAL THEORY OF ELAS'l'1Cl'l'Y


Ell

iB smal~ this reduces to


EI ==

Ell,

as was shown in the discussion of infinitesimal strain in Sec. 4.


Consider ne"lCt two line elements, ds o = da s, da l = dal = 0, and
dB o = dIl3, dill = dIl 2 = 0, that lie initially along the as- and arues. Let
9 denote the angle between the corresponding deformed elements dx; and
d:;, of lengths da and dB, respectively. Then

d8 dB cos 9

= dx; dx. = x.; ...z.~ 00" d(4


=

X :x...1

00, dIl. = 2 da. dIl.

If a23 = 1(/2 - fJ denotes the change in the right angle between the line
elements in the initial state, then we have
.

sm au =
and by (11.7) and (11.8)
.
(11.9)
sm a., =
Again, if the strains

Eij

da. dill
2ft3

d8 ds '

2. 23
---;===-:;:_===
VI + 2 VI + 2

are so small that their products can be neglected,

t.b..~a

as was seen in Sec. 4.


If the displacements and their derivatives are small, then it is immaterial whether the derivatives of the displacements are calculated at the
position of a point before or after deformation. In this caBe , we may
neglect the nonlinear terms in the partial derivatives in (11.4) and (11.6)
and reduce both sets of formulas to Eqs. (7.5), which were obtained for an
infinitesimal transformation. Unless a statement to the contrary is
made, we shall deal with infinitesimal strain and shall write
e;j

= Y2(U;.i

+ 'Uf).

The ratio of the volume element in the strained state to the corresponding element of volume in the unstrained state is equal to thll functional
determinant
'
(11.10)

a(X1, x" X3) =


a (aI, at, a3)

I I"" I
ax.
au.;

a(a; + '14)
au.;

= 1&

+ u;,A.

If this is, denoted by 1 + A, then A is the change of volutAe per unit


volume at a point and is called the cubical dilatation. It is cbvious that
for small strains
A == U;.i == ell
ell ,.. <8.
As was done in the infinitesimal case, Eqs. (11.4) {or (U.6 )] can be
looked upon as the differential equations for the determination of the fune-

+ e,. +

33

ANALYSIS OF STRAIN

tions u" where the components of strain 'Ii.; (or 6(;) are prescribed functions.
Since these equations are nonlinear, the problem of integration is much
more involved. While it is not difficult to formulate the conditions on
the function '1/;; (or fiJ) if the set of Eqs. (11.4) [or (11.6)] is to possess a
solution with suitable properties, this will not be pursued here. 1
In concluding this brief treatment of finite strains, it should be emphasized that the transformations of finite homogeneous strain are not in
general commutative and that the simple superposition of effects is no
longer applicable to finite deformations. These facts are responsible, in
the main, for the absence of satisfactory solutions for all but the simplest
problems, such as homogeneous strain, simple tension, and torsion of an
elliptical cylinder, which become trivial when the equations are linearized.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
L. Lecornu: Theorie mathtlmatique de l'elasticittl, Memorial des sciences mathematiques, Gauthiers-Villars & Cie, Paris, pp. 34-40.
A. -E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 32-40, pp. 6~73.
E. Trefftz: Handbuch der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Secs. 8-9.
1. S. Sokolnikoff: Tensor Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 200-305.
F. D. Murnaghan: Finite Deformations of an Elastic Solid, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,_
New York, pp. 27-42.
PROBLEMS

1. Show that a tensor a'i can be decomposed into a symmetric tensor e'i = el' and
a. skew-symmetric tensor Wii = -Wi' in one, and only one, way. Hint: Assume that
the decomposition can be made in two ways:

2. From aA, = "'IA I , find aA and aA for a vector lying initially along the x-axis,
that is, A = lA, and justify the statement of Sec. 4 that in this case

at

en.

Does aA

lie along the x-axis?


3. Derive Eq. (5.10) from (5.8) and (5.9).
4. Derive Eq. (8.2) by using the invanance of the strain quadric and the equations
of transformation
= I;IXI.
I. Show that the inverse of the transformation (5.6) is
= z,a.X.
8. Show by differentiation of the strain components

x;

x;

e;1 = ~(U'.I

+ UI,')

A deta.iled discussion of the ba.sic equations of nonlinear theory is contained in


I. S. Sokolnikoff, Tensor Analysis (1951), pp. 200-319. See also F. D. Murnaghan,
1

Finite Deformations of an Elastic Solid (1951); V. V. Novozhilov, Foundations of


Nonlinear Theory of Elasticity (1953);- A. E. Green and W. Zerna, Theoretical Elasticity (1954). A critical appraisal of the literature on nonlinear mechanics of continna was made by C. A.. TruesdeU, -JOWI"/I(l/ oJ Rational Mechanics and AnolyBia, vol. 1
(1962), pp. 125-300; vol. 2 (1953), pp. 593-4;16.

34

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

that the equations of compatibility are necessary conditions for the exj8tenoe of continuons single-valued displacements. Hint:
e;f.loI -

}i ('It'.lil

+ 'ltt.til)

and, by interchange of i, k and likewise of i, l, e""1 = }i(U. lii + UI.",,) Add these,
.
interchange j and k, and show that the compatibility equations (to.9) result.
'1. ,Show that the shear strain en, for example, can be interpreted as th~ extensIOn
of the diagonal OQ of the rectangle OPQR (Fig. 4), provided the rectanPie 18 a square.

CHAPTER

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

12. Body and Surface Forces. Consider a continuous medium, the


points of which are referred to a rectangular cartesian system of axes, and
let 'T represent the region occupied by the medium and A'T an element cf
volume of'T. In analyzing the forces acting on the volume element A'T, it
is necessary to take into account two types of forces:
1. Body (or volume) forces; that is, the forces which are proportional
to the mass contained in the volume element A'T;
2. Surface forces, which act on the surface fur of the volume element A'T.
It will be assumed throughDut this discussion that the volume forces are
continuous functions of class CI and the surface forces are piecewise continuous functions of the coordinates (XI, X2, x.) of the points of the
medium.
As a typical example of body force, one can take the force of gravity.
p(J A'T, acting on the mass contained in the volume element A'T of the
medium whose density is p, and where g is the gravitational acceleration.
An example of surface force is the tension acting on any horizontal section
of a steel rod suspended vertically. Thus, if one imagines that the rod is
cut by a horizontal plane into two parts, the upper and the lower, then
the action of the weight of the lower part of the rod is transmitted to the
upper part across the surface of the cut. A hydrostatic pressure on the
surface of a submerged solid Lody provides another example of surface
force.
Let the vector F = eJi'i represent the body force per unit volume of the
medium. The reSUltant R = eiRi of the body forces F can be represented
as the volume integral R =

F d'T, or

R. = iF; d'T.

(12.1)

The resultant moment M = e;M, due to the body force F can be written
as the integral over 'T of the vector product of the position vector r = e,z.
and the force vector F; that is, :M ""

M. =

(12.2)
1 The

alternating tensor

d".

i (r X F) dr, or

e;pa;Fk dr.

i" defined to be zero if any two subacripts are equal,


35

MATHEMATICA.L THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Consider next an element Au of a surface situated either in the interior


or on the boundary of the medium, and let the force acting ou the element
Au be T Au. Because of the assumed continuity of forces, we have
lim fAAu = T(Xl,
...u

40'-+0

X~, x.), where the vector T represents the surface force

per unit area of the surface acting at the point (x.) and is called the stre88
vectQr.

If Au is a surface element in the interior of the medium, we agree to call


one 'side of the element Au positive and
the other side negative; the force T Aer
will be thought to represent the action
of the part of the body lying on the
positive side upon the part on the negative side. Hence, if a unit normal v is
%2
drawn (Fig. 6) to the surface element
AfT so that it points in the direction of
the positive side, then the action of the
matter lying on the negative side of the
FIG,6
normal upon that on the positive is
-T Aer. This latter statement follows directly from Newton's third law
of motion.
It is obvious that the surface forces developed in a solid body are of
much more complicated character than those in an ideal fluid at rest,
since they need not be normal to the elements of surface. Clearly, the
surface forces depend not only on the position of the surface element but
on its orientation as well. In order to bring into explicit evidence the
dependence of the stress T on the orientation of the element of surface, the

T.

stress vector will be written as


It must be noted that in general is
not in the direction v.
13. Stress Tensor. It will be shown in this section that the state of
stress at any point of the medium is completely characterized by the
specification. of nine quantities, called the components of stre8S tensor.
The introduction of these quantities in elasticity is due to Cauchy.

Let P(x) be any point in the medium and the stress vector acting on
an element of surface at P, with the normal v. Draw through P three
planar elements parallel to the coordinate planes, and pass the fourth
plane ABC (Fig. 7) normal to v and at a small distance h from P.
I

Denote by T the stress acting on the face P Be of the small tetrahedron

1 if i, j, k is a cyclic permutation of 1, 2, 3, and -1 if i, j, k is a cyclic permutation


of 1, 2. We have, for example,

a.

}of, -

J. (x,F. -

x';") dT.

ANALYSIS OF BTBESS
t

P ABC and by T and T thtl stresses acting on the faces PAC and P AB,
i

.respectively.

Thus T is the stress vector acting on a planar surface

element normal to the x,-axis.

The resolution of the vector T into com-

ponents along the coordinate axes gives


to write

e/A.

It will be convenient

(13.1)

so that
i

T = e,"1';;.
We shall show that the nine scalar quantities Tij are the components of a
tensor, the stres8 tensor, and that the T;; serve to determine completely the

c
o

FIG. 7

state of stress at the point P. The stress vector can then be calculated
from the Tij for any orientation v of the surface element at P. The meaning of the SUbscripts in the components Tij should be carefully noted.
Observe that in r23, for example, the first 8uhscript, 2, indicates the
2

coordinate axis normal to the element of area on which the stress T acts,
while the second subscript, 3, indicates the direction of the component of
this stress vector~
If the volume element is taken in the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, with faces parallel to the coordinate planes, and

Tis the stress

38
vector acting on .. face of the parallelepiped perpendicular to the ~,
the components 1'# are shown in Fig. 8. The convention in regard to the
signs of the scalar quantities is the foHowing: If one draws an exterior
normal to a given face of the parallelepiped, then the components Til are
reckoned positive if the corresponding components of force act in the
directions of increasing Xl, ;1::, X3 when the normal has the same sense as
the positive direction of the axis to which the face is perpendicular; if,
on the other hand, the exterior normal to a given face points in the direction opposite to that of the positive coordinate axis, then the positive
values of the components 1',; are associated with forces directed oppositely
to the positive directions of coordinate axes. The arrows in Fig. 8 indicate vectors representing forces which, for positive values of the 1'lj are

%2

FIG. S

exerted by the material exterior to the parallelepiped on the matter


within it.
The components Tn, T:S, and T" are called the normal components of
stress; the other components are called the tangential, or shearing, gom.".
ponents. It follows from our convention concerning signs that the positive values of Tn, T22, and 1'aa are associated with tension and the negative
tive ones with compression of the medium. In Fig. 8, the T22, for example, produces tension along the xraxis, while forces elT21 and eaTta, lying
in the shaded faces, give rise to shear.
We return now to our tetrahedral element in Fig. 7 and proceed to

i.

establish a connection between the T,; and the stress vector


Let the
area of the face ABC be (T; then the face normal to the x.-axis will have
an area (Ti = tT cos (Xi, v) = tTv.. The equilibrium of the tetrahedral
element P ABC requires the vanishing of the resultant force acting on the
matter within P ABC, and we proceed to calculate the %reompOilent of
this force.

Let T"

Till

and F. be the values of the stress vector, stress tensor, and

39

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

body force a.t the point P; then, on a.ecount of the assumed continuity of
the stress vector Ti , the x.-component of the force acting on the face ABC
of the tetrahedron is

(T,. + ;)(1',

where lim

,,__.o ;

= O.

The corresponding

component of force due to stresses acting on the faces of areas Uj is (-'I'J' +


E/i)(1';, where lim ;j = 0 and the 'I'ij are taken with the negative sign
1<--+0

because the exterior normals to the faces of areas (1'; are directed oppositely
to the direction of increasing x,-coordinate. Finally, the contribution
of the body force F; to the x,-component of the resultant force is (F, +
E;)73'htT, where 73'hu = /1'1' is the volume of the element P ABC and
lim = O. Thus, for equilibrium of the tetrahedron we must have
h-O

<

(T: + E,)U +

(13.2)

(-'I'ji

+ Ej,)Uj +

(F,

+ ED73'htT

o.

If in (13.2) we set U; = uV; = U cos (x;, v), divide through by (1', and pass
to the limit as h -> 0, we get
(13.3)
It is clear from (13.3) that, having specified the components of the
stress tensor '1'" at any point P(x) of the medium, one can calculate the

stress f on any element of surface whose orientation is determined by "


and which passes through the point in question.
14. Note on Notation and Units. There is a deplorable lack of uniformity of notation and terminology in use by various writers on the
theory of elasticity. Many British writers have adopted the notation
for the components of the stress tensor introduced by Kirchhoff and
write
'I'll ""

. .. ,

X.,

'1'38 ""

Z .

Most American writers (as well as many Russian and German authors)
write

d ll

Tn,

tI.

= 1'83

for the normal stresses and denote the remaining six tangential, or shear,
stresses '1'12, TU, etc., by '1'.." '1'.., etc.
The notation
'I'll =

xx,

.. " ,

'1'33

has been suggested by K. Pearson and is quite convenient when one contemplates using orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. When it appears
desirable to exhibit the dependence of the components of the stress tensor
on the x, 7/, z-system of coordinates, we shall write 'I'll = '1'.., '1'" = Till"
TU =< '1'.." Ttl = '1'"", etc. In this notation, formulas (13.3) read:

MATHEMATICAL TBEOBT OJ' ELASTICITY

f" ...

'1'"" 008

(:1:, p) -I;

'1'". COllI

(1/, p)

'1'"" COS (Ill,

p),

TI/ == '1'"" COS (:1:, .) + cos (11, p) + '1'.. COS (z, II),
T. = '1',.. COS (:1:, .) + '1'... COS (II, .) + '1'.. COS (z, ,,).
'1'l1li

From the definition of the stress vector, it follows that the stress vector

T has the dimensions of


force
area

or

In the cgs system, the stress is measured in dynes per square centimeter,
while in English practical units it is measured in pounds per square inch
or in tons per square inch.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of El""ticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 41-48, pp. 74-80.
E. Trefftz: Hsndbueh der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Secs. 1-3.
R. V. Southwell: Theory of El""tieity for Engineers and Physicists, Oxford University
Press, New York, Sees. 258--268, pp. 259-264.

11;' Equations of Equilibrium. Consider a continuous medium every


portion of which, contained within the volume 1" and bounded by the
closed surface fT, is in equilibrium. For equilibrium, the resultant force
acting on the matter within 1" must vanish, and we calculate now the
z.-component of this force.
Both body forces F and surface forces f must be considered; the condition of equilibrium of forces requires that

f. F, d1" + 1. T, au

0,

or, making use of (13.3),


(15.1)
Now if it is assumed that the functions
tives'Tj;.....

1";1

and their first partial deriva-

',,:1:.
!"i< are continuous
and single-valued in '1', then the Divergence
.

Theorem l can be applied to the surface integral in (15.1) to yield

and (15.1) takes the form


(15.2)
ISeep. . .

1. (F. + 'l'ji,j) d'l' == O.

41

ANALY8IS OJ!' 8TIlE8EI

Since the region of integration,. is arbitrary (every part of the medium


is in equilibrium!) and since the integrand of (15.2) is continuous, it
follows that the lAtter must vanish identically. Thus, at every interior
point in.,., we have,

"ii.' =

(15.3)

-F"

or, when written out in full in the notation explained in Sec. 14,
(1.,._

+ (1.,. + (1.,..., =

-F
z,

(1.,...

+ (1.,.oy.. + (1.,.oz =

-F

(1.,.",

+ (1.,.,,<
+ OTOZ.. =
oy

-F
,.

OX

oX

ox

oy

oz

.,

Consider next the consequence of the vanishing of the resultant


moment, which is produced by body and surface forces. Recalling the
formula (12.2), the condition that the resultant moment due to body and
surface forces vanishes can be written as
(15.4)
With the aid of (13.3) and the Divergence Theorem, the surface integral
in (15.4) can be transformed as follows:

But OjtTlI< = TjO, and from equilibrium equations (15.3),

80

that the foregoing expression gives

J. tlijkXjTk do- Leijk( -x;F. + Tjk) dT.


=

Accordingly, Eq. (15.4) becomes

e;;kTjk d.,. = 0,

and since the integrand is continuous and the volume


must have
(15.5)

e;;."'j. = O.

Equation (15.5) can be expanded to give, for example,

is arbitrary, we

42
or since

KATHElUTr<lAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY


flua ... -flU2

4-1,1'21 = Tn;

one obtains similarly

and
In short,
(15.6)

that is, the stress tensor is symmetric. The symmetry of the components
of the stress tensor allows us to write (15.3) as 1',;,; = -F. or, recalling the
definition (13.1),
(15.7)

TJ,; =

-F,; that is,

div T = -F,.

Since the nine stress components 1'# are bound by the threc relations
(15.6), we sec that the state of stress at any point is completely characterized by the six quantities 1'lI, 1"2, 1'33, 1'12 = Tn, 1'23 = 1'32, 1'31 = 1'13.
It follows from the foregoing that the six components of stress must
satisfy the three partial differential equations (15.3),

in the interior of the medium and that on the surface bounding the
medium they must satisfy the three boundary conditions (13.3),

stemming from the equilibrium conditions on the surface. In these


equations the functions F, and T, are prescribed. It is clear that these
equations are not sufficient for the complete tletermination of the state of
stress, a.nd one must have further information concerning the constitution
of the body in order that the solution of Eqs. (15.3) be unique.
PROBLEM
Consider an ela.stic solid acted upon by body forces that exert moments M, per unit
volume (as in the case of a polarized dielectric ~olid under the action of an eleCtric
field). Show that in this case, Eq. (15.5) must be replaced by
eii1(riAl

+ Mi

-- O.

What can be said in this case a.hout the symmetry of the straM components? See in
this connection Eric ReislJner, "Note on the Theorem of the Symmetry of the Stress
T_r," J<iUNUJl oj MatItematics and Phyflc8, vol. 23 (1944), pp. 192-194.

18. Transformation of Coordinates. The symmetry of the shear components of the stress tensor (1';; = 1';;) established in Sec. 15 is but a special
ease of a general theorem that will prove useful in establishing the laws 0(
transformation of the components 0( the stress tensor under an orthogonal
transformation 0( coordinate axes. We prove the following theorem:

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

Let the BfJ,rface element8 &T and &T', with unit normal8l' and
thruugh the point P; then the component of the stress vector (acting
>'
on; &T) in the direction of v' is equal to the component of the stress vector T
(acting on AU') in the direction of the normal v.
In vector notation, the theorem reads:
THEOREM:

.', pa88

f. v = f. v'.

(1~.1)

The proof of the theorem employs only Eq. (13.3) and the symmetry of
the stress components. For
If'

,,'

T.v

TiP,

(TijVi)Vj

= TjiViV,
=

TiJli = T. v',

and the theorem is proved.


'The formula

" v
T"

(16.2)

= TH";"i,

obtained above, enables one to compute the component in any direction


v of the stress vector acting on any given element with normal v'.
It will
be used now to derive the formulas of transformation of the components
of the stress tensor 'Tif when the latter is referred to a new coordinate
system obtained from the old by a rotation of axes.
Since the stress component 'T:~ (referred to the x:-system of coordinates)
is the projection on the x';-axis of the stress vector acting on a surface
element normal to the x~-axis, we can write

x:

(16.3)

where v' is parallel to the


(16.2) and (16.3) give

x~-axis

and " is parallel to the

x~-axis.

Thus,

Then

)I: =
II;

cos (x~,

Xi' ==

laiJ

= cos (X~, Xi) "'" lflj,

and we get
(16.4)

The eqUations of transformation from the

":j to'T,.jl have the form

(16.5)
The law of transformation (16.4) is identical with that deduced in Sec. 5
for the transformation of the strain tensor and exhibits the tensor character of the quantities 'Tv. Indeed, these equations represent the trans-

formation under rotation of axes of any tensor of rank 2 that is referred


to a cartesian coordinate system.
If we set fj == Il! in (16.4) and use the orthogonality relations

lah, = k.1;.. ... Oq,


we see that
or
This result can be stated as a theorem.
THEOREM: The expre8sion

1'11

1'22

+ Til

iB invariant relative to an orthogonal transformation of coordinates.


This theorem states, in effect, that, whatever be the orientation of three
mutually orthogonal planes passing through a given point, the sum of the
normal stresses is independent of the orientation of the planes.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, See. 48, p. 80; Secs. 54-55, 56&, 56b, pp. 84-87.
R. V. Southwell: Theory of Elasticity for Engineers and Physicists, Oxford University
Press, New York, Sees. 270-275, pp. 265-268.
E. Trefftz: Handbuch der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Sees.
4,5,7.
PROBLEMS
1. Show from (16.1),

.'.,
T = T

.', that, if T is the stress vector across a plane P,


p

then the stress vector on any plane Q that contains T lies in the plane P.
I. Show that the symmetry of the stress components T<; = Tj' follows from (16.1),

.'

Ty = T'''',
P
Q
I. If T and Tare thc stress vectors at a point and acting across planes P and Q, find
R

the direction of the stress vector T on a plane R containing both T and T.


'- Show with the help of (16.1) that the normal stress has a stationary value (maximum or minimum) wh,u the shea.r stress is zero. Hint: Let T11 be the normal and ""
the shear stress across plane (1). Then hy (16.1),

,"" d

~w

121

d8

~;:dB
vv

(...., + ~' dB) cos de + (",. + 0;;' de) sin de - ~n COlI de -

T,. sin

de

ANALYSIS OJ' STRESS

or

mu
iii -

-20,

That is, the normal stress across a tmrf'ace element varies 88 the element is rotated and
at a rate which is twice the shear component (with sign changed) perpendicular to the
axis of rotation.

17. Stress Quadric of Cauchy. For the purpose of studying the nature
of the distribution of stresses throughout a continuous medium, we define
at each point P(x) a quadric surface, the stress quadric of Cauchy. The
discussion of this quadric will parallel closely that of the strain quadric
in Sees. 5 and 6.
Consider an element of area with normal " and containing a point
PO(X O), and let T be the stress vector acting on this surface element (Fig.
We introduce a local system of axes Xi with origin at po, and we
denote by A the vector, in the clirection of the normal ", from po to Bome

9).

point P(x). The vector T may be resolved into normal component N


along" and tangential (or shearing) componeHt S orthogonal to ". The

normal component N of can be written


with the help of (16.2) as

N = T " =

or since
(17.1)

Xi

TiVi

T;jViV"

= A Vi,
N A2

Ti,.XiX,..

This suggests that we consider the quadratic function


(17.2)

2F(Xl,

x" x.) =

FIG. 9
'('i;XiX;.

The length of the vector A is as yet unspecified j we restrict the coorclinates


Xi by requiring the end point P(x) of A to lie on the quadric surface
(17.3)
where k is an 8.l'hitrary real constant and where the sign is chosen so as to
make the surface real. From (17.3) and (17.1) it is seen that
(17.4)

N =

k2

Ai'

Since A! is a positive quantity, kt will be taken with the positive sign


whentwer the normal component N tJf T represents tension and with the
negative sign when it represents compression. (Nate the convention
adopted in Sec. 13.)

46

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

x:,

If the coordinate axes are rotated to give a new coordinate system


then new stress components Tij are determined and the equation of the
stress quadric becomes
T:jX;Xj

= N A' ==

k.

But both N and A have values that rio not depend on the particular
coordinate system used, and hence
(17./j)
Thus, the quadratic form T;;XiX; has a value that is independent of the choice
of coordinate system. In other words, it is invariant with re!!pect to an
orthogonal transformation of coordinates.
The invariance of the form r,,:x,,xh shown by Eq. (17.5), affords an easy
means of calculating the equations of transformation (16.4). For (cf.
Sec. 5) if one substitutes in the right-hand member
of (17.5) the expressions for x~ in terms of the x;,
namely,
then the resulting expression
T iJX.,x~

= l;al;Pi;x.,x~

is an identity in the variables Xi. From this we get


the equations of transformation (16.5),
FIG. 10

From 2F(Xl, X" x,) = T,;X;Xj and Eq. (13.3), it is seen that
(17.6)
Thus, the quadratic form F(Xl, x" x.) has some attributes of a potential
function, since its derivatives with respect to the variables Xi are proportional to the corresponding components of force.
Since the

:~ are the direction ratios of the normal n to the plane tan-

gent to the quadric surface (17.3) at the point P(x), we see from (17.6)
that the stress vector f is also normal to this tangent pJ.a.ne. This gives
an easy means of constructing the stress vector f from the knowledge of
its normal component N. All that is necessary is to draw the quadric
aurface (17.3) and construct the tangent pJ.a.ne to the quadric through the
terminus P(z) of the vector A (Fig. 10). Then the vector is directed
along the perpendicular POQ to the tangent pJ.a.ne. If the magnitude of

N is known, one can readily determine the length of the vector T.

47

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

If the direction" is taken along one of the axes of the quadric, then"
(and A) will be normal to the plane tangent to the surface at (Xi). But

of is perpendicular to

the tangent plane so that, in this case, of and "


coincide in direction; hence their components must be proportional.
Thus, 1
(17.7)

>

Ti.

= TV.. = r Oi/Vi

when" lies along an axis of the stress quadric.

Since" is a unit vector

and = TV, the constant T denotes the magnitude of the stress vector of
that acts on an element normal to the axis of the surface. For any
direction" we have
(17.8)

T; = T;;V;, and therefore T;;"; =

T 6;;";, or

(Ti; - TOi;)"; = O.

This set of three homogeneous equations in the unknown directions" has


a nonvanishing solution if, and only if, the determinant of the coefficients
of the V; is equal to zero; that is,
(17.9)
This cubic equation in the stress T is entirely analogous to Eq. (6.3)
for the principal strains. Like the latter equation, it has three real roots
T1, T2, T3, which are called the principal stresses.
If Tin (17.8) is replaced
by anyone of these roots Ti, then the resulting set of equations may be
solved for the corresponding direction~. The three directions ~ are
termed the principal directions of stress, and the argument of Sec. 6 shows
that these directions are orthogonal. The planes normal to the principal
directions are called the principal planes of streS8. If the vector" is a
principal direction ~, then the associated stress vector f = T~ lies along
the normal ~ and the stress is normal. In other words, there is no shearing stress on a surface element tangent to a principal plane.
In general, there are only three mutually orthogonal principal axes of
the quadric, so that at each point PO(XO) of the medium one can find three
mutually orthogonal directions ~ such that the surface elements normal
to these directions will experience no tangential stress. If the quadric
surface is a surface of revolution, there will be infinitely many such
directions ~; one of them will be directed along the axis of revolution, and
any two mutually perpendiCUlar directions lying in the plane normal to
the axis of revolution may be taken as the remaining principal axes. If
7'1 = n = Ta, the quadric is a sphere and any three orthogonal lines may
be chosen as the principal axes. In this case, whatever be the orientation
I It is clear from (17.4) that the normal components N of the stress vector &ll8Ume
extreme values when the radius vector A is taken along the axes of the quadric.

MATHEllATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

of the SurfllOO element at the center of the sphere, the stress tlxperienced
by it will be purely normal.
We recall that Tl, T2, T, are the only stresses acting on the Ilurface elements perpendicular to the principal directions ~, ;, ~, while T11, Tn, Taa
are the normal strlll!8es on elements perpendicular to the coor(iinate axes.
If the coordinate axes are taken along the axes of the quadric, then the
shear stresses T12, T23, T31 disappear from the equation of the surface
T;f,:&J = k2, which now takes the form
(17.10)

The cubic equation (17.9) can be written as


IT" -

8,;1 =

-T'

+ e1T' -

e2T

+ e.

= 0,

where 91, 9., 9. are the invariants of the stress tensor:'


91

+ T2 + T, = Tn + T22 + T33 == e,
+ TtT3 + TaTI
T22 T231
1 T11 :31 1 + I T11 T12I'
T.3 + T31
T88
T12 T.2
I T23

T,TtT.

9. =

(17.11)

e.

Tl

TIT.

'Ttl

1'u.

T1...

A reference to formulas (16.5) shows that one can write down at once
the expressions for the components of the stress tensor T,; in terms of the
principal stresses. Thus, if the direction cosines of the principal axes of
strIlI!8 X; are given by the table

Xl

X.
X3

Xl

X2

III
l21
til

In

In

I12

In

In

lu

'

X.

then one has the simple formula


(17.12)

The ehara.eter of the di8tribution, of stress -at the point 1'0($0) -depends
on the signs of the principal stresses. (Note the agreement above conI

cr. Eq. (6.9).

ANALYSIS OJ' STRESS

49

(leming the choice of the sign of k!.) If the principal stresses are all
positive, then the equation of the stress quadric has the form
1"IX~

+ 1",xl + 1"aX: =

k",

and the surface is an ellipsoid. Equation (17.4) now reads N = k ' / A "
from which it follows that the force acting on every surface element passing through the point p. is tensile. If, on the other hand, all 1"0 are negative, then (17.10) takes the form

This surface is again an ellipsoid, but the normal component N of the


stress vector i this time is N =
Consider next the case when 1"1
of the forms

k'/ A 2, and the stress is compressive.

> 0, 1"2 > 0, 1"3 < 0; Eq. (17.10) has one

or
depending on the orientation of the surface element at PO(XO). The first
of these equations represents an unparted hyperboloid and the second a
biparted one (Fig. 11). If the normal to the
surface element at p. cuts the biparted hyperboloid, then N = -k 2/ A', so that the stress is
compressive, while if the normal cuts the
unparted hyperboloid, then N = k'/ A', and
the stress is tensile. Vectors A that lie on the
surface of the asymptotic cone
1"IXf

+ 1",x~ - hlxi = 0

do not cut either of the hyperboloids. In this


case, N A 2 = 0, and hence N = O. Accord- %1
ingIy, the elements of surface whose normals
are directed along the generators of the cone
experience only tangential stress.
I
It is easily shown that the case of Tl < 0, 1".
FIG. 11
< 0, 1"3 > does not differ essentially from
that just considered. The only difference is in the regions in which the
medium experiences compression and tension.
18. Maximum Normal and Shear Stresses. Mohr's Diagram. We
have shown in the preceding section [Eq. (17.4)1 that the component N

of the stress vector in the direction ", normal to the surface element, is
inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector A\' to the stress
quadric. The extreme values of the radius vector lie along the axes of

50

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

the quadric. Hence the extreme values of N, which we have denoted by


Ta, are the extreme values of the normal components of the stress
vector acting at po as the sutface element assumes different orientations.
These extreme values are obviously of moment in the study of failure of
materials. In some theories of failure it is also important to know the

T1, T2,

extreme values of the shearing component 8 of f and the directions "


associated with them. These are easily determined. If we direct the
coordinate axes at po along the principal directions of stress, the components T12, T23, and 1'13 vanish and 1'11 = 'T1, 'T22 = 'T2, 'T33 = 'T.. From the
basic relation

we then have
(18.1)

T.

= 'T.Va,

and since
we get
(18.2)
But from Fig. 9

8 2 = I'fl' - N',
and on substituting in this formula from (18.1) and (18.2) we obtain
(18.3)
It is clear from (18.3) that if the directions" are taken along the axes
of the stress quadric so that
V,

1,
1,
= 1,

V2

1', =

V3

= Va = 0,

V3

V,

PI

V.

= 0,
= 0,

then 8 = O. This merely verifies the known fact that the planar elements
normal to the principal directions of stress are free from shear. Thus the
minimum (zero) values of 181 are associated with the principal directions.
To determine the directions associated with the maximum values of 181,
we maximize the function in the right-hand member of (18.3), subject
to the constraining relation II;Vi = 1. The simplest way of doing this is to
use the method of La.grange multipliers a.nd seek the free extremum of
the function
F = 8 1 - X... I',.
This leads to the three equations,

iJF
iJv;

51

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

in X and "i which, together with the relation Vi"i = 1, serve to determine
the desired directions.
We dispense with the elementa.ty computa.tions and record the final
results in the accompanying table, the last column of which gives the
values of INI associated with the extreme values of lSI.
TABLE OF EXTREMAL VALUES OF

0
0
:1:1
0

V2
2

0
0

V2

~/2

V2
2

181""

Va

"

VI
-~

0
0
0

INI
IT.I
hi
[TIl

~~lr2

- Ta!

~~[T2

+ TIl

V2

~ih

- Ttl

Hlra

+ Ttl

~~ITI

- T,I

~21Tl

+ ral

~
2

If 1'3 < T. < 1'1, SO that 1'1 is the maximum value of Nand 1'3 is its minimum value, then the maximum value of lSI is,

We see from the table that the maximum shearing stress acts on the surface element containing the X2 principal axis and bisecting the angle
between the X,- and xa-axes. If 1'2 = 1'3, there will be infinitely many
directions associated with the surface elements that are subjected to a
maximum shearing stress. We summarize the main results of this section
in the following theorem:
THEOREM: The maximum shearing stress is equal to one-half the difference
between the greatest and least normal stresses and acts on the plane that
bisects the angle between the directions of the largest and smallest principal
stresses.
The results of this .section can be further illuminated by constructing a
diagram proposed' by o. Mohr.
If we rewrite Eqs. (18.2) and (18.3) in the form

N =

8'

+ N2

'1",,,1 + T."~ + T3111,


+ T~vi + TM,

". Ti"~

lOtto Mohr, ZiviJ."iew- (1882), 1>. 113. See also his book Technische
Mecbanik, 2d ed. (1914).

52

MATHE,MATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

recaJI that

vI + vi + vi

VI, we obtain

= 1, and solve for the

(18,4)

We are assuming that


'1"8

< '1", < '1""

so that T, - T2 > 0 and T, - T3 > 0, and since


clude from the first of Eqs. (18.4) that
(18.5)

S'

+ (N

1'; is nonnegative, we con-

- T.)(N - Ta) 2:: O.

We consider now the space of the variables (S, N) and plot in the cartesian
SN-plane (Fig. 12) the values of S as ordinates and those of N as abscissas.

FIG. 12

The equation
(18.6)

S' + (N - 'I",)(N -

'1".)

= 0

represents a circle 0, with center on the N-axis and passing through the
points ('1"2, 0), (T3, 0). Hence the region defined by (18.5) is ~rior to
the circle (18.6) and includes its boundary. Further, '1". - '1", > 0,
TI - '1"1 < 0, and we conclude from the second of Eqs. (18.4) that
(18.7)

8" + (N - 'I".)(N - Tl) ~

o.

Thus the region defined by (18.7) is a closed region, interior to the circle
C, (Fig. 12), whose equation is
S'

+ (N -

'I".)(N - "1) -

o.

ANALYSIS OF STRESS

Finally the third of Eqs. (18.4) yields the result tha.t


(18.8)

S2

+ (N -

Tl)(N - ,.,)

0,

since T. - "1 < 0 and T3 - T2 < O.


The region defined by (18.8) is exterior to the circle C. (Fig. 12), with
center on the N-axis and passing through the points (Tl' 0), (T2, 0).
It follows from inequalities (18.5), (18.7), and (18.8) that the admissible values of Sand N lie in the crescent-shaped regions (shaded in Fig.
12) bounded by the circles C1, C" and Ca.
The maximum shearing stress S, as is clear from Fig. 12, is represented
by the greatest ordinate 0' Q of the circle C2, and hence

s _ Tl
mu:: -

- Ta.
2

To determine the orientation of the surface elements that support this


stress, we make use of formulas (18.4). The value of N, corresponding
to Sma_ (shown as 00' in Fig. 12), is
N = Tl

+ ,..,
2

and the substitution of this value and Smax = ~h - 7",) in (18.4) yields
vi = vi = ~, vi = O. These coincide with the values appearing in the
table on page 51.
PROBUMS
Discusa the Mohr circle diagram for the case where T, = n, and detennine the orientation of surface elements experiencing extreme shearing stresses. Consider also the
case where 1"1 = 1"2 = Ta.

19. Examples of Stress. This section contains several examples


closely paralleling those in Sec. 8. As in that section, we prefer to use the
unabridged notation.
a. Purely Norma}, Stress. If for every plane passing through a point

f is normal to the plane, that is, if it is directed


along the normal" or opposite to it, then for any choice of rectangular
coordinates

PO(;Z;O) the stress vector

and
T"" = T .. = ,."" = 0,
The stress quadric in this case is a sphere whose equation is
a;1

+ y2 + Zl.=

k2
_
_
T_

Any set of orthogonal axes that pass through the point po may be taken .
as principal axes of the quadric. This case corresponds to hydrostatic
pressurei,."" is negative.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELA.STlCITY

b. Simple Tension Dr CompresBioo. A state of simple tension or compression is characterized by the fact that the stress vector for one plane
through the point is normal to that plane and the stress vector for any
plane perpendicular to this one vanishes. Hence if the x'-, y'-, and
z'-axes coincide with the principal axes of streM, then the stress quadric
(17.3) has the equation
Transforming to any other orthogonal coordinate system x, y, z with the
aid of (17.12), we obtain the following stress components:
'T.. = 'T,lflJ
'T.. = 'T,llll21,

'TIIJI = 'T,l~"
'T.. = 'T ,l"l",

= 'T1Z111

'T = 'T,l31l11,

where lll' l", l31 are the direction cosines of the x'-axis relative to the axes
x, y, z. A positive value of 'TI represents tension, and a negative represents compression.
c. Shearing Stress. Consider a streM
B
quadric
(19.1)
which is a hyperbolic cylinder whose elements are parallel to the z'-axis and
which represents a shearing stress of magnitude'T. Equation (19.1) takes the form

'Txt -

FIG. 13

ryl

kl ,

when the axes are rotated through an angle of 45 about the z'-axis. A
comparison of this equation with the general equation of the streM quadric
(19.2)
when the latter is referred to the principal axes of stress shows that we
must have
'Tu = 0,

Tu

==

- TW

= 1".

Thus, the shearing streM is equivalent to tension acr088 one plane and
compression of equal magnitude acr088 a perpendicular plane. This can
also be shown geometrically by considering the equilibrium of the element
PBO (Fig. 13). Hence the stress on the face BO is a pure shear of magnitude l' - -'T"" = +'T... This type of shearing stress would tend to slide
planes of the material originally perPendicular to the y'-axis in a direction
parallel to the :r!-axis and planes of the material originally perpendicular
to the :r!-axis in a direction parallel to the y'-axis.
d. Plane St.r_. If one of the principal stresses vauishes, then the
1ItNI8II quadric becomes a cylinder whose base is a eonic, the stress conic.

55

ANALYSIS OJ' STR1!l88

A state of stress, in this case, is said to be plcM. The base of the cylinder
lies in a plane containing the directions of the non vanishing principal
stresses. For example, if this plane is perpendicular to the ,-axis, the
equation of the quadric is
T..x

+ T..Y + 2T.,xy

k.

For simple tension in the x-direction, the stress conic reduces to the pair
of lines
x ==

kt
-_.
T ...

For the case of shear, the stress conic is a rectangular hyperbola


%JI =

kl
_.
2T..,

If the stress conic is a circle, there is equal tension or compression in all


directions in the plane of the circle.

CHAPTER

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

20. Hooke's Law. It has already been noted that the treatment contained in Chaps. 1 and 2 is applicable to all material media that can be
represented with sufficient accuracy as continuous bodies; this chapter
will be concerned with the characterization of elastic solids.
The first attempt at a scientific description of the strength of solids was
made by Galileo. He treated bodies as inextensible, however, since at
that time there existed neither experimental data nor physical hypotheses
that would yield a relation between the deformation of a solid body and
the forces responsible for the deformation. It was Robert Hooke who,
some forty years after the appearance of Galileo's Discourses (1638), gave
the first rough law of proportionality between the forces and displacements.
Hooke published his law first in the form of an anagram" ceiiinosssttuu"
in 1676, and two years later gave the solution of the anagram: "ut tensio
sic vis," which can be translated freely as "the extension is proportional
to the force." To study this statement further, we discuss the deformation of a thin rod subjected to a tensile stress.
Consider a thin rod (of a low-carbon steel, for example), of initial cr088sectional area ao, which is subjected to a variable tensile force F. If the
stress is assumed to be distributed uniformly over the area of the cross
section, then the nominal8tre8s T = F I ao can be calculated for any applied
load F. The actual stress is obtained, under the assumption of a uniform
stress distribution, by dividing the load at any stage of the test by the
actual area of the cross section of the rod at that stage. The difference
between the nominal and the actual stress is negligible, however, throughout the elastic range of the material.
If the nominal stress T is plotted as a function of the extension e (change
in length per unit length of the specimen), then for some ductile metals
a graph like that in Fig. 14 is secured. The graph is very nearly a straight
line with the equation
(20.1)

T = Ee

until the stress reaches the proportional limit (point P in Fig. 14). The
position of this point, however, depends to a considerable extent upon the
sensitivity of the testing apparatus. The constant of proportionality E is
known as Young's modulus.

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

57

In most metals, especially in soft and ductile materials, careful observation will reveal very small permanent elongations which are the results
of very small tensile forces. In many metals, however (steel and
wrought iron, for example), if these very small permanent elongations are
neglected (less than 1/100,000 of the length of a bar under tension), then
the graph of stress against extension is a straight line, as noted above, and
practically all the deformation disappears after the force has been
removed. The greatest stress that can be applied without producing a
permanent deformation is called the elastic limit of the material. When
the applied force is increased beyond this fairly sharply defined limit, the
material exhibits both elastic and plastic properties. The determination
of this limit requires successive loading
and unloading by ever larger forces
U
until a permanent set is recorded. For
many materials the proportional limit
is very nearly equal to the elastic limit,
and the distinction between the two is
sometimes dropped, particularly since
the former is more easily obtained.
When the stress increases beyond the
elastic limit, a point is reached (Yon
the graph) at which the rod suddenly
Strain
stretches with little or no increase in
the load. The stress at point Y is called
FIG. 14
the yield-point stress.
The nominal stress T may be increased beyond the yield point until the
ultimate stress (point U) is reached. The corresponding force F = Tao is
the greatest load that the rod will bear. When the ultimate stress is
reached, a brittle material (such as a high-carbon steel) breaks suddenly,
while a rod of some ductile metal begins to "neck"; that is, its crosssectional area is greatly reduced over a small portion of the length of the
rod. Further elongation is accompanied by an increase in actual stress
but by a decrease in total load, in cross-sectional area, and in nominal
stress until the rod breaks (point B).
The elastic limit of low-carbon steels is about 35,000 lb per sq in.; the
ultimate stress is about 60,000 lb per sq in. .Hard steels may be prepared
with an ultimate strength greater than 200,000 lb per sq in.
We shall consider only the behavior of elastic materials subjected to
stresses below the proportional limit ; that is, we shall be concerned only
with those materials and situations in which Hooke's law, expressed by
Eq. (20.1), or a generalization of it, is valid.'
I In order to give the reader Ilome feeling regarding the magnitude of deformations
with which the theory of elasticity de&ls, note that a l-in.-long rod of iron with proportionallimit of 25,000 Ib per sq in., a yield point of 30,000 lb per sq in., and Young'swod-

58

Il.\THEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Some materials subjected to tensile tests have an extremely small range


of values of extensions e for which the law (20.1) is valid. In this case,
the stress-strain curve above the proportional limit may have the appearance indicated in Fig. 100. In the process of loading and unloading
specimens made of such materials, the same curve PQ may be traced out,
and if there is no residual deformation, the material is elastic with the
stress-strain law of the form

T = I(e),
where' is a single-valued nonlinear function. More frequently, however,
the loading-unloading diagram has the appearance shown in Fig. 15b.
In this diagram the curve 0 A is associated with the loading of the specimen and AB with the unloading. In this instance there is a residual
T

CI

lal

Ibl
FIG. 15

deformation, represented by DB, which characterizes the plastic behavior.


For plastic materials the relationship between T and e is no longer one-toone, and after repeated loadings and unloadings a saw-tooth pattern
indicated in Fig. 15b may be obtained.
A natural generalization of Hooke's law immediately suggests itself,
namely, one can invoke the principle of superposition of effects and
assume that at each point of the medium the $train components 6>i are
linear functions of the stress components Tij. Such a generalization was
made by Cauchy, and the resulting Jaw is known as the generalized
Hooke'BlaW. We discuss it in the following section.
21. Genera1ized Hooke'S Law. We saw in the preceding chapters
that the state of stress in continuous media is completely determined by
the stress tensor Tij, and the state of deformation by the strain tensor e;i'
We shall now assume that when an elastic medium is maintained at a
muof 10,000,000 lb per aq in. will eloncate under & load of 13,000 lb per aq in. about
0.0004 in. Even if the rod is loaded to the yield point, the determiD&tioa of the
extensioa wiD require very refined m _ t s .

59

EQUATIONS OF ELA8T1CITY

hed temperature there is a one-to-one analytic relation


Tij

= Fij(en,

en, .. ,en),

(i, j

= 1, 2, 3)

between the Tij and eoj and that the Tij vanish when the strains eo; are all
zero. This last assumption implies that in the initial unstrained state
the body is unstressed. Now, if the functions Fij are expanded in the
power series in e;; and only the linear terms retained in the expansions,
we get
(i, j, k, I = 1, 2, 3).

(21.1)

The coefficients Cijkl, in the linear forms (21.1), in general will vary from
point to point of the medium. If, however, the C,jkl are independent of
the position of the point, the medium is called elastically homogeneous.
Henceforth we confine our attention to those media in which the (;,;kl do
not vary throughout the region under consideration. The law (21.1) is
a natural generalization of Hooke's law, and it is used in all developments
of the linear theory of elasticity.'
Inasmuch as the components Tij are symmetric, an interchange of the
indices i and j in (21.1) does not alter these formulas, so that
Moreover, we can assume, without 1088 of generality, that the C'j'" are also
symmetric with respect to the last two indices. For if the constants
C:jkl and C:;kl are defined by the formulas

c:;>1

72(Cijkl

+ Ci;a),

C~;.l:l = 72(Cijld -

then, clearly, c:;>1 =


the sum

O:jlk

and

C:;kl =

Cij1cl

CijlJ:),

-C:;'k'

= C~ikl

ThuB

Cijkl

can be written as

+ C~;kh

in which the C:j11 are symmetric and the C;;kl are skew-symmetric with
respect to k and 1. Accordingly, the law (21.1) can always be written
in the form
Tij

C:;kleH

+ C:;kle",.

However, the double sum in the second term of this expression vanishes
inasmuch as ekl = eU. and C:;kl =
Thus,

-C:;11'

Tij

==

C~.i.l:,eA:l,

where the C#kl are symmetric with respect to the first two and the last two
indices.
, It is Important to note that the generaliJled Hooke'alaw (21.1) is akIo uaed in some
in'\"e8tiptionB. where the Btraina are finite, in the llen&e of Sec. 11. For many materiall
a linear relationship (21.1) holds for an appreciable range of values of the 8</. The
linear theory of elasticity, however, is baaed on the UBe of the infinitesimal straina,
dsfined in Sec. 7, and on the linear law (21.1).

60

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 01' IlLASTICITY

We shall consider henceforth tha.t the CV'I in (21.1) have been symmetrized, so that there are at most 36 independent constants in the general stress-strain law (21.1).
To avoid dealing with double sums, we can introduce the notation
1"22

elt =

and write

t~e

T2t

733 ::e

e2,

e33.=

Ta,
ea,

723 =

T",

2e., = e.,

Tn

Ti,

2e .. = e"

Tn = ra,
= eo,

2eu

six equations (21.1) in the form

'1'1 = Cllel

+ C12e2 + cue, + cue, + cue, + C18eO,

'1'6 = CUel

+ CUe2 + coae. + cue, + cue, + C66e6,

or, more compactly,


(i, j = 1, 2, . . . ,6).

(21.2)

The relations between the '1', and e; must be reversible, hence Ic,;I ;;c 0, and
we can write
e; = C,fTi'
The constants 1:<, in (21.2) are called the elastic constants, or moduli, of the
material. Inasmuch as the strains e, are dimensionless, the c;, have the
same dimensions as the stress components}
We have just remarked that the maximum number of the independent
elastic constants is 36, but this number reduces to 21 whenever there
exists a function
(21.3)
with the property,
(21.4)

oW

Oe; =

Ti

For one can always suppose that the quadratic form (21.3) is symmetric,
and it then follows from (21.4) that
'1', = CVil;,

where 1:<1 = Cj;.


The potential function W was introduced by George Green,1 and it is
called the strain-energy density functUm. Its existence for the isothermal
and adiabatic processes' has been argued on the basis of the first and
1 See See. 14.
G. Green, TranMJCt:WruJ of the Cambridge PhU<nophic418ocia", vol. 7 (1839), p. 12l.
See references in this book to Lord Kelvin's papers in the HiBtorical SIMIch. The
isothermal process corresponds to the case of slow loading and unloadiDg involving
JjO temperature changes of the medium.
It is of interest in elastostatic problems.
The adiabatic process is approximated in thoae dyDamica.l problema where bodies
execute smaJl and rapid vibrations. The elastic constanta C<j in the two eases cannot
be expeeted to be identical.

JlQUATlONS OF 1IlL.UlTICITY

61

second laws of thermodynamics, and it is now generally accepted that, for


the most general case of an anisotr~pig~!Mtk.body, the number of independent elastic constants iil'the generalized Hooke's law is 21. The
matter of the number of elastic constants required to describe the stressstrain law of the form (21.1) was the subject of a lengthy controversy.
Cauchy and Poisson argued,l on the basis of special mathematical models
of molecular interaction, that the number of independent constants cannot exceed 15. Their arguments proved wanting and are in contradiction
to experimental evidence.
H an elastic medium exhibits a geometrical symmetry of internal structure (crystallographic form, regular :urangement of fibers or molecules,
etc.) then its elastic properties become identical in (!ertain directions.'
The geometric symmetry, however, is not equivalent to elastic symmetry
because there may be certain other directions for which the elastic
properties are the same but the geometric ones are not.
H the medium is elastically symmetric in certain directions, then
the number of independent constants Co; in (21.2) is further reduced.
Because of their practical importance, we discuss in this section two
particular types of elastic symmetry. These are (1) symmetry with
respect to a plane (in which 13 independent elastic constants are involved),
and (2) symmetry with respect to three mutually perpendicular planes
(involving 9 independent constants Coi)' In the next section we prove
that when the elastic properties of a body are identical in all directions,
that is, if the body is elastically isotropic, the number of essential elastic
constants reduces to 2.: . "'
,,"_,,_
It is obvious frorii"(21.2) that the coefficients c;" in general, depend on
the chosen reference frame inasmuch as the str. components T; and the
strain components e; vary with the choice of coordinate systems. For
certain media the coefficients Cij may remain invariant under a given
transformation of coordinates, and it is this invariance which determines
the elastic symmetry of the medium under consideration. 8
1 A. L. Cauchy, Ezerci8.. de math~matique, voL 3 (1828a), p. 213; vol. 3 (18280),
p.328.
S. D. Poisson, Mtmoir .. de l'aca<Umie, Paris, voL 8 (1829); voL 18 (1842).
See also in this connection:
M. Born, Dynamik der Kristslgitter (1915) and Atomtheorie des festen Zustandes, 2d ed. (1923), and comments on Born's work by 1. Stakgold, Quarterly of
Applied Mathematics, vol. 8 (1950), pp. 169-186.
P. S. Epstein, PhyBical RevU:w, vol. 70 (1946), pp. 915-922.
The arguments of Green and Lord Kelvin, in support of the 21-constMt theory,
are presented in Chap. III of Love'" Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of
EIaeticity.
S This is the principle expressed by F. Neumann in Vorlesungen fiber die Theorie der
ElastisitAt (1885). See also Love'a Treatise (1927), p. 155.
The reader familiar with the rudiments of taneor ana.Iyeis will recognise that when

62

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ! ELASTICITY

Consider a substance elastically symmetric with respect to the 2;1~S"


plane. This symmetry is expressed by the statement that the C;j are
invariant under the transformation
Xl

x~,

==

%a

-z~.

The table of direction cosines of this transformation is


Xa

o
o

o
o
-1

and from formulas (5.9) and (1604) it is seen that


(i = 1, 2, 3, 6),
e~ = ei,
T~ = 'Ti,
r~

e~

-T4,

-e4,

The first equation of (21.2) becomes


1";

or
1"1

+ c,,.e~ + clSe; + cHe~ + cl&e~ + c,.e~,


= cue, + cue. +
c,.e. - cue, + C,se.
= cue;

ClSe. -

Comparison of this equation with the expression for


shows that
c,. = c" = O.
Similarly, by considering 1"~, . . . ,1"~, we find that
Cu

= Cu = Cu =

Cu

1"1

givlln by (21.2)

= Cu = Cn = 0,

~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~=~

For a material with one plane of elastic symmetry (which. is taken to


be the xlxrplane), the matrix of the coefficients of the linE>,ar forms in
(21.2) can be written as follows,
the law (21.1) is written in the form

(i,1, Ie, l - 1, 2, 3),


valid in all coordinate systems, then it follows from the tensor characte. of the f';; a.nd
e.. that the
are components of .. tensor of rank 4. Consequently, 'mder a transformation of coordinates from the system X to X', the
transform according to the

ott

ctl

law
(4)

If the

ttl are invariant (so that c'ft - etl) under a given coordinate tr-ansform.ation,

then the tranafo1'lllation Characteril!eB the nature of elastic symmetry. The ~ IigurIJ:c

ing in the law (4) arethedirectionoosines ..ppearinginthetablesofthlslWK!tion,~_


the systeJns X a.nd X' are cartesian.

63

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

(~: ~ ~

(21.5)

Cn

Co.

c..

u. ~)

Cu c" 0
0
0
coo
Such materials as wood, for example, have three mutually orthogonal
planes of elastic symmetry and are said to be or.tftoiJ:J!,pic. In considering
such materials, we shall choose the axes '(;r co()rdinates so that the
coordinate planes coincide with the planes of elastic symmetry. Tn this
case, some of the coefficients Co; exhibited in the array (21.5) vanish,
Besides the symmetry with respect to the xlx.-plane, expressed by (21.5),
the elastic constants co; must also be invariant under the transformation
of coordinates defined by the following table of direction cosines,
Xl

X.

X.

-1

- -- - - - - --I

Xl

1
0
0
x.,
0
0
x.
This change of coordinates is a reflection in the x.x.-plane and leaves the
and unchanged with the following exceptions:

r,

e,

e~

e~

= -e5,

= -e.

From (21.5) we have


TI

CUel

+ Cl2e. + cue. + cue.

This becomes
or

Tl = CUel + Cl2ll. + Clae. - cue.,


from which it follows that C16 = O. By cOlliudering in a similar way the
transformed expressions for T2, ,TO, we find thaV

c = c.. = Cn = Cu = Cn = CO2 = co. = O.


Thus, for orthotropic media the matrix of the c;, takes the following form.

(21.6)

~:: ~:: ~:: ~ ~

Caa 0
0
0 0 C44 0
OOOOc"
o 0 0 0 0
Cu

C..

Note that elastic symmetry in the ztzrplane and in the "'o2'rplane intplies elastic
~ in the """'rplane.
1

64

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

If the coefficients Cij are symmetric, that is,


C'I == Cj;,
(i, j == 1, 2, . . . ,6),
we see that there are 13 e88ential constants in the array (21.5) and 9 in
(21.6). This symmetry has not been assumed, however, in establishing
the forms of the arrays of coefficients (21.5) and (21.6), nor will it be used
in the next section, where the law (21.2) is specialized to that for an
isotrop;" medium.
It is worth noting that the statement of the law (21.2) is not devoid of
inconsistency. In the process of formulating the notion of the components of strain e,j, it was assumed that the components of displacement
u, are functions of the coordinates (XI, X" Xa) of the body in its undeformed
state; that is, Lagrangian coordinates were used. On the other hand,
Eulerian coordinates were employed in defining the components of the
stress tensor To;; that is, it was assumed that the T" are functions of the
coordinates (xi, X;, X;) of the stressed (and hence deformed) medium.
Of course, if the displacements U; and their derivatives are small, then the
values of T,iCx) and Ti;(X') cannot differ by a great deal. As an indication
of the order of approximation involved here, note that, if x;. = x. + 'Uk,
then
(21.7)

Or.; = Or,;

ax.

ax:

ax; aXk

Hence, in writing aaT,; =

x.

Ora':,

Xk

an; (a k! + au!)
axi

ax.

aTij
ax~

+ Or;; aU!.
axl ax.

we assume that the displacement derivatives

are small compared with unity. In what follows, it will be assumed that
both the components of strain eoj and the components of stress Ti; are functions of the initial coordinates (Xl, X" xa).
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL .READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 60-65, pp. 92-100.
Chap. VI of Love's treatise is given to a discussion of the eqUilibrium Of nonisotropic elastic solids and contains further references on the subject. Voigt's Lehrbuch der Kristallphysik is a standard treatise on the subject.
L. Lecornu: Theorie mathematique de ]'eiastieite, Memorial des sciences math6matiques, Gauthier&-Villars & Cie, Paris, pp. 12-1S.
Contains a discussion of the theory of Poincare regarding the number of elastic
constants in the generalized Hooke's law.
PROBLEMS

1. Are the principal axes of strain coincident with those of stress for an anisotropic
medium with Hooke's law expressed by Eq. (21.2)? For a medil1m with one plane of
elastic symmetry? For an orthotropie mediull1 ? Him: Take the eoordinate axes
along the principa.l "as of strain @() that e. - e. _ .... - o.

55

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

I. Show directly from the generalized Hooke's law (Eq. (21.2)) that in an isotropio
body the principal axes of strain coincide with those of stress. Hint: Take the coordinat<, axes along the principal axes of strain (e. - e. - e. = 0), and consider the effect
on Til and Tn of a rotation of axes by 180 about the x.-axis.

22. Homogeneous Isotropic Media. Most structural materials are


formed of crystalline substances, and hence very small portions of such
materials cannot be regarded as being isotropic. Nevertheless, the
assumption of isotropy and homogeneity, when applied to an entire body,
often does not lead to serious discrepancies between the experimental and
theoretical results.' The reason for this agreement lies in the fact that
the dimensions of most crystals are so small in comparison with the dimensions of body and they are so chaotically distributed that, in the large, the
substance behaves as though it were isotropic.
From the definition of the isotropic medium, it follows that its elastic
properties are independent of the orientation of coordinate axes. In
particular, the coefficients c;; must remain invariant when we introduce
new coordinate axes x;, x~, x~, obtained by rotating the x" x., xs-system
through a right angle about the x,-axis. By considering the transformed
in exactly the same way as was done in the prestress components
ceding section, it is found that

r:,

eu = Cu,

Similarly, a rotation of axes through a right angle about the x3-axis leads
to the relations
en

= C12,

C23 =

C13,

We introduce, finally, the coordinate system x;, x~, x;, got from the x" x.,
xa-system by rotating the latter through an angle of 45 0 about the x.-axis.
In this case, we have

1';.

+ 721'22,

-721'11

or, noting the definitions on page 60,


T~

= -721', + 721'2,

From (21.6) and the relation

C66

T6

When referred to the x;,


(22.1)

x~,

e~

= -e, + e.

c,', we have
C.ue6.

x;-axes, this becomes

r~ =

c,.e; or

Now from (21.6)


1",

1'2 =

cue,
cue,

+ c"e, + cue.,

+ C.06. + c.06.,

Many cast metals are notable exceptions. The processes of rolling and drawing
frequently produce a definite orientation of crystals, so that many rolled and drawn
metals are anisotropic.
1

66

KATllElU.TICAL TBBORY OP ELASTICITr

and from. the relatiODS given aboVe, namely,


Cit ... CU,

wege!;
-~T'

CII

Cn ... Ctl

+ ~"'t == ~(Cll -

==

c,,)(-e,

CII,

+ e,).

Comparison of this equation with (22.1) yields the result


(22.2)
so that
.,.. = p.e

We shall find it convenient to write the generalized Hooke's law for an


isotropic body in terms of the two constants A and /J, where /J is defined by
(22.2) and where we put
Cn

= A.

From (21.6) we can now write


1'11

CUe11

= c,,(e11
= Af)

C,te%2

C,te"

+ e" + e ) + (ell

+ 2p.eu.

- cU)e11

Thus, the generalized Hooke's law for a homogeneous isottopic body


can be written in the following form:
(i,j = 1,2,3).
(22.3)
Equation (22.3) yields a simple relation connecting the invariants
~ = eli and e = 1'...
Puttingj = i in (22.3) and noting that 8.. = 811 + 822 + 833 = 3, one
finds that
or
(22.4)

= (3).

+ 2p.)iJ.

Equations (22.3) can now be solved easily for the strains ei; in terIDS of the
stresses Tij. We have
or
(22.5)

->'8,;

eo; = 2/J(3)..

+ 2p,) e + 2;

It is clear from (22.5) that we must require that


The constants >.. a.nd p. were introduced by G.

Tij.

p, "F 0
L&m~

and 3A + 21' "F O.


and are called the

Lame constants.
We .have shown that the stress-strain law for isotropic media involves
no more than two elastic constants. The fact that no further reduction
is posiible is physically obvious from the simple tensile tests, but an

67

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

analytic proof of this, utilizing the properties of isotropic tensors, can be


constructed. 1
If the axes x; are directed along the principal axes of strain, then
eoa = en = 612 = O. But from (22.3) we see that in this case'T23, 'Tn, and
T1S also vanish.
Hence the axes X; must lie along the principal axes of
stress, and we have the result that the principal axes of stress are coincident
'With the principa~e~.of strain if the medium is isot;opiC: -This property
was used by Cauchy to define the isotropic elastic medium.
Henceforth no distinction will be made between the principal axes of
strain and those of stress, and such axes will be referred to simply as the
principal axes.
23. Elastic Moduli for Isotropic Media. Simple Tension. Pure
Shear. Hydrostatic Pressure. In order to gain some insight into the
physical significance of elastic constants entering in formulas (22.3), we
consider the behavior of elastic bodies subjected to simple tension, pure
shear, and hydrostatic pressure.
Assume that a right cylinder with the axis parallel to the Xl-axis is
subjected to the action of longitudinal forces applied to the ends of the
cylinder. If the applied forces give rise to a uniform tension T in every
cross section of the cylinder, then
(23.1)

Tll

= const,

= Ta. =

T12

= To.

= T31 = O.

Since the body forces are not present, the state of stress determined by
(23.1) satisfies the equilibrium equations (15.3) in the interior of the
cylinder, and equations (13.3) show that the lateral surface of the cylinder
is free of tractions.
The substitution from (23.1) in (22.5) yields the appropriate values of
strains, namely,'
(23.2)

+ p.)T
+ 2p.)'

-XT

(X
p.(3X

ell

e12

= e23

= e31 =

0,

which clearly satisfy the compatibility equations (10.9). Accordingly, the


state of stress (23.1) actually corresponds to the one that can exist in a
deformed elastic body.
Noting that
e..
-X
ell = 2(X + p.)'
we introduce the abbreviations
(23.3)

" .., 2(X

+ p.)'

1 H. Jeffreys, Cartesian Tensors (1931).


The integratioIl of Eqs. (23.2), yielding the displacements
See. 30.

u"

is carried out in

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Then Eqs. (23.2) can be written in the form


6n =

(23.4)

E T,

-(T

"If" T

6u = 6aa =

= -.,.6u,

612 = e2. = 681 = O.


H the stress T represents tension, so that T > 0, then a tensile stress will
produce an extension in the direction of the axis of the cylinder and a contraction in its cross section. Accordingly, for T > 0, we have ell > 0,
e" < 0, eaa < O. It follows that E and 11 are both positive.
Physical interpretations of the elastic moduli E and 11 are easily
obtained. It follows from the first of the formulas (23.4) that the
quantity

represents the ratio of the tensile stress T to the extension


by the stress T. Again, from (23.4), it is seen that
22

<f

e11

produced

33

= I e611 1 = I 6611 1;

thus .,. denotes the ratio of the contraction of the linear elements perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder to the longitudinal extension of the rod.
The quantity E is known as Young'8 modulu8, and the number 11 is called
the Poisson ratio.
It is easy to verify that one can express the constants A and p. in terms
of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as
E.,.
E
(23.5)

A = (1

+ (1)(1

- 211)'

p.

---

= 2(1

+ (1)"

Consider next the state of pure shear characterized by the stress


components
Tn

= T =

CODBt,

Tn = 1'22 = Tn

Til

= Tn

= 0.

Substituting these values in (22.5) yields


(23.6)

e" = 21' T,

ell = 62. = 6.. = 812 = eu = O.

These formulas show that a rectangular parallelepiped OPQR, whose


faces are parallel to the coordinate planes, is sheared in the x,xrplane
(see Fig. 4) so that the right angle between the edges of the parallelepiped
parallel to the Xr and x ...axes is diminished, for T > 0, by the angle
an = 2e... From (23.6) we have
T
p. =-.
all

Thus the number.p. represents the ratio of the shearing streBII T to the
change in angle au produced by the shearing stress. For this reason the

69

EQUATIONS OJ' ELASTICITY

quantity,.. is called the modulm oj rigidity, or the shear flU.dulm. Since


E and IT aJ; both positive, it follows from the second of Eqs. (23.5) that
,.. is also positive.
Finally consider a body 'I' of arbitrary shape subjected to a !tydrostatic
ressur~_Qf
uniform intensity p distributed over its surface. The com~
P..,.--.
ponents

T; of the stress vector acting on the surface are then


,

T; = -pv;,

where Vi are the direction cosines of the normal


The system of stresses
1"'11

(23.7)

'1'22

1"'33

= -p,

712

e = Tn + 1'22 + 1'33 =

1'23

to the surface.
=

-3p,
satisfies the equilibrium equation in the interior of
From (22.5) we deduce the expressions!
en = e

(23.8)

= e..

= -

3A

2,..'

en

eta

== 0,

Tn

'I'

and on its surface.

eu = 0,

which, clearly, satisfy the compatibility equations (10.9). The cubical


compression {} = e,i can be obtained either from (23.8) or ffom the general
relations (22.4) and (23.7). We get
{} = ell
which can be written as

+ e.. + e31

" = -

t'

= - A . :%,..'

k = -~,

or

"

by introducing the abbreviation


(23.9)

+ %,...

'If the substitution from (23.5) in (23.8) is made, we find that


ell ... eu - en ==

Since Ui.1 +
equations,

-p(l - 20-)

'

6'1"

0 for i '#- j.

"I.' - 2eH,we have for the determination of displacements the system of

The integration of these equations yields [cf. Sec. 301


E
k - 3(1 _ 20-)'

where aH

the integration constants. These integration conIf we fix the point Xi .. 0 (assumed
to be in the body) and impose the condition that the rotation vector "" (Sec. 7) vanishes, We get
-

-aji

and the

ao; are

stants are associated with the rigid body motion.

til -

-liz..

10

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELABTlCITY

Thus, the quantity k represents the ratio of the compreesi.v~ "ress to the
cubical compression, and for this reason it is called the modul'UI oj compre8Bion. Since for all physical substances a hydrostatic pressure tends
to diminish the bulk, it is clear that k is positive. Substituting in (28.9)
the expreesi.ons for A and p. from (28.5) gives
E
k = 3(1 - 20-}

Since k is positive for all physical SUbstances, it foUows that IT is less than
one-half, and hence [see (23.5)] A is positive. For most structural materials, the value of IT does not deviate much from one-third. If the material is highly incompressible (rubber, for example), IT is nearly one-half and
p. == E13.
The stress-strain relations (22.5), when written by making the Bub. stitutions from (23.5), assume the simple form
(23.10)

where e = T". If we recall the notation of Sec. 14, these relations caa
also be given in the following form:

en

IT(r,,,,

+ T..)],

E [T - IT(r

+ r;.),

1
E
[T.. 1+1T

+ T",,),

= E [Tu

e"" =
(23.11)
e =
ell_ =

.,.(T

-r T

1Iz,

e.z =

1+.,. 6Z,
-r'T

The following table gives average values of E, p., and IT for several elastic
materials; the moduli E and p. are given in millions of pounds per square
inch.!
a

a-'!'-l
2"

11.5
11.0
6.5
5.6
4.9

0.29
0.28
0.25
0.33
0.33

0.25

0.283
0.273
0.269
0.339
0.327
0.250

(experimental)

Carbon steels.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wrought iron.............
Cast iron................
...
Copper (hot-rolled)..............
Braaa, 2: 1 (<lOld-drawn)... .. .. . ..

29 .5
28.0
16.'5
15.0
13.0

Glass... .......................

8.0

3.2

Spruee (along the grain). . . . . . . . .

1. 5

O.OS

lIn. the engineering literature, the modulus of sheAr is often denoted by G, and the
reciproeal of Poillson's ~tio t1 is denoted by m; that is, m - l/a.

7I

BOUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

UJl'BllENCES FOR. COLLATER.AL UADING


A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Ca.mbridge
University Press, London, Sees. 69-71.
E. TreIIu: Handbuch der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Sees.
11-12.
PR.OBLEMS
1. Show that Hooke's law in the form (23.11) can be obtained by the following
argument: An elementary rectangular parallelepiped subjected to tensile stresses
' .. on opposite faces will experience a longitudinal extension e.. = '''/ E and lateral
contractions en
ell. = -aeu . Now consider the effect of stresses h~, Tn, 1'.,1, and
superpose the resulting strains to get Eq. (23.11).
S. Use Hooke's law to show that the stress invariant a = rjj and the strain invariant
" - .iI are connected by the relation e = 31e", where Ie is the modulus of compression.
8. Show that a stress vector cannot cross a free surface (one on whieh there is no
:III

external load).

Hint: Let be the normal to the free surface.

Then T - 0 and, from

,I

(16.1),

T.

T.'

O.

4. Derive the following relations between the Lame coefficients :I. and 1', Poisson's
ratio '" Young's modulus E. and the bulk modulus k:
A _ ~ = I'(E - 21') = k _ ~ I' =

1 - 2<T

31' - E

3k<T

3k (3k - E)

-1+,,=

&r

(1

+ ,,)(1

- 2<T)

9k-E'

" _ A(I - 2<T) = !! (k _ :I.) = _E__


3k(l - 2<T)
2<T
2
2(1 + ,,) = 2(1 +-;)

3kE
- 9k - E'

" ___A__ = _A_ = _


2(A
1')
3k - A 21'
3k - E

I =

3k - 21'

2(3k

+ 1')

-~'

E _ 1'(3)-

+ 21')

= A(l

+ ..)(1
cr

:1.+1'

- 21'(1

Ie _ :I. +

+ ..) = 3k
~
+1'
~

= A(1

31'

- 2<T) = 9k(k - :I.)


3k-:I.

= 3k(1 - 2<T)

'

+ ,,) = 21'(1 + ,,)


3cr
3(1 - 2<T)

pE

3(31' - E) = 3(1 - 2<T)'

H. Equilibrium Equations for an Isotropic Elastic Solid. The complete system of equations of equilibrium of a homogeneous isotropic
elastic solid is made up of the following equations:
a. Equa.tio1Ul of Equilibrium. From (15.3)
(24.1)

1';;.1

+ F, =

b. StreIB-Strain Relations.
(24.2)

0,

(i,j = 1,2,3);

From (22.3)

72

JrolATBEJrolATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

where
{J = 11;;,

and [from (7.5)]


(24.3)

Il;;

~(U;.;

+ 1.4.,).

The systems of Eqs. (24.1) and (24.2) must be satisfied at every interior
point of the body T, and on the surface 2: of the body T the stresses must
fulfill the equilibrium conditions (13.3)
(24.4)
where the v, are the direction cosines of the exterior normal v to the sur-

face 2:, and is the stre3S vector acting on the surface element with normal Y. To these equations one must adjoin the equations of compatibility [from (1O.9)J
e;j.kl + ekl.'j - e;'.il - ejl." = O.
It will be shown in Sec. 27 that the system of Eqs. (24.1) and (24.2),
subject to the conditions of equilibrium on the surface (24.4), is complete
in the sense that, if there exists a solution of the system, then that solution
is unique. There are nine equations in the system on the set of nine
unknown functions Ti;, u, (i, j = 1, 2, 3). Once the displacements u; are
determined, the strain components eij entering into (24.2) are readily
calculated with the aid of the formulas (24.3). We have assumed that
the displacements Ui are continuous functions of class C' throughout the
region T, and a reference to (24.2) shows that the components of stress
Tij are continuous of class C2 in the same region.
The equations of
equilibrium (24.1) contain the components Fi of the body force F, and
they are assumed to be prescribed functions of the coordinates Xi of the
undeformed body. Typical examples of the body forces F, occurring in
practical applications, are centrifugal forces and forces of gravitation.

(24.5)

Ti

Furthermore, the components


of the external surface force
are
assumed to be prescribed functions of the coordinates Xi of the undeformed surface 2: of the body.
In order that the solution of the problem may exist, it is clear that one
cannot prescribe the body force F and the surface force T in a perfectly
arbitrary manner, inasmuch as Eqs. (24.1) were established on the
hypothesis that the body is in equilibrium. Hence one must demand that
the distribution of the forces F and

T, acting on the body

T,

be such that

the resultant force and the resultant moment vanish.'


That is, .,. and T must be sufficiently reguls.r and satisfy, for the body as a whole,
the equations immediately preceding (IS.l), and (lS.4).
1

73

EQUA'l'IONS OF ELASTICITY

It is clear from physical considerations that, instead of prescribing the


distribution of the surface force f acting on 1:, one could prescribe the
displacements u. on the surfa.ce 1: and that the state of stress established
in the interior of the body by deforming its surface X must also be characterized in a unique way. Thus, we are led to consider the following
fundamental boundary-value problems of elasticity:
Problem 1. Determine the distribution of stress and the displacements in
the interior of an elastic body in equilibrium when the body forces are preJJcribed and the distribution of the forces acting on the surface of the body is
known.
Problem 2. Determine the distribution of stress and the displacements in
the interior of an elastic body in equilibrium when the body forces are prescribed and the displacementa of the points on the surface of the body are
prescribed functions.
In many applicationR, it is important to consider a problem resulting
from the combination of the problems stated above. Thus, one may have
the displacements of the points on part of the surface prescribed and the
distribution of forces specified over the remaining portion. Such a problem will be referred to as a mixed boundary-value problem.
It should be noted that in Prob. 1 the external forces are as~igned over
the initial, or undeformed, surface of the body, while the equilibrium
under these forces is reached when the body is in the final deformed state.
Since the displacements are small, the error introduced in this approximation has the order of magnitude implicit in the formulation of the stressstrain relations, as stated in the concluding paragraph of Sec. 21.
The formulation of the fundamental boundary-value problems of
elasticity given above suggests the desirability of expressing the differential equations for Prob. 1 entirely in terms of stresses and thoe e for Prob.
2 entirely in terms of displacements. This is not difficult to do.
Let us first obtain the equations in terms of dispJacements u, by substituting in (24.1) the expressions for stresses in terms of displaceme:Qts.
Making use of the formulas (24.3), we can write the system (24.2) in the
form
(24.6)

T;; =

>.

6ijUU

+ !'(u,.j + Uj.i).

Substituting the values of the stress components (24.6) in the equilibrium


equations (24.1) gives

or
(24.7)
where

!'U;.jj

p.V2u;

+ (X + !')Uj.;; + F. =

0,

0" + F. =
+ (X + !') -;"Xi

" = 8;, = U i = div u.


Equations (24.7) are associa.ted with the name of Navier.

74

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Note that we need not adjoin the compatibility equati01l8 (10.9), for
the only purpose of the latter is to impose restrictions on the strain components that shall ensure that the 6;; yield single-valued continuous displacements u., when the region 'T is simply connected.
It is clear that Prob. 2 is completely solved if one obtains the solution
of the I!ystem (24.7) subject to the boundary conditions
(i = 1,2,3),

where the Ii are prescribed continuous functions on the boundary of the


undeformed solid. From the knowledge of the functions U;, one can
determine the strains, and hence the stresses by making use of the relations (24.2).
We now turn our attention to the first boundary-value problem. It
was noted earlier that not every solution of the system of three equations
of equilibrium (24.1) corresponds to a possible state of strain in an elastic
body, because the components of strain, defined by the system of Eqs.
(23.10), must satisfy the equations of compatibility (24.5). We proceed
to derive the compatibility equations in terms of the stresses. If the
expressions (23.10)

are inserted in the compatibility equations (24.5)


Il;j.ll

+ eli.;; -

~,jl ,- ejl.ik =

0,

we obtain
(24.8)

'T;,'.'"

+ 'Tid.;; -

'Til,jl -

'TJI.ik

1 + u (6.,B,ll

+ &ktB,i; -

Oile,;1 - O;tB.il)'

Since the indices i, j, k, l assume values 1, 2, 3, there are 3' = 81 equations in the system (24.5), but not all these are independent, for an interchange of i and j or of k and l obviously does not yield new equations.
Also for certain values of the indices (such as i = j = k = l), Eqs. (24.5)
are identically satisfied, and, as already noted in Sec. 10, the set of Eqs.
(24.5) contains only six independent equations obtained by setting
k = l = 1,
k = I = 2,
k = l = 3,
k = l = 1,
k=I=2,
k = I = 3,

i
i
i
i
i
i

= j = 2;
= j = 3;
= j =

= 2,
3,
= 1,
=

1;
j = 3;
j = 1;
j = 2.

Inasmuch as Eqs. (23.10) establish one-to-one correspondence between


the 6;; and the '1'>1. the set of 81 equations (24.8) likewise contains only 6

75

EQUATIONS 01' ELASTICITY

independent equations. If we combine Eqs. (24.8) linearly by setting


k = l~and summing with respect to the common index, we get
Tii.U!

+ Ta,li -

Tu.,i~

Ti~,a. = 1 ~

IT

(Oii9 ,a

+ ou9,,; -

oa.9,tt - ap9.a.).

This is a Bet of 9 equations of which only 6 are independent because of the


symmetry in i and j. Consequently, in combining Eqs. (24.8) linearly,
the number of independent equations is not reduced, and hence the resultant set of equations is equivalent to the original one.
Noting that
and
the foregoing equations can be written as
(24 .9)

Vs,,
"

+ 8.s, -

To.
'.J""0.

IT"

0. =

(ooV28
1 +IT
'J

1' ..
15,'

+ 38.,0i- ' .28n)


v,

if we make use of the continuity of the second derivatives of

e.

Equations (24.9) can be written more neatly by utilizing the equations


of equilibrium (24.1)
1',... + F, = O.
Thus, differentiating (24.1) with respect to
(24.10)

T".k!

and since Ta..kj =


(24.11)

Vs",;

Tik.;k,

x'" we get

= -F,.;

we can rewrite (24.9) in the form

+1+

IT

8.,; - 1

IT

IT

o,;V28 = -(Fo.;

+ F;,,),

This set of 6 independent equations can be further simplified by expressing an invariant V28 in terms of the derivatives of the body force F. This
may be done as follows:
If we set k = i and l = j in (24.8) and sum with respect to the common
indices, we get

But
Tn

Tfi

S,

ai,9,ii =

e,.. =

V"e,

and
O;.fJ,H

= 0;;9... = 3V"e.

The foregoing equation can be written as


'1',; Ii
,

V!9 =

_ f I-

1+0"

(vta - 3V29)

76
or

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

1-(1

...
.,.t,, = --vte
1

+"

(24.12)

The differentiation of the equilibrium equation


gives
-Fj .;,

T'i,ij

and inserting this in the left-hand member of (24.12) yields the formula
(24.13)
Substituting from (24.13) in (24.11) gives the final form of the compatibility equation in terms of stresses,
(24.14)

V2,-,;

+ 1 ~ " e,;; =

~ ~;; div F
iT

- (Fi .;

+ FM)'

Equations (24.14), when written out in unabridged notation, yield the


following 6 equations of compatibility:
V2,-

o~

+ 1 + "OX'
V2,- + _1_ 0'9

2,-

(24.15)

+ " oy'
1 8'9
+ 1 + " oz'

__

iT_

= _ _"_

div F _ 2 of .,

1- "

OX

1- "

"d' F

= - 1_ "

of.,
oy
2 8F.
Tz'

div F _ 2
lV

+ _1_ 8'9 = _ ( 8Fv + of_),

1 + II oy oz
8z
oy
V2,- + _1_ 8'9 = _ (8F. + of_),
1 + II OZ 8x
OX
OZ
V2,- + _1_ o'e = _ (oF. + 8F.).
V2,-

""

1+118xoy

8y

OX

Equations (24.15) were obtained by Michell in 1900 and, for the case
when the body forces are absent, by Beltrami in 1892. They are known
as the Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations. Thus, in orJer to determine the state of stress in the interior of an elastic body, onll must solve
the system of equations consisting of (24.1) and (24.15) subject to the
boundary conditions (24.4).
The system of Eqs, (24.1) and (24.15) is equivalent to the system consisting of Eqs. (24.1), (24.2), and (24.5).
If the field of body force F is conservative, so that

F=

v"

77

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

or
then
div F "" Fi .; =

V'<p,

<P.;; ""

and
Pi,;

fP.ij,

so that (24.14) can be written as


(24.16)

"';'i;

+ 1 +1

t1

t1

e.# = - 1 _

t1

8;;'Vf", - 2'1'.#.

We shall consider two particular cases of body forces, namely, the case
in which F is a constant vector and that in which the potential function 'I'
is harmonic (that is, div F = V2rp = 0).
If F is constant, then <p is a linear function. In this case the right-hand
member of (24.16) vanishes, and we obtain the equations of Beltrami,
(24.17)

"';'i;

+1+

(f

e.;;

o.

From (24.13) it follows that in this case

vte

0,

so that e = 'T" is a harmonic function. Equation (22.4) shows that the


strain invariant f) = e" is also harmonic; that is,
",Of} =

whenever e is harmonic. From (24.17) it is seen that, if the 'Ti; are of


class C., the components of stress satisfy the biharmonic equation
V"";'ij "'" V'rij = 0,

and since the strain components e;; are linear functions of the'Ti;, we have
V'ei; = O.
A function V of class C., and satisfying the equation V'V = 0, is
called a biharmonic function.
If the body force F is derived from a harmonic potential' function, so

that

div F =

"'trp

= 0,

then from (24.13) and (22.1) we see that


and'
vte = 0,

""f}

;=

0.

We can thus enunciate a theorem.


TmlORElIl: When the componen!8 oJ the body force Fare conatant, the
ifwarian!8 e and t'J are harmonic functWns and the IItreaa component& '1'# and
8train component& e;; are biharmonic JunctitmB.

78

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

When F is derived from a harmonic potential function, tM irwariantB e


and " are al80 harmonic.
It will be shown, with the aid of some general theorems to be established in Sec. 26, that Probs. 1 and 2 have essentially unique solutions.
Before proceeding to derive these theorems, however, we may note that,
on account of the linear character of Eqs. (24.1), (24.2), and (24.3), the
principle of superposition is applicable to the fundamental problems of
elasticity.
Thus, suppose that one finds a set of nine functions
(i, j = 1, 2, 3),

which satisfy the systems (24.1) and (24.2) with prescribed body forces

Fl!). Also let a set of functions


(i, j = 1, 2, 3)

(24.18)

be the solutions of the systems corresponding to the choice of the body


forces Fl!). Then it is obvious that the solution

(i = j = 1, 2, 3)

will correspond to the choice of the body force whose components are
+ Fl2). If the set of functions (24.18) represents a solution of the
homogeneous system, that is, when Fl') = 0, then the expressions (24.19)
represent a solution of the problem corresponding to the choice of the
body force with components Fl!).

Fl!)

PROBLEMS
1. Show that the following stress components are not the 8Olution of a problem in
elasticity, even though they satisfy the equations of equilibrium with zero body forces:
T.. -

T. . T. Ta: .. T' -

+ .. (z + ..(y' "..(z + y'),


e[y'

C[ZI

y")I,
zl)I,

c ... 0,

-2t:c:ny,
1"' -

o.

.. The solutions of many problems in elasticity are either exa.etJy or approximately


independent of the value chosen for Poisson's ratio. This fact suggests that approximate 8Olutions may be found by 80 choosing Poisson's ratio as to simplify the problem.
Show that, if one takes.. - 0, then

}. -0,

p.-~E,

A:-~E,

aDd Hooke'. law iI expreseed by

T" -

Ee" - ~E(.... ;

Show by dilferentiation of th_ equatione that

+ ",,,),

79

I!lQUATlONS OF ELASTICITY

\no sum on repeated subscripts). That is, the six stl"ell8 components art! connected,
in this cue, by the three equilibrium equations

+F, -

T'M

and by three compatibility equations, namely,

a..... _! (iJ'TU + iJ.....),


2

iJx iJy

iJx'

iJy'

and two similar equations obtained by cyclic interchange of x, y,'. J)erive these
compatibility conditions from Eq. (24.8) by setting .. - 0, Ie = i, I - j.
A. and L. Foppl have discussed' the simplification of the equations of elasticity
obtained by choosing for Poisson'. ratio" = 0 or fT = ~2. Westergaard' has treated
the problem of obtaining the general solution from a solution for a partiCUlar choice
of Poisson's ratio.
S. Define the stress function S by

and consider the case of zero body force. Show that, if Poisson's ratio fT is assumed to
vanish, then the equilibrium and compatibility equations given in the preceding problem reduce to
V'S = const .
.. Show that, if Poisson's ratio
I'

HE,

X ..

fT

has the value


k =-

00,

~2,

then

OOJ

llltel'pre\ l'hys;e....\y the tlituatioll o.eseribet\ by these e\astic coeflicilffitt.. rom


Hooke's law (23.10) deduce the relations

+ H a,;6
+ 'tiM) + H a,;6.

2"",1
- 1'(....1

T'I -

Show that in this case

'til ,. _

.,

at) _

aX.

and that the equilibrium equations (24.1) can be written in the form

v.... +;(le., +F,) - O.


That is, putting 'tI, - 'tI,
from the four equations

'tI. -

0,

ete., the four functions

v'u
V"v

+F.) +;G: +F.) -

0,

0,

+H~~

1(13az
ae +F. )
V'tn +;
a.. iJv ilw
8Z + iJy + cJz
This cue (. -

~)

'tI, 0,

tn,

e are to be, determined

0,

o.

has been discussed at length by A. and L. F6ppi.'

, A. and L. Fllppi, Drang und Zwang, voL 1, Bee. 3.


t H. M. Weeterp&rd, "Eft'ects of a Change of Poisson'. Ratio Analysed by Twinned
Gradients," J~ of ApplUd Met:lumiu, vol. 62 (1940), pp. A-1l3-A-1l6.

80

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

21. Dynua.ical Equations of an Isotropic Elastic Solid. The differential equations of motion of an elastic solid can be obtained at once from
the equations of equilibrium (24.1) by invoking the Principle of D'Alembert and adding the forces of inertia to the components Fi of the body
force. If P(X" X2, x.) is the density of the medium, then the components
of the force of inertia acting on the mass contained within the volume
element d.,. are' - p aa~' d.,..

Hence adding to the components Fi of the

body force F in (24.1) the components of the force of inertia per unit
volume gives the system of equations
(25.1)
..

"'ii.i

a'Ui

+ F.

pii,;,

..

""lere we wnte W "" u;.


Inasmuch as the stress-strain relations (24.2) do not involve body
forces, they remain valid in this case also. The displacements u; are now
regarded as functions of the space variables Xi and of the time t.
It follows that the dynamical equations in terms of the displacements
u; can be written at once by referring to the set of Eqs. (24.7). Thus,
(25.2)

I'V'U;

+ (>. + 1') af}


ax, + Fi =

pii,;.

To these equations it is necessary to adjoin the initial and the boundary conditions. Thus, at each point of the surface X of the undeformed
medium, the surface forces T, or the displacements U; must be prescribed. The functions U; prescribed on the surface X, in general, are
functions of the space coordinates x, and of the time t. If the surface
forces T, are prescribed as functions of Xi and t, then the components of
stress must satisfy the usual equilibrium conditions (24.4) on the surface
X and in addition one must know the initial conditions on the displacements U; and on their tiIl<e derivatives. We set forth these conditions
explicitly for the fundamental boundary-value problems of dynamical
elasticity that correspond to the problems of equilibrium in Sec. 24.
Problem 1. Determine the displacements U;(X" X2, X3, t) that satisfy
in T the By8tem of Egs. (25.2) and satisfy the cvnditivns

1M t = to thrQU(Joout T,
a.nd that satUfy on the 8urface 2: of the region.,. the boundary cvnditiona

1M t
t

If is a function of I, we write _ ~

(p ~.) d-r.

to.

81

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

in

Problem 2. Determine the displacements U,(XI, X" li:3, t) that llati8fy


T the system of Eq8. (25.2) and are such that on the surface 2: of T
U,

= U,(Xl, X2, X3, t)

for t

2:

to.

As in Sec. 24, we may consider a mixed boundary-value problem in

which the surface forces T, are prescribed functions of Xi and t over part
of the surface and the displacements u, are given functions of Xi and t over
the rest of the surface. As an example of such a problem, consider an
elastic plate clamped at the edges. Let the plate, initially at rest, be
subjected to a normal load varying with time. In this case, the displacements are known on the edges of the plate (for t 2: to), while the surface
forces are given functions of Xl, X" Xa, t.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 85, 86, 91, 92.
E. Trefftz: Handbueh der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Sees.
13-15.

26. The Strain-energy Function and Its Connection with Hooke's Law.
We introduce the definition of the unstrained, or natural, state of a body
as a standard state of uniform temperature and zero displacement, with
reference to which all strains will be specified.
If the body is in the natural state at the instant of time t = 0, and if it
is subjected to the action of external forces, then the,latter may produce
a deformation of the body and hence will do work. We shall be concerned with the rate at which work is done by the external body and
surface forces. If (Xl, X" X3) denote the coordinates of an arbitrary
material point P of the body in the unstrained state, then at any time t
the coordinates of the same material point P will be x, + U,(XI, X2, X" t).
Since the displacement of the point P in the interval of time (t, t + dt) is
given by
aU,
at
dt.., ti.; dt,

it follows that the work done in dt sec by the body forces acting on the
volume element dT located at P is F.11.; dT dt. The work performed by the
external surface forces in the same interval of time is 1',11.; du dt, where
du is the element of surface. Denoting by 8 the total work done by the
body and surface forces, we have the following expression for the rate of
doing work on the matter originally occupying some region T,
(26.1)

~=

F(iJ, dT

+ fJl TtiJ.@;

here % denotes the o<ginal surface of the unstrained region T.

82

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Now the surface integral appearing in (26.1) can be expressed as a


volume integral by substituting for the components of the surface force f
their values from Eqs. (24.4) and by making use of the Divergence
Theorem. We have
(26.2)
Carrying 0\lt the indicated differentiation in the integrand of the volume
integral in (26.2) and recalling the formulas (7.5) give

l T,it.; 1
1.
1
dn

'T'I,,11; d'T

==

r.i,JONt

'T'I,;U, d'T

4'"

dr

1
1.
+1

+
+

'Ti,11;,; d'T

.,.

TtJ

(U.'i +
2 llj,i

('Ti,.ei;

+ U.,i -2llj'i)
?d'

+ 'TiPi;) d'T.

But IIJij = -"'ii, so that'Tijwij = 0, and hence


(26.3)

A reference to the dynamical equations (25.1) shows that we can write


'Ti;,,11; = (pili - Fi)u..

When this is inserted in Eq. (26.3) and the resulting expression used in
(26.1), one obtains
(26.4)

The kinetic energy K of the body is defined as


K e

J. pU,iUi d'T,

and for the rate of change of kinetic energy we have!


dK

di ""

.'d
J.( pu.,'Uo
'T.

Hence Eq. (26.4) can be written in the form


(26.5)

dB

dK
at ... di
+

1 at
'Tii

oeii

d'T.

We recall next the definitions,

'Ta = 'Til,
ea == ell,

". = "Ia,

e. "" 2tu,

,... == 1"n,

_ == 2eu,

It Is .-umed here that the variation of the denaity p with time Is nesJjgible.

83

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

used in Sec. 21, and suppose that there exists a function W(el, el,
of the independent variables ei such that'

e.)

aw

(26.6)

ae. =

Then (26.5) can be written in the form


de = dK
dt
dt
dK

= at

+ raw ?_e; dT
)T ae, at
d

+ di)T WdT.

Integrating this equation with respect to t between the limits t


t = t, where t = 0 corresponds to the natural state, we obtain
(26.7)

e=

U ==

IT W dT,

0 and

U,

where
(26.8)

since both K and e vanish in the natural state. The function W is called
the volume density of strain energy, or the elastic potential, and U is the
strain energy of the body.
Equation (26.7) has a simple physical interpretation. The work e
done by the external forces in altering the configuration of the natural
state to the state at the time t is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy K
and the strain energy U. The strain energy U may be conceived as the
energy stored in the body when it is brought from the configuration of the
natural state to the state at the time t. If at the time t the body is in
equilibrium, then K = 0 and e = U.
We assume now that the strain-energy density function Wee"~ e., .. ,
e,) can be expanded in a power series

2W = co

+ 2c,'il. + c.)'il,'ilj + ... ,

and discard all terms of order 3 and higher in the strains; the constant
term Co can be disregarded since we are interested only in the derivatives
of W. Thus, we have, from (26.6),
To = C,

+ ;!1 (Cil + cfi)ej.

If the To are to vauish with the straillll


obtain

e;,

we must set c; = 0 and thus

(26.9)
We shall exhibit such a function for an isotropic elastic medium in formula (26.16)
It is cleal'ly associated with the initially prestreseed state.

84

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Hence
(26.10)

T;

oW

oe;

2 (C;i + CJi)8j.

It is thus seen that the coefficients in the generalized Hooke's law are
symmetric if the strain-energy density function, with the properties
stated above, exists.
If the quadratic form (26.9) is symmetrized in advance, we can write
(26.10) in the form
(26.11)

T,

e;;e,;,

where C'i = Ci"


Upon substituting from (26.11) in (26.9), we get the Clapeyron
formula'
W = J,2T,-e;
(i = 1, 2, . . . ,6),
which can also be written as
(26.12)

W = J,2T,,-e;;

(i, j = 1, 2, 3).

When the stress-strain law (26.11) is written in the form

the formula of Clapeyron yields


(26.13)
so that

oW = C.,.,..
a.,.,
" ,
= e;.

This result is due to A. Castigliano' (1847-1884).


We observe that the formula of Castigliano follows from the assumed
linear stress-strain law (26.11). Green's formula (26.6), on the other
hand, is the consequence of the assumed existence of the function W.
The form of the stress-strain law defined by (26.6) depends on the structure of W. If W is the quadratic form
(26.14)

W = 72C;,-e,-e;,

(i, j = 1, . . . , 6),

which we suppose is symmetrized, then formula (26.1) yields the law


(26.11).
In the linear theory of anisotropic elastic media W is taken in the form
(26.14), which, in the most general case, contains 21 independent elastic
1 Attributed to B. P. E. Cla.peyron (1791H864) by G. LamtS (1798-1870) in the
1852 edition of La.m6's Lec;ons sur 1& th60rie math6matique de J'6laaticiU des COrp8

solides.
t Alti dfll4

r_ fItlCGdctnia delk am- di ToriflO (1875).

85

EQUATIONS O'F ELASTICITY

constants
form'

ev.

If the medium is isotropic, the streBB-strain law has the

(26.15)
and it follows from (26.12) that
(26.16)

+ P.eije,;
+ p.(e;, + ei. + ei. + 2ei2 + 2e~. + 2er.).

W = 72A6e"

= 72 M2

A quadratic form that takes only positive values for every set of values
of the independent variables, not all zero, is said to be positive definite.
Equation (20.16) shows that the strain-energy density W is a positive definite
form in the strains eij, since both h and J.l are positive constants. This
important property of function W will be used in Sec. 27 to establish the
uniqueness of solution of the fundamental boundary-value problems in
the linear theory of elasticity.
As a consequence of the linear character of the stress-strain law (26.15),
the function W is expressible as a positive definite quadratic form in the
stress components r;;. Thus, on substituting from (23.10) in (26.12) we
get,
IT
1+1T
(26.17)
W = - 2E (j'
2E rifT;;,

or
IT e'
lV = - 2E

+~
1+

IT (r.

11

+ 'T.. + r33.) + -------g1+

IT (r .

12

+ r. + rn2),
3

where 13 = r11
r22
r33.
It is easily checked that
ilW

1+
r

IT

ilr;; =

IT

r;j -

E eo,;

= e;;.
It is clear that lV, the energy of deformation per unit volume, has a
physical meaning that is independent of the ehoice of coordinate axes, and
hence it is invariant relative to all transformations of cartesian axes. It
is also known that every invariant of a tensor e,; can be expressed as a
function of the principal invariants' 6, 6., 6 3 Inasmuch as W is a
quadratic form in the e;/t it cannot depend on 6 3, and hence it must involve
only
6 = e,
eu
em = e;,
and
6 2 = euem + ellIel + elen = 72 8..,/e",-e.;.

+ +

1 It is worth recalling that this law was deduced in Sec. 22 without invoking the
&.lI8umpt,ion that eli - eil in the generalized Hooke's law (21.2).
See (6.10).

86

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELA.8TlClTY

We have, in fact,!
(26.18)
2'1. Uniqueness of Solution. Remarks on Existence of Solution.
Before proceeding to the proof of the uniqueness of solution of the funda
mental boundary-value problems of the linear theory of elasticity, we
establish an important theorem concerning the strain-energy function.
CLAPEYRON'S THEOREM: If a body i8 in equilibrium under a gillen BY8Um
of body force8 F; and BUr/ace force8 To, then the 8train energy of deformation
is equal to one-half the work that would be done by the external force8 (of the
equilibrium 8tate) acting through the diBplacementB U; from the unstre8sed
state

to the state of equiUbrium.

The theorem asserts that


(27.1)
Now the surface integral in (27.1) can be transformed in exactly the same
way as was done in obtaining the formula (26.3). Making use of the
equilibrium equations (15.3) and of the relation (26.12), we write

f~ T.1/,;
Then

f. (-Tv ,,1/,; + r'Ai) dT f. (- F;u; + 2W) dT.


f. F.1/,; dT + f~ T.1J,; = 2 J. W dT,

cJq =

cJq

and the theorem is proved. This formula will be utilized in establishing


the uniqueness of solution of the problems of equilibrium of an elastic
solid.
It is clear that in order that the solutions of the equilibrium boundaryvalue problems (see Sec. 24) may exist, it is necessary to demand the
vanishing of the resultant force and the resultant torque produced by the
prescribed body and surface forces. This condition was implied in the
derivation of the equilibrium equations (15.3).
In order to establish the uniqueness of solution of the boundary-value
problems formulated in Sec, 24, assume that it is possible to obtain two
solutions
(27.2)

(i,j = 1,2,3),

and
(27.3)

(i, j = 1, 2, 3).

Because of the linear character of the differential equations, it is clear


1 A atudent intenlSted in the anatomy of stress-strain relatioll8 in nonlinear elasticity
may wish to read a paper by M. Reiner, entitled "Elasticity ~yond the Elutic
Limit," AmIJrica" Journal of MathemoJu., vol. 70 (1948), pp. 433-446.

87

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

that the set of functions defined by the formulas


Ui""

ul2),

ujl) -

will satisfy Eqs. (24.1) with Fi = O. Thus, for the "difference" u;, 'TiJ
of the two solutions, we have from the formula (27.1)

17. Tin, d<T = 2 I. W dT.


But since solutions (27.2) and (27.3) satisfy the boundary conditions, it
follows that the components T. = Tl" - Tlt) 9f- the external surface
forces vanish in the case of the first boundary-value problem, and the
displacements U; = up' - ul"' vanish on the surface 1: for the case of the
second boundary-value problem. It is also obvious that the integrand
of the surface integral will vanish in the case of the mixed problem. We
thus have in all cases

Wd'T = O.

But W is a positive definite quadratic form in the components of strain,


and hence the integral can vanish only when W = 0, that is, when
ei; = 0 (i, j = 1, 2, 3). But e;; = el}' - ell', and it follows that the components of the strain tensor for the two solutions must be identical, and
hence the components of the stress tensor are also identical. As regards
the uniqueness of displacements, we recall from Sec. 10 that they are
determined to within the quantities representing rigid body motions. In
the case of the second and mixed boundary-value problems, the displacements are determined uniquely, since they are prescribed at least over
part of the surface of the body.
It is important to note that the foregoing proof assumes that the displacements u; are single-valued functions but imposes no restrictions on
the connectivity of the region.
Consider now the dynamical case of Sec. 25, and assume that there are
two solutions of the type (27.2) and (27.3) that satisfy the boundary
conditions. Then, as above, the difference of two solutions

u., 'T;;,

(i, j = 1, 2, 3)

satisfies the differential equations when body forces are set equal to zero.
We have in all cases the condition that
(27.4)

on l:,

For in the case of the first dynamical problem,


the case of the second

}:, t ?: to, since U;

proble~,

0 for all t

T. =

0 on 1:, t ~ to, and in

the components of velocity

to.

0; . .

0 on

88

MATHEMATICA.L THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

Recalling that the displacements u. correspond to the solution of Eqs.


(25.2) when body forces are absent, and noting the expre8liion (27.4),
leads to the conclusion that both integrals in the formula (2(1.1) vanish,
so that Eq. (26.5) becomes
dE.
dU
lit + III = 0,
or
K + U = const.
But the constant of integration in the above formula must be zero, since

7 vanish at the instant t

the displacements u; and the velocities il

= to.

Hence

K+ U = 0,
and since both the kinetic energy K and the function U are essentially
positive, one has
for all t ;:::: to.
K= U =0
It follows from these equations that
aU,

at

0,

and

(!;;

0,

(i, j ,;" 1, 2, 3),

for all values of t ;:::: to. The first of the above-written relations states
tnai we are deaung wiin a siatic case, and tne second means tnM deformation of the body is not present, so that the solution (UI, Us, us} represents
a rigid body motion. But the displacements (Ul, us, us) vaniE;b at t = to,
and hence rigid body motion cannot be present in our solution, or
Us = Us = 0
for all t ;:::: to.
Thus, the two assumed solutions (27.2) and (27.3) are identi<lal.
The proof of uniqueness given here is essentially due to Kirchhoff.l
It should be noted that the crucial point in the argument is the positive
definite character of the strain-energy density function W. In nonlinear
theory, where large strains may be present, W need not bEl a positive
definite quadratic form in the strains, and the proof br()aks down.
Indeed, problems concerned with elastic stability and bUckling contemplate large deflections, and it is well known that Boluti()ns of such
problems need not be unique. The reader may be familil\,r with the
situation in the theory of Euler's columns where a column Subjected to
end thrusts may assume several distinct equilibrium configurations.
We conclude this section with a few remarks on the existenCE! of solution
of the fundamental boundary-value problems in linear elasticity. Because
of the resemblance in the formulation of such problems tt:J the basic
problems of Potential Theory, it is natural that the early ~ttempts to
establish the existence of solution center.ed on methods simil.ar to those
UI =

G. Kirchhoff, JoumalffJ.r Mathematik (CrelU Joumal), vol. M (1859).

EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY

89

developed for the problems of Dirichlet and Neumann. The resulting


proofs were not distinguished by simplicity since they depend on construction of certain auxiliary functions analogous to Green's functions in
potential Theory. The demonstration of existence of such auxiliary
funetions proved to be a problem of the same order of difficulty as the
original problem. I
With the development of powerful methods of the theory of integral
equations, it proved possible to demonstrate the existence of solution of
the fundamental problems of elasticity under very general conditions
both as regards the types of regions and the character of tractions and
displacements specified on their surfaces. It suffices to suppose that the
regions admit the application of the Divergence Theorem and that the
functions assigned on the surfaces of such regions have piecewise continuous derivatives. 2
28. Saint-Venant's Principle. It is obvious from the formulation of
the fundamental boundary-value problems of the theory of elasticity that
the exact solution of these problems is likely to present formidable mathematical difficulties because of the complicated form of the boundary
conditions. Frequently it is possible to obtain a solution of the problem
if the boundary conditions are somewhat modified, and it is worth noting
that in the technological applications of the theory of elasticity one can
only approximate the mathematical formulation of the boundary conditions, so that the mathematical solution of the problem represents only
an approximation to the actual situation. In 1855, B. de Saint-Venant,
in his famous memoir on torsion, proposed a principle that can be stated
as follows:
1 In the special ease of a l!emi-infinite space hounded by the plane the auxiliary
functions were constructed by V. Cerruti, Atti della accademia naWmale dei Lincei,
Memorie, Clas.e di scienze ji8iche, matematiche, e naturali (1882), who utilized the
method of singularities developed by E. Betti, II Nuovo cimento, vols. 6-10 (1872).
Cerruti used this method to solve the problem of BouBBinesq treated in Chap. 6.
, The existence of solution of basic three-dimensional problems was considered by:
1. Fredholm, Arkiv fUr M atematik, ABtronomi och Fytrik, vo!. 2 (1906), pp. 3-S.
G. Lauricella, AUi della 1lCC4demia. '1IIJ2wnale dtri Linctri, Rendiconti, Classe di 8eienz.
ji8iche, matematiche e naturali, vo!. 15 (1906), pp. 426-432; II Nuovo cimento, vo!' 13
(1907), pp. 104--118, 155-174,237-262, 501-51S.
A. Kom, Annales de lafa.cult6 des sciences de l'uni_triU de Toolouse pour leo sciences
maiMmatiqueB, et leo .ciences phytriqu.e., vol. 10 (I90S), pp. 165--269; Annale. de l'kole
normale BUpbieure, vol. 24 (1907), pp. 9--75; MathematiBche Annalen, vol. 75 (1914),
pp. 497-544.
H. Weyl, Rendiconti del circola matematico di Palermo, vol. 39 (1915), pp. 1--49.
L. Lichtenstein, MalhematiBche ZeitBchrilt, vol. 20 (1924) pp. 21-2S; vol. 24 (1925),
p.640.
D. I. Sherman, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akadcmiya Na.uk SSBR, vol. 7 (1943),pp. 341360.
For corresponding contn'butions to the two-dimensional problems of elasticity see
Chap. 6.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 0]1' ELASTICITY

1/ aome diBtrt"'bution of forces acting on a portion of the 8urf~ of a body


is replaced by a different distribution of forc68 acting on the 8a?M portion
of the body, then the effect8 of the two different di8tributi0n8 O'Il the part8
oj the body IfUjficiently far removed Jrmn the region of application oj the
forces are e8sentially the same, provided that the two di8trifndi0n8 of
force8 are 8tatically equivalent.
The phrase "statically equivalent" means that the two distributions
of forces have the same resultant force and the same resultant moment.
To illustrate the meaning of the principle, consider a lon~ beam, one
end of which is fixed in a rigid wall, while the other is actecl upon by a
distribution of forces that gives rise to a resultant force F and a couple of
moment M. Now there are infinitely many distributions of forces that
may act on the end of the beam and that will have the same resultant F
and the same resultant moment M. The principle of Sll-int-Venant
asserts that, while the distributions of stresses and strains neg.r the region
of application may differ greatly, the eccentricities of the local distribution
will have no appreciable effect on the state .of stress far enough from the
points of application, so long as the systems of applied forces are statically
equivalent. This principle is frequently used in practical applications.
One would suspect from the generality of the statement of the principle
that it is not easy to justify in all cases on purely mathematical grounds.'
In specific instances, one can calculate the distribution of etresses produced by various statically equivalent systems of forces, and in problems
on beams, for example, it is commonly assumed that the local eccentricities are not felt at distances that are about five times the greatest
linear dimension of the area over which the forces are distributed. However, in problems involving structural members with thin walls (box
beams, shells, etc.) it is possible to apply to a small portion of the structure
such eccentric distribution of forces that their effect is seriously felt
throughout the structure. 2
'J. Boussinesq, in Applications des potentiels A1'6tude de l'equilibre et du mouvement des solides 6lastiques (1885), has shown that if the external forces act normally to
the plane surface of a semi-infinite solid, and if they are confined to lie in a circle of
radius .. then the stresses at a fixed interior point at a distance greater than. from
the center of the circle are of the order of magnitude when the reSultant of the
external forces is zero and of the order .' when the resultant moment is also zero.
&. v. Mises has shown that these results need Aot be valid when the external forces
are not normal to the surface. In a paper entitled "On Saint-Venant's Principle,"
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 51 (1945), pp. li5lY562, v. Mises
proposed a modification of the Saint-Venant principle, concerned essentially with the
relative rather than absolute orders of magnitude of applied forces anJ the resulting
internal stresses. See also E. Sternberg, Quarterly of Applied Ma.theftIali.cs, vol. 11
(19M), pp. 393-402.
The plausihility of the Saint-Venant principle, in its usual form, hall been argued
(not too convincingly) by many authors.
. See, for example, N. J. Hoff, Journal of Aeronautical SciImeu, vol. 12 (l9U),
P. 445.

CHAPTER

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

29. Statement of Problem. This chapter is devoted to an analysis of


the behavior of elastic beams bounded by a cylindrical surface (which is
termed the lateral surface of the beam) and by a pair of planes normal to
the lateral surface (which are called the bases of the cylinder). It contains a treatment of the technically important problem of torsion and
flexure of cylinders and an account of the different methods of attack on
the problems of the theory of elasticity concerned with a study of beams.
An elegant method of solution of such problems, developed by N. I.
Muskhelishvili and others, will be considered in detail. I Although it is
not the purpose of this chapter to provide a compendium of the theory of
beams, a number of problems will be worked out in detail, either because
of their intrinsic importance in structural design, or for the sake of
illustrating the methods of solution.
In dealing with special problems, no great saving of space is likely to
result from the use of abridged notation; for this reason, we shall denote
the variables XI, X2, and Xs by X, y, and z, as was agreed in Sec. 7. We
shall also write TU = T . ., T2s = T , etc., for the components of the stress
tensor and use the corresponding notation for the components of strain
8;J.
The displacements u; along the directions of the x, y, and z-axes will
be labeled u, v, and w, and the components of body force F in the same
directions will be written as F., F., and F .
Throughout this chapter, the z-axis of our coordinate system will be
directed along the length of the beam parallel to the generators of the
cylinder. The cylinder is assumed to be of length I, and one of its bases
is taken to lie in the xy-plane, while the other is in the plane z = I. It is
supposed in Sees. 29 to 62 that the lateral surface of the cylinder is free of
external load and that the load on the beam is distributed over its bases,
z = 0 and z = I, in a way that fulfills the equilibrium conditions of a rigid
body.
The complete problem of equilibrium of an elastic beam with free
lateral surface can be formulated in the following way: Determine the
components of stress T'j and the displacements u. that, in the region T
1 The development of several sections of this chapter follows along the lines of the
prise-winning work by N. 1. Muskhelishvili, Nekotoriye Osno-vniye Zadachi M...t&maticheskoi Teom Uprugosti.

91

92

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

occupied by the beam, satisfy the systems of equations

ax + iff""
ay + iff""
az

iff%%

F
-z,

aT. + aT +
F
ax
Ty Tz - - .
aT + aT.. _ F
ax + Ty
Tz- -"
iff _

(29.1)

iff. z

au 1
ax "" E [T%<
lJv

cr(T

+ T),

ay "" E [T.. - cr(T.. + T=)],


aw 1
az == E [T.. - cr(T + T..)],
(Iv + au = 2(1 + cr) T
axay
E'"
aw + ~ = 2(1 + 0-) T
ay az
E
..,
au + aw _ 2(1 + cr)
az ax E
T,z,

(29.2)

and the boundary conditions


(29.3)

(29.4)

T , T , T ,

prescribed functions of x and y on the bases z = 0, II = 1,


~~+~~=~
.
T.z~. + T ..V. = 0,
on the lateral surface of the cylinder.
Ts~J1:1l + T.f/V21 = 0,

The functions Tij, naturally, must satisfy the Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations (24.15).
The problem, formulated with this degree of generality, presents
formidable complications because of the difficulty of fulfilling the boundary conditions (29.3). In fact, the generality of formulation of the
b.oundary conditions (29.3) is quite unnecessary from the practical point
of view, since the actual distribution of applied stresses on the ends of
the cylinder is rarely, if ever, known. A designer knows, more or less
accurately, the resultant force T and the resultant moment M acting on
the ends of the beam, and quite often the nature of the distribution of
stresses over the ends of the beam, which give rise to the force T and the
moment M, is a matter of indifference. On the other hand, if one accepts
the principle of Saint-Venant and considers a beam whose length is large
in comparison with the linear dimensions of its cross section, then the
actual distribution of stresses over the ends has no appreciable influence
on the character of the solution in portions of the beam sufficiently far
removed from the ends. That is, one is free to prescribe any distribution

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMA

93

of stresses at the end of the cylinder so long as the resultant forces and
moments reduce to those given in the formulation of the problem. This
principle will be applied throughout our discussion of beams. This
means that the mathematical solution obtained will give, near the ends
of the beam, either (1) the exact solution of the physical problem in which
the applied stresses are distributed in the way specified by the solution or
(2) the approximate description of the physical situation in which the
~vstem of external forces and moments is statically equivalent to that
a~sumed by the solution but is distributed in some different manner.
One need be concerned with one of the bases only, for the specification
of the resultant force T and of the resultant moment M on the base z = 1
requires that the resultant force acting on the base z = 0 be - T and that
the resultant moment acting on the same base be so chosen as to satisfy
the condition of static equilibrium. Let the point 0' of intersection of the
z-axis with the base z = 1 be the center of gravity of the base, and suppose
that a force T and a couple M are applied at 0'. The force T can be
resolved into two components, one in the direction of the z-axis and the
other in the plane of the base z = T. The component of force T, in the
direction of the z-axis will be responsible for tension or compression, while
the other component T B, lying in the plane of the base, will produce bending of the beam. The couple M, acting on the end of the beam, can likewise be decomposed into two couples, the moment of one of which is
directed along the z-axis and hence will be responsible for twisting of the
cylinder, while the moment of the other lies in the plane z = 1 and will
produce bending.
Thus, our problem can be solved, by utilizing the principle of superposition, if we succeed in solving the following four elementary problems:
1. Extension of a cylinder by longitudinal forces applied at the ends.
2. Bending of a cylinder by couples whose moments lie in the planes
of the bases of the cylinder.
3. Torsion of a cylinder by couples whose moments are normal to the
bases of the cylinder.
4. Flexure of a cylinder by a transverse force applied at one end of the
cylinder, while on the other end there act a force equal in magnitude but
oppositely directed to the transverse force and also a couple of such magnitude as to equilibrate the moment produced by the transverse forces.
Our general plan of attack upon the four elementary problems listed
above is that of the Saint-Venant semi-inverse method of solution. This
consists in making certain assumptions about the components of stress,
strain, or displacement and yet leaving enough freedom in the quantities
involved to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium and compatibility. In
applying the semi-inverse method to problems on beams, we shall make
one general assumption about the stress distribution in any beam; further
assumptions regarding the st,resses or the displa('ements will be introduced

lIlATHEMATICAL THEORY 01' ELASTICITY

in the solution of each problem. These assUmptions will be justified


when it is shown that they lead in each case to a solution that satisfies the
conditions of equilibrium and compatibility. Then the proof in Sec. Z7
of the uniqueness of solution of the general boundary-value problems of
linear elasticity assures us that the solution obtained is unique.
Now, if we visualize the beam as made up of long filaments parallel to
the axis of the cylinder, then it is sensible to assume that the action of
forces and coupJp,s in the foregoing four problems may give rise to shearing
stresses in the direction of the z-axis. These stresses act on the sides of
the filaments and produce no stresses on the lateral surface of the filaments
in the direction perpendicular to their lengths. Thus, let us assume
tentatively that the system of stresses in all four problems is such that
Tz%

TJlII

"IIZ

= 0,

and let us investigate the consequences of this assumption.'


PROBLEMS

1. Show that if the stress components Tu, Tz., T . . and the body forces F, vanish, then
.J'T..
.J'T.. .. a'T.. = 0 ; t h at IS,
. t h e stress component 'T.., IS
. I'Inear In
. x, In
. y, and In
. z.
ax - iijjI
t

azr

Write out the most general form of the function in this case.
2. Integrate the dilierential equations of equilibrium T,;.; + F, = 0 throughout
the volume of an elastic solid, apply the Divergence Theorem, and show that the equation8 of static equilibrium

are satisfied and hence that the resultant force on the body vanishes.

3. Show with the help of the Divergence Theorem that if the following dilierential
equations of equilibrium
TJlioi

+F" ==

0,

1'#.;

+F, == 0,

(j - x, y, .)

1 One may equally proceed by assuming that the distribution on the cross section
of the stress constituting each component of the resultant force and couple is the same
at all sections. This is equivalent to assuming that for Probs. 1 to 3, stated on p. 93,
we have

iJru

az

== iJT. ,1 == Ch.. == 0

a.

.Jz

'

while for Prob. 4 it is assumed that

See W. Voigt, Abhandlung<m dlJT Geul.lschaft dlJT WiBaenackaften zu GiJttingen, Mat""


moIiBch-phllBikaliocke Klasee, vol. 34 (1887), p. 53, and J. N. Goodier, PAiloBophi'col

Magmnne, aer. 7, vol. 23 (1937), p. 186.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAKS

95

are satisfied, then the following equation of static equilibrium also holds:

ti'1115

"l>pr..ssing t,h.. vanishing of the x-component of the resultant mompnt on the body.

t,

30. Extension of Beams by Longitudinal Forces. Let a force


directed along the z-axis, be applied at the center of gravity of the area a
of the cross section of the base z = I of the cylinder. If the stresses giving
rise to the force T are assumed to be uniformly distributed, then
T" :
'Tn -

~ =_ p (a
T'II

on z

COllSO, }

I.

0,

If we assume
Tu =

p,

Txx =

Tyy

=-

Try

'Ty,;

= Tz%

= 0,

throughout the cylinder, then the equilibrium eqnations (29.1) and (29.4)
are obviously satisfied.' The Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations
are also satisfied, since the components of the stress tensor are constants.
The displacements u, can be readily calculated. Thus, from (29.2),

au

ax =

av
ay

~+~
ax
ay

E p,
=0

It

aw+~=o

aJ!

aw p
az = E'
au+aw=o
az ax
'

p,

az

'

and since the right-hand members of these equations are constants, one
is justified in assuming that the solutions are linear functions of x, y, and z.
A simple calculation gives

u = -

up

EX,

up

= - FfY'

if one neglects the terms representing rigid motion of the beam as a whole.
Of ('ourse one could obtain the displacements by making use of the general
formula (10.6). This problem has already been discussed in Sec. 23.
PR.OBLEMS

1. Consider a bar of length I in., area of cross section a sq in., Young's modulus
Use both Eq.
(26.12), W = ~T;;e;;, and Eq. (27.1),

E lb per sq in., and stretched by a force of T Ib applied at each end.

W dT =

1. F,u,

dT

LT,u,

du,

1 The body forces F, are assumed to vanish.


The extension of a beam by gravita.tional forces is considered in the next section. The combined effect of extension of
beams by Ion gil udinal and gravitational forees can be obtained by applying the
principle of superposition,

96

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

to show that the strain-energy density Wand the tota.! strain energy U -

I.

W dr

stored in the bar are given by


T1

W - 2a'E

in.-lb per cu in.,

T'1
U _ 2aE

. lb
m.-.

I. Find the greatest amount of strain energy per unit volume that can be stored in
a steel bar under tensile forces T without producing permanent set. Take the elastic
limit to be 30 X 10' lb per sq in. and Young's modulus as 30 X 10'lb per sq in.
3. In Prob. 1 take I = 10 in., a = 2 sq in., T = 50 X 10' lb, E = 30 X to' lb per
sq in. Find the strain-energy density W, and show numerica.!ly that the total strain
energy U is one-ha.lf the product of the force T by the elongation of the rod.
" Two gage marks 1 in. apart are made along the axis of a steel bar 10 in. long and
of 2 sq in. cross-sectional area. The bar is then subjected to a tensile force of 50,000
lb. Find the stress, strain, elongation between gage .marks, and total elongation of
the bar. What is the total change of volume of the bar? What is the change in the
cross-sectiona.! area of the bar? Take E = 30 X 10' lb per sq in., " = 0.3.
Ii. Consider a beam stretched by a tensile force T applied at each end. The magnin

tude of the stress vector acting on a section with normal n is T = T /(a sec "')

- 1"., cos '1', where a is the area of tht"


stresses T"I T" and show that
Tn

{,fOS8

Tu COS! (/I,

section.

7,

Tn

Resolve T into normnl anoslu->;ar


sin

fP

cos

fP.

Derive these 'results also from the formulas of Sec. 19b. Show that the maximum
normal stress is r.. (at", = 0) and the maximum shear stress is hr.. (at 'I' = 45).
Compare this with the theorem of Sec. 18. What are the inclinations of the cross sections on which the shear and normal stresses are equa.! in magnitude?
6. Find the maximum shear stress in the beam of Prob. 4. What is the normal
stress on the planes on which the shear stress is a maximum?
7. Consider a rod under uniform longitudinal stress r .. = p. Let the rod be so constrained that there is no lateral contraction in the x-direetion (e u = 0), while the rod
is free to contract laterally in the y-direction. Define the effective Young's modulus
by E' == Ttl.le .. and the effective Poisson's ratio by (T' == -evlI/el." and show that,
owing to the lateral constraint, one has

E' == ___,
1 - ,,'

,
fT
" =--.
1-"

What is the range of possible values for E'? For ,,'?


8. Let the rod in the preceding problem be so constrained as to prevent any lateral
contraction. Show that the effective Young's modulus has the value

I-fT
E' = (1 _ 20-)(1 + ..) E.
What is the effective Poisson's ratio?

97

EXTENSION, TORSION, ANi} FLEXURE OF BEAMS

31. Beam Stretched by Its Own Weight.

Before proceeding to the


problem of bending of beams, we shall discuss one example of a problem
requiring a consideration of the body force.
Let a beam of length l, shown in Fig. 16, be supported in a suitable
manner at its upper base, and assume that the force of gravity, directed
downward, is the only external force acting on the beam. If the xy-plane
of the coordinate system is chosen to coincide with the lower base of the
beam before deformation takes place and if the positive direction 'of the
z-axis is vertically upward, then the stress components T.; satisfy the system of Eqs. (29.1) with F. = p. = 0 and P, = -P(J, where P is the
density of the beam. The stresses acting on each cross section of the
beam are produced by the weight of the lower part of the beam, and we
shall suppose that the stresses are distributed uniformly. Thus, we
assume the system of stresseR
T z%

pgz,

Txr

Tuv

= TII~ =

Tzu

0,

'fez

Jt

l_t
which obviously satisfies the equations of equiI
I
librium and the compatibility equations (24.15).
I
I
I
The conditions (29.4) that no forces are applied to I
I
I
I
the lateral surface of the beam are likewise fulfilled. J
I
J
There are no tractions applied at the lower e'1d; I
I 1
I
J
hence all components of stress vanish there, while
I
at tht' upper end we have T" = p(Jl, which is directed
vertically upward. Thus, the assumed distribution
x
of stress requires that the upper end of the cylinder
be supported in such a way as to yield a uniform disFIG. 16
tribution of stress.
In order to determine the displacements Ui, we note the relatiolls (29.2),
which yield,

(31.1 )
(31.2)

au

av

ax

ay

aw

<1PYz

- -R'

~1J)
all

~!'+~=O
ax
ay
.

Integrating the latter of Eqs.


_

+ az
~

'!.~.

'

az

(:~I.I)

gives

p(JZ2

+ wo(x,

w - 2E

p(JZ

="E'

az

+ aw
ax

o.

y),

wherc w" is a fUlJetioll of ,r and !J alonc, and it follows from the last two
of ';'18. (:l1.2) that,

au

a;

awo

fii'

av

and

a;

and

awo

-ay'

Hence

aw.

u= -z 71:

+ 110(2',

y),

= -z

awo

a!I

+ I',,(X, u),

98

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

where u.o and PD involve x and y only, Substituting the values of u and v
just found in the first two of Eqs. (31.1) gives
(31.3)

(JUo =

ax

avo = 0

ay

'

a2wo

oy'

upg
=

7!['

while the substitution of the same values in the first of Eqs. (31.2) yields

_o"w o = 0
ax oy
,

(31.4)

OUo

ay

+ avo = o.
ax

It is clear from the first. two of the differential equations (31.3) that
Uo =

F(y),

and

= G(x),

Po

where F is a function of y alone, while G is a fUnction of x. The functions


F and G, as follows from the second of Eqs. (31.4), satisfy the equation
dF(y)
dy

reqUires
.
and t hIS
t hat dF
dy
Uo

= F(y) = ay

+ dG(x)

=0

dx

'

dG = -a, were
ha'IS a constant.
a, dx

+ b,

and

Po

= G(x) = -ax

Thus,

+ c.

The integration of the equations on Wo is equally easy, and one finds


Wo =

;1 (x' + y') + a'x + b'y +

1",

where ai, b' , and 1" are constants.


Thus, the complete expression for the displacements is
U

+ ay + b,
b' z-ax + 1',

u;: zx - a'z

upg
v=-1fzy-

w = ;~ (Z2

+ ux 2 + flY!) + a'x + b'y + 1".

The linear part of the solution represents rigid body displacement.' If


we prevent the point (0, 0, l) from being displaced, then u = v = w = 0
for x = 0, y = 0, Z = l. To prevent the possibility of rotation about the
z-am, we fix an element of area in the xz-plane and passing through the
point (0,0, 1); then :: = 0 at (0,0, l).

In order to eliminate rotation

about the axes through (0, 0, 1) that are parallel to the x- and y-axes, we
1 See Prob. 4, at the end of this section.
We demand, in effect, that the rotation
ilw ilw
components ( -a. - Uu
-, -Uu - , - - - vanish at (0 0 I).

110)

liz

/Jtjh

ilrlJII

lJz

"

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

fix an element of the z-aXIS; then

au
/)z =

0,

asav = 0, at (0, 0, 1).

99
These six

conditions enable us to eliminate the six constants a, b, c and a', b', c' .
An elementary calculation shows that the displacement, in this case, is
given by
ru

,(31.5)

= -

q;:

ZX,

I)

= - ";} zy,

1W = !ifs (01' + "X' + qy' -

I').

It is seen from this solution that points on the z-axis are displaced
vertically according to the law

All other points of the beam have both vertical and horizontal displacements on account of the contraction in the transverse direction. The
shape of the beam, after deformation, is indicated by the dotted lines in
Fig. 16. Any cross section of the beam is shrunk laterally by an amount
proportional to the distance from the lower end and is distorted into a
paraboloid of revolution. This can be seen by noting that, for a cross
section z = c,

z'

+ w = c + Pfl(_c;i

l22

+ ";J (x' + yO).

The upper ba.'le of the cylinder is warped upward (see Fig. 16) because
of the assumed uniform distrihution of the stress component T" over that
face and the fixing of the point (0, 0, l).
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridg~
University Press, London, Sec. 86.
S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier: Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Jne., New York, Sro. 86.
PROBLEMS
1. Discuss the solution of the "'"",tostat.ic probl~m for the cas" wher..
T:z

T'II"

Tn

= -p

+ pgz,

This state of stress corresponds to that found in a body immersed in a fluid whOlle
density is the same as that of the body, where p is the pressure of the fluid at the level
of the origin of coordinates.
ll. Determine the displacements in a cylinder of length 21 and of density p when suspended in a fluid of density p'. Let the pressure of the fluid at the lev..l of the center
of gravity of the cylinder be p. Choose the origin of the coordinate system at the

100

MATHlllMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

center of gravity of the cylinder, and let the z-axis be vertical.


tem of stresses
TIIl$

==

'1''1/11

== -p

+ p'UZ,

T,. - -p

+ (p

- p')gl

Hint: Assume a sya-

+ pgz,

S. Obtain tbe solution given in (31.5) from the general solution (10.6).
4. Show from Eq. (7.5) that the displacement components
u =
v=

w =

- ry

rx
-qx

+ py

+ qz + a,
- pz

+ b,
+c

represent an (infinitesimal) rotation (p, g, r) and a translation (a, b, c).


Ii. Show that some of the results of Sec. 31 on a beam stretched by its own weight
may be obtained readily by the procedure sketched below (used in strength of materials
theory). As before, the stress on the faces of an element of cross-sectional area a and
length dz is given by T" = pyaz/a = pg.. The elongation of this element is pgz dz/E.
Integrate this expression over the length of the beam, and compare the result with
that obtained from Sec. 31. Show that the total elongation in a beam stretched by
its own weight W is the same"" that produced by a load HW applied at the end of th~
beam (with weight neglected).

32. Bending of Beams by Terminal Couples. In order to free the


semi-inverse method of solution from elements of mystery that a beginner
feels are involved in the usual statement: "Assume the system of stress
defined by . . . ," we shall give first
an intuitive picture of the probable state
of affairs in a beam bent by a pair of
couples applied at its ends. This picture will be of aid to us later on because
it will bring into sharp focus the limitations of the approximate engineering
theory of beams.
Let a pair of couples of magnitude M be applied to the ends of a beam
as shown in Fig. 17. It is clear that the longitudinal filaments of whieh
the beam may be thought to be composed will be contracted on the face
of the beam toward the center of curvature, and those on the opposite
face will be extended. We shall call the line passing through the centroids
of the cross sections of the beam the central line. If we assume that the
central line of the beam, indicated in the figure by a dotted curve, is
unaltered in length, and if plane sections of the beam Hormal to the
central line are assumed to remain plane and normal to the deformed
eentralline, then it is easy to see that the magnitude of extension (or contraction) of the longitudinal filaments is given by the formula

e=

it

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF JUlAMB

Wi

In this relation, d is the distance of the filament from the central plane
drawn through the central line at right angles to the plane of the couple
(the xz-plane in Fig. 17), and R is the radius of curvature of the central
line. Now the length ds o of the portion of central filament subtended by
an angle dO is ds o = R dO, while the length of the element ds subtended
by the same angle dO and at a distance d from the central plane is
ds = (R

+ d) dO.

Hence the extension e is given by


e

ds - ds o
~-dS;-

(R

+ d)RdOdfT----R dO
d
= Ir

~--

This extension d/ R of the longitudinal filaments can be thought to be


produced by a longitudinal stress T, which, from the third of Eqs. (29.2), is

= lid.

Obviously, T denotes tension if the point in question is above the central


line and compression if it is below. We choose the z-axis to coincide with
the central line of the beam and take the x- and y-axes along the principal
axes of inertia of the cross section A. From this choice of axes and from
the definition of the central line as the line of centroids of the sections, we
have

fA

J:

du =

fA Y du = fA XY du =

O.

It follows that the distribution of stress in any section will be characterized by the formula
E
Tzz=-/iX,

where the negative sign arises from our convention in regard to the signs
of tensile and compressi ve stresses.
We shall now verify that the boundary conditions on the ends of the
beam are satisfied, namely, that the resultant force and moment acting
on the bases (or on any other cross section of the ('ylinder) reduce to It
moment about the y-axis. The resultant force T acting on any section A
has the components

T.=

fAT du=o,

T. =

Ty

.,,,du =

-.~

The resultant moment about the x-axis is


.llz =

J.4r !fT" du

-l!R-

f.{

fA T.ydu = 0,
xdu

xydu

0.

= 0,

102

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

while the moment about the y-axis is given by

M. =

-l

x-r du =

xtdu =

E~.,

where I. is the moment of inertia of the cross section about the y-axis.
Thus, the curvature of the central line of a beam bent by a couple c
magnitude M is l

EI

(32.1)

R = M'

Formula (32.1), connecting the curvature of the central line with the
bending moment, is called the Bernoulli-Euler law. It will recur when we
come to consider this problem in a rigorous way.
It appears from the foregoing discussion that the stress in a beam giving
rise to a couple M is a longitudinal stress of magnitude
r = -

x = -

Ii x.

Under the action of the tensile stress r." the cross section of the beam
will be deformed, and the amount of the transverse contraction (or extension), from the definition of Poisson's
R
S
ratio tT (see Sec. 23), is

.i\

fS

tTX

tTMx

If =ET'

----- ----Q~.

If the beam was initially of rectangular


cross section PQRS (Fig. 18), then, as
p
Q'
will be shown in the rigorous discussion
of this problem [see. (32.10)], the parts
RS and PQ of the boundary are each
FIG. 18
bent into a parabola whose radius of curvature is approximately RIIT. The neutral plane of the beam (that is, the
plane in which there is no extension) and the faces of the beam that were
originally parallel to the yz-plane are deformed into saddle-shaped, or
anticlastic, surfaces.
The experimental measurement of the principal curvatures of the anticlastic surfaces provides a method of determining Poisson's ratio' tT,
while the measurement of the radius of curvature of the central line serves
to determine Young's modulm E.
It is clear from formula (32.1) that.a beam with a large value of EI will

"

1 The subscript y on I and M has been dropped, since no confusion is likely to arise
here.
t Those interested in the experimental determination of u are referred to S. TimoPenko and .T. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, p. 254, ",he..., further references OJ)
this subject will be found.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLJ<JXURE OF BEAMS

103

bend only slightly under the action of the couple 114, and hence the magnitude of E I provides a measure of the rigidity of the beam. For this
reason the constant EI is called the modulU8 oj flexural rigidity. In order
to increase the flexural rigidity of a beam, one must design it so as t.o make
, the moment of inertia I as large as possible. This is one of the reasons for
making beams with cross sections in the shape of the letters I, T, Z, etc.
We are now rAady to considAf rigoTOuRly the prohlem of ~nding of a
heam.
Assume the system of Rtreslles
(32.2)

and choose the axes of coordinates as before (see Fig. 19).


shown above, the resultant force on
any section vanishes, and the direction of the moment 114 of the couple
is that of the y-axis. It is obvious
that the equations of equilibrium
throughout the interior and on the
lateral surface of the cylinder are
FIG. 19
satisfied, as are the equations of
com9atibility,'
Using (32.2) and the formulas (29.2), we find

(32.3)

Then, as

iJv
17M
iJy = El x,

iJw+~=O
iJy

iJz

'

The expressions for the displacements 14 can be obtained from the


formulas (10.6) or by assuming u, v, and w to be functions of the second
degree of x, y, and z with unknown coefficients and then determining the
coefficients so as to satisfy Eqs. (3e.3). We choose to integrate Eqs.
(32.3) directly.
Thus, from the third of Eqs. (32.3), we obtain
M
w = - ElxZ

+ wo(x, y),

. where Wo is an unknown function of x and y.


Eqs. (32.3) give

'1:he body forces are assumed to vanish.

The fifth avd sixth of

104

VATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Hence
_ M

aWo

aWo

+ vo(x " y)

u - 2EI z - z

(32.4)

= - zay

ax + Uo ( x, y),

where !to and Vo are unknown functions of x and y.


vallI!'" in the first two of Eqs. (32.3) gives

Substituting these

_ a2w. + au. _ tTM


Z ox'
ox - E I x,

(32.5)

a2wo + aVo

-zW

ay

(1M

= EI

x.

Since these equations are true for all values of z, it appears that
a'Wo = 0

(32.6)

ox'

and it follows from the integration of (32.5) that

- 2EI
tTM x 2

Uo -

tTM

+ I 1(Y),

Vo = EI xy

+ /2(x).

Inserting these expressions in (32.4) and substituting the resulting values


of u and v in the fourth of Eqs. (32.3) gives the condition
-2z a2w o
ax iJy

+ dl,(y) + dl.(x) + (1M


dy

EI Y

ax

=0

Since the last three terIllS in this equation are independent of z, it follows
that
a2w
o
- = 0,
(32.7)
ax iJy
and hence

Thus,
df,

(1M

dy + EI

and

(32.8)

where a is a constant. We note from (32.6) and


function of x and y, say
Wo = fjx

Y = a,
(32~7)

+ 'YY + C;

furthermore, integrating Eqs. (32.8) gives

I.

= -ax

+ b,

tTM
il = - 2EI y2

+ a1J + a,

that Wo is a linear

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

Thus, the expressions for the dis-

where b and a are arbitrary constants.


placements become

3!_ (zt

u =

2EI
M
EI ITX'g

[
(32.9)

1V=

+ ITxt

105

- try2)

+ay-,8z+a,
- ax

llO=-~XZ

+ ,8x

-- 'YZ

+ 'YY

+ b,
+ c.

The constants of integration appearing in the solution can be determined


from the mode of fixing the beam. We can determine them in the same
way as was done in Sec. 31, namely, by fixing the centroid of the left-hand
end of the beam at the origin and by fixing an element of the z-axis and
an element of the xz-plane at the origin. These conditions ensure that
there is no rigid body motion of translation or rotation about the origin.
They can be formulated explicitly as follows:
U

10

= au =. ~ =

az

az

av
ax

at (0, 0, 0).

It follows from these relations that


a = {J =_ 'Y = a = b = c = O.

The vanishing of the constant8 of integration also follows readily from


Eqs. (3.5), from which it is seen that a, b, c represent a rigid body translation, while a, ,8, 'Y characterize a rigid body rotation about the origin.
The solution can now be written in the form
u =

(32.10)

2EI (z

+ ITx'

- try'),

v=EI ITxy ,
10

= -

EI

XZ.

It is clear from (32.10) that the filaments lying in the central plane x = 0
suffer no extensions; that is, the plane x = 0 is the neutral plane of the
beam. The longitudinal filaments on one side of the central plane
(x > 0) are contracted, whereas those on the other side (x < 0) are
extended. Points which, prior to deformation, had the coordinates x; go
into points with coordinates x:, where x; = Xi + Ui. Hence the points
on the z-axis (that is, the points on the central line of the beam) go into
. points
(32.11)

Y' = 0,

Z'

= z.

106

MATHEKATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The plane of bending is defined to be the plane containing tpe deformed


central line of the beam. Equation (32.11) shows that, in tPis example
the plane of bending coincides with the plane (y = 0) of the couple M.
The curve defined by (32.11) is a parabola whose radius of IJUrvature R
is given by the formula

which is nearly equal to

d
dz7

'
2

dx'
if dz' is small.

It follows from (32.11) that

for small deflections


1
M
R = EI'

which is the Bernoulli-Euler law, discovered earlier from rough geometrical considerations. This formula states that the magnitude of the
bending moment M is proportional to the curvature of the central line
of the beam. The Bernoulli-Euler law forms the point of departure for
all considerations in the technical theory of beams.
Consider a cross section of the beam made by the plane z = c. Mter
aeiormation, points in tillS cross section mIl lie in tile plane
z' = c

+w

c -

~ xc = c (1

- Ii}

If the curvature is small, we can replace x by x' and obtain

which is the equation of a plane normaLtp the deformed central line.


Hence the assumption that the normal sections remain plane after
deformation (made at the beginning of this section) is valid.
In order to see how the cross sections of the beam are deformed, consider a beam of rectangular cross section. The sides y = b of the beam
will go into

y'= b+v= b(I+ix).


and for small values of 1/ R this is nearly the same as
y' =

b (1 + i x')-

Thus, the vertical sides become inclined, as shown in Fig. IS.


in the section z = c, which lie on the upper and lower faces J:

The points
a of the

<==

EXTENSION, TOaBION, A.ND FLEXTJRE OF BEAMlS

107

beam, will go into points


1
x' = a + u = a + 2R [e l
Hence. for smAil

VAhll'~

~-

+ 0'(a

1/2)J.

of 1/ R, we have
+n
-

+- 2f(
1 f,'-' + (T(a'

- 1/2)}
-,
,

whi~h is the equation of a parahola whose l'urvature at allY point of the


section is nearly (T/ R.
It may be remarked ill eOllehlRioll that, if the moment M of the couple
is not directed along one of the prineipal axes of inertia of the section,
then the couple can be resolved into two couples, each of which has
moments directed along the principal axes. Then the foregoing considerations become applicable to each of the couples, and the solution of
the problem can be obtained by superposition. It turns out that in this
general case the plane of bending is also perpendicular to the neutral
(undeformed) surface, although the plane of the couple does not necessarily coincide with the plane of bending. I

REFERE,NCES FOR COLLATERAL READING


A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the l'vlathemat,ieal Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Pre , London, Sees. 86-88.
S. Timoshenko and .T. N. Goodier: Theory of Ela"ticity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, In ... , New York, &es. 85, 88.

33. Torsion of a Circular Shaft. In the preceding section, we formed


a physical picture of the distribution of stress in a beam bent by couples
from a consideration of the extension of a longitudinal filament. In this
section, we shall be guided by thl' displacements and shall deduce the
stresses from the functions Ui.

Consider a circular cylinder, of length I, with olle of its bases fixed


ill the xy-plane, while the other base (in the plane z = l) is acted upon by
a couple whose moment lies along the z-axis. Under the action of the
couple, the beam will be twisted, and the generators of the cylinder will
be deformed into helical curves. On account of the symmetry of the
eross section, it is reasonable to suppose that sections of the cylinder by
1

See in this connection Sees. 52-61, dealing with the ftexure problem.

lOS

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

planes normal to the z-axis will remain plane after deformation and that
the action of the couple will merely rotate each section through some
angle 0. The &mount of rotation will clearly depend on the distance
of the section from the base z = 0, and since the deformations are small,
it is sensible to assume that the amount of rotation 0 is proportional to the
distance of the section from the fixed hase. Thus,
0= az,

where a is (,he I,wist, per unit length, that is, the relative angular displacement of a pair of crOSR sections that are
y
unit distance apart.
If the cross sections of the cylinder
remain plane after deformation, then
'I'
the displacement w, along the z-axis, is
zero. The displacements u and v are
readily calculated. Thus, consider any
P
point P(x, y) in the circular cross section, which, before deformation, occupied the position shown in Fig. 20.
After deformation, the point P will oc}>'IQ,2O
cupy a new position P'(x + u, y + v).
In terms of the angular displacement IJ of the point P, we have
u
V

= r cos ({3 + IJ) - r cos (3 = x(cos 8 - 1) - Y sin 8,


= r sin ({3 + 8) - r sin {3 = x sin () + y(cos () - 1),

where {3 is the angle between the radius \'ector r and the x-axis so that
x = T cos {3, y = T sin {3. If thc angle 0 is small, we can write
u = -8y,

Since ()
x, y, z

8x.

az, we have for the displacements of any point with coordinates


u = -azy,

(33.1)

V =

azX,

O.

The system of stresses associated with the displacements (33.1) is given


at once by the formulas (24.0). We thus have
T,u =
-/-laY,
(33.2) 1' = p.ax,
Tzz = 1'YII = TZI& = T:r;y = 0,
which obviously satisfy the equations of equilibrium (with no body forces
acting) and the equations of compatibility. The boundary conditions
011 the lateral surface are likewise satisfied.
The first two of Eqs. (29.4)
are identically satisfied, and the last one gives

1'

cos (x, p)

1'

cos (y, p) =

-P.OlY

cos (x, If)

+ p.ax cos (y,

If) "" 0,

since, for a circle of radius a, cos (x, If) = x/a and cos (y, If) = Yla.
The only non vanishing component of the couple M produced by the

IlltTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

109

distribution of stresses (33.2) over the end of the cylinder is M., which is
easily cruculated. Thus,
M.

ff (X1"," - d:.c dy
= pa II (x' + y') d:.c dy
?/'T)

= palo,

where 10 = 'll"a 4 /2 is the polar moment of inertia of t,he circular cross


section of radius a.
The resultant force acting on the end of the cylinder vanishes, and it
follows from Saint-Venant's principle that whatever be the distribution
of forces over the end of the cylinder that gives rise to the couple of magnitude M., the distribution of stress sufficiently far from the ends of the
cylinder is essentially that specified by (33.2).
The stress vector l
T

= ir

+ j-r,y + kr"

= pa( -iy

+ jx),

acting at a point (x, y) on any cross section z-constant, lies in the plane
of the section and is normal to the radius vector r joining the point (x, y)
with the origin (0, 0). The magnitude of T is
(33.3)
From this we see that the maximum stress is a tangential stress that acts
on the boundary of the cylinder and has the magnitude paa, where a is
the radius of the cylinder.
34. Torsion of Cylindrical Bars. Consider a cylindrical bar subjected
to no body forces and free from external forces on its lateral surface. One
end of the bar is fixed in the plane z = 0, while the other end, in the plane
z = l, is twisted by a couple of magnitude M whose moment is directed
along the axis of the bar.
Navier, being guided by Coulomb's solution of the torsion problem for
a circular shaft, assumed that, in the general case of torsion of noncircular bars, the sections of the bar perpendicular to the z-axis will
remain plane. This assumption led him to erroneous conclusions. The
fact that the displacements characterized by formulas (33.1) cannot be
valid for bars whose sections are not circular can be seen from the boundary conditions (29.4). A substitution of the stresses (33.2) in the third
of the boundary conditions yields
(34.1)

-pay cos (x,

~)

+ pax cO"

(11,

v)

= 0,

where 1', as always, denotes the exterior normal to the boundary C of the
cross section R of the beam. But from Fig. 21 it is seen that
1 We denote the unit base vectors along the :1:'-,
tively.

1,., and ..axes by i, it and k, respec-

110

::I

1IA.THlIIlIlATlCAL THEORY OF ELA8TJCITY

cos (Z, .) ... Bin (Z, 1') '"' -

(34.2)

:: = sin

80

= cos

(z, 8)

COS

(1/, "),

(x, ..),

that, upon dividing out the nonvanishing factor 1-'01, Eq. (34.'.) becomes
x d:t;

+ y dy

= O.

-+--------.-_:1&

This is the differential equation of a family


of circles. Thus, circular cylinders are
the only bodies whose lateral surfaces can
R
be expected to be free from applied external forces if the state of stress characterized
by the formulas (33.2) obtains in the
interior.
I'
A natural modification of Navier's assumption is to suppose that, for cylinders
FIG. 21
other than circular ones, cross sections do
not remain plane but are warped and that each section is warped in the
same way. This leads us to assume displacements of the form
(34.3)

'II =

-azy,

.V

azx,

= a'l'(x, y),

where 'I'(x, y) is some function of x and y and a, as before, is the angle of


twist per unit length of the bar. The function 'I'(x, y) must be so determined as to satisfy the differential equations (29.1) and the boundary
conditions (29.4).
A simple calculation of the stresses corresponding to the displacements
(34.3) gives
(3404)

{ :: : ::

~~~.~ ~:. ;~.~


:

1-'01 ( : : -

Y).

A substitution of these values in the equilibrium equations (29.1) shows


that the equilibrium equations will be satisfied if 'I'(x, y) satisfies the
equation

(34.5)
throughout the cross section of the cylinder. Furthermore, jf the system
of stresses is to satisfy the boundary conditions (29.4) on the lateral
surface of the cylinder, we see that

(!: - Y) cos (x, , ) + (:; + x) cos

(y, v) = 0

on C,

where C is the boundary of the cross section R of the cylinder (Fig. 21).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

III

But

ax COB (x '

0",
80

J')

+ ay
IJ", cos (y v)
,

l5

tLp,
d.

that the boundary condition can be written in the form

(34.6)

d",
dll = Y cos (x, v) - X cos (y, v)

onC.

It follows from (34.5) that ",(x, y) must be a harmonic function throughout the region R bounded by the curve C and that on the boundary C the
normal derivative of ",(x, y) must assume the value given by (34.6).
Since the displacements are single-valued functions, it follows from (34.3)
that ",(x, y) must also be a single-valued function. Thus, the lJroblem of
determining the torsion function ",(x, y) is a special case of the second
boundary-value problem of Potential Theory. This latter lJroblem is
associated with the name of Neumann and consists in determining a function <p that is harmonic in a given region and whose normal derivative is
prescribed on the boundary of the region. We shall meet this problem
again in our study of several problems of elasticity. At this time we
shall simply remark that the harmonic function", is determined by the
boundary condition (34.6) to within an arbitrary constant.' The substitution of '" + constant in formulas (34.4) obviously does n()t alter the
stresses, and it is clear from (34.3) that the addition of a constant to <p
means a shift of the cylinder as a whole in the direction of the z-axis.
Thus, the additive constant in the solution of the problem of Neumann
is immaterial in our case.
The condition for the existence of a solution <P of the Droblem of
Neumann is that the integral of the normal derivative of the function <P,
calculated over the entire boundary C, vanish. This follows from the
identity

i ~: U
ds

div (V<p)

and from the fact that V'<P = O.


for [see (34.6) J

Ie ::

ds =

Ie
Ie

au =

[I

V'<P

au

This condition is satisfied in our case,

[y cos (x, p) - x cos (y, J')] dB

(y dy

+ xdx)

= 0,

since the integrand is the exact differential of the function 72(:1;2 + y2) +
constant.
It is easy to show that the distribution of stresses given by Eqs. (34.4)
, See Sec. 42.

112

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

is equivalent to a torsional couple applied at the end z = 1of the eylindfr


and that the resultant force acting on the end of the cylinder vanishes.
Now the resultant force in the x-direction is given by

and this can be written as

since rp satisfies the differential equation (34.5). Green's Theorem is


directly applicable to the integral (34.7), and we get
(34.8)

",ex

!c

[~

- y cos (x, v)

+ X cos (y,

v)] ds,

where the line integral is evaluated over the boundary C of the region R.
The integral (34.8) vanishes on account of the boundary condition (34.6).
It is shown in a similar way that

r dxdy = 0,

so that the resultant force acting on the end of the cylinder vanishes.
It rema.i.ns to show that the system of stresses defined by Eqs. (34.4) is
statically equivalent to a torsional couple. The resultant moment of the
exterllal forces applied to the end of the beam is
(34.9)

M. =

ff
R

= ",ex

(XT .. - yr.:) dx dy

ff (x. +

y2

+ X~ -

~;) dx dg.

The integral appearing in (34.9) depends on the torsion function rp and


hence on the cross section R of the beam. Setting
(34.10)

D =

rr

}}

(X2

+ y2 + X ~
_
iJy

y iJrp) dx dy
(Ix

'

we have
(34.11)

M = Dex.

The formula (34.11) shows that the twisting moment M is proportional


to the angle ex of twist per unit length, 80 that the constant D provides a
measure of the rigidity of a beam subjected to torsion. For this reason
the constant D (depending on the modulus of rigidity p and on the shape
of the cross section only) is called the torsional rigidity of the beam.

113

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAKS

It follows from the foregoing that the torsion problem for a beam of any
cross section is completely solved once the function 'P(x, y) is determined.
For the torsional rigidity D is determined by 'P from (34.10), and the
moment M required to produce the angle 0: of twist per unit length can
be calculated from (34.11) .
. In carrying out the foregoing calculations, no assumptions "'ere made
regarding the location of the origin 0 or concerning the orientation of the
axes x, y. Inasmuch as the first two of the formulas (34.3) represent the
infinitesimal rotation of any cross section of the beam as a whole about
the z-axis, it may seem at first glance that a different choice of the axis of
rotation parallel to the axis of z may yield a different solution of the
problem. For instance, if the axis z' is chosen parallel to the z-axis, and
if it intersects the xy-plane at some point (XI, YI), then the displacements
Ut, VI, and Wt will be
ttl = -o:z(y - YI),

o:z(x -

VI =

y),

WI = O:'PI(X,

XI),

and there is no a priori reason why the functions 'PI(X, y) and ",(x, y)
should be identical.
Calculating stresses that correspond to displacements (UI, VI, WI) yields
r T,v

= p.o: (";'

1'

= p.o:

(~:I

'TZJI

(34.12)
'Tn

+ X- X}

"f,rll

+ YI),

= 'T.a =

0,

and the substitution of these values in the equations of equilibrium (29.1)


shows that the function 'PI likewise satisfies the equation
V2

2
2
'P1 + a 'P1 =
aax2
ay2

'PI -

Moreover, the third of the boundary conditions (29.4) demands that


(

a'Pl

ax

+ Yl)

COB

X, v)

+ (a'Pl
iJy

Xl

COB

(y, v)
=

Y cos (x, v) -

cos (y, v)

or
d
dv

('PI

+ YIX

- xlY) = Y

COB

(X, v) - X cos (y, v).

But the function 'PI + YIX - XIY is harmonic, and since it satisfies the
same boundary condition as the function [see (34.6)], it folloWE! from the
uniqueness of solution of the problem of Neumann l that the two can

'P

See O. D. Kellogg, Foundations of Potential Theory, Chap. XI, Sec. 12.

114

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF lIlLASTICITY

clliJer only by a constant.

Thus,

"'1 =

",(x, y) - YiX + XlY + const.


A simple calculation making use of the formulas (34.12) shows that the
system of stresses obtained by using the function 1"1(X, y) is identical with
that obtained by using the function ",(x, y). It follows that the displacement in the two cases can differ only by a rigid body displacement. Thus,
we see that the position of the origin of coordinates is immaterial in this
problem.
We remark in conclusion that the formulation of the torsion problem
given here is valid when R is a mUltiply connected region.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the MathematicaJ. Theory of }<~lasticity, Ct.mbridge
University Press, London, Sec. 215.
R. V. Southwell: Theory of Elasticity for Engineers and Physicists, Oxford University
Press, New York, Secs. 155,336-341.
E. Trefftz: Hsndbuch der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6, Sec. 42.
A. G. Webster: Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Verlag von Julius Springer,
Berlin, Sec. 184.

36. Stress Function. Since the torsion function I"(x, y) is harmonic in


the region R representing the cross section of the beam, one can construct
the analytic function' <p + i"', of complex variable x + iy, where ",(x, y)
is the conjugate harmonic function, related to I"(x, y) by the CauchyRiemann equations,
(35.1)

Since the function <p


i", is an analytic function of the complex variable
+ iy, it is clear that the function ",(x, y) is determined by the formula

1(aa",

lJt/I)

lP(z,.)

(a",

al")
a

dx + "dy =
- ! l dx +
dy ,
c x
uy
P,(z. ,)
uy
X
where the integral is evaluated over an arbitrary path joining some point
Po(Xo, Yo) with an arbitrary point P(x, y) belonging to the region R. If
the region R is simply connected, the function ",(x, y) will be singlevalued; in a multiply connected region, ",(x, y) may turn out to be
multiple-valued. For the time being, we shall be concerned with simply
connected regions, and the discussion in this section will be confined to
such regions.
It is not difficult to phrase the torsion problem in terms of the conjugate
function ",(x, y). Thus, noting the relations (34.2), one can write the

(35.2)

",(x, y) =

1 Some basic results of the thoocy of analytic functions of a complex variable may
be {ouad in 1. S. and E. S. Sokolnikoff, Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists, Chap. X, pp. 440-491.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

115

expreesion for the normal derivative :: with the aid of the tangential
derivatives: and

~!, 80 that
dtp
otp
dv = oX

C08

(x, v)

otp

+ ay C08 (y,

v)

otp dy
otp dx
=oxds-oyds'

Making use of the Cauchy-Riemann equations (35.1), we have


dtp = 01/1 dx
dv
ox ds

+ 01/1 dy

"" dl/l.
dB

oy dB

Moreover, the boundary condition (34.6) can be written as


dtp
dv

= y

cos (x, v) - x cos (y, v)


dx

= x ds

+ y dy
dB

1 d

= 2 ds (x'

+ yO).

Hence

dl/l=!~(x2+ 2)
d82d8

y,

so that
(35.3)

1/1

= Y2(x'

+ y2) + const

on C.

It will be recalled that the torsion function <p is determined to within


a nonessential arbitrary constant; the derivatives of <p and hence those of
1/1 [see (35.1)] are determined uniquely, and the function 1/1 is determined
by means of (35.2) to within a constant depending on the choice of
Po(xo, yo). Accordingly, we are free to assign any value to the constant
of integration in (35.3), since this choice will not affect stresses, and the
two sets of displacements that correspond to two different choices of the
arbitrary constant will differ from one another by a rigid body motion.
Thus, instead of solving a problem of Neumann, W;J can equally well
solve a problem of Dirichlet by determining a function that is harmonic
in a given region and which assumes prescribed values on the boundary
of the region.
On account of the remarks just made, our problem consists in determining a function 1/1 that satisfies the equation

0'1/1+0'1/1 =0
ox'
oy'

. R

In

and that satisfies the boundary condition


(35.4)
'" == .J1(x' + y').
it is known that the solution of this problem is unique, I and there are
1

See O. D. Kellogg, Foundations of Potential Theory, Chap. IX, See. o.

116

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

general methods that permit one to construct solutions of the problem of


Dirichlet. We shall consider some of them in detail in succeeding
sections.
We shall now formulate the torsion problem in terms of the function
W, introduced by L. Prandtl,t which is defined as follows:
(35.5)

= ",(x, y) -

72(X'

+ y).

We have

ow =01/1
--x
ox ox
'

and, upon recalling the formulas (34.4) and (35.1), it follows that
(35.6)

Tn

= p.a

oW
oy'

Since the stress components T .. and T,. are obtained from the function
w(x, y) by differentiation, the latter is called the stress function. It is
readily checked that the stress function w satisfies Poisson's equation
"",T, ""

(35
7)

v '"

o'w
+ o'w
ox'
oy'

. R
In ,

= -2

and on the boundary C of the region R [cf. (35.3) and (35.5)J assumes the
value
w = const.
Consider a family of curves, in the plane of the cross section of the
beam, obtained by setting

w(x, y) = const.

(35.8)

The slope

of the tangent line to any curve of the family defined by

(35.8) is determined from the formula

oW
oX

+ oW dy

oydx

'

and, upon noting the relations (35.6), we obtain

dy

ax

T""
T ..,"

Thus, at each point of the curve w(x, y) = const, the stress vector

'" = iT.. + jT""


is directed along the tangent to the curve. The curves
w(x, y) = const
'PAyltikalisck ZeitacArift, vol. 4 (1903), pp. 758-710.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

are called the lines of shearing stre88.


stress is

117

The magnitude T of the tangential

Recalling that for a circular cylinder the magnitude of the tangential


stress is given by

we see that in this case the maximum shearing stress occurs on the
boundary of the section. It is not difficult to prove that in the general case the points at which maximum shearing stress occurs lie on the
boundary C of the section, so that elastic failure of material in shear is
to be expected on the lateral surface of the beam. In order to prove
the assertion, we refer to a theorem.
THEOREM: Let a function <I> of class C2 and not identically equal to a
constant satisfy the inequality V'<I> ~ 0 in the region R; then this function
attains its maximum on the boundary C of the region R.
The proof of this theorem follows at once from the well-known property
of subharmonic functions. It will be recalled that a function <I>(x, y) is
called subharmonic in the region R if at every point (Xl, YI) of the region
(1)

where the integral is evaluated over the circle 'Y of sufficiently small
radius T, with center at (Xl, YI). N ow, if it be assumed that the maximum
value M of a subharmonic function <I>(x, y) ~ const is attained, not on
the boundary C, but at some interior points of R, we arrive at a contradiction. For if S is a set of such interior points and Q is a frontier point
of S, we have from (1)
(2)

= <I>(Q) 5

z!.r

<I>(x, y) ds,

where 'Y is a circle with center at Q and of radius r so small that 'Y is interior
to R. But since 'Y is partly outside S, the mean value of <I> over 'Y is less
than M, that is,

1
-2
rr ,. <I>(x, y) ds

and this contradicts (2).


Since

<M

118

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ!' ELASTICITY

a simple calculation, making use of (35.7), snows that

2~2a2 [(!:~y + 2 (a~2:Yr + (~~)1

V'T' =

Thus V'T2 is nonnegative, and therefore T' is subharmonic in R. AccordiI).gly, T attains its maximum on the boundary of R.
Since the strength of the beam to resist torsion depends on the maximum shearing stress, practical rules for the design of beams carrying
torsional loads are expressed in terms of th'" safe maximum shearing
stress T.
The formula (34.10) for the torsional rigidity D can be phrased in
terms of the stress function' it. The resUlting expression is of great
interest in deducing approximate solutions of the torsion problems by the
membrane analogy discussed in Sec. 46.
We first recall the formula (34.11),

M = Dot,
where
M =

ff (XT,. -

y-r ) dx dy.

Since"
ait

T =~aoy'

we have

M =

-~a 11rr (x oW
dx dy
ax + y OW)
oy
,
R

so that
(35.9)

II (x :: +
-~ ff [o~:} + il~:2]
-~

y :;) dx dy'

dx dy

+ 2p

ff

it dx dy.

The first of the double integrals in the foregoing can be transformed by


Green's Theorem so that (35.9) reads
D = - p fa it[x cos (x, v)

+ y cos (y,

v)J ch

+ 2~ JJ it dx dy.
B

But we can choose [see (35.4) and (35.5)J


W= 0

on C,

That ~ attains its minimum values on the boundary follows from (35.7). For if ~
were to take on its minimum at some interior point P, then ~. - ~. - 0, ~ ~ 0,
+.. ~ 0 at P. But this is impossible, since ~ +~..... -2 at P.
.
1

See fomiul... (85.6).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

119

and the foregoing expression becomes


(35.10)

2p.

JJ 'It dx dy.
R

It is obvious from (35.10) that the torsional rigidity of a beam whose


cross section R is bounded by the contour C is twice the product of the
shear modulus p. and the volume enclosed hy the surface z = 'It(x, y) and
the plane z = O. We shall see in a lat.er section that a homogeneous,
uniformly stretched membrane subjected to a uniform pressure is distorted into a surface whose differential equat.ion is of the same form as
that for the stress function 'It. The connection between the surface of the
loaded membrane and the stress function i' is utilized in the experimental
determination of the magnitude of stresses in cylinders whose cross
sections are such as to make a mathemati!'al determination of the torsion
function very difficult.
Before proceeding to a consideration of specific examples, we note that
our solution requires that the tangential stresses T" and T,y be distributed
over the ends of the beam in a manner specified by (34.4). In practical
applications, this particular distribution of stress may not correspond
to the actual physical situation, but, on the basis of Saint-Venant's
principle, we can assert that, sufficiently far from the ends of the beam,
the stress will depend on the magnitude of the couple M and will be quite
independent of the mode of distribution of t.ractions over the ends of the
heam.
We have seen that the torsion prohlem can he reduced to the problem
of finding a function if;(x, y) that is harmonic in the region R and takes the
values }--2(x' + y') on the boundary C of R. Some special methods of
solving the torsion problem will be considered in the following sections.
In the next two sections, our plan of attack will be to consider a particular
harmonic function if; that contains some undetermined coefficients.
These undetermined coefficients will be chosen in such a way that, on the
boundary of a certain region, if; takes on the values Y2(X' + yO). In Sec.
38, a solution in the form of an infinite series will be obtained for rectangular and triangular prisms. The general solution of the torsion
problem for a beam of arbitrary solid cross section R is then given by
mapping the region R upon the interior of a circle and then considering
the solutioDil of the problems of Dirichlet and Neumann for the circular
region.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING

A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge


University Press, London. Sees..216--220.
W. D. MacMillan: The Theory of the Potential, McGraw-Hili Book Company, Inc.,
New York, See. 127.

120

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

O. D. Kellogg: Foundations of Potential Theory, Verlag Yon Julius Sprillger, Berlin,


Chap. IX, Sec. 3; Chap. XI, Sees. 1, 12.

PROBLEMS
1. Consider a circular shaft of length I, radius 11, and shear modulus 1', twisted by
a couple M. Show that the greatest angle of twiRt e and thr maximum shear stress
7' ..
T!~ + T~" are given by

v'

I. A steel shaft of circular cross section 2 in. in diameter and 5 ft long is twisted by
end couples. Find the maximum twisting moment and angle of twist if the greatest
shear stress is not to exceed 10,000 lb per sq in. Take E = 30 X 10' Ib per sq in.,
,,- 0.3.
I. The .haft of the preceding problem is not to be twisted more than 1. What is
the corresponding maximum shear stress?
,. Derive the expression
M.

63,000 H
n

for the torque M. on a solid cirenlar shaft transmitting H hp at a speed n rpm. Hint:
Let the radius of the shaft (or pulley) be T in., and let T = M.IT be the tension in the
belt. Calculate the work done in each minute against M.. (lhp = 33,000 ft-Ib
per min.)
6. Derive the expressions

for the twist per inch length a (radians) in a solid circular shaft of diameter din.,
transmitting H hp at n rpm against a torque of M, in.-lb.
6. How much torque can be transmitted by a solid circular shaft 3 in. in diameter if
the allowable shear stress is 10,000 lb per sq in.? What is the angle of twist per foot
of length? Use I' = 12 X 10' lb per sq in.

36. Torsion of Elliptical Cylinder. It was shown above that the solution of the torsion problem for a solid cylinder of arbitrary cross section is
completely determined if one obtains the harmonic function", that on the
boundary C of the cross section assumes the value
(36.1)
Consider the harmonic function
(36.2)

'" =

C2(X2 -

y2)

+ k 2,

where C and k are constants. The function defined by (36.2) will enable
us to solve the torsion problem for some region R on the boundary of
which (36.2) reduces to ,(36.1). Hence points of the boundary C of the

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

region R are determined by equating (36.1) and (36.2).


c2(x! - liS)

+ k'

~(X2

121

ThuB,

+ 11'),

or
(36.3)

The rHrve defined by Eq. (36.3) is a.n ellip""


x'

Ii'

<

if we choose c'

y'

+ b2 ""

I,

and
k

b=

a = .----,
V%' - c

k
.
V~ +c2

Then
C' -

a'b'
k' - a' + bi

1 a' - b'

- 'la'

+ b"

Subst.ituting the values of c and k in terms of a and b in (36.2), we obtain


the solution of our boundary-value problem for an ellipse with semiaxes
a and b, namely,
(38.4)

The components of stress (34.4) can be expressed directly in terms of


the function", by noting the Cauchy-Riemann equations (31).1). Thus,
T

pO! ( -

~ + x).

Hence
-2paa'y
a' + b"

(36.5)

The torsion moment M is

ff

(XT,. -

yr.~) dx dy

a.2~\s (b.g x'dxdy + a' g

y'dXdY)

= a s2:;b' (a 2Iz + b'I.),


where lz and Iw are the moments of inertia of the elliptical ~tion about
the x- and y-axes. Recalling that

122

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

we have
1I"pcxa'b'
M = at

+ bT

so t.hat the torsional rigidity

n=

'lrpa 3b'
Of

+ b'

Jt was shown in the preceding section that the maximum shearing stress
on any cross section occurs on the boundary of the section. The location
of the points on the boundary at which the greatest stress Tm .. occurs can
be determined 1 by maximizing the expression for T that has been obtained
as a function of a single variable by utilizing the equation of the boundary
C. In the case of an elliptical cylinder, the points of greatest shearing
stress can be found easily from some simple geometrical considerations.

FIG. 22

Consider an elliptical section, shown in Fig. 22, and draw from the
center of the ellipse a semidiamet,er op to an arbitrary point P(x, y) of the
boundary. Since the diameter of the ellipse conjugate to the diameter
through P is parallel to the tangent line' at P(x, y), it follows that the
conjugate semidiameter op' intersects the curve at the point P'(x', y'),
where
,
bx
x' = _ ay,
11 = u
b
When the stresses at P(x, y) are written in terms of the coordinates x',
y' of the point P', we have

80 that the direction of stress at the point P is parallel to the conjugate


semidiameter OP'. Furthermore, the magnitude T of the tangential
I

See Prob. 1 at the end of this section.


See, for example, W. F. Osgood and W. C. Grll.U$tein, Plane and Solid Analytic

Geometry, Chap. XIV.

EXTENSIO)f, TOlI.sION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

stress at P(x, y) is
T -

I. =

+Y

_~
2IUXab _ lx"
T" T Tii. = a' + bt V

123

2~b.J
+ b' T ,

a'

where r' is the distance OP'. Since the conjugate semidiameter is of


maximum length when the point P is at an extremity of the minor axis, it
follows that
Z",aa 2b
Tmas

= a'

+ b'

Thus, the maximum stress occurs at the extremities of the minor axis of
the ellipse, contrary to an intuitive expectation that the maximum stress
would be at the points of maximum curvature.
It is easy to verify that the conjugate harmonic function ip, apart from
a nonessential constant, is 1
a' - b2
(36.6)
ip = - a' + b2 xy.
This function determines the warping of the cross sections of the cylinder.
for the displacement along the z-axis is
given by w = aip(x, y). The contour
lines, obtained by setting ip = const,
are the hyperbolas shown in Fig. 23.
The dotted lines indicate the portions
of the section that become concave,
and the solid those that become convex, when the cylinder is twisted by
a couple in the directions shown in the
FIG.2:l
figure by arrows.
The lines of shearing stress are determined by drawing the contour lines
for the surface z = 'I'(x, y). Setting 'I'(x, y) = const gives,' in this case,
a family of concentric ellipses,

x'

-c'(a'

y'

az + /j2 -

1 =

+b

a'b'

'

similar to the ellipse x'la' -I- y'lb 2 = 1.


The displacement of the points of the cylinder is given at once by the
formulas (34.3). The results obtained in Sec. 33 for a beam of circular
cross section follow at once from the formulas of this section upon setting
b = a.
PROBLEMS
1. Show that, in the torsion of an elliptical cylinder, the magnitude of the streas vector r takes the following value on the houndary of the section z - canst:

See Eq_ (36.1).


See Prob. 3 at the end of this sect-ion.

124

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

From this relation it follows that the m""imum shearing stress occurs at the ends of
the minor ""is of the ellipse.
2. Derive t,hp expression (36.6) from
<p(z, y)

J:' (~dx - ~

dy )

+ const,

and evaluate the line integral over the path consisting of the straight-line segments
from P.(z .. Y.) to Q(z, Y.) and from Q(x, Yo) to P(z, y).
I. Show that the stress function for an ellipticsl section can be written as
y'l
+ b' (XI
ll' + lJi

-a'b'

,.. = as

_. 1

and is thus proportional to the function appearing in the equation of the boundary 01
the section. The problem of determining the sections for which this proportionality
holds has been treated by Leibenson. 1

37. Simple Solutions of the Torsion Problem. Effect of Grooves.


The method of solution of the torsion problem illustrated in the preceding
section was used by Saint-Venant, who selected a number of simple polynomial solutions of the equation
(37.1)

V';ft = 0,

and determined the equation of the boundary of the cross section of the
cylinder on which the function", reduces to ~(X2 + y2). Inasmuch as
the real and imaginary parts of every analytic function of a complex
variable x + iy satisfy Eq. (37.1), we can build up a list of functions '"
and, by working, so to speak, backward, can determine the equations of
the contours for which these functions", represent the solution of the
torsion problem. For example, if we consider the function (x + iy)",
then by choosing n = 2, we get two solutions, x 2 - y2 and 2xy, of Eq.
(37.1). The first of these solutions was utilized in the preceding section
to solve the torsion problem for an elliptical cylinder. If n is set equal to
3, we obtain the harmonic functions x. - 3xy2 and 3x'y - y.. Now
consider the harmnnic function

'" = cCx' - 3xy2) + k,


where c and k are constants. The function t/I determines the solution
of the torsion problem for a cylinder whose cross section has the equation
(37.2)

(37.3)

c(x 3 - 3xy 2)

+k

= ~(X2

+ y2).

1 L. Leibenson, "tlber den Zusammenha,ng zwischen der Spannungsfunktion bei


Torsion und der Konturgleichung eines Prismenquerschnittes," Wi~faic1le
Bcrieht6 tkr .'Iio8kaU8r UnilJer8iUit, vol. 2 (1934), pp. 99-102 (in Russian with a Gemum

-ry).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLb'XURE OF BEAMS

125

By altering the values of the parameters in (37.3), we obtain various cross


sections, some of which may be of technical interest. If we set c = -1/00
and k = 2a 2/3, then (37.3) can be written in the factored form as

v'3 + 2a)(x + y v'3 + 2a)

(x - a)(x - y

= 0,

so that the boundary of the region is the equilateral triangle of altitude


3a (see Fig. 24).
Making use of the formulas (35.6), we find
Tor

p.ot

a y(x

T,.

- a),

~~ (x'

+ 2a.;r

y2).

We see from these formulas that the ;t-cOmponeIlt of the shearinI!', stress.

vanishes along the x-axis, while the y-component becomes


(....,,).-0

~: x(x

+ 2a).

The distribution of stress along the x-axis is indicated in Fig. 25.

The

-2d

t---3a~
FIG. 24

FIG. 25

shearing stress is a maximum at the mid-points of the sides of the triangl>,


and its value is
The stress vanishes at the corners and at the origin O.
of the lines of shearing stress is along the curves
'" - 72(X!

+ y2)

The direction

const

a few of which are indicated in Fig. 25 by dotted lines. It is easily


checked, with the aid of (34.9), that the torsional couple has the magnitude

M = %p.otlo,
where 10 = 3 0 a< is the polar moment of inertia of th{) triangle. The
nature of the distortion of the initially plane sections is indicated in Fig.

126

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

24, where the contour lines of the surface <p(x, y) "" (3x'y - y3)/6a = const
are shown.
It appears from this example, and from that of the preceding section,
that a circular shaft of the aame cross-sectional area as an elliptical beam
or a triangular prism has the greatest
y
torsional rigidity. lOne can also prove
that, if the region is simply connected,
then, for a given moment ill and for a
given cross-sectional area, the smallest
-+\~""'~!-,-.L-:......J.:"'__ _-+_... x maximum stress will be found in a cir'"
cular beam. This is discussed further
in Sec. 47 in connection with the torsion of beams with multiply 00nnected
cross sections.
The effect of grooves or slots in the
FIG. 26
beam on the maximum shearing stress
can be discussed in an elementary way by studying an example due to
C. Weber.'
Consider a pair of harmonie functions,
x

and

x'

+ y"

and introduce the polar coordi~ates defined by the equations x = r cos 6,


y = r sin O. We can construct a harmonic function if;,
if;

a(x ~ b',x'__+]/.
x__ ) + !2 b' = a(r cos (J _ b' cosr (J) + 2
! b!
'

where a and b are constants.


On the boundary C of the cross section, '" must reduce to
if;

= Yz(x 2

+ y')

= Yzr',

so that the equation of the boundary for which the function if; solves the
torsion problem is
b' cos (J)
f1 ( r cos (J - ~~'r~+ 2'1 b" = 2'1 r',
or
cos (J
r' - b' ~ 2a(r' - b') -r- = O.
Factoring this expression gives

(T' - b2)

(1 _2a CrOSIJ) = O.

t See Frob. 1 at the end of this section.


C. Weber, ForBChungsarbeiten, VDI, No. 249 (1921).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

127

Thus, the boundary is made up of two circles


r

= b

and

r = 2a cos 8,

which are shown in Fig. 26.


Since the function", is known, one can easily calculate the stresses T . .
and
It turns out that the maximum shearing stress is at the point
A and has the value'
TIDax. == 2,uaa,

T...

which is twice as great as the peripheral stress in a circular shaft of radius


a. This example indicates the importance of considering stre~ses in slots
and keyways of shafts.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Secs. 221-223.
S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier: Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, Secs. 90-93.
J. W. Geckeler: Handbuch der Physik, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, vol. 6,
p.l43.

PROBLEMS
1. Let Do be the torsional rigidity of a circular cylinder, D. that of an elliptical
cylinder, and D, that of a beam whose cross section is an equilatpral trumgle. Show
that for cross sections of equal areas
D. = kD o,

where
2ab

k = (i.

+ b'

~ 1,

and a, b are the semiaxes of the elliptical section.


2. Consider a circular shaft of radius a with a circular groove of radius b along a
generator of the shaft (see Sec. 37). Show that on the groove the shearing stresses are
To>

T,.

= 1"'(2a cos 9 - b) sin 9,


= -pa(2a cos 8 - b) cos 9,

T= vir;. + T;.

= pa(2a cos 8 - b),

while on the shaft we have

T.,

=- ~
(b l
4a

~ (b' - 4a' cos' 8) sin 28,


cos' 8

4a

pa

4a'

COB'

(a - iisecl 8).

See Prob. 2 at the end of t,his section.

9)

COB

28,

cos' 8

128

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Find the magnitude of the shearing stress at the point (see Fig. 26) where the groove
enters the shaft.

38. Torsion of a Rectangular Beam and of a Triangular Prism. Consider a beam of rectangular cross section, and let one side of the cross
section, of length a, be parallel to the x-axis and that of length b be parallel
to the y-axis. It will be supposed that b ~ a and that the z-axis passes
through the center of the cross section.
The torsion problem will be solved if we succeed in det(\rmining the
function ",(x, y) that is harmonic in the region bounded by x = a/2,
y = b/2 and that assumes on the boundary of the region the values
}~(x' + Y'). In this case, the boundary conditions can be written as
(38.1)

( a) ="8a' + 2'

'" 2'

( , -+ -2b) b8 + -.x'2
2

Y'

.1.

"

= -

The boundary conditions (38.1) are somewhat complicated, and it will


simplify our search for the function", if we introduce a fun(:tion lex, y),
defined by the formula
(38.2)

lex,

y) =

a',y
ax' + 1.

The function lex, y) is obviously harmonic.


SlI.tisfies the equation

Since the function ",(x, y)

we can also write


(38.3)

av;

lex, y) = - ay'

+ 1.

By differentiating Eqs. (38.1), we see that

ao",
-= 1
ay'

onx =

2'

av;

ony =

2'

ax'

= 1

and from (38.2) and (38.3) it follows that the boundary values of the
harmonic function lex, y) are

lex, y)

a
onx=2'

I(x, y)

= 2

onY=:r

(3804)

The function lex,


(38.5)

y) satisfies the equation


a'! (J'!

ax' + ay'

== 0,

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

129

and we seek a solution of this equation in the form of an infinite series

..

f(x, y)

CnX,.(x)y,.(y),

.. -0

where each term of the series satisfies the differential equatior. (38.5), and
where X.(x) and Y.(y) are, respectively, function3 of x alone and of y
alone. Substituting X.(x)Y.(y) in (38.5), and denoting the derivatives
by primes, we 'get
X::(x)Y.(y)

+ X,.(x)Y::(y)

0,

or
X::(x) _
Y::(y)
X.(x) - - y,.(y)'

Since the left-hand member of this expression is a function of x alone and


the right-hand member depends only on y, the equality can be fulfilled
only if each member is equal to a constant, say - k!. We are thus led to a
pair of ordinary differential equations
and
whose linearly independent solutions are

Since our solutions must satisfy the boundary conditions (38.4), we reject
the terms involving the odd functions sin knx and sinh k.y, and choose the
product X.Y,. of the form
cos k ..x cosh k"y,
where
kyo = (2n

+ 1)....
a

Thus, each term of the series


(38.6)

f(x, y) =

c,. cos k,.x cosh k"y

.. -0

satisfies the first of the boundary conditions (38.4), and it remains to


satisfy the conditions on the edges y = b/2. Substituting y = b/2
in (38.6) yields the equation
(38.7)

L.. c,. cosh -kb2 cos k,.x,


.. -0

130

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

from which it follows that the coefficients e" can be formally determined
by utilizing the scheme used in expanding functions in Fourier series. If
we multiply both members of (38.7) by cos (2m + l)1rx/a and integrate
term by term with respect to x between the limits - a/2 and a/2, then
because of the orthogonal property of trigonometric functions, namely,

0/2

cos k,.x cos k..x dx =

{O
~

0/2

we get

O/2

-0/2

2 cos k..x dx

if m F n,
if m = n,

a
k b
-2 e.. cosh 2"'

Upon evaluating the integral, we see that!


c = 8(-1)"'.
1
,
'"
'lI"(2m
1) cosh (k m b/2)

so that the formal solution is


(38.8)

8 ~ (-: I)" cosh k"y


f(x, y) = ;;: 1.. 2n
1 cosh (k"b/2) cos k"x.

,,-0

The stresses T and 1',. are given by the formulas


(38.9)

and since
a2,f
ax. = f(x, y) - 1,

and

a2t/!

ay. = -f(x, y)

+ 1,

we see that, in order to evaluate stresses, we must integrate the series


(38.8) with respect to x and y. Integrating, and making use of the fact
that 1' = 0 on x = a/2 and T = 0 on y = b/2, we obtain
8a ~

at/!

(-1)"

cosh k"y

ax = -x

+ i2 ,,-0
1.. (2n + 1)2 cosh (k"b/2) sm k"x,

at/! _

8a ~

(38.10)
ay - y

(-1)"

sinh k"y

-;:s ..1..-0 (2n + 1)2 cosh (k"b/2) cos k ..x .

''I'lu!se are the Fourier coefficients for I(z) _ 2, -a/2 < z < a/2, and /(x) _ 0,
-a < x < -a/2 and a/2 < x < a.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

131

Hence the stresses T and T can be calculated from the series

T ..

-8aJJ.Ci ~
( -1)sinh k.y
= ~ '"' (2n
1)2 cosh (k.b/2) cos k.x,

.-0

(38.11)
Ta. =

JJ.Ci

(-1)"
cosh kny
.
]
Sa ~
1)' cosh (k.b/2) sm k.x .
[ 2x - ,...' '"' (2n

-0

The solutions (38.11) are formal, but the series converge so rapidly that
there is no serious difficulty in justifying the term-by-term differentiation
to show that the equilibrium equations are satisfied. The x-component
of shear obviously vanishes when y = 0, while the y-component at the
mid-point of the longer side is equal to
(38.12)

Toy

\x-an

= JJ.Cia

.-0

8 ~
1
k.b]
[ 1 - ;0 '"' (2n + 1); sech 2 .
n-O

It is not difficult to prove that (38.12) gives the maximum value of the
shearing stress, by taking note of the fact that the term 2x in the brackets
of (38.11) dominates the series. Now in the most unfavorable case (for
convergence) of a square beam (b = a),
(38.13)

Tma. = JJ.~a {1 - ~ [sech ~ + nt (211: ~ 1)2 sech (2n + 1) ~]}.

But
~

L
n-l

(2n

1 ~

,...

2e-('n+l)(r/2)

+ 1)' sech (2n + 1) 2 < 9 L

1 + e (2n+l)~

n-l

<

-2 L~
9

3r/2

.-1

e-('n+l) (r/2)

= -2 -e-- _r = 0.002.
!ll - e-

Since sech (11'/2) =0 0.4, it follows that the first term in the brackets in
(38.13) gives the value of all the terms in the brackets with the accuracy
(If 72 per cent. Hence, for practical calculations, the value of Twa. can be
assumed to be given by the formula
T ....

==

JJ.OIa

(1 - !

11"

sech

11'_~).

2a

The twisting moment


M =

f- /2 /./2
-b/2

-./2

(XT.. - yr ) dx dy

is calculated by makin!!: use of the series (38.11).

The result of the

132

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

calculations is
M = jU%ba '
6

+ 16jU%a' b ~

i..

,..'

", .. 0

+ 1)'

(2n

_ 641'aa' ~ tanh (kftb/2)


,..6
i.. (2n 1)5 '
",-0

and since

we have the formula


(38.14)

M = I'abal
3

1)41'aa 4 ~ tanh (k n b/2).


,.."
(2n
1)5

/:0

Now the series in (38.14) can be written as


1I"b
t anh 2a

..

~ tanh (k.b/2)

.-1
L.,

(2n

+ 1)6

'

1
(2n

+ 1)' =

0.0046,

.. - I

while tanh (1I"b/2a) ~ 0.917. Thus, the first term of the series gives the
value of the sum to within ~ per cent, and one can use, for prllctical purposes, the approximate formula
M

== l'aba 3
3

64!'aa tanh 'lrb.


,..6

Inasmuch as the partial derivatives ~~ and

2a

~~ are known from

it is a straightforward matter to compute the torsion function ",.


formula (35.1), it is found that
",(x, y) = xy -

(38.10),
Noting

Sa' ~ ( -1)"
sinh k ..y

;a L., (2n + 1)3 cosh (k ft b/2) sm knx.


n-O

Accordingly, the displacement w is given by w = a",(x, y). The contour


lines of the surface ",(x, y) == const for the case b = a are shown in Fig.
27. The section is divided into eight triangular regions, which are
warped as shown by the contour lines in Fig. 27. The function "'(x, y)
can be determined by integrating Eqs. (38.10) and reealling the boundary
condition .,,(a/2, y) "" ~(xt + yl) -= a'/8 + y'/2; the result is

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND I"LEltURE 01" BEAMS

(38.15)

-/I(x, 1/)

at

= 4"

+ 2 (1/"

133

- x")

Sa! ~

cosh k..y

(-1)"

- -;;:a ,,-0
1.. (2n + 1)" cosh (k nb/2) cos k"x.
The solution of the torsion problem for a prism whose cross section is
an isosceles right triangle (Fig. 28) can be obtained from the foregoing
;y
;y

FIG. 27

FIG. 28

solution for a rectangular prism.'

~, = ~ + ~ (y' -

We construct the harmonic functions

x (x - ;) (y 2

) -

;)

Sa' ~

-;a 1..

.-0

and

~" = ~ + ~ (x' -

y2) -

( _1)n
sinh k,.y
(2n + 1)3 sinh (k na/2) cos knx,

(x - ~) (Y - ;)
8a' ~

( -I)"

sinh knx
(k"a/2) cos k"y .

- -;;:a 1..-0 (2n + 1)' sinh

A comparison with the expression (3S.15) for 1f; shows that the function~"
reduces to ~'2(x"
y 2) on the sides x = a/2 and y = a/2, That~" also

satisfies the boundary conditions on these sides can be shown either from
considerations of symmetry or by direct calculation of the boundary
values and by noting the expansion

~
4

2 _ Sa' ~
(-I)"
(2n + 1)1rx,
x - ,..' 1.. (2n + 1)3 cos
a

.. -0

See B. G. Galerkin, Bulletin de l'academu de> sciences de RU8Bie (1919), p. 111, and
G. Koloesoff, CompteB rendu8 hebdomadaires de> "Mnce. de l'acadtmie de> 8Ciences, Paris,
vol. 178 (1924), p. 2057,
1

134

MATHEMATICAL TH.EORY OF ELASTICITY

"'I

If we set y == -x in an<! "'. and add the results, we obtain 2xt.


the harmonic function

+ "'2)
a
-XV + 2 (x + y)

'" '" ~("'l

4a2 ~

ra

L. (2n

.. -0

Thus,

(-1)"

+ 1)" sinh (k.a/2) (sinh k.y cos k.x


+ sinh k"x cos kAY)

reduces to ~(x' + y2) on t.J.e boundary of the triangle bounded by the


lines x = a/2, y = a/2, y = -x and hence solves the torsion problem for
thb triangular prism. One can calculate the shearing stresses, in the
manner indicated above, for the beam of rectangular cross section, and
it is possible to show that the maximum shearing stress is at the middle
of the hypotenuse.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING

A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridge


University Press, London, Sees. 221-225.
S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier: Theory of ElastiCIty, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New }ork, Sees. 94--104.
Riemann-Weber: Die Differential- und Integralgleichungen der Physik, ViewegVerlag, Brunswick. Germany, vol. 2, Chap. XVIII, Sec. 2, or 1930 ed., by
Frank and v. Mises, Mary S. Rosenberg, New York, vol. 2, Chap. VIII, Sec. 2.
B. G. Galerkin: "Torsion of Parabolic Prisms," Messenger of Mathematics, vel. 54
(1924), pp. 97-110.

39. Complex Form of Fourier Series. The discussion of the torsion


of a rectangular beam in the preceding section utilized the expansion of a
certain function in a trigonometric series. We shall have occasion to
make frequent use of Fourier series expansions, and it is the purpose of
this section to recall some facts about Fourier series and to give a representation of Fourier series in complex form. Sufficient conditions for the
expansion of an arbitrary function in a Fourier seri.es are given by the
following theorem.
THEOREM: Let f( IJ) be a real single-valued function defined arbitrarily in
the ~nterval 0 S IJ ::; 271", and outside this interval defined by the equation
f( 6 + 271") = f( IJ). If f( 6) has at most a finite number of points of ordinary
discontinuity and a finite number of maxima and minima in the interval
o ~ IJ S 271", then it can be represented by the series
~

~+

(39.1)

1:

(ak cos klJ

+ b. sin k~)

i-I

with
(39.2)

a.. = -1102..- f(t)


71"

cos nt dt,

b. = -110 .. f(t) sin nt dt,


71" 0

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

135

and the IJM'ie8 converges at every point 9 = 90 to the value


7!;[f(6o+)

+ f(lIo- )J.

The 8ymbolsf(lIo+) andf(lIo-) stand for the right- and left-hand limits
of f( II) as II --+ 110.
The restrictions imposed UpOll the function f( II) in this theorem are
known as the Dirichlet conditions. 1 We assume that the reader is familiar
with this theorem.
If f(lI) not only satisfies the conditions of Dirichlet but is continuous
in the closed interval (0, 21r),' then one can show that the Fourier series
converges uniformly in the closed interval (0, 211-).
We also have the following theorem concerning the bounds on the
coefficients in Fourier series:
THEOREM: If the function f( 6) is periodic and is such that its pth derivative
satisfies the conditions of Dirichlet in the interval (0, 2... ), then the Fourier
coefficients for f( 9) satisfy the inequalities
M

Ia.. I < n,,+I'

and

< n,,';'l'

where M is a positive number independent of n.


An important conclusion follows directly from this theorem. Let the
function f(O) have the first derivative 1'(0), which satisfies the conditions
of Dirichlet. Then the Fourier series for such a function has coefficients
of order lin', so that

la.

cos nil

+ b. sin nil! ~ Ian cos nil! + lb. sin nil! ~

where M is a positive number independent of n.


tive constants

!a..!

+ !b.! < ~,
n

Since the series of posi-

converges, it follows from the Weierstrass M test that the Fourier series
for a function whose first derivative satisfies the conditions of Dirichlet
is absolutely and uniformly convergent and hence can be integrated term
by term.3
Since the coefficients of the series obtained by differentiating the series
term by term are of the order na.. and nb., it is clear that, in order to
ensure the convergence of the derived series, it is sufficient to demand
1 The restrictions imposed on the function 1(9) can be relaxed, and it is sufficient to
demand that 1(9) be a function of bounded variation.
In this case, the requirement of periodicity imposes the condition 1(0) - f(2r).
I As a matter of fact, ('!Very Fourier series can be integrated term by term.

136

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELA.8TIClTY

that the second derivative f"(J) fulfill the conditions of Dirichlet in the
interval (0, 211").
The Fourier series (39.1)- can be written in an equivalent form
(39.3)

I( (J) = c.

..

..

k-I

k-l

Lc~' + L

C_.e-ikl

where
(39.4)

c..

1 (2r

= 211"

Jo

0, 1, 2, ...).

(n =

f(t)c'n'dt,

In order to est&blish the identity of the representation (39.3) with (39.1),


it is merely necessary to recall the Euler formula

e' = cos u
U

+ i sin u,

and verify that the formula (39.4) gives for n

>

(39.5)

Co

ao

:f

Then

. c.e""
L
i--..

=~

L. \,~ - i ~) (cos k8 + i sin k8)


k-l

=~

i (~ + ~) (C~8

..

k(J - i sin klJ)

i-I

(a. cos klJ

+b

sin k8).

k-I

Let h(8) and !t(8) be a pair of real functions, each of which can be
expanded in Fourier series in the interval (0, 2r), and form the complex
function ft(8) + if,(O). Then
(39.6)

f1(0)

+ ifz(O)

..

L c.e

ik

',

, _ _ flO

where
c.. =

i..102r

[!tel)

+ if2(t)]e-int dt,

If we set

c..

= "Y.

(n =

+ i3..,

0, 1, 2, ...).

137

1IIXTENSION, TOllSION, AND .B'LEXUlUIl O.B' BEAMS

where ')'. and &.. are real numbers, then


/I(D)

+ ifJ(D)

..

l
.. --. .
L

(')'k

+ ilik)(COB kD + i sin kD)

(')'t

COB kfJ - li. sin kfJ)

1:-- -

+i
=

')'0

..

L
k--

.-1L [(')'. +. ')'-.)


+ L +

(lit COB kfJ

+ ')'. sin kIJ)

110

cos kIJ - (0. - L.) sin kill

[(lit

k)

COB kIJ

+ ('Y' -

+ ilio

'Y .....) sin kIJl .

-1

Hence

where

.-1I. (a. cos kfJ + b. sin kfJ),


!,(IJ) = Y2a~ + L (a~ cos kIJ + b~ sin kfJ),
.-1

!1(fJ) = %ao

%ao = 'Yo,
Y2a~

lio,

a. = 'Y'

+ 'Y-.,

a~ = li.
L.,
(k = 1,2,3, .

b. = -li. + li .....,
bk = 'Y. - 'Y .....,
.).

It follows from these formulas that the representation of a complex function f1(IJ) + i!2(fJ) in a series of the type (39.3) is unique, since the representation of the functions !1(IJ) and f2(IJ) in series of the type (39.1) is
unique.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
D. Jackson: Fourier Series and Orthogonal Polynomials, Mathematical Association of
America, Chicago, Chap. 1.
I. S. Sokolnikoff: Advanced Calculus, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,
Chap. XI.
E. T. Whittaker and G. N. Watson: Modem Analysie, Cambridge University Press,
London, p. 170.
K. Knopp: Theory and Application of Infinite Series, Blackie &: Son, Ltd., Glasgow.
p.356.
H. S. Carslaw: Fourier Series and Integrals, The Macmillan Company, New York.
R. V. Churchill: Fourier Series and Boundary Value Problems, MoGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York.

to. Summary of Some Results of the Complex Variable Theory. We


shall need in our subsequent work some theorems from the theory of

138

lIlATHEMATICAL THroaT Oll' ELASTlCI'l'Y

functions of a complex variable. In this section, 80Ille of the more


familiar results will be stated without proof, and the prooflil of the less
familiar ones will be outlined. A detailed discussion can be found in the
reference books listed at the end of the next section .
. It will be recalled that a single-valued function
I(A) = u(x, y)

+ w(x, y)

of a complex variable A = x + iy is called analytic, or holo1rwrphic, in a


given region R if it posselilSes a unique derivative at every point of the
region R. Points at which the function I(A) ceases to have a derivative
are termed the singular pointe of the analytic function. The necessary
and sufficient conditions for the analyticity of the function I(A) are given
by the well-known Cauchy-Riemann equations

(40.1)

av

au

ax

ay

-= --,

where it is assumed that the partial derivatives involved are continuous


functions of x and y. It is known that, if I(A) is analytic in the region R,
then not only do the first partial derivatives of u and v exist in R, but also
those of all higher orders. It follows from this observation and from
(40.1) that the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function satisfy
the equation of Laplace; that is,
V2u = 0,

V'v =

o.

The following theorem is basic to all considerations of the theory of


analytic functions:
CAUCHY'S INTEGRAL THEOREM: If ICA) is continuous in the closed region'
R bounded by a simple closed contour C, and il I(A) is analytic at every
interior point of R, then

fe f(A) dA =

O.

This theorem can easily be extended to the case of multiply connected


regions to yield another.
THEOREM: If f(A) is continuous in the closed, muUiply connected region R
bounded by the exterior simple contour Co and by the interior simple contours
C" C2 , ,Cn , then the integral of f(A) over the exterior contour Co is equal
to the sum of the integrals over the interior contours, whenever f(3) is analytic
in the interior of R. The integration over all the contoura is performed in
the same direction.
The following numerical results are worth noting:
H n is an integer and ; = a is a fixed point that lies either within or
'The term "continuous in a closed region" is used to mean that the function is
continuous up to and on the boundary.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

139

without the simple closed contour C, then


ifn-F-l.
If the point a is outside the contour 0, then the truth of the formula
follows from Cauchy's Theorem, whatever be the value of n; if it is within,
then the result follows from elementary calculations. If the point a is
within the contour, then an !llementary calculat,ion gives

=2ri.
Jc( ~.
~ - a
This latter formula, in conjunction with Cauchy's Integral Theorem,
can be used to establish Cauchy's Integral Formula.
CAUCHY'S IN'l'EGRAL FORMULA: If a = a is an interior point of the regicm
R bounded by a contour C, then
(40.2)

J.

(fW da

21rtjca- a

f(a),

whenever f(i) is continuou; in the closed region R and analytic at every


interior point of R.
If the variable of integratlon in (40.2) is denoted by \, and if a is any
point interior to R, then (40.2) becomes
(40.3)

f(a)

= _!_. ( fer)

dr.

z...t}cr-a

CalCUlation of the derivative from the formula (40.3) yields

!'Ca)

_!_ [ fCr) dr ,

z...i Jc (r -

a)2

and, in general,
j<n)(a) = n! [ fer) dr .
21ri c (.\ - 5)n+1

The Integral Formula of Cauchy can be used to establish the fact that
an analytic function 1(i!) can be expanded in Taylor'S series, so that
f(a) = f(a)

+ !'(a)(! -

a)

(a)
+ ... + -,(! n.
I(n)

a)n

+ ....

This series converges to f(IJ) at every point IJ interior to any circle 'Y that
iies within the region R and whose center is at a. Moreover, the representation of f(a) in Taylor'S fleries is unique.
Consider now the region II bounded by two concentric circles C, and
CI, s.nd let 6 = a be the center of the circles. If I(a) is continuous in the
closed annular region formed by C , and C 2 , and if it is analytic at every

140

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ!' ELASTICITY

interior point of the ring, then one can represent I(a) by the. Laurent series

L- br.(a -

I(a) =

a)lo,

JI-- ..

where
(k

= 0, 1, 2, ...),

and where C is an arbitrary path drawn in R that encloses C1 It is


obvious that the series of Laurent reduces to Taylor's series w}lenever the
function I(a) is analytic throughout the region bounded by the circle Ct.
If 1(3) has a pole of order m at a = a, then the Laurent serie~ about the
point a = a takes the form

I(a) =

(a

~~) .. +

+ (3 ~~)2 + 3 ~ta + bo + bt(a + b.(a -

a)
a)2

If we set 3 - a = j ana integrate around a curve C enclosing


no other singularity of I(a), then

+
a = a and

+ . . . + b_.
+ b_t
+ bo + btl" + btl' + . . .) dj
Jcr I(a) da = Jcr(b_
l'"
j2
j
=

b- t

i ~=

21rib_t.

The quantity b_ t is called the residue of I(A) at the pole 8 = a. If


.)

g(a)

I(a = (a - a)h(a)
has a 8imple pole at a = a (m = 1), then the residue at a = a ie g(a)/h(a).
In general, when C encloses n poles at a = a1, a = a2, . . , 8 = an, the
last equation is replaced by

/c/(a) da

= 2ri

(SUll'

of residues at poles).

If the Laurent expansion of 1(11) at each pole is known, then to evaluate


1.
21n

JcrI(a) da

we have merely to.add the coefficients of

1
-,

a-al

1
--,
a-a,

in the several expansions.


The evaluation of residues may often be simplified by observing that
if f(a) and gel) are analytie At a = a, and if i-a is a nonrepeated factor

EXTENSION, l'ORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

14i

of g(i), then the residue at a of f(5)/(/(;') is f(a)fg'(a). The residue at a


multiple pole can be found from the theorem that the residue at i = a of
fu)/(a - a)" isj<-ll(a)/(n - 1)1; it is assumed thatf(a) is analytic at a
and that n is a positive integer.
It should be noted that the function fer) in the Formula (40.3) of
Cauchy represents the values of an analytic functionf(~) on the boundary
C of the region R. Now if we consider the integral
(40.4)

where F(r) is any continuous function defined on the simple closed boundary C and ~ is interior to R, then this integral defines some function of a
and it is easy to verify that 4>1(3) has the derivative 4>;(3), which is given
by the formula
,

( F(r) dr

4>1 (~) = 2ri Jc (r - 3) 2'


and, in general,
(")( ) =

<PI

21ri

F(r) dr .

Jc (r -

3),,+1

Thus, the function <PI(a) is analytic for every value of a that is interior to
the region R bounded by C. If a is some point exterior to the region R,
then the integral
(40.5)

defines some function 4>2(a), and it is easy to see that 4>2(a) likewise has
derivatives of all orders and hence is analytic. Thus, the integrals (40.4)
and (40.5) of Cauchy's type define two analytic functions that in general
will be distinct. The situation here is the same even when FCr) represents
the boundary values of some analytic functionfCa). For, by (40.3), if Ais
interior to the contour, the value of the integral is precisely equal to f(3),
and if a is outside the contour, then the integral defines the function 0,
since the integrand f(t)/(r - a) is an analytic function of r throughout
R. It should be observed that, as a tends to some definite point r on the
contour from the interior of R and from the exterior, the difference
between the two limiting values is fer) - 0 = fCr).
One can raise a similar question regarding the connection of the limiting
values of the functions 4>1(a) and 4>2(a) with the density function F(r). If
we place no restrictions on the function F(!;) beyond continuity on the
contour, then the problem becomes an exceedingly difficult one. If,
however, some further restrictions on Fer) are imposed, then it is possible
to establish a definite connection of the dellllity function F(r) with
lim 4>l(i) and lim 4>2U).
l-+t

l-+t

142

MATHEMATICAL THEORy'OF ELASTICITY

This connection is provided by the formulas of Plemelj.l To state


these formulas we need a definition.
DEFINITION: A function F(t) is said to satisfy the Holder condition (or
the Lipschitz condition of order a) on a smooth curve C if for every pair of
pointIJ (Sl, Sf) on C
(40.6)

where M and a are po8itille constant8. 2


It is clear that the Holder condition is less restrictive than the requirement that F(s) have a bounded derivative.
We can now state the Plemelj formula;.
THE PLEMELJ FORMULAS: If the den8ity function F(!) in the integral

sal:Uijie8 the Holder condition on a smooth closed contour C, then the limit8
4>+(t) and 4>-(t) a8 a approache8 an arbitrary point t on C from the interior
and exterior of C, respectively, are:

4>+(t) ...
(40.7)

4>-(t)

! F(t) + ~
F(r) dr,
Z,...z}cj-t

2
-

.! F(t) + ~

F(r) ds.

Z?rt}cs-t

The im'i!"0per integrals in (40.7). are interpreted in the sense of Cauchy's


principtil values. 3
We shall make use of integrals of Cauchy's type to represent analytically some functions that are useful in tlie theory of elasticity. However,
it must be noted that such representation is not unique, so that the same
function can be represented by different integrals of Cauchy's type. AB
an illustration, consider a contour C that contains in the interior the point
! == 0, and let us determine the analytic fanction that vanishes at every
point of the region R enclosed by C. If we choose in (40.4) the density
'J. Plemelj, M0nat8hefte fUr Mathematik und Physik, vol. 19 (1908), pp. 205-210.
A detailed discussion of these fQrmulas under restrictions somewhat less severe than
those made by Plemelj is contained in Chap. 2 of N. I. Muskhelishvili's Singular
Integral EqUAtions (1953).
Usually .. is restricted to lie in the interval 0 < a S 1, because for a > 1 the
condition (40.6) implies that F'(r) - 0, 80 that F{r) - const.
H an arc L of length 2e with l' - t as the mid-point is deleted from C, then the
F(r) dr over the remaining curve C - L becomes proper and the ptinci-

integral (

Jc-!' - t

pat value of (

F{r) dt is defined as lim

Jcr -t

....0

f.

F{t) dr.
C-Ll'-t

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

function F(1") = 0, then

4>1(~)

143

Also, if we choose F(r) = l/r, then

55 O.

dr

= 2,..i jo W - 4) = 0

4>1(3)

lor every position of the point a in the region R.l Hence if we add this
integral to an integral of Cauchy's type that defines an analytic function
>1'(3), we shall obtain another integral of Cauchy's type that defines the
same analytic function >1'(3). It follows from these remarks that no conclusion can be drawn concerning the equality of the density functions
F1(t} and F.(r} from the equality of the two integrals

..!.. (

F,(f) dr =

27rzjor-a

J.... (

F.(r) dr

27rzjor-3

for all values of 3 in the interior of C. We shall see, however, that if some
additional restrictions are imposed on the density functions and on the
contour C, then the equality will obtain. This is the subject of the next
section, which contains a discussion of the Theorem of Harnack.
41. Theorem of Harnack.' In considering the applications of the
theory of functions of a complex variable to problems in elasticity, we
shall most frequently deal with the region bounded by the unit circle,
that is, the region 131 ~ 1. In order to avoid a possible misinterpretation
of the formulas, we shall draw the unit circle in the complex t-pJane,
where r = ~ + i." (~ and." being real). The boundary of the unit circle
111 ~ 1 will be denoted by the letter 'Y, and the points on the boundary 'Y
by 0" = eit . 3 All functions of the argument 8 will be assumed to be
periodic, so that 1(8 + 211") = f(J).
THEOREM: Let f(J) and !p(8) be continuous real functions of the argument
8 (defined on the unit circle 'Y); if

_!_ f(8) dO"


27rij~0"-t

(41.1)

for

all,'al~8

=..!.

r 1"(8) du

2rij..,u-r

of r interior to 'Y, then


f(8}

==

1"(8).

If the point r i8 exterior to oy, and if the equality (41.1) is true for all values
'F
or

r(r -

i) -

'hi

1, 1 h

Hr _ II - if; ence
dr

lor<r -

1
i) - 2.rii

dr

lor -

r T - i1 - i1 - o.

1
dt
i - 'hii}O

A less restrictive form of Harnack's Theorem is discussed in N. I. MuskheIishvili'.


Singular Integral Equations (N53), p. 64.
The letter .. was used earlier lor Poisson '8 ratio and in the expression dt, lor the element of area, but th" distinction is 80 obyiOU8 that no complications should arise.

144

lIfATBEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

of i', then
f(fJ) = 'I'(fJ)

+ Canst.

We consider first the case when the point i' is inside 'Y.
equality (41.1) that

J..,

2ri ).,

It follows from

f(fJ) - 'I'(fJ) dcr "" J..,


F(fJ) dcr "" 0,
,,2ri ).,,, - i'

where F(fJ) "'" f(fJ) - '1'(8), and we shall prove that F(8) "" O.
Now since Ii'I < 1, we have

I I i ' i'2
"--=-+-+-+
- i' "
,,2
,,3
and
(41.2)

L
.-0
~

=
where [see (39.4) and (39.5)]
Un -

ibn

1
= -.

J,

2,".,

(an - ibn)i'n,

F(8),,--1 d"

= -1

};27 F(8)e-'''' dfJ.

2"'0

But (41.2) vanishes for all values of i'i hence a. = b. = 0 (n = 0, 1, 2,


A reference to formula (39.4) shows that all Fourier coefficients
of the function F(8) vanish, and hence F(fJ) "" O.
Consider now the case when Ii'I > 1 i then

. . . ).

"-i'=

1"

,,'

-r-P-P-

and
(41.3)

where
Un

+ ibn = ~

F(8)"n-l dcr

= - 1 ~27 F(8)enB dfJ

21r

'

(n = 1, 2, 3, ..).

Since (41.3) vanishes for all values of Ii'I > 1, Un = b" == 0 (n = 1, 2,


3, . ,). Thus, all Fourier coefficients of F(fJ), with the p()l!8ible excep-

145

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

tion of an, vanish, and hence


'P(e) = fee)

+ const.

It follows from this proof that if the point l" is outside")" and if in addition
to the equality (41.1) we have the equality

11

-.

21ri7

11

fee) du
- = -.
IT

2lN7

du
'P(e) -,
IT

thenf(e) = 'P(e).
An important corollary follows from this theorem.
COROLLARY: If we have four real continuou8 ,functions f" f.,
the foUowing aimultaneous equalities for all values of l":

_!_ /, fl

2ri

+ if. du

IT-l"

_!_ /, 'P,

2ri

_!_ /, f, - if. du = _!_ /,

2ri

IT-l"

2ri

+ icp. du

IT-l"

'PI -

'PI,

'P' and

'

i'P'du

IT-l"

'

then
if Il"l

and
cp, =

it + const,

'P. = f2

+ const,

<

1,
if Il"l

>

1.

This corollary follows at once from Harnack's Theorem when we consider the results of adding and subtracting the equalities in question.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING

E. C. Titchmarsh: The Theory of Functions, Oxford University Press, New York,


2d ed., pp. 64--101, 399-428.
W. F. Osgood: Lehrbuch der Funktionentheorie, Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig,
vol. 1.
t. Gol1l"5at: Cours d'analyse, Gauthiers-Villars &; Cie, Paris, vol. 2.
E. Picard: LeQOns sur quelques types simples d'equatioDB aux dbivees partielles.
Gauthiers-Villars &; Cie, Paris.

42. Formulas of Schwarz and Poisson. We have already seen that


the determination of the torsion function 'P(x, y) and its conjugate function ",(x, y) are special cases of the fundamental boundary-value problems
of Potential Theory-the so-called problems of Dirichlet and Neumann.
These problems occur also in other branches of applied mathematics,
notably in hydrodynamics and in electrodynamics. While the solution of
the two-dimensional problems of Dirichlet and Neumann for special types
of boundaries is likelY' to present serious calculational difficulties, it is
possible to write down general formulas for the case when the boundary
of the region is a circle. We shall give a derivation of formulas associated
with the names of Schwarz and Poisson that solve the problem of
Dirichlet for a circular region.

146

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

Consider a region bounded by a circle, which we can take, without loss


of generality, to be a unit circle with center at the origin. As in the preceding section, we denote the boundary of the circle ItI = 1 by 'Y and any
point on the boundary by u = e;9.
Let it be required to determine a harmonic function u(~, 1/), which on
the boundary of the circle 'Y assumes the values
(42.1)

I" = f(9),

where f(9) is a continuous real function of 8. Denote the conjugate


harmonic function by Vet, 1/); the function
71) is determined to within
an arbitrary constant from the knowledge of the function u(~, 1/) [see
(35.2)J. Then the function

va,

F(r) = u(~, 1/)

+ iv(~, ,,)

is an analytic function of the complex variable r = ~ + i1/ for all values


of r interior to Irl = 1. If we assume that F(r) is continuous in the closed
region Irl ~ 1, then we can rewrite the boundary condition (42.1) in the
form l
F(u)

(42.2)

+ P(If)

= 2/(8)

on 'Y.

If we multiply both members of Eq. (42.2) by

2~
du ,.' where I
n u -,

is any

point interior to 'Y, and integrate over the circle 'Y, we obtain the formula

~ F(u) + ~ P(If) du = ~ f(9)


2," "u-r
2?rt "u-r
"ITt
'YU-l '
which by the Theorem of Harnack is entirely equivalent to (42.2).
The first of the integrals in the left-hand member of (42.3), by Cauchy's
In,egral Formula, is equal to F(r), while the second is equaJ2 to F(O). Let
(42.3)

au

au

1 We define Pm - Fm and Fil) = F(,}.


It is possible to prove that, if f(9} satisfies Holder's condition, then the function F(!) given by (42.6) will be continuous in
the closed region Irl :::; 1. We recall that a function f(9} is said to "".tisfy Holder's
condition (or a Lipschitz condition) if, for any pair of valu,," 6' 841rl 8" in the interval
in question,
If(9") - f(e') 1 :::; Mle" - 9'la,

where M and '" are positive constants. This condition is less restrictiw than tbe
requirement of the existence of a bounded derivative.
Since F(i) - F(O)
'(11) - '(0)

1
p'(O) ;;

+ F'(O)t + ~ F"(O)i' + ... , and since on IiI - 1 f - 1/",


1
1
+ 21
1'''(0) ;; + ... and term-by-term integration gives

the deIIired result upon noting that


1 /,
a"
2ri 'Y ,,"(IT - t) - 0,
- 1,

if n > 0,

if 11

O.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

147

p(O) = ao - ibo; then (42.3) becomes

P(I) =

('12.4)

?N,

f(O),. du - ao

~u-,

+ ibo.

If we set I = 0 in (42.4), we obtain


ao

+ t'b

1
= ---:;

'In

and hence
2a o =

(42.5)

~
1I"t

1
~

f(
9) du
-

f(9) du

'Y

=~
11"

ao

+' t'b

0,

f2T f(O) dO.


Jo

The quantity bo is left undetermined, as one would expect, since the funcis determined to within an arbitrary real constant.
tion
Inserting the value of ao from (42.5) in (42.4), we have

va, ., )

(42.6)

F(I) =

7rZ

f(O) dO' -

~u-I

J:_.1
27rt

<RF(r)

f(8) du
u

+ ibo

~lf(J)
+ Ir!!: + ibo'
~
u-Iu

27rt

0'

which is the desired formula of Schwarz.


Now if we substitute I = peif and u =
real and imaginary parts, we find
(42.7)

1
ua,.,,) = 27r

{2T

Jo

1 -

eiB

in (42.6) and separate the

(1 - p2)f(O) dO
2p cos (0 - ,y)

+ po"

This is the integral of Poisson, which gives the solution of the problem
of Dirichlet. It is possible to prove that (42.7) represents the solution
of the problem of Dirichlet under the assumption that f(O) is merely a
piecewise continuous function.'
The discussion of this section was confined to the general solution of the
first boundary-value problems of Potential Theory, when the boundary
curve is a circle. It is possible to generalize the formulas obtained above
so as to make them apply to any simply connected region. This is done
by introducing a mapping function, and we proceed next to an outf.ne of
some basic notions that underlie the idea of conformal mapping of simply
connected domains.
43. Conformal Mapping. Let the functional relationship A = w(l) set
up a correspondence between the points I = E + i." of the complex
I-plane and a = x + iy of the complex a-plane. If a = w(l) is analytic
in some region R- of the I-plane, then the totality of values A belongs to
some region R' of the a-plane and it is said that the region R is mapped
1 See O. D. Kellogg, Foundations of Potential Theory, and G. C. Evans, The
Logarithmic Potential, Cha.p. IV, f01" It discussion of the problem of N eulOann

148

'MATHElIATlCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

into the region R' by the mapping function w(r). If C is some curve
drawn in the region R and the point r is allowed to move along C, then the
corresponding point i will trace a curve C' in the i-plane and C' is called
the map of C (Fig. 29).
The relationship between the curves C and C' is interesting. Consider
a pair of points t and r + At on C, and let the arc length between them
be A8 = FQ. The corresponding points in the region R' are denoted by

FIG. 29

aand i + Ai, and the distance between them, measured along the curve
C', is As' = FQ'. Since the ratio of the lengths of arc elements has the
same limit as the ratio of the lengths of the corresponding chords,

lim A8' = lim

4t-O

As

.>.r-o

IAr
Ai 1= Idi I
dt

Since 5 = w(i) is assumed to be analytic,

has a unique value inde-

pendent of the manner in which Ai -+ 0 and it follows that the transformation causes elements of arc passing through P in any direction to
experience a change in length whose magnitude is determined by the
modulus of ~ calculated at P.
It will be shown next that the argument of ~ determines the orientation

of the element of arc A8' relative to A8. The argument of the complex
number At is measured by the angle 8 made by the chord PQ with the
f-axis, while the argument of Ai is measured by the corresponding a.ngle 8'
between the x-axis and the chord P' Q'. Hence the difference between
the angles 8' and 8 is equal to

arg Ai - srg Af == arg !~.


As At -> 0, the vectors At and

A~

tend to coincide with the tangents to C

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAKS

149

at P and to 0' at P', respectively, and hence l arg ~ is the angle of rotation
of the element of are A8' relative to A8. It follows immediately from this
statement that, if C, and C2 are two curves in the I-plane that intersect
at an angle 'F, then the corresponding curves C~ and C~ in the rplane also
intersect at an angle 'F, since the tangents to these curves are rotated
through the Bame angle. A transformation that preserves angles is
called conlcmnal, and thus one can state the following theorem.
THEOREM: The mapping performed by an analytic lunction "'(!) is conIcmnal at all points 01 the I-plane where ",'(!) ;>6 o.
We shall be concerned, for the most part, with the mapping of simply
connected regions, where the mapping is one-to-one and hence ",'(!) ;>6 o.
The regions Rand R' may, however, be finite or infinite. It should be
noted that if the region R is finite and R' is infinite, then the function
"'(!) must become infinite at some point a of the region R; otherwise we
could not have a point in the region R that corresponds to the point at
infinity in the region R'. It is possible to show that at such points the
function "'(!) has a simple pole, so that its structure in the neighborhood
of the point is

"'(!) = ! ~ a

+/(!),

where c is a constant and I(!) is analytic at all points of the region R.


Other types of singularities cannot be present, since the mapping is
assumed to be one-to-one.
If both regions Rand R' are infinite, and if the points at infinity
correspond, then the function "'(!) has the form
"'(!) = c! + I(!) ,
where c is a constant and I(!) is analytic in the infimte region R. We
recall that a function is said to be analytic in an infinite region R if, for
sufficiently large !, it has the structure

ae+~+~+ +~+

...

Let there be given two arbitrary simply connected regions Rand R',
each of which is bounded by a simple closed contour that can be represented parametrically by'
~

= W),

"

= ,,(t),

(0 ::; t ::; t,).


la it possible to find the mapping function a = "'(!) that will map the
region R on R' conformally and in such a way that the mapping is conl.Note that thia ltatemeDt _ell that ~ ,.. 0 at P.
'Sinee tile curves..." ~ we mllBt have E(O) <:OJIfeur is uaed to mean rectifiable contour.

".pIe

~(t,), ,,(0) - .,(1,).

The term

150

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

tinuous Up to and including the boundaries C and C' of the regions R


and R'? The answer to this question was given in the affi,rmative by
C. Caratheodoryl in 1913, and it is known that the mapping function
wet) is determined uniquely if we specify the correspondence of two arbitrarily chosen points to a.nd ~o of the regions R a.nd R' and the directions
of arbitrarily chosen linear elements passing through these points. 2
We can assume without loss of generality' that the region R in the
t-plane is bounded by a unit circle 1.11 = 1, and it is clear that, if the
region R' is mapped by the function A = w(.I) on the unit circle 1.11 ~ 1,
then the function

maps the region R' on an infinite plane with a circular hole. In general,
it will be found convenient to map finite, simply connected regions on
the unit circle 1.11 ~ 1 and infinite regions on the portion of the .I-plane
defined by the equation It I ~ 1.
In regard to the mapping of multiply connected regions, we shall make
a few general remarks. It can be shown that a doubly connected region
R' can be mapped on a circular ring but that the radii of the circles
making up the ring cannot be chosen arbitrarily. It is obvious that in
general one can map in one-to-one manner only regions of like connectivity. The condition of like connectivity, however, is not sufficient for
the existence of a mapping function.
The affirmative answer to the question of the existence of a function
.I = wet) that maps conformally a given region in the .I-plane on another
given region in the t-plane helps little in the matter of the actual construction of mapping functions for specified regions.' However. there
1 Mathematiscn.e Annalen, vol. 73, pp. 305-320.
This theorem is associated with the name of Riemann, who proved the existence
of .,(l') under conditions that are less general than those enunciated above .
II the regions R, and R, in the planes " and A" respectively, are mapped on the
unit circle in the l'-plane by functions" = w,(i) and .' = w,(,), then the region R, is
mapped on the region R. by a transformation .' = O(b), obtained by eliminating
i from .' - ",,(i) and b - .,,(i).
'A systematic account of several practical methods for constructing conformal
maps is contained in L. V. Kantorovich and V. 1. Krylov, Approximate Methods of
Higher Analyais (in Russian) (1952), pp. 374-563. See also Zeev Nehari, Conformal
Mapping (1952). A bibliography of numerical methods in conformal mapping was
compiled by W. Seidel, in Construction and Application of Conformal Maps (1952)
pp. 26~280. A method for approximate conformal mapping of polygonal regions on
a unit circle was proposed by 1. S. Hara; Dopovidi Akademii Nauk UlcraimM RSR
(1953), pp. 289-293 (in Ukrainian).
An excellent account of the underlying theory is given by G. M. Goluzin, Geometric
Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable (1952) (in Russian).
A brief cataiogue of useful conformal maps was compiled by H. Kober, Dictionary of
Coufonnal Rl'presentation .(1952).

151

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

are some explicit formulas that permit one to construct mapping functions for certain classes of regions. If, for example, the region R' is that
bounded by a rectilinear polygon of n sides, then the function w(r) that
maps the interior of the polygon on the unit circle Irl ::; 1 has the form
(43.1)

A= A

f: (I -

r,)",-I(t - 1,),,-1 ... (r - t.),,-I dt

+ B,

where t, are the points on the boundary 'Y of the unit circle that correspond to the vertices of the poly!;;on in the a-plane, and the nllmhers 01(11'
are the interior angles at the vertices of the polygon. I
The formula (43.1) was derived by Schwarz and Christoffel' and is
known as the Schwarz-ChristojJel transformation.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING
L. Bieberbach: Einfiihrung in die konforme Abbildung, Walter De Gruyter & Co.,
Berlin.
C. Caratheodory: Conformal Representation, Cambridge University Press, London.
A. R. Forsyth: Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, Cambridge University
Press, London.
W. F. Osgood: Lehrbuch der Funktionentheorie, vol. 1, Teubner-Verlagsgesellschl!.ft,
Leipzig.
R. Rothe, F. Ollendorff, and K. Pohlhausen: Theory of Functions Applied te Engineering Problems, Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.
M. Walker: Conjugate Functions for Engineers, Oxford University Press, London.
Burkhardt-Rasor: Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, D. C. Heath and
Company, Bosten.

44. Solution of the Torsion Problem by Means of Conformal Mapping.


Let the torsion function 'P(x, y) (Sees. 34, 35) be combined with its conjugate function !{I(x, y) to form the function F(a) = 'P(x, y) + i!{l(x, y), where
a = x + iy. The function F(a) is analytic throughout the region R representing the cross section of the beam. If the region R is simply connected, we can map it conformally on a unit circle in the t-plane. Let
(44.1)

A = wet)

be the function that maps the region R on the unit circle It I ::; 1.
function F(a) can be expressed in terms of the variable r, so that.
(44.2)

The

" + i!{l = F[w(!")] = fer),

where fer) is analytic in the interior of the circle

It I

1.

The formula is usually phrased in terms of mapping of the polygon on the half
plane, but the transformation that maps the unit circle on the half plane does not
alter the form of (43.1).
t For derivation of this formula see H. A. Schwarz, G.sammelte Abhandlungen, vol. 2,
pp. 65-83; E. B. Christeffel, Annali di matematica pura ed appiicata, vol. 1 (1867), pp.
95-103, vol. 4 (1871), pp. 1-9. For a detailed discU88ion of the Schwarz-Christeffel
transformation and of the Schwarz reflection principle, see Zeev Nehari, Conformal
Mapping (19S2), pp. 173-198.
I

152

MATHIIllIIATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

It will be recalled [see (35.4)] that the function


boundary C of the region R the condition
~

== ~(Xl

+ y2)

satisfies on the

= ~U;

hence the imaginary part of the function 1(1) defined by (44.2) must
satisfy the condition
(44.3)

on

'Y,

where 'Y is the boundary of the circle III = 1.


Thus, the torsion problem will be solved if we succeed in determining
the real part .p of the analytic function

~ 1(1) = .p -

Up,

which on the boundary 'Y of the unit circle

III

= 1 assumes the values

'" = >-2w(l)w(f).

But thU! is a special case of the problem treated in Sec. 42, amI a reference
to (42.4) shows that

f!
If

~ I(r) = .!,
,

or
I(t) =

(44.4)

w(er)w(lt) dcr - ao
.,2 er-t

w(u)w(lt) dcr
21r ., er - t

+ ib o

+ const.

Noting that, on the boundary 'Y of the unit circle It I = 1, er = flo' and
hence It == COl == l/er, one sees that the integral (44.4) can be written as
(44.5)

I(J) ==

'fJ

+ i'#t =

;..

J., C4("}w:.Yer)

dcr

+ const.

The formula (44.5) gives us at once the torsion function 'fJ alld its conjugate.p, so that the solution of the torsion problem is reducllli to quadratures. H the numerator C4(er)w(ljer), of the integrand, hapJ)eD8 to be a
rational function of er, then the integral can be evaluated with the aid of
the theorems on residues.
It is not difficult to express' the torsional rigidity D directly in terms
of the functionJ(t). From (34.10)
(44.6)

==".
IS

ff

".10

(Xl

+ liS) dx dy +".

ff (x ~ - ::)dxey
II

+ ".Do,

'The oa.lculatioDe leading to formulaa (44.7), (44.8), III1If (44.10) alii due to N. L
Muakheilillhvili. Bee, for example, hill paper "Sur Ie probl~ de tGmiou. dee c,.Jiadns
6Iaatiqu.. isotropea," AID ~ I'fNIk ~ ~ . . lMtai, _. II, vol 9
(l929), pp. 295-300,

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND J'LEXURE OF BEAMS

153

where 1. is the polar moment of inertia of the area bounded by C and


Do =

[f (x ~: -

1/

~=) dx dy =

ff [~

(X9) - :X (1/9)] dxdll

An application of Green's formula to this integral gives


Do= where rf = x'

+ y2.

Jer ",(xdx + ydy)

= _ ( .pd!.r2 ,

Je

But on the contour C

r' = Ai = ",(.,.)'-;'(It)

and

'" = %(f(.,.)

+ 1(1t)];

hence

D. = -~~

(44.7)
Also

I. =

ff

(x'

loy (f(.,.) + 1(1t)] d["'(fT)'-;'(It)].

+ y2) dx dy =

ff

[:y (x"1l)

a:

(xyl)] dx dy

= - !cXY(Xdx - ydy).
But
x = A + A,
2
and we find that

But

Ie AidA

0,

and

!.e I' d~

fe A"a da = fe AI d(%a')

= -

where we make use of integration by parts.


polar moment of inertia 10 in the form
(44.8)

Ie = -

i fe

A2adA = -

ii

'

fe alA dA,
HenCe we can write the

[';'(11)]2",(.,.) dc,,(fT).

If "'(.,.) is a rational function, then the integrands of (44.7) and (44.8) can
be easily evaluated with the aid of theorems on residues and the expression
for the torsional rigidity D Can be obtained in closed form.
We may note that the shear components T.. and T.. of the stress tensor
can likewise be exp,_J directly in terms of the functions F(A) and f(I).

154

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

It follows from the formulas (34.4) and (35.1) that

Tn -- IT..

/let

(orp.
orp
iJx - , oy

orp + l.-0'"
= /let [-iJx
aX

y -

l X -

.)

tX

.(

. )]

lY ..

But.

and we get
(44.9)

Since F(3)

F[w(.I)

f(.I), we have

= 1'(.1) t!l

F'(3)

d3

f'(.I) _1_.
w'(.I)

Hence (44.9) becomes


(44.10)

1".. -

l1",.

[f'(.I)
= 1t0l w' (.I) -

._(;:)]

lW,

This formula is extremely useful in calculating the components of shear.


If the mapping function is written in the form

L
.-0
~

5 = w(.I) =

an.ln,

then it is not difficult to give a formal solution of the torsion problem in


terms of the coefficients a.. We have
(44.11)

w(u)w

0) i i
Lb.u + Lb.u-,
.
amu m

m=O

anu-'

n=O

n-O

n-l

where
(44.12)

b. =

Lan+,.a,.

,-0

Upon inserting the expression (44.11) in (44.15), it is seen tha,

or
(44.13)

f(.I) = rp

+ it/! =

.-0Lb.l"",

155

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

where Cauchy's Integral Formula and Eq. (41.2) have been used. The
expression (44.13) for the complex stress function '(J + i", was derived by
R. M. Morris! by a different method and was used to obtain formal solutions of the problem of torsion for those cases in which the complex constants an are known.
A formal expression involving the constants an can be given for the torsional rigidity D = !l(Io + Do) [see (44.6). Equation (44.8) for the
moment of inertia 10 can be written as

10 = -

[w(o-)w

G) ]

w (;) dw(o-).

1: ano-', it follows that


~

Now, from w(o-)

.-0

wG) dw(er)

1:
~

cner n dl),

,, _ _ GO

where

1:
1:
~

c,

(n

+ r)a,+rdr,

r- 0

(44.14)

C_n =

rdn+..a"

(n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ).

r-O

From this relation and from (44.11), we get


GO

(I)

10

= 31

/:7 (1:

bmo- m +

".-0

00

1: bmo---m) (1:
".-1

110

C.O-'

n-O

c_.cr-n) dl).

n-l

Since 0- = eiB , we see that the integral of every term involving 0-" (n
vanishes and we are left with

10 =
Similarly we can write

~ [boro +

0)

i (bnc_" + bnc,,) l
.-1

1 R. M. Morris, "The Internal Problems of Two-dimensional Potential Theory,"


Matllemati.che Annalen, vol. 116 (1939), pp. 374-400; vol. 117 (1939), pp. 31-38.

156

IlATHBMA.TICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

Combining the expressions for I. and D., we get finally


(44.15)

D=

~ [boCo +

.-1I

+ c._,.b. -

(c.Ii.

2OO.Ii.. )

lu!, an illustration of the application of the foregoing procedure, we consider a beam whose crOl!8 section is the cardioid

r = 2c(1
(r' = Xl + y2, tan a = y/x).
suitable mapping function is

~t

a=

+ cos a)

is readily verified that in this case a


c(l - I)',

so that the only nonvanishing coefficients a.. are


ao = c,

aJ = -2c,

The nonvanishing constants b" and


bo = 6c

c_, = -2c',

b, =
6c',

Co

Cft

are easily found to be

-4c',
c,

b. =
-6c',

c',
c,

2c'.

The complex stress function is (see also Sec. 58)


(44.I6)

f{t) = 'P

+ i+ =

I b..s.-0

ic'{6 - 41

+ to),

while
(44.17)

It should be noted that the method outlined above is readily applicable


whenever the mapping function w{t) for the region R is a polynomial or
whenever the mapping can be approximated with sufficient accuracy by
a polynomial. If the mapping function is known 88 a power series in I,
then a formal solution can be given in terms of the coefficients a.. of the
mapping function. If the mapping function is known in a closed form,
then it may be easier to proceed directly from Eq. (44.5) rather than
expand w{t) in a power series and then deal with the resulting infinite
series (44.12) to (44.15). The reader will verify that formula (44.4) can
be used in this case to obtain the result (44.16) with no calcu1&tion&l effort.
The problem of the cardioid is of some interest inasmuch 88 it indicates
an approximate behavior of a checked beam.
PROBLEM
Obtain the IIOlutioa fIf the tOIIIioD problem for a cardioid by utiWlioc formula (<<''l,
aad thus 'ftIrify (4U'l.

J!lXTENStON, TOB8ION, AND lI'LEXURE OJ' BEAMS

151

45. Applications of Conformal Mapping. This section contains several


illustrations of the application of the foregoing theory to the solution of
the torsion problem.
Firat we corurider a cylinder whose croaa section R is bounded by the
inverse of an ellipse with respect to ita center. When the ellipse

x'

y'

(ii+l)i=1

is inverted with respect to ita center, the point (x, y) is carried to the
point (x', y'), which is such that
r'(r')'

==

+ y2)[(X')2 + (y'}']

(x'

= 1.

The resulting curve C (Fig. 30) is given in terms of the parameter u by


the equations

x
.-+
= -c1 cosh k cos u,
x
y
Y 2 = -1 Sl'nh k sm
. u,
-'----+
x
y
c
or
(45.1)

+ iy

= C

Bec (u

+ ik)

with C = 1/v'ti2="b', tanh k = b/a.


Equation (45.1) can evidently be written
as
(45.2)

A=

sec (w

+ ik),
= u + iv.

with A = x + iy, W
the resulting function
(45.3)

If we put

2cekr

a = wen == f'

FIG. 30

0,

+e

2k '

r=

i ..

> 0,

in (45.2), we see that


k

> 0,

mapa the cross section R of the cylinder upon the interior of the unit
circle Irl :::; 1.
Tn the preceding section, expressions were derived that give a formal
solution of the torsion problem when the mapping function is expanded
in an infinite series

a = wet) =

..
..
2: a..t- = 2: a.e

ft.-O

'''''.

Jl-O

Such expressions, given by R. M. Morris, were used by T. J. Higgins,


who observed that in this case
1

"The Torsion of a Prism with Cross Section the Inverse of an Ellipse," Journal DJ
Phpictf, vol. 13 (1942), pp. 457-459.

A~

158

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

a" ==

0,
{ 2c( -1)(a-l)!le-"",

if n == 0, 2, 4, . . ,
if n = 1, 3, 5, . . .

The infinite series entering into (44.13) and (44.15) were then summed
and the torsion function and twisting moment obtained in closed form.
However, since ",(t) is a rational function of r, it is simpler to proceed
directlyl from (44.5), (44.7), and (44.8).
When w(r) from (45.3) is inserted in (44.5), it is seen that
(45.4)

where R, and R. are the residues of the integrand at". = iek and". =
respectively. We have

+ iek)(".2 ~ e

Rl = [(".

R, = 4(r

-ie>
iek) sinh 2k'

.<)(". -

r)L. .

-ie',

= 4(r - ; ; sinh 2k'

and hence
f(r) =

!P

+ i,p

= c' csch 2k tan

(w

+ ik),

where the constant in (45.4) has been taken equal to -ic' csch 2k.
The shearing stresses may be found, either from the relations
V =

,p - 2 (x'

+ y2),

or from Eq. (44.10), to be


2

[CBCh 2k cosh (v + k)
sinh (v + k)
]
cos 2u
cosh 2(" + k) + cos 2u + cosh 2(v + k) ,
cach 2k sinh (v + k)
cosh (0 + k)
]
cos,. [ cos 2,. _ cosh 2(v + k) - COB 2u + cosh 2(0 + k)
.

1' -

pac

T -

2jl.CtC

SIn U

Equation (44.8) for the moment of inertia 10 takes the form

.r

".1(".' - e2k)
10 = 4e'i J7 (".2 + e2k)I(cr2 + e
= -&rc'(R. + R.),

2k)!

dO"

where R. and R, are the residues of the integrand at cr == ie-i and


= -~, respectively. The residues are

'See I. S. Sokolnikoff and R. D. Specht, "Two Dimensional Boundary Value


Problema in Potential Theory," JotJrn4l of AppliMl Pk-,.icti, vol. 14 (1943), pp. 91-90.

159

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLl!lXURE OF BEAMS

R,

d [ -,-;;--;---';;;:",-;-'-:;--;r.;
u'(u' - ell)
]
(u'.+ e21)'(u + ie--l)2 ........
-each' 2k(2 + cosh 4k) _ R
16
"

= -

du

and therefore

10 = 'll"c'(2

+ cosh 4k) cach' 2k.

Similarly from (44.7) we get

u(l - u)

Do = -~4c' esch 2k ,(u' + e2k)8(u'


= 8'11"c' csch 2k(R~ + R.),
in which
find that

R~

+ e-

2k

)B du

and R. are the residues at u = ie-' and u = -ie-to


1 d2

Ri = :2 du2 (u'

u(l - ( 4 )'

+ e2k )3(u + ie

-7S cscha 2k

We

k)' ..;._.

R.,

and hence

Do = -2'11"c' csch' 2k.


The twisting moment is given by

M = p.a(Io

+ Do)

p.Cl'II"c 4 (2

csch' 2k

+ eseh

2k}.

The curve resulting from inversion of the ellipse with respect to its
focus is called an elliptic limaCon. The torsion problem for a cylinder
with elliptic-limaQon cross section was treated by Stevenson and Holl
and Rock,l and the corresponding problem for a hyperbolic limRQon by
Lin, Whitehead, and Yang.' Methods of solution used by these investigators differ somewhat from those presented here.
As an example of the type of calculations required when the mapping
function is not rational, consider the map of the unit circle obtained with
the aid of
(45.5)

a=

w(t) "" a

v'fTI,

where a

> O.

We shall deal with that branch of the multiple-valued function


that gives + 1 for t = O.

v'fTI

1 A. C. Stevenson, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 2, vol. 45 (1939),


p.l26.
D. L. Holl and D. H. Rock, Zeit&ckrift fur llngewandte Mathematik und Mechanik,
vol. 19 (1939), p. 141.
T. C. Lin and L. G. Whitehead, University of W""kington, Engineering E:tperifMnt
8tatiIm SerieB, 'Bulletin 118 (1951), pp. 108-111.
T. C. Lin and H. T, Yang, University of Washington, Engineering Experimmt Station
Series, Bulleti" U8 (1951), pp. 112-119.

160

MATHEMATICAL TBlIlOBY OJ!' ELASTICITY

FIG. 31

Then from Fig. 31

When

s moves aleng the circle 'Y,


<P

(-,.. ~ II ~ "'),

= YilII,

and
r

= 2 C08 YilII.

Hence
(-,..~II~,..).

Let R and

denote the modulus and the argument of b; then

Re''''

y2 cos Yil9 e

iB14

Hence

and it follows that

a 0-;;-08 2"'.

Thus, the map of the unit circle is one loop of the lemniscate shown in
Fig. 31.
Substituting from (45.5) in the formula (44.5), we have

(4;).6)

fm

1
= --

1,

2,.."

at

yl-F~ ~~-+-~
------ du =
u-s

a2
-.

2...

f'Y..._;;u-s
+IT
1

-~-

du

-_.

Since the sign of the square root must be chosen positive, we can write
~ "" e"".
If we cut the negative axis as shown in Fig. 32, then the integrand of
(45.6) \\;11 he a single-valued funct.ion in the simply connected region

161

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXUlUIl OF BBAKS

FIG. 32

indicated in the figure and the only singularity of the integrand is the
pole at fT = I. Hence

2~ [i g(fT, I) dtT +

fl

g(fT, I) dtr

g(u, I) dtr

lo-I

g(fT,)) dtr]

R,

where
g(fT, I)

l+fT '

== _ /:

vu (fT -I)

R is the residue of g(fT, I) at fT = I, and 8 is a small circle about the origin.


But the residue R at fT = I is obviously

R = 1
Thus,
1 /, g(fT, I)
--;
2n l'

+ I.

dtT = -

1
2--;
n

[fO
-1

g(fT, I) dtr

1-1
0

g(u, I) dfT

+
__ !
-

1r

1 - t _!i:!_

Jo Vi t + .I

g(fT, I)

dtT] + R

+ 1 + I,
0

where we have dropped the integral over the small circle 6, since it
vanishes when the radius of fj tends to zero, and where the integrals
over the portion of the real axis between 0 and -1 are combined hy
making an obvious change of variable and by noting the difference in
sign of the function y.: on the upper and lower banks of the cut. Integrating and dropping the nonessential additive constant, we have finally

fer)

~ 1 +J 10
1r

VI

+ 0,
0

1
i
g 1 - i

where
1 +i0
log - ._- = 21. VI ( 1 - -r
l-~Vr
3

+ r'
-5 - ..

162

llA'l'HlIlMAIl'ICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICl'l'Y

The function f(t) solves the torsion problem for a beal1l whose cross section is one loop of the lemniscate. The calculation of stresses presents
no serious difficulty and is left as an exercise to the reader.
As a third example of this general method of attack upon problems of
torsion, consider the case of a cylinder whose cross section is bounded by
two circular arcs.'
Consider a region R of the complex A-plane bounded by two circular
arcs C, and Ct making an angle a " 0 at their points of intersection
a = h and a = a. (Fig. 33a). It is obvious that the transformation
y

i~~
C.

ex

h
:t&

Ia)

(b)
FIG.

(e)

33

w, = (a - h)/Ca - A.) maps the point It on the origin of the w,-plane,


the point h on the point at infinity, and the region R on the infinite
sector S shown in Fig. 33b. The sector S is rotated through an angle ao
to bring one radius into coincidence with the rool axis of the wrplane
by the transformation W2 = e-iaow,. If the transformation w. = W2~/a is
applied, then the domain S' is mapped on the upper half plane of the
complex w.-plane. Finally, this upper half plane is carried into the unit
circle in the r-plane by the mapping function r = (i - w.)/(l - iW3).
If these successive transformations are combined, one obtains the mapping function
Ci(a - a,)~/a + (3 - A2)~/'"
t = Ci(a - 3,)~/a - (3 - h)-la'
which effects conformal mapping of the region R on the unit circle in the
complex r-plane. The choic~ of the constants C, a" and a. is uniquely
determined by the geometrical configuration and the scale used in mapping the region R on the unit circle. For a = 'If'/n, where n is an integer,
the mapping function becomes rational, a fact that greatly simplifies the
evaluation of (44.5). To illustrate the procedure, it will suffice to consider two important'special cases when the region R is one of the following:
1. A lune formed by two circular arcs of equal radius and intersecting
at right angles;
2. A semicircle.
'"The discllSllion that follows is taken from the paper "Torsion of Regions Bounded
by Circular Area," by I. S. and E. S. Sokolnikoff, BuUetin of the American Mathematical
8ocm1l, vol. 44 (1938), pp. 384-387.

163

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

it is easily verified that the mapping functions appropriate to the


regions defined in (1) and (2) are, respectively,

and
_ (3

1 - (3

+ 1)2 - i(3
+ 1)2 + i(3

- 1)2
- 1)2

The solution of the torsion problem for the region described in (1) above
is given .llext.
From
23
;- = A2 + l'
it follows that, on the boundary of R, 3 = [1 - (1 - 1T2)~JI<T, where the
appropriate branch of the square root is determined from the observation
that the imaginary part of 3 is positive whenever 0 in <T = ei6 lies between
o and T. Then the numerator of the integrand in (44.5) is
W(IT)"

0)

= [1 -

(1 - 1T2)~i] [1 - (1 - ~Y1

Substituting this expression in (44.5) and evaluating the resulting integrals, we get
i(l - ;-2)
1 - ;f(;-) = -i(1 - 12)~ log - - + const

1 +1

"'1

'

or if we return to the 3-plane with the aid of the mapping function,


. 32

F(3)

~ ~'

+1-

i(l - 32) '


1 - 3
T3(1 + a') log 1 + 3 + const.

The imaginary part of F(3), which is the desired solut,ion, is


+ y')[(x 2 + y' + 1)2 - 4y2) 1-1{T(x2 + y2)

",(x, y) = {T(X'

+ x(x' + y' + 1)[4V' -

+ y(x' + y2 - 1)[(x 2 +
where
S = [,_,_(1::__-",x'-,--_y<,;;2:,-)'.+--'--,.4.::;y~2),-~
(1

+ X)2 + y'

. [(x'

(x' + y' - 1)') log S


y2 + 1)2 + 4x 2]13},

and

tan- 1

+ y2)' -2y

l-x'-y2

1)

A simple calculation shows that, on the boundary of the lune formed by


+ (y 1)2 = 2, ",(x, y) reduces to

x2

'" = ~(x'

as it should.

+ y') + const,

164

MA'I'ElEMATlCAL THEORY 011' ELASTICITY

An analogous calculation gives the solution of the torsion problem fol'


the semicircular region. We obtain
f( ") = i2~(1 +ir)(l- r')~

(i + r)'

or, if we return to the


F()

+ _4_
,..(i + r)

~-plane

1I'2a

r) +
r

nst

co

with lile aid of the mapping function,

= _!_ [ . 2 + 2(~2 + 1)
2....

+~ (1- r') I i(l,.. (i + r)2 og 1 +

+ (a' -a"

1)21

+ a~ + co

1 -

og 1

nst] .

This result agrees with that obtained by Greenhill by an entirely ditIerent


method.'
The torsion problem for a lens-shaped prism whose cross section is
formed by the arcs of two circles of different radii was solved in bipolar
coordinates with the aid of Fourier integrals by Uflyand.
The examples discussed in this section illustrate the remark.a.ble ease
with which the torsion problem can be solved when the mapping function
",(r) has a simple form. The method of solution illustra.ted above can
also be used to solve the torsion problem for bea.ms of polygonal cross
section when the mapping function obtained with the aid of the SchwarzChristoffel formullL (43.1) is not too unwieldy.'
Even when the mapping function is known, it may prove advantageous
to use some other method, as was done in Sec. 38 in the study of torsion
of rectangular beams, where series of orthogonal functions were employed.
The series method of solving the torsion problem for polygonal beams
with cross sections made up of rectangular components was used effectively by Arutyunyan and Aleksandryan and Gulkanyan' to obtain an
exact solution of the torsion problem for a beam of finite L, T, ILnd channel
sections. The same method was used by Abramyan to solve the torsion
I A. G. Greenhill, "Fluid Motion in a Rotating Quadrantal Cylinder," M_ger of
Mathematics, vol. 8 (1879), p. 89; "On the Motion of a FrictionleBB Liquid in a Rotating Sector," Mes8enger of Mathematic8, vol. 10 (1881), p. 83.
See also A. E. H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, p. 319.
'Y... S. Ufiyand, Dokl.ady Akademii Nattie SSSR, vol..68 (1949), pp. 17-20.
For the uses of the Sehwarz-Christoffel formula in the tormon problem see:
E. Trefftz, "Uber die Torsion prismatischer Stabe von pelygonalen Querschnitt,"
Mathematische Annalen, vol. 82 (1921), pp. 97-112.
I. S. Sokolnikoff, "On a Solution of Laplace's Equation with an Application to the
Torsion Problem for a Polygon with Reentrant Angles," Transacti<ms of the American
Mathematical Society, vol. 33 (1931), pp. 719-732.
B. R. Seth, "On the General Solution of a Class of Physical Problems," Phi1(}BOp/l.iroI.
Magazine (7), vol. 20 (1935), pp. 632--640.
P. F. Kufarev, "Tormon and Bending of Members of Polygonal Sections," Pri/d.
Mat. Mekh., Akademiva Nauk SSBR, New Ser., voL 1 (1937), pp. 43-16.
N. Kh. Arutyunyan, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akadmniya Nauk 88SR, vol. 13 (1949),
pp. 107-112; E. A. AI..ksandryan and N. O. Gulkanyan, .1kadmniva Nauk A......-.
SSR, lzf!tstiya, Phys. Mat. Nauki, vol. 6 (1953), pp. 37 ..51.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND ,FLEXURE 011' BEAMS

165

problem for a beam with finite cruciform crOSB section. 1 A variant of


this method was employed by Abramyan and Arntyunyan to solve the
torsion problem for a beam with special trapezoidal crOSB section.!
Conformal mapping has been used to provide solutions of the torsion
and flexure problems for circular beams with one or two slits extending
from the ends of a diameter." A solution of the torsion problem for a
reCtangular beam containing cracks was given by Gulkanyan" The
stress concentration in h;isted prismatic rods whose crOSB sections have
reentrant angles was recently considered by Pivovarov. 5
Problem
Analyze the behavior of the sht>.aring stresses in the first illustration of See. 45 when
k approachp", zero. The cross section in this case differs little from the figure consisting of the pair of tangent circles. Hint: Write the transformation (45.3) in the form

.,(,1

!'

X!

+ a"

" >0,

a>

1,

anddeduee
in J ..!
f(r) = (a' - 1)(,'

Use formula (44.10) to obtain

T..

and

T .,

+ a')

and let a .... I.

46. Membrane and Other Analogies. It is clear from the discussion


given in Sees. 38 and 45 that a rigorous solution of the torsion problem
for beams whose cross sections are in the shape of the letters I, U, L, T,
ete., is likely to prove extremely vexing. While there are some rigorous
solutions of the torsion problem for beams of polygonal cross section,I the
resultant formulas are too involved to be of immediate value to a practical
designing engineer, who requires some simple, reasonably accurate
formulas. To meet this need, a variety of approximate formulas have
been developed for the torsion constants of sections whose components
1 B. 1.. Abramyan, PriJd. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 13 (1949), pp.
551-556.
B. 1.. Abramyan and N. Kh. Arutyunyan, PriJd. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk
SSSR, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 97-102.
W. M. Shepherd, Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) (A), vol. 138 (1932),
pp. 607-634; vol. 154 (1936), pp. 500-509.
A. C. Stevenson, Philosophirol Transaetions of the Royal Society (London) (A), vol.
237 (1938), pp. 161-229.
L. A. Wigglesworth, Proceedings of the London M a!kematirol Soeiety (2), vol. 4i
(1940), pp. 20-37.
, N. O. GulkAnyan, Akademiya Nauk A.Tmyan. SSR, lzvestiya, Phy. Mnt. Nauki,
vol. 5 (1952), pp. 67-96. See also O. M. Sapondzyan, Prikt. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya
Nauk SSSR, vol. 13 (1949), pp. 501-512 (in RWlSian); and W. Nowacki, AreA. Meek.
SIoa., vol. 5 (1953); pp. 21~ (in Polish).
A. M. Pivovarov, Prikl. Mat. Mdda., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 17 (1953). pp.
253-260.
See references in See. 45.

166

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

are rectangles. Many such formulas are Ya.sed on the mathematical


analogy between the torsion problem and the behavior of a stretched
elastic membrane subjected to a uniform excess of pressure on one side.'
A reference to this analogy wlI.&.made in Sec. 35, and we proceed to discuss
it here in detail.
Let a very thin homogeneous
Q 6 T
membrane, such as a soap film, be
6
~tC"'""' ~
stretched under a uniform tension T
_
I""--'--+-!_~
_
_ _._.~_-=--"""_: per unit length over an opening made
: :
in a rigid plate. The opening in the
:
plate is assumed to have the same
:
shape as the cross section of the beam
I
subjected to torsion, and the membrane is supposed to be fixed at the
r edge of the opening. If p is the pres~--+::d:-------+_ sure per unit area of the membrane,
and if the membrane is in equilibrium,
then the force p dx dy, acting on an
element of area dx dy (Fig. 34), must
y
be balanced by the resultant of the
FlG. 34
vertical components of the tensile
stresses acting on the boundary of the element of area. Now the resultant of the vertical components of the tensile forces acting on the edges dy is

(T dy sin 9)Q - (T dy sin 8)p == (T dy ::)Q - (T dy ::)p

== (T dy

:;t + fx (

fJ2 z
= T fJx,dxdy,

T dy

~) p ax -

(T dy

:;t

where it is assumed that the deflection z is small. Similarly, the resUltant


of the vertical components acting on t.he edges ax is

fJ'z
T fJy' ax dy.
1 A detailed discUllSion of the procedure employed in deriving aorne approximate
formulas for sections whose components are rectangles (as well as for aome tubular
sections) is given in the National Advi$ory Committee for Aeronautics Report 334, by
G. W. Trayer and H. W. March, entitled "The Torsion of Members Having Sections
Common in Aircraft Construction." This report CO.!ltains an extensive bibliography
and a compariaon of their formulas with those obtained by other investige.tol'll. A
description of the experimental procedure used in studying torsion of beams with the
aid of soap films is given by Trayer and March and also by A. A. Griffith and G. I.
Taylor in the AdrMory Committee 011 Aeronautics Technical Report, Great Britain
(1917-1918). A bri..! account of the procedure employed by Griffith and Taylor is
found in S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, See. 00.

lllXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OJ!' BEAMS

167

Hence the equation of equilibrium of the element is


02

P rk dy

02

+ T 0~2Z rk dy + T oy'Z rk dy =

and we have

b'z

02Z

0,

-p

-+-=-.
ox'
oy' T

(46.1)

This equation must be solved subject to the condition z = 0 on the edge


of the opening. If we substitute in (46.1)
(46.2)

z = lTV'

the equation becomes


(46.3)

subject to the condition that


(46.4)
V = 0

on the boundary.

Equation (46.3) is identical with that obtained in Sec. 35 for the stress
function V, and it is clear from the discussion there that the slope of the
membrane at any point is proportional to the magnitude of the shearing
stress
or

J1.a

+ (av)2
VI(av)'
ax
oy

= J1.a

dvdv

at the corresponding point of the section subjected to torsion. The


contour lines z = const of the membrane correspond to the lines of shearing
stress vex, y) = const. Recalling that the torsional rigidity of the beam
is given by Eq. (35.10),
D = 2J1.
v dx dy,

ff
R

it becomes clear that the volume between the plane of the opening z = 0
and the surface of the membrane is proportional to the torsional rigidity
D of the section. Since the contour lines of the membrane can be mapped
out, and the slope at each point and the volume under the membrane can
be determined, one can secure the desired information concerning the lines
of shearing stress and the torsional rigidity of the beam from experimental
measurements.
A consideration of the equation of the unloaded membrane,
02Z

iJ~2

02Z

+ oy'

= 0,

which is so supported at the edges that


(46.5)
z = _!,.2(x' + yO)
on the boundary,
shows tha.t one can also determine experimentally the function ",(x, y)
[see (35.3)] from a. study of an unloaded soap film stretched so that the

168

lI..-\THElfATlCAL THEORY OF ELA8TlClT

heights of the membrane over the contour of the section have the values
given by (46.5).
The membrane analogy has been used in an interesting way by Timomenko to discuss an approximate behavior of a beam of narrow, rectangular crOBB section and in analyzing the stress concentration near
fillets in channel sections and I beams. It is interesting to note that the
maximum shearing stress in a narrow beam of thickness c is twice as
great as in a circular shaft of diameter c and subjected to the same twist.
The details of the calculations and furt.her discussion will be found in
Timoshenko and Goodier's Theory of Elasticity, Sees. 93 and 94.
The technique of measuring the ordinates of the membrane has been
discussed by Thiel,l who used stereoscopic photography, while Reichenbieher! has decsribed an optical device for the automatic plotting of the
contour lines of the membrane. The soap film has been replaced by a
paraffin surface by Kopf and Weber,' and by the interface between two
immiscible liquids by Piccard and Baas' and by Sunatani, Matuyama,
and Hatamura. L. Foppl' and Deutler7 have discussed the form of the
membrane analogy in which the film is under zero resultant pressure and
its boundary has variable height.
The boundary-value problems of torsion can also be interpreted in
terms of various hydrodynamical analogies. These are discussed briefly
in Timoshenko and Goodier's Theory of Elasticity, Sec. 100, where several
references are given. To these may be added a paper by Den Hartog
and McGivern 8 in which experimental technique is described.
The analogy between the torsion of a cylinder and the potential of a
plane electric field affords another way of obt.aining experimental 801uI A. Thiel, "Pbotogrammetrisches Verfahren zur vf'rstlchsmii.ssigen I.osung von
Torsionaaufgaben (nach einem Seif,mhautgJeichnis von L. Foppl)," Ingenio/tr Archiv,
vol. 5 (1934), pp. 417-429.
H. Reichenbacher, "Selbsttatige Auamessung "on Seifenhautmodellen (Anwendung auf daa Tormonsproblem)," Ingenieur Archiv, vol. i (1936), pp. 257-272.
E. Kopt and E. Weber, "Verfahren zuy Ermittlung der Torsionsbeanspruchung
mittels Membranmodell," Zeit8dorijl de8 V.,..ine3 deulJlc1aer IngenUuTe, vol. 78 (1934),
pp.911HH4.
A. Piccard and L. B_, "Mode experimental nouveau relatif a I'application des
surfaces a courbure constante a la solution du probleme de la torsion des barres prism&tiques," Proceedings of Ike Second InJernational Ccmgres. for Applied Meclttmw,
ZUrich (1927), pp. 195-199.
Chid6 Sunatani, Tokuzo Matuyama, and Motomune Hatamura, "The Solution of
Torsion Problems by Means of a Liquid Surface," TeehniaAl Reports of Ike TMoh
Imperial Utaiversity, vol. 12 (1937), pp. 374-396
L. Foppl, "Eine Ergiinzung des Pra.ndtlBchen Seifenhaut-Gleiehnisees JIll)' Torsion," ZeiJBcltriftfi.ir angewandle Mathematik mul Mechanik, vol. 15 (1935), pp.37-40.
T H. Dentler, "Zur versuchsmii.ssigen Liisung von Torsionsaufgaben mit Hilfe des
Seifenbautgleiebnisses," Ingeniftw Archiv, vol. 9 (1938), pp. 280-282.
"I. P. Den Hartog and J. G. McGivern, "On the Hydrodynamic Analogy of Tal'&ion," Joumol of A'JIPlietl M~, vol. 2 (1935), pp. A46-A,48.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLI!lXURE OF BEAMB

169

tiOll8 of the torsion problem. This is described in See. '1, Chap. III, of
Teehnische Dynamik: by C. B. Biezeno and R. Grammel and in a paper
by H. Cranz. 1
The equation for current flow in a conductor of variable thickness is
identical with that describing the torsion of a shaft of varying circular
section.' This analogy, which yields a practical method for studying
stress concentration in the neighborhood of fillets or grooves in shafts
under torsion, is described in Sec. 104 of Tim08henko and Goodier's
Theory of Elasticity and in papers by Thurn and Bautz,' .Jacobsen,' and
8&1et.'
A discussion of several an&1ogic methods of approximate solution of
Saint-Venant's torsion problem, including extensive bibliographical
references, is contained in two papers by T. J. Higgins in PrQCeeding8 of
the Society for Experimental Stress Analysi8, vol. 2 (1945), pp. 17-27, vol.
3 (1945), pp. 94-101.
4.7. Torsion of Hollow Beams. The discussion of the torsion problem
has been confined thus far to solid beams, so that the region of the cross
section has been simply connected. Hollow or tubular beams are of considerable technical importance, and it is necessary to extend the formulation of the torsion problem so as to include multiply connected regions.
Let it be assumed that a beam has several
longitudinal cavities so that the boundary of the
cross section of the beam is made up of several
simple closed contours. Denote the exterior
contour by Co, and let C 1, C., .. ,C" be the
simple closed contours lying entirely within
the contour Co (Fig. 35). The contours C 1,
C., ... , C" correspond to the cavities of the
FIG. 35
beam. The discussion in Sec. 34 that led to the
formulation of the differential equation (34.5) is valid in this case, and we
have the differential equa.tion
(47.1)

in R,

1 H. <::ran .., "Experimentelle LOsung von Torsion ..... uigaben," Ingenieur Arcbiv,
vol. 4 (1933), pp. 500-509.
See See. 49.
A. Thum and W. Bautz, "Die Ermittlung von Spannungsspitzen in verdrehbean!<pruchten Wellen dureh ein elektrischea Modell," ZeitBchrijt des Vereine8 deui8cher
l . . .ieure, vol. 78 (1934), pp. 17-HI.
L. S. Jacobsen, "Torsional Stresses in Shafts Having Grooves Or Fillets," Journal
of Applied. Mec1umica, vol. 2 (1935), pp. Al54--AI55.
G. Salet, "Determination des paintes de tension dans lea arbres de revolution
dOumia A torsion au moyen d'un modele 6Iectrique," BuUetin d. l'a.sOli4tion teclmiqm
maritime d abontJtiqm, vol. 40 (1936), pp. 341-350, 351.

170

MATHEMATlC.AL THEORY OJ' EL.ASTlClTY

where R is the multiply connected region interior to Co and exterior to


C Gs, ,C.. Since the longitudinal cavities and the outer surface
" free from external loads, we have, as shown in Sec. 34, the boundary
are
conditions
(47.2)

~=

= y cos (x, v) -

X cos (y,

on Ci,

p)

(i = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,n).

These boundary conditions, as shown in Sec. a5, can be expressed in


terms of the conjugate function", as
(i

on C,'

0, 1, 2, . . . , n),

and the integration along each contour C, yields


(47.3)

'" = >2(x 2

+ y2) + k,

(i = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,n),

on Ci ,

where the k, are the integration constants. The value of one of these
constants, say ko, can be specified arbitrarily,' but the remaining n constants k. must be determined so that the function
tp(x, y) =

which can be written as


(47.4)

tp(x, y) =

l
l

(X, Y)

P,(XG.IIO)

(x, v)

P.(z vo)

(a/

dx
X

+ a)
,,'I' dy ,
uy

(lJift
lJift)
- ax - - dy ,
ay

ax

is single-valued' throughout the region R.


If the region R is simply connected, the only requirement that the
integral of the form
(47.5)

F(x, y) =

P(Z,Y)

Po(:tO,'II0)

[M(x, y) dx

+ N(x,

y) dy]

define a single-valued function F(x, y) is-that M(x, y) and N(x, y) be of


class C' in R and that throughout the region R
aM

(4.7.6)

8jj

aN
=

ax'

But if F(x, y), defined by (47,5), is to be single-valued in a mUltiply connected domain, then in addition to (47.6) we must demand that the
integrals

1.

0,

(M dx

+ N dy)

vanish when evaluated over each interior contour forming the boundary
of R. Since '" in (47.4) is a harmonic function, the condition (47.6) is.
t
t

See rema.rlts in the paragraph following Eq. (35.3).


We recall that the displacement to - ",,(x, 1/), and to is a single-valued function.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

171

clearly, satisfied and ",(x, y) will be single-valued in R if, and only if,
(47.7)

(i

1, 2, . . . ,n).

Thus the constants k; (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) in (47.3) must be chosen so


that the solution of the Dirichlet problem
(47.8)

in R,
on C,

V'", = 0
{

'" = ,%(x'

+ y2) + k,

(i = 0, 1,2, . . . ,n)

satisfies the set of n conditions (47.7). The value of ko, as we have


already remarked, can be assigned arbitrarily.
If the problem is rephrased in terms of the Prandtl stress function

w "'" ",(x,

y) - ,%(x'

+ yO),

the system (47.8) leads to the new system,


(47.9)

V'w

= -2

w=

in R,
on Ci,

k,

(i = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,n)

and the definition of w yields,

Accordingly, the set of conditions (47.7) becomes,


fe; (:; dx - : : dY)

+ !C, (y dx

- x dy) = O.

The second of the line integrals in this formula is numerically equal to


twice the area Ai enclosed by C" and the first can be written as

r (ow ~ _ oXoW ddsY) ds Jc,dv'


r dw ds

Jei oy ds

Thus, the set of formulas (47.7) ip equiv.alent to the set

A.. dw ds = -2A,

(47.10)

'j'e, dv

(i = 1,2, . . . ,n).

The formula (34.10) for the calculation of the torsional rigidity D is


still available, and we have
(47.11)

p.

(x>

+ y' + x ~ -

Y ::) dx dy
=p.

U-(x: +y~:)dXdY,

172

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTIGTY

where we make use of the relations

B",= _(X+B't'),
ax

and

ay

obtained in Sec. 35. The integration in (47.1l) is performed over the


multiply connected region R. The right~hand member of (47,11) can be
rewritten as
D = p.

ff r

= 2p.

t-x (.rit) - :1; (yit)) dT dy

2it -

+" dxdy

+ p.ic it(ydx -

xdy),

where we make use of Green's Theorem, and the subscript C on the line
integral means that the integration is to be performed in appropriate
directions over all the contours C. (i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n). Now if we
chOO8e the value of it over the contour Co to be zero (that is, ko = 0)
and note the boundary conditions in (47.9), we have
D = 2p.

ifl
n

itdxdy

+ p.

But

~Ci (ydx

- xdy)

=2

kl

fCi (ydx -

JJ dxdy

xdy).

2A.,

Ai

where Ai is the area enclosed by the contour Ci, and we have


D = 2p.

fl

JI
A

it dx dy

2p.k,A

The expression for the t.wist.ing moment M is


(47.12)

M = 2p.a

(If 't' dx dy +
R

k.A.).

i-I

It will be recalled that the curves it(x, y) = const determine the lines of
shearing stress (sec Sec. 35), and it follows from the boundary conditions in
(47.9) that one can obtain a solution for the torsion problem of a hollow
shaft from the solution of the torsion problem of a solid shaft by deleting the portion of material contained within the curve it(x, y) = const.
Thus, in the discussion of the problem of torsion for an elliptic cylinder
in Sec. 36, it was shown that the lines of shearing stress are similar ellipses,
concentric with the ellipse
x2
y!
iii + Ii' = 1,
representing the cross section of the cylinder.

Accordingly, if we delete

EXTENSION, TORaIO:!,;, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

173

t.he portion of materi.a.l contained within the elliptical cylindel'

as + 11'b' =

x'

(47.13)

(1 - k).

(0

<

<

1).

then the stress function " for an elliptical beam of semi-axes a and b will
have a constant value over the curve (47.13) and the sa.me function"
will thus solve the torsion problem for a hollow beam bounded by similar
elliptic.al cylinders.
The lines of shearing stress for a beam of circular cross section are
circles concentric with the outer boundary. and it follows at once that
the formulas contained in Sec. 33 are applicable to hollow cirCll.lar shafts.
In particular, the torsional rigidity D is
(47.14)

= p:r
2 (a' - a4)
o.

where ao is. the radius of the inner circle and a is


that of the outer one.
Some important approximate formulas that are
applicable to thin tubes follow readily. While it
is not the purpose of this volume to deal with
approximate engineering formulas, we make a
Fw.36
brief reference to their development. Let II thin
tubular section of thickness t be bounded by an exterior contour Co and
an interior contour C 1 (Fig. 36).
If the tube is thin. we can assume that w varies linearly along the
thickness. Then

qw

dx dy ==

~kl

dx dy =

Hk1A.

if we take" = 0 on Co. W = kl on C 1 and represent the cross-sectional


area of the tube by A. The shearing stress T. at any point in the cross
section is,

and, in view of our assumption that

w varies linearly with thickness,

Thus, approximately,
T.

= ~l.

To determine kl' we use (47.10), which yields

le. ~t =

11 {

2A"

174
80

MA THEMA TICAL THEORY OF ELASTlQlTY

that

where l is the length of C I


R.nd we find,

The twisting moment M.is given by (47.12),

M= 4";t AI(~A + AI}


Since the tube is assumed to be thin,

Y2A AI, so that

M .. 4,.,.tA~,
l

and

In his memoir on torsion, Saint-Venant conjectured that the torsional


rigidity of a solid beam of given cross-sectional area increases as the
moment of inertia of the cross section decreases. Since circular area
has the least polar moment of inertia of all simply connected regions of
given area, it seems plausible that for a given twisting moment M and
cross-sectional area Al the smallest maximum stress will be found in a
circular beam. The proof that the circular beam indeed has the greatest
torsional rigidity of all solid beams of given cross-sectional area was supplied only recently by Polya} The Saint-Venant conjecture has been
generalized by Polya and Weinstein,' who proved that, of all multiply
connected cross sections with given area and with given joint area of
the holes, the ring bounded by two concentric circles has the maximum
torsional rigidity.
Explicit solutions of the torsion problems for beams with multiply
connected cross sections are not numerous. Greenhill' obtained by an
indirect method a solution of the torsion problem for the hollow cylinder
whose cross section is bounded by confocal ellipses, and Macdonald' used
a similar technique to solve the problem for a hollow beam whose cross
section is the region bounded by two eccentric circles. Weinel" reconsidered this problem with the aid of bipolar coordinates. A simpler solution, utilizing the mapping of an eccentric ring on a circular ring, was
obtained by Vekua and Rukhadze. I Conformal mapping of the doubly
1 G. Polya, QuarlMly of Applied Malhematiu, vol. 6 (1948), pp. 267-277.
O. Polya and A. Weinstein, Annals'of MaJhematiu, vol. 52 (1950), pp. 154-163.
See Prob. 2 at the end of this section.
H. M. Macdonald, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical &cie4y, vol. 8 (1893),

pp.62-68.

E. Weinel, 11&(/#mUuT Archi., vol. 3 (1932), pp. 67-75.


I. N. Velma and A. K. Rukhadse, IZlJ68tiI/tl (Bulktin) Akademil/tl Nau/e 888R, No.
3 (i933), pp. 167-178. These authors consider a Inore general problem of torsion of a

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

175

connected region on a circular ring was also used by Bartels! to give an


independent treatment of this problem with the aid of an integral formula, similar to that of VilIat,2 for the solution of the Dirichlet problem
in the annular ring.
An effective use of conformal mapping and singular integral equations
was made by Sherman in deducing a number of useful approximate solutions of the torsion problem for beams weakened by longitudinal cavities.
The available solutions include the following types of regions:
1. A region whose exterior boundary is a circle and whose interior
boundary an ellipse with coincident center.'
2. A region bounded externally by a eircle and internally by a square
with rounded corners and with coincident centers.'
3. A triply connected region corresponding to the cross section of a
circular beam weakened by two longitudinal circular cavities.' Some
aspects of this problem have been considered previously' by Goluzin
and Chih Bing Ling.
A method of solution of the Dinchlet problem for multiply connected
domains in the series of orthogonal functions has been proposed by
Bergman. 7
A solution of the Saint-Venant torsion and flexure problems for a rectangular beam with rectangular longitudinal cavity was obtained by
Abramyan." Variational methods were used by Arutiunyan' to solve
the torsion problem for the isotropic and orthotropic rods in the form of
circular beam reinforced by an eccentric circular core made of different material. A
summary of this paper is eontained in N. 1. Muskhelishvili, Some Basic Problems of
the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1949), pp. 546-551.
1 R. C. F. Bartels, Torsion of Hollow Cylinders, Transactions oJ 1M American MatMmatical 80MY, vol. 53 (1943), pp. 1-13.
I H. ViUat, Rendiconti del circolo matematico di Palermo, vol. 33 (1912), p. 147.
D. 1. Sherman, Doklady Akademiya Nauk 88SR, New Series, vol. 69 (1948), pp.
499-502; D. 1. Sherman and M. Z. Narodetsky, Inzhenernyi Sbornik, vol. 6 (1950);
D. I. Sherman, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk 888R, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 470-476.
D. 1. Shennan, lzveatiya (Bulla;.. ) Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Technical Series
(1951), pp. 969-995.
'R. D. Stepanov and D. I. Sherman, Imhenernyi Sbornik, vol. 11 (1952), pp.
127-150.
O. M. Goluzin, Matematicheski Sbornik, vol. 41 (1934), No.2: C. B. Ling, Quarterly oj Applied Mathematica, vol. 5 (1947).
'S. Bergman, "The Kernel Function and Conformal Mapping," American Mathematical &ciety Mathematical Survey .5 (1950).
8 B. L. Abramyan, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 14 (1950), pp.
265--276. In this paper the problem is redueed to the solution of the system of lineal"
ordinary differential equations of the second order with eonstant eoefficients, and the
801ution is given in the form 0( infinite series.
N. Kh. Arutiunyan, Prikl. Mat. M.kh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 11 (1947),
pp. 543-546.

176

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

an elliptical sector,' or in the shape of an elliptical ring bounded by two


similar ellipses slit from their common center along the radii. It is interesting to note that the torsional rigidity of an isotropic elliptical tube
whose thickness is two-tenths of the major axis, when slit along the
major axis, is approximately one-seventieth that of the solid tube.
Since solutions of torsion problems for beams with multiply connected
cross sections are not easy to obtain, considerable attention has been
devoted to the problem of obtaining bounds for the torsional rigidity
without first calculating the torsion function. The estimates of such
bounds are based on a study of the properties of Dirichlet's integrals
in the calculus of variations. Useful bounds have been obtained by
Topolyanski, Weinstein, Diaz, and others.' Weinberger recently computed bounds for the torsional rigidity of circular, triangular, hexagonal,
and square beams with circular, rectangular, and triangular longitudinal
cavities. The numerical values of torsional rigidities for various solid
beams are recorded in a monograph by Polya and Szego.
The application of the membrane analogy to obtain experimental solutions of the torsion problem for slit tubes and hollow beams is described
by Timoshenko' and Biezeno and Gramme!. G This method was applied
to the torsion problem of an eccentric circular annulus by Engelmann. 7
Nemenyi8 has discussed the use of numerical and experimental (membrane) methods in the torsion problem for beams of multiply connected
cross section.
PROBLEMS
1. Find the conjugate torsion functions '1', y" the stress fUlwtion '1', and the CODetant k entering into (47.9) for a hollow circular shaft. Derive the expression (47.14)
for the torsional rigidity of the shaft from both (34.10) and (47.12).
1 A solution of Saint-Venant's torsion problem for the circular sector is recorded on
pp. 278-279 of S. Timoahenko and J. N. Goodier's Theory of Elasticity.
D. B. Topolyanaki, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nat'" 888R, vol. 11 (1947),
pp.551-554.
A. Weinstein, American Mathematical &ciety Proceedingtl of 8vmpoBia in Applied
Mathe",atia, vol. 3 (1950), pp. 141-161.
J. B. Diaz, 8eminario Matematieo de Barcelona ColkctaMia Mat/&emlJtica, vol. 4
(1951), pp. 1-50.
H. F. Weinberger, Journal 0/ Mathe1IIatica and Phy:ric8, vol. 32 (1953), pp. 54-62.
G. Polya and G. Szego, lsoperimetric Inequalities in Mathematical Physics (1950).
s. Timoahenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, Sec. 101. See also,
W. Nowacki, Arch. Mach. 8tos., vol. 5 (1953), pp. 21-24 (in Polish).
Technisehe Dynamik, Chap. III, Sec. 26, pp. 199-201.
f P'rita Engelmann, "Verdrehung von Stiben mit Einseitig-ring..fonnipm Querauhnitt," F~ li'iio/ dem GebieIe du 11&fI61I~, vol. 6 (1935), pp. 146-1M.
P. Nemm.yi, "L&nmg des Torsionsproblems fUr Stibe mit mehtfa.eh lIIIII8DUIlNlhADpnd., Querabnitt," ZeiUd>rilt /* ~ Mathemati/c und M-eeltanik, vol. 1
(li21), pp. 364-367.

EXTENSION, TOBSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

177

I. If CI coeh r, where , - :t
iI/ and r - ~
i., show that the family of
curves ~ - conat defines a set of confocal ellipees. Hence verify that the function

a' llinh 2(~. - E) sinh 2(~ -

J.

.. =

4"

sinh 2(E. - EI)

~l)

2
cos .r,

solves the torsion problem for a tube whose cross section is bounded by confocal
ellipees E - E. and E = El. This result was deduced by A. G. G"""nhill, Quarterly
Jmunal of M~, Oxford Series, vol. 16 (1879), pp. 227-256.
S. Compute the torsional rigidity of a hollow shaft whose cross section is bounded
by two similar ellipses.
'- Use Green's formula to show that

-ff (..! + "';)

dJ: dy,

if '" is the torsion function of Sec. 34.


written as
D -

ff

(x'

+ 1/') dJ: dy -

Conclude from this that D

Hence show that formula (34.10) can be

po

If

po

11 ("'! + ..;1

do; dy.

(x'

+ y') dJ: dy;

that is, the torsional rigidity 01

R is never greater than pI., where I. is the polar moment of inertia of R.

Ii. Use results in the preceding problem and the fact that the Dirichlet integral

("'! + "'!) dJ: dy

vanishes if, and only if,

'P

is a constant, to prove that D = 1'['

only when R is a circle or a concentric circular ring.

'8. Curvilinear Coordinates. The possibility of obtaining a simple


solution of a given boundary-value problem often crucially depends upon
the choice of that coordinate system in which the boundary conditions
assume a simple form. In dealing with axially symmetric bodies, for
example, it is usually advisable to phrase the problem in spherical or
cylindrical coordinates. In some problems the shape of the boundary
may suggest the use of ellipsoidal coordinates, in others toroidal coordinates
are indicated, and so on. The object of this section is to deduce expressions for the components of stress and strain tensors and to record the
field equations of linear elasticity in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. 1
Consider a set of three independent functions of the cartesian variables
x, 1/,11:,
(48.1)

a. = a.(x, 1/, z),

(i = 1,2,3).

1 The calcul&tions in this section are far less general and more laborioU8 than the,.
would haft ~ if the apparatus of tensor calculus were at our disposal. A oone.isP
general tensoria1 derivation of the basic equations of linear and nonlinear mechanics of
_tin\K'\l8 media ill eontainl'd in I. S. SokolJH1<of('. T_r Analysis, pp. 290-319

178

MATlJEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITl'

The intersections of the surfaces


a,(x, y, z) = const,

(i = 1, 2, 3)

pair by pair determine the coordinate line3 of our curvilinear coordinate


system, and the intersection of coordinate lines determines a point that
will be labeled (ai, a2, a.). It is assumed that the coordinate system (a,)
is orthogonal, so that the element of arc ds has the form
3

(48.2)

ds'

gii da;,

i-I

where gi' are the metric coefficients that can be calculated' from (48.1).
Let Po and P be two neighboring points in an unstrained medium, and
let these points take the positions P~ and P' after deformation. We shall
confine our discussion to infinitesimal deformations' and shall represent
the displacements in the directions normal to the coordinate surfaces
ai, a2, a, by UI, u" U3, respectively. The curvilinear coordinates of the
points Po and P are a; and ai + dai, respectively. The coordinates of the
points P~ and P' will be denoted by a; + ~. and a, + ~. + da, + d~i'
Then it follows from (48.2) that

Now the length of the element of arc ds joining the points Po and P is
given by
3

(48.3)

ds' =

Lg,,(al, a., a.) dli!,


i-I

while the length of the same element in the deformed state is given by
3

(48.4)

(ds')' =

I q,,(al + ~t, a. + ~., a. + ~.)(da, + d~,)2.


i-I

But

to the order of approximation contemplated by the linear theory, and


3

(da;

+ dE,)' =

(da,)"

+ 2 da, dE, + dEl -=

(da;)'

+2

I !!; aaj da;.


,. ... 1

See Prob. 1 at the end of this aeetion.

All summations in the main parts of this

section will be indicat.ed by a summation sign.


t See See. 7.

179.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

Hence (48.4) can be written as


3

(48.5)

2: 2: G.,. da; da;,

(da')' =

i-I j - l

where
3

(48.6)

G'j

6ij ( II;;

\' 011")
O~,
O~i
+ k-l
L oak ~k + IIi< oa. + IIi; oa.'
1
1

and where we neglect the terms involving the products of ~; and ~~i.

The

Uaj

symbol 6,;, as usual, denotes the Kronecker delta. The expression for
Gi; has been symmetrized by replacing G;; by Y2(G ij + Gji ).
It is clear from (48.2) and (48.5) that the elongations of linear elements
and shears are characterized by the coefficients llii and G,j. Thus, consider a linear element ds, directed along one of the coordinate lines a,.
From (48.2), its length is

while the length of the same element after deformation is


ds: =

.ya;. dai.

Accordingly, the extension e" of this element is

if we neglect the nonlinear terms in the


the definitions (48.6), we have

~,and

their derivatives.

Noting

(48.7)

The cosine of the angle 8# between the directlOns of linear elements in


the deformed state that were originally directed parallel to the coordinate
lines a; and aj is given by'
(48.8)
'See Prob. 3 at the end of this section.

180

MATHEKATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Just as in Sec. 4, we define the angle

by the formula

(hi =

..-2 -~;

9,;

sin

then
COB

;.

<Xi;.

The shear components of the strain tensor are defined by the relation
= 2e.;. Substituting in (48.8), we geP

~=.!.__0t_ ;..!.~
2~

2~'

Finally, substituting in the foregoing formula the definitions (48.6), we


obtain the shear components of the strain tensor in the form
(48.9)

e"j

(Of + gn oa,o~.)

1 - g.i ___!
-2 v'ii:ih,
oaf

_!

if i j.

= - 1- - [ g 0 ( - 14 ) +U 0 ( - 14 ) ]
2 ~ .. oaf
"oa; v'Y;; ,

y'u:.

The components'Tij of the stress tensor in curvilinear coordinates are


defined in precisely the same way as they were in the cartesian system.
Thus, the component of stress normal to the element of area perpendicular
to the coordinate line a, is denoted by 'T.., and the component of shear
associated with the coordinate lines <Xi and aj is written as 'T,;.
In this notation, 2 Hooke's law for a homogeneous isotropic medium
assumes the form

(48.10)

>." + 21'e,.

'T..

'Ti;

= 2peij

or

where the invariant" "'" ell


1

Or'Tii

EfT

(1

+ fT)(l
E

'T'j

= 1

+ fT~'

+ e.. + en.

_ 2fT) "

if i

+ 1 + IT eo,

j,

Solving the system (48.10) fOJ

Note that

terms involving produeta of & and ita derivativM, terms that were neP>eted pre
vioualy.
Cf. Sees. 22 "nd 2:1.

181

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

the components of strain yields


(48.11)

where the invariant e = "11 + "22 + .....


A somewhat lengthy calculation, although in essence similar to that
outlined in Sec. 15, leads to the following equations of equilibrium in
curvilinear coordinates:
(48.12)

~"..,,)
aa;

_ ! \'

2 if-I

+ \'

g..;; ag"
g;; oCti

if-I

j_ ( ggi,Ti;)

v'ii:ik
+ Fig yg.; =
aCt;

0,

(i

1, 2, 3),

where g "" vigllg2'I:(Jaa, and the Fi are the components, in the directions of
the coordinate axes, of the body force F.
A complete set of the field equations of linear theory of elasticity, valid in all coordinate systems, is recorded here for the benefit of readers familiar with tensor calculus.
In these formulas a comma followed by the subscripts i, j, . . . denotes the covariant
derivatives with respect to the variables Xi, X;, ,and a repeated index is summed
from 1 to 3. The g'l and gi; are, respectively, the components of covariant and contravariant metric tensors. The meaning of alI other symbols is identical with that
used previously.
a. Hooke'. Law
'rH = )\f}gij + 2~ei;,
{} ~ g,leH,
e'l = 7}(U',1

+ u;,,).

b, Equilibrium Equation.
git.,.'i.k

+ Fi =
Tij.,i

==

0,
Ti ,

in 'T
on l:.

c. Navier'. Equations

(). + p)"., + pVlu, + F,

= 0,

in T,

where VI'll; = giJ:u,./I:.


d, Compatilnlity Equation.

We write out the expressions for the strain components (48.7) and
(48.9) and the equations of equilibrium (48,12) for three important special
cases of curvilinear coordinates.
a. Plane Polar Coordinate8. In this case, the index i assumes the
values 1, 2, and according to the usual notation
The coordinate surfaces in this case are circular cylinders perpendicular to the xy-plane (r = const) and radial planes through the origin
(8 = const). The element of arc is given by
dIJ' = dr'

so that
fill

== I,

+ r'd8',

gu = 0,

182

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

....

I
I
TOg I

FIG. 37

Noting the formulas (48.7) and (48.9), we see that the strain components
in this case are
OUr

(48.13)

err

= TT'

egg

= --

1 aUg
r 0(J

er , =

+-r'r

1 (OUr

2r 7i8 -

Ug

au,) '
+ r 7ir

while the equations of equilibrium (48.12) become


Or"

(48.14)

or

+ ~ Orrg + T
r

0(J

rr _ - T98

+F

= 0

r,

+ ~r OT99
+ ~r rr' + F, = O.
or
a(J
b. Cylindrical Coordinates. The variables involved here are
al = r,
0<, = 8,
a, = z,
and the element of arc in cylindrical coordinates is given by
dB" = dr" + r2 dtl" + dz',
so that
g11 = 1,
gn = 1.
922 = r',
OTT'

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

183

The surfaces r = const and 8 = const are circular cylinders and radial
planes as in case a above, while the surfaces z = const are planes parallel

FIG. 38

to the xy-plane (Fig. 37). Substituting the values of the metric coefficients in (48.7), (48.9), and (48.12) gives the expressions for the strain
components
iiu.

eM" =

(48.15)

Tr'
1 iiu"
iilJ

ell

=r

e..

= Tz'

iiu.

u.

+ r'

184

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

and the equations of equilibrium

(48.16)

c. Spherical Coordinates (Fig. 38). For this coordinate system, we


have al = r, ao = a, a, = (J. The coordinate surfaces are the spheres
r = const, the radial planes perpendicular to the xy-plane, a = const,
and the right-circular cones with vertices at the origin, (J = const.
Since the element of arc is given by

= dr'

ds 2

+ rO sin" (J da" + rO dOo,

we have
gu = 1,
go, = r" sin" (J,
The strain components, in this case, are

iiu,

-aT'

err =

Ien
e....
(48.17)

! iius + ~,

1 iiu..
r sin (J iia

r at!

+ U.
cot (J
r + Uo -r-'

!. (_~_ iiu,

e,.. =

2 rsm(Jiia

~
r

+ iiU..),
iir

!2 (!r iiu.ii(J _ ~r + iiUiir


e.., = ! (! iiu.. _ u .. cot (J + _.1_ iiU,),
2 r ii(J
r
r sm (J iia
e., =

B) ,

and the equations of equilibrium are

+ _~_ ih,.. + ! ih,B + 2r" - T .... - TO' + T" cot B + F _ 0


rSln9lia
rli9
r
'

ih,.. + _~_ ih.... +! ~ + 31-". + 2r.., cot 9 + F.. _ 0


iff
rSIU9iia
rliB
r
'
ih,. + _~_ ih... + ~ ihll + 31-,B + (Til cot B + II ... 0-

ih"
iff

(48.18)

UT

SIn

a",

a.

T .... )

'

JlEFEBBNCES FOR COLLATERAL READING


A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematillal Theory of Eiastieity, Cambridge
University Press, London, Sees. 19-22c, 58, 59,96,97,99.
E. Tre1ftz: Handbuch del" Physik, Verlag von Julius Sprincer, Berlin, vol. 6. Sees. 24,
25.

185

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

I. S. Sokolnikoff: TetlllOr Analysis. Theory and Applications, John Wiley '" Sons,
Inc., New York, Sees. 103-113.
F. Odqvist: "Equations de compatibilite pour un systeme de coordonnees triplex
orthogonaux quelconques," Comptu rendus hebdomedair des .tances de l'academie
des 8ciences, Paris, vol. 205 (1937), pp. 202-'204.
F. K. G. Odqvist: "Kompatibilitatsgleichungen bei Zylinderkoordinater," Zeilachrift
fur angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 14 (1934), pp. 123-124.
L. Brillouin: "Lea lois de l'elll8ticite en coordonnees quelconques," Congre. international de mathematique, Toronto, 1924, A nnales de physique, vol. 3 (1925),
pp.251-298.
T. N. Blinchikov: "Differential Equations of the Equilibrium of the Theory of
Elasticity in the Curvilinear Coordinate System," Applied Mathematics and
Mechanics, New Series, vol. 2 (1939), pp. 407-413 (in RU88ian with an English
summary).
E. Volterra: "Questioni di elasticita vincolata I. Componenti di deformazione e
potenziale elastico in coordinate qualsivogliano," Atli della reale accademia
nazionale dei Lincei, ser. 6, vol. 20 (1934), pp. 424-428.
H. Thirring: "On the Tensor Analytical Representation of the Theory of Elasticity,"
PhY8ikali8che Zeilachrifl, vol. 26 (1925), pp. 518-522.
PROBLEMS
1. Show that the metric coefficients g<; can be calculated by observing that
3

(dx.)'

dXI; aXI;

,...--,...-va,Uaj

da, da j

i,j-l

It follows that
3

(dx.)' =

k,i.i-l

or
3

ds" =

i.i ....

gij

da. daj,

where

2. Calculate the metric coefficients g,; for plane polar coordinates a,


from the relations

!5i

r, a, .. 6

and
3

'\'
g'j -

ax.~.

"" &X, aaj

i-I

I. Consider a curvilinear triangle in the undeformed etate, with sides directed


parallel to the coordinate lines a, and at. The increments in the coordinates a; along
the sides can be written as (da" 0, 0) and (0, da t , 0), while the "hypotenuse" corresponds to coordinate changes (-dat, <la" 0). Show from (48.5) that, after defor-

186

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

mation, the sides have lengths ~ do"


the length of the hypotenuse is
do~
cosines to show that

VOu

-va;; do,

+ 0 .. d,,~

and include an angie 8.., while


- 20" do, do,. Use the law of

cos 811 .. _!!_l!!__,

va;;a;.

49. Torsion of Shafts of Va.rying Circular Cross Section. In discussing


the torsion by terminal couples of a circular shaft of varying diameter,
it is convenient to make use of the cylindrical coordinates r, 8, z introduced in the preceding section. We shall direct the axis of the shaft
along the z-axis, and, in order to avoid using subscripts, we shall denote
the displacements u, and Ue, in the radial and tangential directions, by
u and v, respectively. The displacement u, in the direction of the axis
of the shaft will be called w.
It will be recalled that, in the case of a uniform circular shaft twisted
by terminal couples, the displacement of points in any cross section is in
the tangential direction I and that the displacement in the direction of
the axis of the shaft vanishes. We shall attempt to solve the torsion
problem for a shaft of varying diameter by assuming that, in this case,
we also have
U = w = 0,
and then prove that the solution based on this assumption fulfills all conditions of the -problem and hence is the desired one.
On account of the circular symmetry, the tangential displacement v
cannot depend on the angle 8 and thus will he a function of the variables rand z.
Since the displacements u and w vanish, the formulas (48.15) (with
U, 5ii U, Us e V, 'Il, e w) give
(49.1)

en" = eBB = 6.. = eN = 0,

e,g =

!(~
2 ar

- ,:),
T

and it follows from (48.10) that the corresponding stresses are:


(49.2)

T,..,

= Tee =

To

T ..

= 0,

T,9

= J.I

(~
aT -

,:),

- .. ~.
'-"oz

T9

Inserting these expressions in the three equilibrium equations (48.16)


shows that two of them are satisfied identically, and the remaining one
requires that
aiv

or!

+ !r ~
_ .':. + aiv =
or r' oz'

This equation can be rewritten in the form

See 'Fig. 20.

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

187

and it follows that there exists a function F(r, z) such that


(49.3)

of = r 8 !_ (~),
or
OZ r

so that

iJ (v)
1 of
- aT;: =;:a
oz .

and

Differentiating the first of these equations with respect to r, the second


with respect to z, and adding gives the equation on the function F(r, z)
in the form
o2F
3 of
o2F
(49.4)
or" - T ar + oz' = o.
The stress components will now be expressed in terms of the function
It follows from formulas (49.3) that

F(r, z).

~ (~)
= ?!:,
az
r
az
= r!_ (~) = ?!: _ ~,

!_ of = r

r2

ar

_ !_ aF
r2 az

ar r

ar

and comparison of these expressions with the last two of the formulas
(49.2) shows that the nonvanishing components of stress are given in
terms of the function F by the formulas
J.l of
J.l iJF
(49.5)
T,6 = -;:a OZ .
T60 = ;:a ar'
Since the lateral surface of the shaft is free from external loads, it follows that the resultant shearing stress must be directed along the tangent
to the boundary of the aXIal section. Accordingly, the component of the
resultant stress in the direction" normal to this boundary must vanish,
and we have the boundary condition l
Tu.

cos (z, v)

+ T"

dr

cos (r, v) =
dz

But cos (z, v) = - dB' cos (r, v) = dB' where ds

o.
.

IS

the element of arc

along the boundary of the axial section (Fig. 39), and we have
dr

-Th ds

dz
+ Tr&dB
=

on the boundary.

Substituting in this expression from (49.5), we get

iJF~

iJr ds

+ iJF~ =
iJz dB

0
'

Ilfrl.COS (z ) + Tr'COS (r, p) - T(.), theealculations yield dF/ch - -T(s). The


theory outlined here is due to J. H. Michell, PrtlCUdings of the London Mathematico.l
&cutl" vol. 31 (1900), p. 140.

188

MATBEKATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

or

dF
ds = 0

on the boundary.

Thus, the condition that the lateral surface be free from extemalloads
demands that the function F(r, z) assume a constant value on the boundary of the axial section, determined by (J = const.
r

FIG. 39

The twisting moment on any cross section whose radius is a is easily


computed. ThUll,
(49.6)

(2- (a

Jo Jo

Tear' dr d(J = 2...


=

(a

Jo

rOre. dr = 2...~

(a aF

Jo ar dr

2rp[F(a, z) - F(O, z)].

The solution of Eq. (49.4) is quite simple for the case of a conical shaft,
shown in Fig. 40. It is easily checked that the function
(49.7)

F(r, z)

= C {era

; z2)fi -

~ [(r>; zf']}

where c is a constant, satisfies Eq. (49.4). Moreover, the expression


z/(r' +
is constant on: the lateral
r
surface, since it is equal to the cosine
of one-half the vertical angle of the
cone, and hence the function F(r, z) in
-J..::::....t.=-j:__-;:--''----t-z (49.7) assumes a constant value on the
lateral surface of the cone, that is, for
z=rcota.
The magnitude of the shearing
FIG. 40
stresses T,. and Tr# is given at once by
the formulas (49.5), a~d a simple calculation shows that
~rz
per'
T,. = - (r' + Z2);"
Tr# = - (r' + Z2p"

z')f'

The value of the constant c can be determined from (49.6) when the
twisting couple in the terminal section is known.
Indeoo, from (49.6),

AI

= 2...~[F(a, z) - F(O, z)]


= 2...Cp(COB a - 73 cos' a -

%),

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

since cos a

= z/(r + Z2)1i,
2

189

and hence
M

= 211"1'(cos
__ a
~

-------.~--~--~~

- ~~ cos 8 a -

%)

We can also show that the maximum value of the shearing stress r. occurs
at the narrow end of the shaft. For the principal stresses T, are,
T3

and
(T')~1

!~~h

T.)

(T~.

= 0,

+ T;O)~ = T,.

Reference to formulas for Teo and TrO shows that '"' has the maximum
value at the narrow end.
Since
1
1 ilv
eo, = 21' To, = 2

az'

ere

_!_Tre
2Jl.

= 2!(~
aT

- ~),
r

we readily find by simple integration that

M
v

= 67rJl.k

(z'

+ r')% + wr,

where k = cos IX - ~~ ros' IX - 23 and w = const representing a rigid


rotation of the {'one about the z-axis. The constant w can be determined if we suppose, for example, that the circumference of the shaft is
fixed at the wide end.
The applications of the theory sketched above are not numerous.'
The deformation of the segment of a torus by shearing stresses distributed
over its plane ends, so that they produce torsion and give a resultant
force in the direction of the axis of the torus, was investigated by a
method of successive approximations by Giihner.' Act exact solution of
this problem, in bipolar coordinates, was obtained by Freiberger.3
1 For reviews of the literature see:
.
T. Poschl, Zeitschrift fur angewandie Mathematik und Mechanik., vol. 2 (1921),
p.137;
T. J. Higgins, Experimental Stress Analysis, vol. 3 (1945), p. 94.
O. Gohner, lngenieur Archiv, vol. 1 (1930), p. 619. A detailed account of Gohner's
work is contained in Tirnoshenko amj Goodier's Theory of Elasticity, pp. 391-395.
A review of the history of this problem was given by R. V. Southwell, Proceedings
of the Royal Society (London) (A), vol. 180 (1942), pp. 367-396. In this paper Southwell uses the semi-inverse method to discuss the torsion of a shaft of varying circular
noss section, the torsion and flexure of an incomplete tore, the shearing stresses in a
toroidal book, and symmetrical strains in a solid of revolution.
'W. Freiberger, Australian Journal of Scientific Research, ser. A, voL 2 (1949), pp.
354-375. See also related papers on torsion and stretching of spiral rods by H. Okubo,
Quartarly of Applied Matlie'matics, vol. 9 (1951), pp. 263-272, vol. 11 (1954), pp. 499501; Journal of Applied Mechanics Pa.per 53-APM-2, pp. 1-6.

190

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF EL.ASTICITY

Torsion of shafts of variable cross section was recently studied by


Poritsky, Shapiro, and Wilhoit. 1
The Saint-Venant torsion problem for a circular cylinder with symmetrically located spherical cavity was treated by Ling/ and axially
symmetric shafts with cracks were considered briefly by Weinstein and
Payne.'
We shall make use of Bome particular solutions of Eq. (41).4) in t.he next
section, which is concerned with a study of local effects near the ends of
a twisted circular eylinder in which the distribution of stress at one end
differs from that demanded by Saint-Venant's theory.
50. Local Effects. It has already been noted that Saint-Venant's
theory of torsion, discussed in Sees. 33 and 34, imposes a requirement that
the distribution of stress over the ends of the cylinder be the same as in
every other cross section of the cylinder. The theory developed in those
sections yields stresses that at the end sections are statically equivalent
to the applied twisting couples. The distribution of these end stresses
cannot be arbitrarily specified, since the end couples must be applied in a
way demanded by the solution of the torsion problem for the particular
section under discussion. If the distribution of stresses over the ends
of the cylinder differs from that demanded by the theory, there will be
some local irregularities in the neighborhood of the ends and it is to be
expected from Saint-Venant's principle that the effect of local perturbations will not be felt far from the ends. We proceed to investigate the
character of local disturhances in a long circular cylinder of radius a that is
twisted by some prescribed distribution of stresses "6, over the end z = O.
We note first that a particular integral F = AT' of Efj. (41).4), as is clear
from (49.5), yields
TrO = 0,
which become identical with the stress system (33.2) in a circular beam
twisted by the end couples, if we set' 4A = a.
A set of partiCUlar integrals of Eq. (49.4) can be obtained by assuming
solutions in the form e-hR(r), where k > 0 and R(T) is a function of r
alone, and it follows from (49.4) that the function R(r) must satisfy the
equation
1 H. Poritsky, American Mathematical &r:iety Proceedings of Third SympoBium in
Applied Mathematics, vol. 3 (1950), pp. 163-186.
G. S. Shapiro, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 249-252.
J. C. Wilhoit, Jr., Quarterly of Applied Mathe'1ll4tics, vol. 11 (1954), pp. 499-501.
C. B. Ling, Quarte1'ly of Applied Mathematics, vo!. 10 (1952), pp. 149-156.
A. Weinstein, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, vol. 10 (1952), pp. 77-81.
L. E. Payne, J&urnal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, vol. 1
(1953), pp. 53-71.
+ T!.)~.
Note that 'r'z -

(T:.

EXTJ!:.NBION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

191

This is a well-known different.ial equation, and it is easy to show l that it


is satisfied by the function R = rJ.(kr), where J.(kr) is the Bessel function of the first kind and of second order. Since the differential equation
(49.4) is linear, a linear combination of solutions of the type A.r'e-kJ .(knr)
will satisfy the equation, and we take the function F(r, z) in the form
~

(50.1)

F(r, z)

>4ar' +

L A.r r
.-1
2

'J.(k.r) ,

where a and Ai are constants. If the constants k, are chosen to be the


sueeessi\'e roots of the equation J.(ka) = 0, then on the boundary of the
axial section we have F(a, z) = ~4aa' = const, which is the required
boundary condition. It is obvious from (49.5) that the distribution of
stress in the cylinder corresponding to the choice An = 0 (n = 1,2, . . . )
is pre('isely that required by Raint-Venant's theory.
The expression for the tangential stress TO, is given fly the first of
formulas (-HUi), and we obtain formally
(50.2)

where the prime denotes the derivative with respect to the argument k.r.
But'
(50.3)

where .f,Ch-r) stands for the Bessel function of order I, which is known to
slltisfy the equation
(50A)

d2
( dr'

1d + k,
+ Tar

-,21)

J,(kr) = O.

Substituting (50.3) in (50.2) and setting z = 0 gives the expression for the
distribution of stresses To. over the end z = 0 of the cylinder,
(50.5)

h.).-o '"

IJ. [

ar

L Ankn.l l(k.r) ].
.-1

1 See, for example, r. S. and E. S. Sokolnikoff, Higher Mathematks for Engineers


and Physicists, 2d ed., p. 339.
, s..., G. N. Watson's Thf'Ory of Bt,ssel FUl1ptiuus <)1' J. :\1. :\!acRoh~rt'. TreatisE> on
8f>SRf't FmH't ions.

192

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

We proceed to calculate the torque M acting on the end z = 0 of the


cylinder. Now
(50.-6)
= 211"1' [ / 4crr'
0

and it is easy to show that

dr

..
l

A.k.

10 r J 1(k"r) dr l
2

.. -1

10r2J (k r)dr =
1

O.

We note from (50.4) that

1(d + -1r -drd - -r'1) J1(kr) ,


2

J1(kr) = - - 2 k dr'

so that

But it is known that


J 2 (kr) = -J;(kr)

+ frJ1(kr),

and if the numbers k. are the roots of the equation J.(ka) = 0, then
J{(k.a) - (1/k n a)J ,(k.a) = O. Thus, the integrals in (50.6) involving
Bessel's functions vanish, and we get
1I"a 4

M=21'<"
which is the same expression for the moment M as previously obtained in
Sec. 33.
Since a suitably restricted function of r defined in the interval (0, a) can

..

be expanded in a series of the form 1

l a.J l(k.r), we see from (50.5) that


.-0

we can obtain the solution of the torsion problem that corresponds to distribution of stress (r,:)o over the end z = 0, where (rez)o is a prescribed
function of r. It is obvious from (50.2) that the effect of the terms
involving the factors e-k diminishes with an increase in z, and hence the
distribution of stresses in a long cylinder, over the far end, is sensibly
equal to a couple of moment M.
1 See Hankel-SchliUIi expansion on p. 577 or G. N. Watson's Bessel's Functions,
2d ed. (1948).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

193

The results of this section are essentially due to Dougall. They have
been extended by Synge, who proposed a more general approach to the
Saint--Venant torsion and flexure problems.!
Instead of prescribing the distribution of stress over one end of the
cylinder, one may impose a requirement that one of the sections of the
twisted cylinder remain plane. 2
51. Torsion of Anisotropic Beams. We saw that the deformation of
long isotropic cylinders twisted by end couples is the same in every cross
section. The corresponding deformation of anisotropic cylinders is more
complicated. The anisotropy of the medium ordinarily gives rise to
bending moments which deform the planes containing the axis of the
cylinder. If, however, the medium is such that the planes normal to the
axis of the cylinder coincide with the planes of elastic symmetry, then
the twisting couples produce no bending. This fact was first established
by Voigt3 and, for the special case of an orthotropic medium, by SaintVenant. As a consequence of this, the torsion problem for such cylinders
can be reduced to the solution of the torsion problem for certain isotropic
cylinders. We proceed to show how this is done when the material is
orthotropic. The corresponding solution for the case when the medium
1 J. Dougall, Tra1l8acti<ms of the Royal Sociely of Ed;nburgh, vol. 49 (1913), pp
895-978.
J. L. Synge, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2 (1945), pp. 307-317.
I A solution by energy methods of such a torsion problem for a beam of elliptical
section was found by A. Foppl (1920) and is given in A. and L. Foppl, Drang and
Zwang, vol. 2, Sec. 77. The beam of rectangular section was considered by S. Timoshenko, Proceedings of Ihe London M atkematical Sociely, vol. 20 (1922), p. 389 and by
J. Nowinski, Arch. Mech. SIo8., vol. 5 (1953), pp. 47-66 (in Polish). B. P. Netrebko,
V eatnik, Moscow University, No. 12 (1954), pp. 15-26 (in Russian), used energy methods to investigate the torsion of a rectangular parallelepiped by arbitrarily specified
distributions of shearing stresses on the bases. Energy methods are also used by
N. V. Zvolinskij in "Angenaherte Losung der Torsionsaufgabe ffir einen elastischen
zylindrischen Stab mit einem nicht verwolbten Querschnitt," Bulletin de l'academie
des sciences de I' U RSS, elMse des sciences mathhnatiques et ...zturelle8, No.8 (1939),
pp. 91-100 (in Russian',. The problem of flexure of such a beam has been treated by
R. Sonntag in "tlber Biegung bei verhinderter Querschnittskrummung," Ingenieur
.1rchiv, vol. 4 (1944), pp. 415-420.
The effect of local stresses corresponding to different modes of applying torsional
couples to a circular cylinder has been discussed by Wolf and by Deimel IK. Wolf,
Sitztlung8berichte der A,kademie der Wi8sen8c/w.ften in Wien, vol. 125 (1916), p. 1149;
R. F. Deimel, "The Torsion of a Circular Cylinder," Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences afthe United StaIRs of America, vol. 21 (1935), pp. 637-642\.
W. Voigt, I,ehrbuch der Kristallphysik, p. 648. In Chap. VII, Sece. 315-324, of
this work Voigt discusses the torsion problem for cylinders with the most general kind
of anisotropy. See also S. G. Lekhnitsky, Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body
(1950), pp. 141-172 (in Russian) .
B. Saint-Venaut, Memoirea presemes par divers IOIIants a l'acadbnie des ~,
Scienr.etl mathlmtatiques el phy.iqltU, vol. 14 (1856).

194

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELAt;TICITY

has a family of planes of elastic symmetry normal to the axis of the


cylinder is essentially the same. 1
Let the beam have three mutually orthogonal planes of elastic symmetry, and assume that the axis of
the beam is perpendicular to one of
these planes.
As in the isotropic case, we let the
axis of the beam coincide with the
--4----"'lI~-r:_-+-.. x
z-axis and choose the x- and y-axes in
one end of the beam. The longitudinal planes of elastic symmetry are
denoted by x' z and 1/' z and the shear
x'
moduli associated with the axes z and
x' and z and y' hy 1-<1 and 1-<,. respecFIG. 41
tively (Fig. 41).
The components of shear T:,. and T.'. are connected with the shearing
strains e.'. and e.,. by the formulas
(51.1)

where
(51.2)

e.'.

(au + aw)
ax' ,

2" az

and u, v, and ware the components of displacement in the directions of


the x'-, y'-, and z-axes, respectively.
We assume, as in the isotropic case,' that the displacements u, v and w
are given by the formulas
(51.3)

u = -azy',

= azx',

= a",(x',

y'),

where a is the angle of twist per unit length of the bar and ",(x', 1/') is the
torsion function associated with this problem.
H we let 9 denote the angle between the axes x and x', then the expressions for the nonvanishing components of stress T .. ami T y , are related to
the components T.', and Ty', hy the formulas'
T ..

Tve

= Ty'.

sin IJ + T,', cos (I,


cos 8 - Tz'z sin 8 t

I See Voigt's Lehrbuch der Kristallphysik cited above.


This book contains a
number of intercs~ing solutions of special problems. Saint-Venant's memoir, quoted
in the preceding footnote, contains explicit solutions and detailed calculations for
ortbotropic rods of elliptical, rectangular, and several other cross sections. See also
I. W. Geckeler, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 6, ElastiziW.tstheorie anisotroper Korper.
A comprehensive modern account of the theory of elasticity of anisotropic media is
presented in a book by S. G. Lekhnitzky, Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body,
MOBCoW (1950) (in Russian).
See Sec. 34.
I Note formulas (16.5).

FlXTENSION, TOR8I~N, AND FLl!lXURE OF BEAMS

195

which, on account of the relations (51.1) and (51.3), become

fT..
(51.4)

= all.

sin 8

T = all,

cos 8

U; +
U; +

Xl)

+ all, cos 8

U; - y'),

sin 8

UJ, - y').

XI) -

alll

The partial derivatives of the torsion function l(J(x ' , y/) appearing in the
right-hand. members of these expressions can be calculated in terms of
OI(J

oX and

0'1'.

ay'

SInce

x' cos 8 + y' sin (J,


y = -x' sin e + y' cos o.

X =

We have
r OI(J

i OX'
I

(51.5)

OI(J

= -- ('OR

oX

; 0'1' =

oy'

e - OI(J
-- SIn
(J
oy'

'oX
!! sin (J + oy
~'" ('os iI.

Inserting t,he "alues from (51.5) in (,'i1.4) and introducing the abbreviations
A = Il' Hin' (J + III COS' (J,
B = (Il' - Ji') sin (J cos e,
C = Ji2 cos' (J + Jil sin' (J,
we get
T"

(51.6)
I

a(A

OI(J
0'1'
ax
+ B iii;
+ Bx -

0'1'

y, = a ( B -,;vX

0'1',
+ C!l
+ ex vy

Ay ,
By) .

Hin('e T" = Tyy = T" = Tzy = 0 and Tn and T., are independent of z,
the first two of thp equilibrium equations (15.:l) arp identif'ally satisfi('ri
and the third one gives the equation
0 2 '1'

(51. 7)

A !12
vX

(J2rp
(J'I(J
+ 2B vI
~. + C ,..
vy
vir

O.

Thus, in this case, the torsion function 'I' no longer satisfies Laplace's
equation.
Let the boundary C of the cross section have the equationf(x, y) = 0;
then the components cos (x, v) and cos (y, v) of the normal v to the
boundary C are proportional to :~ and

:~I respectively, and we can write

the boundary condition


T ..

cos (x, p)

+ Tv' cos (y.

p) = 0

on ('

196

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

in the form
(51.8)

+ (BiJ'"
+ C aay",) Of
( A~+BiJ",)af
ax
iJy iJx
iJx
By
=

(Ay - Bx) af
ax

+ (By

_ Cx) af
iJy

onC.

Equation (51.7) and the boundary condition (51.8) can be simplified


by introducing new independent variables ~ and ." defined by the formulas
..=~x
A
'

(51.9)

., = y -

:Ax.

A simple calculation slwws that Eq. (51.7) becomes


(51.10)

while the equation of the boundary l(x, y) = 0 is changed into


F(~,

(51.11)

1/)

o.

Making the corresponding change of variables in the boundary condition


(51.8) gives
onC',
where C' is the transformed boundary defined by (51.11).
Finally, if we set

then
(51.13)

and (51.12) becomes

?",' aF + acp' aF
il~ il~

il., il.,

aF _

=
'1

a~

~iJF

a"

on C/,

or
(51.14)

onC',

where is the normal tu the houndary C'.


The boundary condition (51.14) is precisely of the same form as that
appearing in a study of torsion of isotropic cylinders; hence the solution
of the torsion problem for a cylinder of nonisotropie material (having
three orthogonal planes of elastic symmetry) whose cross section is Cis
reduced to the solution of the torsion problem for an isotropic bar whose
cross sectit>D has a different boundary C', defined by Eq. (51.V)

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE 9F BEAMS

197

It is not difficult to calculate the torsional rigidity of a nonisotropic


cylinder in terms of the torsional rigidity of the corresponding isotropic
cylinder. Substituting from (51.6) in the expression for the couple M.
we obtain
M =

ff

(r,.x - rz.Y) dx dy

::U'.11 [v;.l~' (~~: - ":;) +

A(t'

+ "')] dt d",

where the integration now extends over the region R' bounded by the
curve C' . Recalling that ",' "" (VAAl A) "', we have
M --

aA' {r (U",I
V~1~2 {J t u" -

7/

u",'

at + ~

+ .) d
7/

d
7/,

and since

M=aD,
where D is the torsional rigidity, we see that the torsional rigidity of a
nonisotropic cylinder can be deduced from the torsional rigidity of the
isotropic cylinder obtained from the nonisotropic one by a homogeneous
deformation (51.9).
We conclude this formulation of the torsion problem for a ncmisotropic
prism by remarking that the transformation (51.9) changes the boundary
of an ellipse

x'

y'

(i2+p=1
into another ellipse, and since the solution of the torsion problem for an
isotropic cylinder is known, we can write down at once the solution of the
corresponding problem for a nonisotropic elliptical cylinder.
The transformation (51.9), in general, carries a rectangle into a parallelogram, and hence the solution of the torsion problem for a nonisotropic
rectangular beam is not covered by the discussion contained in Sec. 38,
unless the x'-axis coincides with the x-axis. If these axes coincide, then
B = 0, and the rectangle will be transformed into another rectangle of
different length. The solution corresponding to this case is written out
in Love's Treatise, on page 325.
REFERENCES FOR COLLATERAL READING

G. W. Trayer and H. W. March: Natianal Advisory CommitteeJor Aeronautics Report


334, pp. 37-44.
A. E. H. Love: A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Cambridse
University Press, London, s,.c. 226.

198

MA'l'I:lEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Ii!. Flexure of Beams by Terminal Loads. Let a cantilever beam of


uniform cr088 section have one end (z = 0) fixed and the other end (z = l)
loaded by some distribution of fOJ:'ces that is statically equivalent to Bsingle force (W., TV., 0) lying in the plane z = 1 and acting at the load
point (xo, Yo, 1). The z-axis is taken along the central line of the beam,
while the x- and y-axes are any orthogonal axes intersecting at the centroid
of the end z = 0 (Fig. 42). The lateral surface of the beam free from
external forces, and the body forces are assumed to vanish.

is

:
i.-l-z ...

--

W
FlO. 42

We shall follow the semi-inverse method of Saint-Venant; that is, we


put
(52.1)

T:tu:

= r zy =

71/1/

o.

The functions T", T. y , and T" will be so chosen that the equations of
equilibrium and compatihility, as well as the boundary conditions, are
satisfied.
In writing an expression for T ... we shall be guided by an expression for
the bending mOlllent M. that would be produced by the load W. acting
alone. In any cross section z units distant from the fixed end, one would
have

M. = W.(l -- z).

(52.2)

so that the stress distrihution (due to lL a.lone) in this section would


have to be statically equivalent to the moment ]I.{ ~ and to the resultant
force W.. Now in the discussion of the problem of bending of beams by
couples applied at the ends,' it was found that the stress T,., distributed
according to the linear relation
(52.3)

(bending by couples),

with

I" -=

x'dxdy,

1 See See. 32.


'S ole that the roordinate axes there were taken to be the principal
!>xes of the rro"s 8<'dioll, while the ('hoicp of axes here is not restri~ted

EXTKNSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

199

is statically equivalent to a couple of moment M.. Equations (52.2)


and (52.3) suggest that we try to satisfy the conditions of the present
problem by assuming
.
(52.4)

T"

= _- E(l

+ K.y),

- z)(K"x

where the ('onstant,g K" K. art' to he determined from the

ff

(52 . .5)

T"

Jf T," dx

dx dy = lV"

1/

('ondition~

rl!1 = Jr.,

1/

,
I

Substituting from (.52.i) and (.524\ in the equations of f'quilihrium


(29.1), we get

aT.. = 0

Or

=0

az
'
az
'
~;. + a;;. + E(K.x + K.y)

(52.6)

= O.

It follows from the first two of Eqs. (.52.6) that the shear p,omponents

or" and T,. have the same value in all cross sections of the beam, while the
third equation can be rearranged to read

:x

(or" + ~ EK"x2) + ty (T + ~ EK.y2)

o.

As this equation is of the form

fx (~~) + :y (- ~~) = 0,
it is evident that there exists a function F(x, y) such that

_a - 2
aF

!T,. -- T.. -

(52.7)

1 EK

"x,

aF
ax
- '12 EK.y2 .

The conditions to be satisfied by the function F(x, y) can be determined from the Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations (24.15), which
reduce in this case to
V

+ 1EK.
+
T..

_ 0

<1 -

._

V,.

+ 1EK.
+

<1

Substituting from (52'.7) in these equations, we see that the latter will be
fulfilled if

from which it follows that


(52.8)

V'F(x, y) = -2JJdK.x

+ 2JJdK.V -

2/-101.

200

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The physical significance of the constant of integration -21'Cl will be discovered presently. It is not difficult to obtain a particular integral of
(52.8) in the form of a polynomial, and it is readily verified that the
solution of (52.8) is
'
(52.9) F(x, y) = I(x, y) - J,i"",(KvX' - K.y) - Y2"a(x' + y'),
where !(x, y) is a harmonic function.
It will prove advantageous to write the stresses T", T z" not in terms of
I(x, y) but in terms of its harmonic conjugate g(x, y), where

a!

ax

(52.10)

ag
=

ay'

Equations (52.7) can then be written as


(52.11)
'T~1I

ax

ag

= - ay

- "ay

+ "",K.y' - !2
EK.x'
'

+ jJ.ax + "",KvX' -

'2 EK"y'.

The constant of integration -2"a in (52.8) can easily be interpreted


physicallyn Each element of area of a cross section is rotated in its own
plane through an angle [see (7.5)]
'" =

! (av

2 ax

_au).
ay

The local twi8t at a point (x, y) of a cross section is defined as


aw
1 ( a'v
a'u )
ae,.
ae
az = 2 oz ax - az ay = ax - ay
_ 1

(Or.. Or..)

-~ax-ay'

Substituting the values of the shear stresses from (52.11), one gets
aw
i)z =

Cl

+ u(KvX -

K.,y).

The mean value of the local twist over the section (or, equally well, the
value of the local twist at the centroid of the section) is Just the constant
a. Thus, we see that the terms in (52.11) that involve a represent a
twist of the beam, and, indeed, the terms - jJ.ay and jJ.ClX in these expressions also appear in the solution of the torsion problem (see Sec. 34). In
the latter problem, one has
(pure torsion).
We are thus led to introduce the torsion function <p(x, y) into the flexure
problem by writing
(52.12)

g(x,1/) = -II4<P(X,1/) - j.I[Kz'!'l(X, 1/)'+ KlfPt(x, 1/)],

201

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

where ",(x, 1/), "'l(X, 1/), and ",:(x, 1/) are hannonic functions.

We can now

write
'1'

(52.13)

{ T..

pa

pa

a-

( i l ' l 'Y)
x

(~+
oy

x)

il'l', + I'K. [ a
x
+ I'K. [a'oyl" -

x' - ,,(x' - y') ]


y' _ ,,(yO _ x' l ]

The boundary conditions on the functions


from the relation
(52.14)

cos (x, v)

+ '1',. cos (y,

<p,

a'l'
+ ,.K. -2,
ax
+ I'K'ay
0'1',.

and <Po may be derived

v) = 0,

which expresses the vanishing of external force on the lateral surface of


the cylinder, and, from the boundary condition on the torsion function <p
[see (34.6)1,
d<p
dv = y cos (x, v) - x cos (y, v).

(52.15)

Inserting Eqs. (52.13) in (52.14) and taking account of (52.15) yields


K.

d<P1

a; + K. d<p,
dv =

['

K. (1

+ <1)x' - <1Y'] cos (x, v)


+ K.[(1 + <1)Y' - <1X'] cos (y,

v)

on C,

and this will be satisfied if the functions <P1 and <p, are subject to the
conditions

(52.16)

7,,'

d;:.

= [(1

[(1

+ <1)x' + <1)y2 -

<1Y'] cos (x, v)

on C,

<1X'] cos (y, v)

on C.

The flexure problem has thus been reduced to the task of finding three
functions, hannonic within the region R of the cross section, whose normal
derivatives are prescribed on the boundary C; that is, we have been led
to the problem of Neumann. In order to see that the condition of the
existence of a solution of this problem is fulfilled, we observe that

Ie 7,,'

ds

Ie

[(1

+ <1)x' -

= 2(1 + <1)

11

<1Y'] dy

x dx dy

= 0,

( d<p'ds

Je dv

= _ ( [(1

Je
= 2(1 + <1)

+ <1)y' -

<1X'] dx

ydxd1/ = 0,

since the origin is at the centroid of the section.

MA THEMA TICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

In considering the torsion of a beam by couples, it waJ3 seen that the


solution could be made to depend upon either a problem of Neumann,
that is, the problem of finding a function ~(x, y), harmonic in R and such
that

on C,

= y I'OS (x, v) - x cos (y, v)

or upon a prohlern of Dirichlet, with


11(x'

'" =

+ y2) + const

on C.

The torsion fUllctions 'I' and 1/1 are harmonic conjugates, so that 'I' + N is
an analytic function of x + iy. The flexure problem may also be reduced
to a problem of Dirichlet by introducing the harmonic functions 1/1" "'"
conjugate to '1', and '1'2, respectively. Then
(i

1, 2),

and the boundary ('ouditions (52.16) can be written as


d1/l,
ds = [(1

+ O')x'

dy
- O'Y'] di'

d""
-

dB

-[(1

+ O')Y'

dx
- O'x']-,

ds

or

1/1,

(52.17)

- ~O'y3

{"'2 = %O'x

+ (1 + 0') f
(1 + 0')
f

~0

(XO,tlD)

(%'Y)

(zo,lIo-)

+ const

x 2 dy

y'dx

+ const

on C,
on C,

where the line integrals are to be evaluated along the contour C.


We turn now to the determination of the constants K. and Ky. Since
the resultant of the stresses 1'" acting over any cross section must equal
the component W. of the applied load, we have

w.

r dxdy,

or, substituting from (52.13),


(52.18)

W. = pOt

rr 0'1',
JJrr orp
oX dxdy + pK. JJ OX dxdy

+ p.K. ~:2 dx dy
+ p.K.[ - (1 + 0')1, + 0'1.],
whers

I. ""

y'dxdy,

1. =

x'dxdy.

EXTl!lNSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF lIEAMS

203

Now if" is any harmonic function, then l

h~-oXo+ dx dy = .!.c x -d+d" ds.


R

With the aid of this identity and t.he houndar., ('onditions (52. I!;) lind
(.";2.16), Eq. (52.18) becomes
IV.

Ila Jr (xy dy + .r'dx) + ilK, Jr [(I + 11):r' - 11.f.1l'J dll


+ ilK. Jr [- (1 + l1)xy' + I1X'J dx + /lKz[ -(1 + 11)1. + I1I.J

Upon applying Green's Theorem and reclIlling that


E = 21l(1

+ tT),

the last equation can be written as


(52.19)

W.

E(K.I.

where
I.. =

+ K.I ),

JJ xy dx dy
R

is the pro<fuet of inertia of the section.


IV. =

Simifarfy, from

[J T,. dx dy,

it follows that
W.

(52.20)

E(K.I.

+ K.I.,,).

Equations (52.1\) and (52.20) can be solved for K., K. to give

EK = I.W. - I."W.

1.1. - I;. '


EK = I.W~-=- J.;ry.

(52.21)

1.1. - I;'

since the denominator in these expressions never vanishes.


I

For

f/:

dXdy

Similarly, it follows that

JJ[fx(x~n +~(X~)]dXdY
- dy = Jdofl
X-d.
J( -x -ilofl dx + x ilofI)
ilx
dv
.
c

iJy

204

MA THEMA TICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Using the values of K. and K. determined by (52.21) in the formula


(52.4), we easily check that
M. ""

Jf yrudxdy =

M. ""

-(l - z)W..

-XT"

dx dy = (l - z)W.,

which are precisely the bending moments produced in the section z = const
hy the forces W. and W .
The stress distribution over any cross section is easily seen to be
statically equivalent to the load (W., W., 0);
f!r dxdy=W.,
R

If r,. dx dy = W., ff r .. dxdy

o.

The first two equations are satisfied by virtue of our choice of the constants K. and K., while the third follows from our assumption that the
z-axis passes through centroids of cross sections. The constant a in
formulas (52.13), for shear stresses, is determined by the condition that
the twisting moment M. be such that
(52.22)

(xr - yr.. ) dx dy

xoW. - yoW.

In (52.22), (xo, Yo) are the coordinates of the load point relative to any set
of axes intersecting at the centroid of the section.
We see that the solution of the general Saint-Venant flexure problem
is reduced to the determination of harmonic functions 'P, 'P" and 'P2 that
satisfy the boundary conditions (52.15) and (52.16). The boundary
conditions (52.16) are somewhat unwieldy, and we shall show in Sec. 53
how the formulation of the problem can be simplified by introducing the
idea of center of flexure.'
63. Center of Flexure. The formulas (52.13) for shear stresses suggest
a resolution of the general flexure problem into the following simpler
problems:
I The treatment of the flexure problem given here is influenced by L. S. Leibenson,
Central Aero-hydrodynamical Institute Technical Note. 45, Moscow (1933), and A. C.
Stevenson, Philosophical Tramactions of tke Royal Society (London) (A), vol. 237
(1938-1939), pp. 161-229. These authors have departed from. Saint-Vena.nt's
formulation by supposing that the load acts not at the centroid of the end section
but at an arbitrary load point (xo, Yo, I). Also, they abandoned Saint-Venant's
assumption that the x- and y-axes are the principal axes of inertia of the eross section.
Freedom in the choice of axes is of importance for asymmetric cross sections because,
(or such sections, the principal axes seldom provide the most convenient mathematical
description of the boundary. Leibenson obtained formulas, equivalent to those given
here, by a transformation of coordinates in the classical Saint-Venant's solution.

BltTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OJ' BEAMS

205

1. A flexure problem in which the mean local twist a is set equal to


sero. The position of the load point (!, ti, l), corresponding to this stress
distribution, is then determined by the condition

(XT.,. -

vr...) dx dy

= !W. - tiW.,

which must hold for an arbitrary choice of W. and W.. The load point
(x, ti, 1), corresponding to a = 0 is called the center of flexure and is
denoted by (x."
l).
2. A torsion problem with the twist a due to a couple of moment

y."

W.(xo -

XcI) -

W.(yo - y</),

and with shear stresses determined by (52.13), with K. and K. set equal
to zero.
We can thus think of the load W at the point (xo, Yo, l) as being replaced
by an equal load at the center of flexure and by a couple producing the
twist a. The solution of the general flexure problem is then got by superposing the solutions of these two simpler problems. The decomposition
of the general flexure problem into problems 1 and 2 amounts to resolving
the twisting moment
M.

xoW. - yoW.,

determined by (52.22), into two parts:

ff (xr,. -

(53.1)

yr,.) dx dy = xc/W. - yc/W.,

where r .. and r .. are given by formulas (52.13) with a = 0, and


(53.2)

V(xr.. -

vr.. ) dx dy

(x. - xc,)W. - (yo - yc/)W.,

where r .. and r,. are given by (52.13) with K. = K. = O.


The position of the center of flexure is determined from the formula
(53.1), and it is really found that

= J(I,/J, - 1..8,),
Yc/ = J(I,.8, - 1.8,),

Xc,
{

(53.3)

where
8, =

If 7v' - +
ff [x 7v' - a;; [x

try.] dx dy,

y 0:X'

(1

+ l1)x'y -

(1

+ I1)X1l' + I1XI) dx dy,

Ii

8, =

Ii

J-' = 2(1

+ 11)(1.1. -

I!,,).

206

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 01' ELASTICITY

If the cross section R is symmetric about the ~, then it is evident


from the symmetry of the differential equation and the symmetry of the
boundary conditions that

In this ca.se the foregoing formulas reduce to

and y ' : ' are odd in y.


81

"'l(X, y) is an even function in Yi hence, x 0;,1

(53.4)

~ x., =

2(1

~ rr)I.

(y., = 0,

J-l

0,

and

[f

= 2(1 + rr)I.Iv,

0;,' - YO:: -

[x

(1

+ rr)xy' + rrx a] dxdy,

which state that the center of flexure lies on the axis of 8jJmmetry of the section.
Accordingly, if the cr088 8ection has two perpendicular axe8 of symmetry,
then the center of flexure ccn'ncides with the centroid of the section.
In general, the center of flexure does not lie on either of the principal
axes and may even be outside the cross section of the beam. 1
The solution of the simple flexure problem is given by the harmonic
functions and 'P., which satisfy the conditioWl (52.16) on the boundary.
Simpler boundary conditions can be realized by subdividing the problem
once more. We define the harmonic functions "'u, "'12, 'Pn, "' by the
relations

"'1

(1

'PI =

(53.5)

"'. = (1

+ 0')"'11 - rr",u,
+ 0')"'21 + 0''''21.

Equations (52.16) now become


(I
(53.6)

{ (1

+ ..) ~' - .. d;;.

(1

+ ..)xl cos (x, .)

+.,.) d;;, +.,. a.r;' - (1 + .,.)fI' cos (fI, .)

""I

cos (x, .),

cos (fI, p).

- a

1 There is some confusion in the literature concerning the relation of the flexural
center to the cenUr 01 twiat, the latter being defined as the point at rest in every Cl'088
aection of the beam fixed at one end and twisted at the other by a oouple. The center
of flexure is sometimes vaguely defined as the point in the end section of a cantilever
beam such that the load applied at that point produces "tomionless bending," There
are different definitions of toreionless bending [E. Treffu, ZeitBckri/t 11l.r ~
MatMm4tiJ: und Meckanilc, vol. 15 (1935), pp. 226-225; J. N. Goodier, JuumqJ, oj tile

A_utiml &isntJe, vol. 11 (1944), pp. 272-280), and the confusion in the identification of the two oenters generally stems from the .failure to define toreionlese hendina
and to specify the mode of fixing the beam. It is poIIBl"ble to define the center of
flexure (aleo oaIled the cenUr oj 41h<1ar) and the center of twist 80 that both oenten
coincide. See A. Weinstein, ~ oj Applied M~, voL I; (1947), pp.
97-llII. The _ten of flexure for JeVeI'IIl beams with polygonlll _
.IOOtiona have
been ealeuIated by N. Kh. Arutiunyan and N. O. Gulkanyan, PriIcl. Mat. Me1:1.;
A~

N_ 88880 voL 18 (1954), pp. 597-&8.

207

EXTENSION, TOBSIO:!!" AND FLEXUBE 31' BEAMS

We are at liberty to prescribe arbitrary boundary conditions on the individual functions <Pi;, subject only to the restriction that the relations
(53.6) be sa.tisfied on C. Boundary conditions that are simple in form
and independent of the elastic constants of the material will be realized
if it is required that the functions '1'.; satisfy conditions

(! XI),

d'l'll = x' cos (x, II) = !!_


d"
d" 3

d'l'22
) = iE.
d (31
Tv = y' cos (
y,"
y') ,
(53.7)

d'l'lt
Tv '=
d'l'21 =
dv

y2

(13 y'),
= .!!_ (! x,).
'ds 3

)
d
cos (
X, V = dB

-x' cos

(y ,,)

We introduce the conjugate harmonic functions


0'1'12

ax

0'1'21

ax

0"'12

0'1'12

0"'21

0'1'21

= -

ax'

Ty = -

ax'

Ty'

-oy ,

"'12, "'21 with

0"'12

Ty

Ot/t21

and in terms of these functioI " the last two boundary conditions can be
written as

or
on C.
"'21 = ~X' + const
(53.8)
"'12 = ~yl + const,
The solution of the simple flexure problem in which the applied load
(W., W.,O) acts at the center of flexure (with a = 0) is thus given by the
stresses
'Tn

= -Tzw =

T ..

= -E(l - z)(K.x

T ..

T.. =

1'fIII

0,

~K. [ (1 + u)

+ K.y),

e:;1 - x.) -

~. [ (1 + IT) (~:;' _'

(at;, - y.) ]
+ ~K [(1 +

yt) _ (0;;1 _x,)]

where

EK

I.W. _ I..,W.

I.I. _ I:_ ,

u) 0'1'22

+ IT ~.!],

+ p.K. [ (1 + IT) a~l

+ o;;l}

ax

oy

IT

IT

208

MATHEKATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

and where the harmonic functions 11'11, 11'22, -/tu, -/t21 satisfy the boundary
conditions

c;;'

d'Tv
l'tJ =

= XI'COS (x, v),

+ const,

"'" = %,x'

yl cos (y, v),

"'" = %,y.

+ const

on C.

The connection between the functions employed in this seotion and the
classical Saint-Venant flexure function is discussed in the next section.
M. Bending by a Load along a Principal Axis. The general problem
considered in the last two sections will now be specialized to an important
partiCUlar case, namely, that in which the axes are taken to be the
principal axes of the section and the load (W., 0, 0) is directed parallel
to one of these axes. In this case, I ... = 0, and Eqs. (52.21) yield

K. = W.

E1.

21'(1

W.

+ q)1.

K. = 0,

while Eqs. (52.13) become

_ I'a (a'l')
l" ax - y + 2(1 W.
+ q)1. [a'ax

" -

Tar =

y.a

0'1')

ay

(1

+ q)x I+ qy,
2]

+ 2(1 W.
+ q)1. 0'1"
ay

The flexure function 'I"(x, y) is not of the same form as the classical
Saint-Venant flexure function <I>(x, y) used by most writers; the two functions (together with their harmonic conjugates 1/1, and if) are related, in
fact, by the e"pression
'P,

+ i"',

'I', =

(54.1)

+ iif) + %,(1 + ~q)(x + iy)',


-<I> + 73(1 + ~"')(X3 - 3xy2),
-if + 73(1 + ~q)(3x'y - yl).

= - (<I>

or

"', =

In terms of the harmonic function <I>(x, y), the stresses can be written as
{ ..,.~ =

T'Q

,," = -

(54.2)

,"" =
Till

TIN

!f

0,

(l - z)x,

/laC:: - y) - 2(1 ::)1. [:: + 4qxt + (1 - ~q) ya}


pIX

(!; + x) -

2(1 !"fT)I" [ :

+ (2 + q)xy

From (54.1) and from the boundary condition (52.16) on the function 11'1,
it follows that the harmonic function <I> must satisfy the condition

209

EXTENSION, TOUlON, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

(54.3) : : '" -

[~I1XI + (1 - ~ IT) yl] cos (x, p)


- (2

+ IT)xy cos (y,

,,)

on C.

This special case of the general flexure problem has been formulated in
terms of the torsion function 'P and the flexure function if> as a problem of
Neumann. It may be rephrased as a problem of Dirichlet by writing the
stresses in terms of the conjugate harmonic functions '" and w. The
appropriate boundary condition on w is seen from (52.17) and (54.1) to be
(54.4)

w = -U(l -

721T)Y'

+ (1 + 72u)X2y -

= -U(1 - 721T)Y' - 72ITX2y

(1

+ 2(1 + u)

+ IT)

r(~,v) x'dy

} (Zo.f't>

+ const

r(~'v) xydx

} (:1:0,110)

+ const

on C,
where the last step makes use of integration by parts, and where the line
integral is to be evaluated along the contour C.
The y-coordinate of the center of flexure is found from (53.3) and
(54.1) to be given by
(54.5)

1101 = 2(1

~ ,,)1

Jf ('" ~ - y~) d", dy

"R

+2(1

~")I.II [(2 +j"),,,'y - (l-j")Y']d"'d"


R

- 2(1

~ ,,)1.

II (y ~:l - '" ~l) d", dy


R

- 2(1

~ ,,)1.

II

[(1

+ ")"''11 - ",,'] d", dll.

Since we have set W. = 0, the x-coordinate of the flexural center cannot


be determined from (53.1); that is, the mean twist over every section will
vanish, provided the load W. is applied at any point along the line y = y.,.
66. The Displacement in a Bent Beam. In this section, expressions
for the displacement components u, v, w will be given in terms of the
torsion function 'P and the flexure functions 'PI, 'PI. Some conclusions
about the state of deformation can then be drawn from these expressions
without explicitly determining the functions 'P, 'PI, 'PI. The procedure is
to substitute the expressions for the stresses found in Sec. 52 in formulas
(29.2) and to carry out the integrations in a manner analogous to that used
in Sees. 31 and 32. Since the calculation presents no points of interest,
we shall merely list the final results and it is a simple matter to verify
that the formulas for the components of displacement lead to the expressions for the stresses found in the preceding section.
In the case of the general flexure problem, discussed in See. 52, the
expressions for the components of displacement are:

210

llA'l'BEMATlCAL THEORY 0'" lIILAWrIClTY

-ayz

r
(55.1)

+ Kc{72a(l -

z)(x' - yS) - 7tl ZI


~klJ
+ KrIT(l - z)xy - cy hz a',
v = ctXZ
K.[~.,.(l - z)(yt - x 2 ) - 7tlz
~lz'l
K,(l - z)xy
ex - az hi,
w = a'P(x, y) - fix
ay
c'
K.['Pl(X, y) - (k - ~ZI)X - 711(2 + er)x l + ~erxy21
+ K.['P2(X, y) - (k - 3iz2 )y - 76(2 er)y' 3ierx2yj.
U ""

+ +
+
+

The linear terms that arise in deriving Eqs. (55.1) represent a rigid body
displacement and can be made to vanish by imposing suitable llonditions
of fixity.
When the flexure problem is specialized to the case of bending by a load
(W., 0, 0) along a principal axis (Sec. 54), then Eqs. (55.1) take the form

+ ;'j. [~er(l -

u = -ayz
(55.2)

v =

ctXZ

+ ~: er(l -

w = a'P(x, y) -

z)(:l: 2

~ za + ~ lz,}

y2) -

z)xy,

;;J~(x,

y)

+ XV' +

(lz - ~ zt)

x].

where the fUnction ~ is defined in Sec. 54.


The linear terms in (55.2) were made to vanish by fixing the end of
the beam. Thus if the origin (0, 0, 0) is fixed and ~(x, y) is chosen so
that ~(O, 0) = 0, tb.en a' = b' = c' = O. If, in addition, an element of
the z-axis is fixed at the origin, then

~u

"x

~ = 0 at (0, 0, 0), and if an


"y

element of the plane x = 0 is fixed there, then

~:

= O.

These give

b = c = O.

Some interesting conclusions regarding the state of deformation can be


drawn directly from Eqs. (55.1). We note first that points (0,0, z) lying
on the central line of the undeformed beam are carried into points (x', V',
z'), with
x' = u = K.( - 7t}z + ~lz'),
(55.3)
y' = v = K.( - Jilzl + Uk');

that is, the deformed central line of the beam lies in the plane of bending

K.

y=-x=

(55.4)

I.WlI - I ..W. x

K.
I.W. - I ..W.
The greatest deflection of the central line of the beam occurs at the loaded
end z == 1, where
'
1 KJ'
1 I.W. - loW. fa
U ..

1K

II

- 3 E(l.l. - I:.) .-.

1 I.,W. - loW.
=- 3 ..... i E(I.I. - 1:'> II .
11

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

211

If the axes are principal axes of a cross section, then

while, for bending by a load W. along a principal axis, the end deflection is
1 =

W' ll
3 E1v

The plane of the load (the plane containing the z-axis and the line in the
direction of the load) does not, in general, coincide with the plane of
bending, since the equation of the former is
y

Wv

= W. x.

The neutral plane is defined as that plane whose filaments are not altered
in length; that is, it is characterized by the equation en = O. Since
en =

(lw
(lz

= - K.(l - z)x - K.(l -

z)y,

we have as the equation of the neutral plane

K.

(55.5)

y = - Kv x.

The planes defined by (55.4) and (55.5) are orthogonal, and hence the
neutral plane is perpendicular to the plane of bending.
In the case of bending by a load (W., 0, 0) along a principal axis (Sec.
54), the xz-plane contains the deformed central line, while the :!Iz-plane is
the neutral plane.
Consider now the curvature of the deformed central line of the beam.
Taking coordinates r = y' X/2 + y'2 and z in the plane of bending, we
have from (55.3)
r

= y'K;

+ K; (-%z + Y2lz2).

If the displacements and their derivatives are smail, one can write

r = y'K:

+ K: (-%Z'l + Y2lz'J),

from which it follows that the curvature of the central line is given
approximately by

it .. :; . . viE: + K: (I -

Z/).

That the curvature is proportional to the bending moments M., Mil ill
easily seen by referring to Sec. 52, where it was found that

212

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OP ELASTICITY

M. == 111/1".. Ikdy == -(l- z)W.,

M. =

g-

z-r.. d%dy == (1- z)W.,

and hence
M

w.

- R v'K~

+ K:

For the case of bending by a load W. along a principal axis (Sec. 54),
t.hese tela.tiotla Uee.om.e

M. = EI.
R

M. = 0,

Thus, the Bernoulli-Euler law is also valid in the case of bending of


beams by transverse end l09ds.
The changes in the cross section of the beam are determined from a
study of the terms in u, v, and w that are independent of the twist (l,
and one can carry out an aDalysis similar to that given in Sec. 32. The
neutral plane is deformed into a saddle-shaped surface, of which the central line is one of the principal lines of curvature. The cross sections
z = c of the beam do not temain plane even when the term (llp(x, y),
which is due to the twisting of the beam by the load, disappears. This
can be seen by examining tbe equation
(55.6)

z' = c

+ w = c + dlp(X, y)
- (Ie - ~C2)X - 713(2 + cr)x' + ~crxy2)
+ K.[Ip.(x, y) - (lc - ~C2)y - 713(2 + cr)y3 + ~crx2y).

+ K.[Ip,(x, y)

For the special case consideted in Sec. 54, this takes the form
(55.7)

z' =

+ (lip (x, y)

- ;;.: [

~(x, y) + xy' + (lc - ~ c.)

xl

The nature of the distortion of cross sections and the distribution of


stresses can be discussed wit}!. more profit after the solutions of the flexure
problem for specific cross sections have been deduced. It is not difficult,
\.\.~,e'{~~, m ,~t <i~,\\. t\.\.~ difff'.rent.i&lll.fVJ.S.tinn. Q{ the IinIlS. of. W.9.l:inll,
stress. The directions of these lines are given by the equation

dy =
Ik

T"",
T

so that, disregarding the terms in (52.13) that depend on a, we have the


difterential equation
(55.8)

{ K.

[8;1 _III _"'(111 _:tt) ]


_ {K.

+ K. ~I} "

[= - :t' -

,,(:t' - II') ]

+ K. =} d1J -

O.

213

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

For the special ease of bending by a load ~ong a principal axis, this
becomes

(55.9) [2: + (4 + 2IT)XY ] dx

[2: + O'x' +- (2 -

0')y2] dy =

O.

This equation will be used to dete~mine the distribution of lines of shearing stress in a bent circular beam.
66. Flexure of Circular and Elliptical Beams. Let the equat.ion of the
boundary of cross section of a beam of length I be

x'

+ y2

= as,

and let the terminal load W be applied at the centroid of the end section
and directed along the x-axis. The form of the boundary suggests the
use of polar coordinates (r, (J). In terms of these coordinates, the equation of the boundary assumes the simple form r = a, and the boundary
condition (54.4) becomes
'If

= -711(1 - 2(1

or
'If = -(%

72O')a l sin l

(J -

72O'a 3 cos'

+ O')a f sin' (J cos (J d(J,

(J

sin

(J

+ 72O')a

sin

(J

+ ;!,ia

sin 311,

on r

a.

Since the function 'If is harmonic in the interior of the circle r = a, the
appropriate particular solutions of the equation V2'1f = 0 in polar coordinates are of the form r" sin nil. Hence we must have
'If =

(%

+ Y2O')a2r sin (} + :!-ir' sin 311,

while the conjugate flexure function is


4> = - (%

Reealling that x = r cos


(56.1)

4>(x, y) = -

(J,

+ 720')a 2r cos (} + :!-ir' cos 311.


y = r sin II, we get

(% + 72O')a'x +

Y.t(x - 3xy).

From the symmetry of the cross section, it is seen that the center of
flexure coincides with the centroid of the end section, and as the load
point has also been taken at the centroid, it follows that in this example
a = O. The stress components are found from (54.2) to be
_ (3

+ 2u)W (

+ 0') a
(1 + 2u)W

2 _

r - 2ra'(1
(56.2)

1'

= - ra'(l

+ 0') xy,

4W
rp = - ra' (I - z);t.

1 - 20' .)
+ 2u Y ,

214

IlATHEMATIC,AL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

FIG. 43

Along the diameter x = 0,


(56.3)

T."

_ (3 + 2o-)W ( t
2ra4(1 + cr) a

= 0,

T.., -

imd it is evident that


circle, where

2)

1 - 203 + 2cr Y ,

takes its maximum value at the center of the

T.%

3+20- W
+ <1) ra'

(Tn) .... = 2(1

rhe shearing stress at the ends of this diameter is


(Tn).-<>

1+2<1W
=- --.
1 + <1 ra'

The distribution of the lines of shearing stress can be determined with


the aid of Eq. (55.9) or directly from the defining relation
dy

iiX

T ..

T.;

The differential equation of the lines of shearing stress is easily found to be


2(1

+ 2cr)xy dx

- (3

+ 2<1) ( -at + x' + 31-2<1


+ 2<11/')

dy .. 0,

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

215

the solution of which is given by


X2

+ y. =

where c is an arbitrary constant.


are indicated in Fig. 43 for

(f

a2

3+20-

+ cyl+20-,

Several of these lines of shearing stress

= 0.3.

The distortion of cross sections is given by Eq. (55.7), which becomes


in this case

z' - c = - - E [- (3
Tat

+ 2rr)a + 2c(21 2

c)Jx - - - (x'
Ta'E

+ y)x.

The linear term corresponds to a rigid rotation of the section z = c about


the y-axis, whereas the nonlinear terms represent the distortion of the
section II! = C out of a plane. The contour lines of the section are given by

- 7ra'E (x 2

+ y2)X =

const.

Some of the contour lines are shown in Fig. 44.

"

Flo. 44

An analysis similar to that used in the preceding section can be applied


to determine the flexure function for a beam whose cross section is given
by the equation (see also Sec. 60),
(56.4)

f(x, y) "'"

x'

y'

iii + l)i

- 1=

o.

2Hi

MATHEMA.'1'fCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

We assume, as above, that the load acts in the direction of the x-axis and
is applied at the centroid of the end section.
Now the direction cosines cos (x, v) a.nd cos (y, v) of the normal to the
boundary of the ellipse are proportiona.l to

:~

and

:t,

respectively.

Hence
cos (x, v)

x/a'

cos(y;-;j = y/b 2
On the boundary C of the section, the flexure function 4> satisfies the condition (54.3); hence
(565)
.

a4'b x+ a4'
ax
ay a y=
2

2
2X-(2+u)a 2xy '
-[!uX
+(I-!u)y2]b
2
2

onC.

Since the right-hand member of (56.5) is a homogeneous polynomial in x


and y, it is natural to seek a solution in the form of the sum of integral
harmonics. Assuming
4>

+ iit

= el(x

+ iy) + e.(x + iy)"

that is,
(56.6)
and substituting in the boundary condition (56.5) gives
[el

+ 3c.(x'

- y2)Jb' - 6c.a'y2 = -[Yzux'

+ (1

- Yzu)y'lb 2
- (2

+ u)a 2y2.

But on the boundary of the section,

and the preceding equation demands that

-a'

Cl

= 3a' + b' [2(1 + u)a 2 + b2l,

C2

(2

+ Yzu)a + (1 9a" + 3b
2

Vzu)b 2

The expression (56.6) for the flexure function now becomes


(56.7)

... __ a'[2(1 + u)a' + b2l


3a! + b1
x

+ ~.+ b' + Yzu(a 2 _=-_!J~~ (xa _


3(3a' + b
2)

Calculating stresses with the aid of formulas (54.2), we find that


(56.8)

2W 2(1 + .,)6' + b' [


(1 - 200)6'
]
.... - ..... '1> (1
)(34'
h") 6 - zt - 2(1
)a2
b' 'I"
4W (1 + .. )a' +<Jb'
{
..." - - .....'1> (1 + ..)(311'
b) zy.

+ ..

+ .. +

'.l_.2)
"""If

217

EXTENSION, ToRSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

It is obvious from these formulas that the y-component, T , of the shearing stress vanishes on the hotizontal axis (x = 0) of the cross section and
that
_ 2W 2(1 + <,:~~_j-_b~_ [ _
(1 - 2o-)a'
(T )_O - ;(i3b (1+oT(3a' + bt ) a
2(1 + u)a' + b' y .

t]

Hence

takes its maximum value at the eenter of t.he ellipse where


(T )~ .. =

2W 2(1

+ a)a' + b'

if 0+ a)(3a 2 + btl'

and A = 'll'ab is the area of the cross section. Evidently Tc. reaches its
maximum on the boundary, ~nd if we put x = a cos (J, y = b sin (J, then
(XY)mn = (7fab sin 2(J)_. = 7fab, and it is seen that.
h.)m&>

2W b (1 + a)a' + ab'
a(1 + u)(3a' + b')'

=A

If b a, then the shape of the beam approaches that of a thin rectangular plank loaded parallel to its longer aide. In this case, neglecting
terms of order b'ja', we get
(
)
'T zx

InIlloX

.4W
= 3A'

. 4W b
("Z,",) max = aA 2ll'

so that T,. T... On the otller hand, if a


the shorter axis, and

b a,

b, then the load acts along

a b.
57. Bending of Rectangu16I' Beams. The problems in the preceding
section illustrate the solution of the boundary-value problems of flexure
by forming those combinations of particular solutions of thedifferential
equation
or
V'w = 0
V~ = 0
that satisfy the boundary conditions on the function cI> or '1'. The
flexure Qroblem of circular beams was treated by inspection of the
boundary values of 'I' in polat coordinates and by utilizing the particular
solutions of the form rn sin nO. Beams of elliptical cross section were
handled by observing that tlle boundary condition on

:~ involved only

homogeneous polynomials in x and y, and this fact suggested that a solution for the complex flexure fllnction cI>
iw be sought as a sum of terms
of the form c.. (x + iy)". III this section, the solution of the flexure
problem for a beam of rectaJlgUlar cross section is given as an infinite
aeries of particular solutions A .. sinh a% cos fJy, the coefficients A .. being
SO chosen as to ensure the satisfaction of the boundary conditions. The

218

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

next two sectiollll will illustrate the use of analytic functions in solving
the flexure problems.
Let ilIe equation of the boundary of the cross section of the beam be
(x' - a2)(y2 - b' ) = 0,
and let the terminalloa.d be directed along the positive x-axis and applied
at the origin.
A reference to the boundary conditions (54.3) shows that, on the sides
x = a, we must have
a4> =
ax

_.! ua'
2

(1 _.!2
u) yS
'

-b

<

< b,

while, on the sides y = b, we must satisfy the condition


a4>

ay = +(2

+ u)bx,

< x < a.

-a

In order to simplify the boundary conditions, we define a harmonic function !(x, y) by the relation

7il(2 + u)(x'

!(x, y) = 4>(x, y) -

- 3xy');

then the boundary conditions to be satisfied by the function f(x, y) are


a!
ax = -(1

+ u)a + cry',

on x = a,

a! = 0 ,
ay

on y = b.

It follows from the discussion in Sec. 38 that one can build up the
desired solution by forming an infinite series of particular solutions
!(x, y) = Ax

'\'

n1lx

nry

L.. An smh b cos T'


ft-l

The boundary condition on y = b is satisfied by each term of the series,


while the satisfaction of the boundary condition on x = a is readily
effected by noting the expansion
4b' 2:- (-1)"
nry
yS = -b' + - cos-,
3 " . ' ft-l n 2
b

The condition on the boundary x


A

..
"\'

-b

b.

a now takes the form

osh~
n1r'g
+ ...L..1 ~A
b "c
b cos b

== -(1

+ u)a

i
+u [ -b

(-1)" cosnry],
+ -4bt 2:" -_
3,..2
nS
b
!

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

219

and equating the coefficients o.f cos (nry/b) leads to. the result
f( z y) -

[-(1 + ..)a' +!3 ub'] z + 4crb'


11"'

sinh n...z

'\' (-1)-

n-l

n'

b cos!!!1lb

ftra

coshT

The flexure functio.n <I>(x, y) can now be fo.und from the relatio.n

= f(x, y)

+ ~(2 + (f)(x

_,3 xy2).
We shall dispense with the calculatiQn Qf shear stresses. An elabQrate
discussio.n o.f the bending pro.blem fo.r a rectangular beam is given by
TimoshenkQ,' who., ho.wever, appro.aches the pro.blem in an entirely different way, by using an analo.gy between a certain stress functio.n and
the deflectio.n o.f a stretched membrane under no.nunifo.rm pressure. We
shall discuss this analo.gy in Sec. 60.
58. Conformal Mapping and the General Problem of Flexure; the
Cardioid Section. The examples co.nsidered in the preceding sections
give illustrations of the specialized pro.blem of flexure by a lo.ad (W., 0, 0)
directed along a principal axis (which was also one o.f the two. axes o.f
symmetry) o.f the cro.ss sectio.n o.f the beam. The analysis was also. simplified by taking the centro.id o.f the sectio.n as the Po.int o.f applicatio.n
Qf the lQad. We cQnsider nQW, as an illustratiQn Qf the general prQblem Qf
flexure, the prQblem Qf bending Qf a beam whQse crQSS sectiQn is bQunded
by a cardiQid and thus has Qnly Qne axis Qf symmetry. The lQad (W.,
W.,O) will be co.nsidered to. act at so.me Po.int (xo, Yo, 1) Qf the end sectiQn,
and the Qrigin Qf cQo.rdinates will be taken in the fixed end at the centrQid
of the cardiQid. UpQn this pro.blem we shall bring to. bear the PQwerful
weapQn o.f analytic functio.n theQry, which was used earlier in the case Qf
to.rsio.n o.f a beam. 2
In Sec. 53, it was seen that the general prQblem o.f flexure by a lo.ad
(W., W., 0) acting at any po.int (xo, Yo, l) can be reso.lved into. (1) a
simpler flexure pro.blem with IX, the mean lo.cal twist, set equal to. zero.,
and with the lQad applied at the center Qf flexure (xc" Ye/, l), and (2)
a to.rsiQn pro.blem with a twist IX due to. a co.uple o.f mQment W.(xo - xc,)
- W.(Yo - Yell. The pro.blem o.f to.rsio.n o.f a cylinder was reduced in
Sec. 35 to the bo.undary-value pro.blem o.f finding the analytic functiQn
,,(x, y) + il{t(x, y) with
I{t = 72(X' + y2)
o.n the bo.undary C.
4>(x, y)

S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, Sec. 109.


For 8Olutiob8 of this problem by other methods, see W. M. Shepherd, Procuding.
of tile Royal Society (Ltmdon), (A), vol. 154 (1936), p. 500; A. C. Stevenson, "Flexure
with Shear and Associated Torsion in Prisms of Uni-a.xial and Asymmetric Crossaeetiob8," PhiloM>phicai. Tramactiotut oflk Royal Sociy (London) (A), vol. 237 (1939),
W. 161-229; R. M. Morris, "Some General Solutions of St. Venant's Flexure and
Torsion Problem I," Proceeding. 01 tile London Mathematical. Soddy, aer. 2, voL 46
(l940), pp. 81-98.
1

220

MATHElIL\TICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The simpler flexure problem (1) was seen in See. 53 to be equivalent to


four boundary-value problems involving the determinatkn of four analytic functions '11 + i'/lll, 'n + i'/lu, 'u + il/l 12, and '21 + il/l. h such that
d'll

d"pu
d--

fi; = x' cos (x, 1'),

'/1.1

= ~X3

= y2 cos (y, ,,), }

~2

+ const,

on C.

~yl + const

The boundary conditions 011 the normal derivatives of 'll and '22 can
he replaced by conditions on the houndary values of the I'olljugate function!! .pll and .pt! by noting that

1.'!..lJ

dv

O.!~l

ax

<!.: + o'!._lI ~Y
oy

dv

dv

i1rh_1 <!JL

oy

d8

+ 01/111 ~

= d'/ttL

OX d8

ds

The condition on 1/111 now hecomes

t!.;;l = x, COB (x, 1') = x' cos (y, 8)

on C,

or
.pll

=/

x2

~: dB =

x' dy

on C.

Similarly, we have

"'.2 =

- /

y' dx

on C.

The general problem of flexure is thus made to depend on the solution of


five boundary-value problems of Dirichlet for the conjugate torsion function r/t and the four flexure functions 1/111, ,h., "'21, and 1/112.
We have already seen, in Sec. 44, how to solve the boundary-value
problem
V'I/I

in R,

onC,

by mapping the region R on the interior of the unit circle ItI :<; 1 ami
applying the formula of Schwau [Eq. (42.4)]. The same procedure can
be used, of course, to write down the solution, in the form of an integral,
for any problem of Dirichlet for any region that can be mapped conformally on the interior of a unit circle. In particular, the Schwarz integral affords solutions for the boundary-value problems of flexure.
It is not difficult to express the boundary conditions imposed on the
functions r/tu in Sec. 53 in terms of the complex variables a = x + iy and
! == x - iy or, when the mapping function a = "'(t) is known, in terms of
t and f. The application of the Schwarz formula (42.6) would then yield
the complex flexure functions 'Pij + ir/t.. in a form analogous to (44.5).
Because of the complicated form of the boundary conditions which the
!/Iii satisfy, the resulting general formulas are of doubtful value in specific

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

221

applications, and we dispense with recording them here. I Instead we


illustrate in detail how the complex torsion and flexure functions can be
determined in a specific problem by considering a beam whose cross section is a cardioid. The technique illustrated here can be used' to solve
flexure problems for beams with cross
sections considered in Sec. 45.
Consider a beam whose cross section is shown in Fig. 45, where the
origin of the cartesian axes is at the
centroid of the section. The polar
and rectangular coordinates are related by
x =

5c

"3

+ r cos t,

11 = r sin t,

when the origin of polar ('oordinatcH


(r, t) is taken at the cusp of the
FIG. 45
cardioid.
The polar equation of the boundary C of the section is
r = 2c(1 - cos t),
and we can write
(58.0

x =

{y

5e

"3 + 2c cos t(l

= 2c

sin t(l - cos

cos t) =

t) = 2c

5e
"3
- e + 2e cos t - c cos 21,

sin

t - ('

sin 21.

Then
x

5c
+ ~y. = "3
-

(
c 1 - 2e"

c
+ e'" ) 5
="3
-

c(l - eit)',

and it is seen that the analytic fUllction


(58.2)

with

w(l)

5c

== "3 -

c(l - I)',

5c + .,
= x + ty. =:3'
re' ,

maps the interior of the eardioid on the unit circle 151 .:::; 1, with () = t.
The inverse transformation is
(58.3)

0':::;

t.:::;

2".

1 See S. Gosh, Bulletin ()f the Calcutta Mathematical Society, vol. 39 (1947), pp. 1-14.
It should be noted, however, that a suitll.ble choice of curvilinear coordinates may
yield simpler solutions. Thus the ftexure problem for a cylinder whose cross section
is formed by the arcs of two intersecting circles of different radii, which includes the
segment of the circle as a special case, is more easi,,- .olved in bipolar coordinates.
See Ya. S. Uflyand, D()klady Akademii Nauk SSSR, N~lv Series, vol. 69 (1949), pp.
'751-754.

222

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The mapp.ing function can be written as


"'(0') =

5c
'3
-

c(l - 0')' ""

and we have

(1)

w(O')w -;

where
ll(O')

-6 - 60'

3 (2 + &

- 30'%).

90" 1,(0'),

+ 490"

- 6u a - &4.

The complex torsion function is found from (44.5) to be given by


[ef. (44.16)]

<p

c
+ t'." = 1871'

1,(0')
0'2(0' _ r) dO'

ic'

=9

(R ,

+ R.),

where R, and R. are the residues of the integrand at 0' = 0 and 0'
respectively, and where 'Y denotes the contour Irl = 1. We have

= r,

= ~ + ~,

R, "" .!!:_ ll(O') ]

dtrO'-r ...O!
!'
I,(t)
6
6
R. = -= - - - - + 49 - 6" - 6'"

"

!'

1"

= 9ie' (49

- 6! - 6!')

and
'P

+ i1{l

( )" cotl ' + 6 ~ceit]'

. , 37 _ lSi ~
= u;
9
e
or
<p

'" =

t - :32 rc SIll
. t,

lHi

2r e cos '2

2r~e" sin ~ + ~ rc cos t.

Equation (44.8), for the moment of inertia 10 , takes the form

Io

_!:_ 2c'
j,(0') d
4i 27 y 0"
0',

where
1.(0') = 18 - 360' - 1770'

+ 4950"

- 2200" - 12&'

and hence

71'c"

10 = 27 Ra,
where
1 d'
Ra = 31 dtr 8 [12(0')].-0 = 495

+ 360'" + 120'7,

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND fi.EXURE OF BEAMS

is the residue of the integrand at u = O.

223

Thus,

551rc

10 = -3-

(58.4)

is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section. I


Similarly, Eq. (44.7) yields

_! i4c

Do =

4 9

r!3(U)
du
u
,

J'Y

with
Then
Do

2".c

R, =

2".c' 1 d'
4".c'
4i du' [f3(U)]._0 = - 3 '

The torsional rigidity D is


D

,..(10

+ Do)

= 17,..".c'.

The shearing stresses may be fonnd either from Eq. (44.10) or from the
relation
T zz:

JJa.

a'l'

iJy ,

"'.iJl

V' = yJ. - H(Z2

a'l'

- J.la iJx '

+ 1,/2,\

We turn now to the determination of the harmonic flexure function

"'21, which takes the values


From

"'21 = >'3x' + const


cos t

on C.

~ (J +~}

and Eq. (58.1), we get


x =

3"c [5

+ 6(1 - cos 9) cos 9]


+ 611 + 4u + 6u' 2

c( -3

3_,!:'2

6u 2

and

with
f.(u) = -27

+ 162<1 - 21611
+ 82Bu7 2

54fT' - 441u' + 828u' + 49611 8


441u s - 54u' - 21&10 + 162,,-11 - 27u 12

1 Thia result could have been obtained more simply by calculus.


The detailed
calculations included here are intended to illustrate the step-by-step Pl'Oiledures and to
provide a review of the residue method of evaluat.ing simple integrals. The reader
versed in such matters is advised to omit the rest of this section.

224

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF l!:LASTICITY

The boundary condition becomes


c'/'(rr)
648rr'

.1.
_
'1'21 -

on 'Y,

and since l{t21 is the real part of (Iii) (1".1


integral (42.4)
-,-I (1".1
t

.
+ uhl)

1 c3

-0 -

7rl

or

648

+ il{t21), we have by the Schwarz

1
y

/.Crr) drr
----- rr 6 (rr - n
'

1"21

+ il{t'l = 3~4 (R. + R6),

where R. and R. are the residues of the integrand at rr = 0 and rr = !,


respectively. We have

and

Rs

he!).
IS

Then
I"u

+ i.p21

ic
= 324 (248

+ 828r -

4411' - 54r 3

216r 4

+ 162r6 -

27r6).

With the help of the inverse transformation (58.3), we find


of 21 =

3~4

(5OOC'

+ 432r~c~2 sin ~ + 684 re' cos t

+ 1621';'c~2 sin ~ + 1891"c cos 2t + 27r' COB 3t).


(58.5)
'P2J =

1 (

36

48r;2c~

t .
COB 2 - 76rc' SIn t

3t
+ 18r~'c" cos '2
- 21r'c sin 2t - 3r' sin 3t).

Similarly, the function l{t12 can be determined by noting that (58.1) and
the relations
\lost

~(rr +~).

sin t =

_!, (rr

~),

2~

rr

yield

ie 3
1/' = 80-' (1 - &

+ 12rr' -

2rr' - 27rr4

+ 3&5 -

+ 27rr 8 + 2rr'
12rrlO + &11 _

3&7
-

rrn)

225

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

"'12 is
"'12 = !3 ic8 li(a)
as

The conditwn on the function

on 'Y.

The Schwarz integral (42.4) yields the complex flexure function

+ 11/;"

'1'12

ie'

li(fT)

:H;;: ./, ';'i(fT _:--f5 dfT

where

R7 = ~1 5do
;). dfT

1.(fT)
----- ]
,
.fT - ! 0_0

= -

fls

Hence

+ i"'J2

'P12

c3

12 (36!

- 271' - 2,i'

c3

12 (R, +

R.),

=Mp.
!

12,i4 - 6r

+ r 6),

from which it follows that

"'' -i2 (
{ 12

6re' sin t -

(58.6)

1 (

"'" =

14c'

6r%c~' cos ~

- 3r'r sin 2t - r' sin 3t),

3t

+ 6re' cos t + 6r~'c% sin '2 -

)
3r'c cos 2t - r' cos 3t .

"'II

The boundary values of the function


are themselves given in terms
of a line integral, whiC'h must first be evaluated. From (58.1) we get
x'

= 30fT'
_!!._ (9 - 36fT

dy =

ic
;;a
(1

- fT - fT"

+ lZu' + 12fT' + lOw' + 12fT" + lZu" -

3w' + 9fJ'8) ,

+ fT4) dfT,

and

with
,f.(fT)

= -3

+ 18fT -

24fT'

From (42.4) we get

'Pll

+ ~"'II

x'dy =

"'11 II~

+ 6fT' -

ic" 1.(fT)
= -72 -fTS
-,

139fT'

+ 284fT" - 284fT' + 139fT


- 60- 9 + 24fT'O - 1Sull + &12.
S

ie (fs(fT)
-c'
72';' J~ ;;S(fT _ !) do- = 36 (R,

+ RIO),

where

and hence
'PII

+ i1/tll

and
(58.7)

'PII

= ;; (284! - 139r" + 6!' - 24!4

+ 18r6 -

3!8),

3~ (142C' + 13OTc' cos t + 30r"c% sin ~ + 21r'c cos 2t

+ 3r' cos 3t)

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The la.st (rexure function 'tftu is found in a. similar way.


values are calculated by observing that
y2 = 4c 2 (1 - J.I)'(I - J.I'),
dx = 2c(1 - 2J.1) dJ.l,

and

Y' dx

But flo = ~(IT

4;1 (6J.1 -

12J.11

where
MIT) = 1 - 6tT

y 2 dx = 1{Iu

I
'Y

+ I2IF' + 2IF1 -

J.I = cos t,

+ 8J.11 + aJ.l' -

+ 1/1T) , and hence

57rr'

The boundary

6J.16

+ 2J.1').

= - -c h(lT)
--,
24 IT'

+ 132rr - 13&6 + 132IT' - 57rr s


+ 2rr9 + 12rrlo - &11 + rru.

The Schwarz formula (42.4) yields


11'2.

.
+ t1{lu
= -

c
241r

'Y

herr)
rr6(1T -.I) dtT

ic'

= - 12 (Rll

+R

12 ),

with

5'

_ 1 d [herr) )
Rll d---' q
~-,_
,
,fT
-)I1_O

or

and
(58.8)

'1'22 =

1 ( 48r~cJi cos 2t
.SIR t - IOr~'c% cos 2
at
12
+ 24rc'

- 3r'c sin

2t -

rl sin at)'

Before the stresses can be found, the constants K. and Kg must first
From (52.21) we get, since I = 0,

be evaluated.

K. = : ; ;

Now
I.

y' dx dy .,. -

Je yl dx,

and from (58.1) we have


y = 2c sin t(I - cos t),

dx = -2c sin t(I - 2 cos t) dt.

Integration of y' dx from t "" 0 to t = 2... yields

I = 21-lI'c'.

EXTENSION, TO_ION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

227

The moment of inertia I. is found with the aid of Eq. (58.4) to be


55rc'
2Irc'
47rc
I. - 10 - I. = -3- - -2- = -6-
The stresses can now be found from formulas in Sec. 53.
The coordinates of the center of flexure will now be determined. The
first term in the expression for Xci in (53.4) becomes, with the help of
Green's Theorem and Eqs. (53.5),

ff 8:;
x

dx dy =

Ie

dx

-X'I'2

11

= h-X[(l

+ U)'I'22 + U'I'uJ dx.

This integral can be evaluated by noting that Eqs. (58.1) yield


X

+ 6 cos t -

= 3" (5

dx = -2c(1 - 2 cos t) sin t dt,

6 cos' t),

while the polar equation of the boundary C is r = 2c(1 - cos t), or

<

. t

r" =

2c" sm 2'

0 S t _ 211".

Substitution of these expressions in Eqs. (58.5) and (58.8) yields the


boundary values of the functions '1'" and '1'22 in terms of the variable t.
The integration indicated above is now carried out from t = 0 to t = 2r,
with the result

g ~;2
X

dx dy '" (1

== (9

+ u)".c& + uz;c'
+ llu)".c'.
9

Similarly,

Jf

~. dx dy

Ic

= (1

II
ff

xy'dxdy =

+ u)'I' + U'I'.tl dy
,,+ <T1I"C'
_ (6 + 7u)rc'
)2rc
33
'

y[(!

-u [x y3 dX = rc',

11

x 8 dxdy =

~ !eX<dY = -~c',

and finally, from Eqs. (53.4),


2(3

Xci

+ 40")
+ u) C,

= - 63(1

Y</

o.

228

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

Before concluding this section, it should be remarked that some of the


foregoing results were obtained by W. M. Shepherd in 1936, and somewhat earlier by N. M. Mushtari. However, Mushtari's work was published in two journals that are not readily obtainable,! and not until after
the appearance of Shepherd's paper did Mushtari publish a summary of
bis l'Rriier papets. Musht.ari considers the problems of torsion and
Ilexun' of beams whose boundaries of cross sections have th~ forms
r

= a + b(l + cos 8)

and
r' = a'

+ b' cos 28.

His method of solution consists essentially in assuming the complex


torsion and flexure functions to have certain forms that involve integral
and fractional pOwers of the complex variable z.
59. Bending of Circular Pipe. As an illustration of a siIl\ple application of the theory of analytic functions in determining the flexure function <I> (Sec. 54), consider a beam whose cross section is boull.ded by two
concentric circlea, that is, a pipe with inner radius T, and outer radius TO.
The complex flexure function F(4) = <I> + iw, being analytic and
single-valued ill the circular ring r, :S r :S To, admits of an ~xpansion in
a Laurent series, so that
<I>

+ iw

.
L
n--

(a,.

+ ~oft)4'.

Setting 4 = reil , we obtain


<I>

-I-- iw =

.
A

rft(a"

+ ~'b,,)e''''

r"(a"

+ lOft) (COS n~ + i sin n8),

.
L

or, separating real and imaginary parts,

<I> =

L T"(a. cos 18 - ..
..

(59.1)

w=

T(a. sin nO

b" sin 18),

+ b" cos 18).

1 N. M. MlIShtari, TramactUm8 oj the KazCJ1' Alliational Instituk, No, 1 (1933), pp.


17-32, and Tramact'(ons 0/ the KIIKS, No.1 (1935), pp. 53--67. These references are
given by MW!htari in a paper published in Applied Mathem4ticB and Meckanicl!, New
Series, voL 1 (1938), pp. 427-440. See also D. Z. Avazashvili, "On the Application of
Functions of a COl'lIplex Variable to the Torsion and Flexure Probl~ms," Applied
lIIathematicl! and Mechanicl!, vol. 4, No.1 (1940), pp. 129-134 (iD Russiali).

EXTENSION, TOBSION, AND FLEXUU OJ' BEAMB

229

The Constants (1", b" may be determined either from the bounda.ry condition on the norma.l derivative of the function cI> CEq. (54.3)J or from
the boundary values of the function ~ [Eq. (54.4)]. That ia, we may
solve either a problem of Neumann for the flexure function cI> or a Dirichlet
problem for the conjugate function~. The latter course will be followed, since the boundary condition on ~.ha.s already been given for a
circular boundary [see Eq. (56.1)].
Rewriting Eq. (56.1) for the boundaries with radii r, and ro and using
Eqs. (59.1), we get

I rrCa. sin
-....
I.. r~Ca. sin

nil

+ b. cos nli)

n8

+b

- (%

+ ~IT )rt sin Ii + ~rl sin 38,

cos nli) = - (%

+ 721T)r~ sin Il + ~rg sin 38.

Comparing the coefficients of sin n() and cos nil gives a system of equations for the determination of the constants an and bR We have
-r; la_l + rial = -(% + ~1T)rl,
-r;-'a_. + r~a3 = ~rl,
-rola_1 + roal = - C% + ~1T)r3,
-ro'a-3 + r~a. = ~:l:rg,
ifn = 1, 2, 3, ... ,
b. = 0
an = 0
if n = 2, 4, 5, 6, . . . .
Solving these equations, we get
al = - (%

a.

7:1,

+ ~1T)(rl + r3),

a-I

= - (%

a_3 = 0,

+ 721T)rlr:,

while the coefficients ao and bo are undetermined, since the boundary


condition on ~ involves an arbitrary constant.
Substituting these values in (59.1), we find that

cI> = -

(~+ IT) [(r; + r:)r + r~~] cos II + ~ r'cos311 + const,

~=

(i + ~ IT) [(r1 + rnr - r;;3] sin

II

+ ~ r'sin311 + const.

The expressions for the stresses can be easily calculated with the aid of
Eqs. (54.2).
If ri is set equal to zero, we get the flexure function for the solid circular
beam discussed in Sec. 56.
PROBLEM
Calculate the stresses in a circular pipe of thickness I, fixed at one end and subjected
to bending by an end load W, and show that the following approximate f()rmulas are

valid:

230

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' EW,STICI'l'Y

-W(l - .):10

"'.. -

-rr_:'

_1!.,

(T .. )...,.

rrtl.

(T..) .... '" 2r1'tI.'

60. Stress Functions and 1na!ogies; Beams of Elliptical and Equilateral Triangular Sections. We recall that in Sec. 52 the equilibrium
equations (52.6) led to the definition of the stress function F(x, y), in
terms of which the stresses T.e and T were determined by (52.7);
aF
1
T
= aF _ !EKeX'
T .. = ox - 2" EK~y .
..,
oy
2
'
The function F(x, y) was seen to be determined by the differential equation (52.8)
V2F(x, y) = -2,..uK~ + 2,..uK.y - 2,..a,
and by the boundary condition (52.14)
Tn COS (X, v) + T COS (y, v) = O.
In the course of the solution of the general flexure problem in Sec. 53,
it was found convenient to phrase it not as a boundary-value problem
for the determination of the function F(x, y) but rather in terms of the
torsion function '/) and the flexure functions '/)1, '/)2 or '/)u, '/)12, '/)21, l"22.
In this section, the flexure problem will be stated in terms of a new stress
function T(x, y), which will be seen to be of value in certain problems.
We introduce the stress function T(x, y) by defining

T(x, y) "" F(x, y) -

(60.1)

f R(x) dx - f S(y) dy.

The functions R(x) and S(y) may be so chosen as to yield either a simple
boundary condition or a simple differential equation for T(x, y). The
stresses can be written in terms of T(x, y), with the aid of (52.7), as
aT

ay + 8(y)

'2 EKeX 2,

To.

T ..

= - ax - R(x) -

(60.2)

aT

2 EK.y,

while (52.8) yields the following differential equation for T(x, y):
(60.3)

V2T(x, y)

== -2puK~ - d~x)

+ 2puKsY _ d~~)

- 2,..a.

The insertion of Eqs. (60.2) in (52.14) yields the boundary condition


(60.4)

aT dy
aydB

+ aT dz
aXd8

$!I

Ij =
dB

[i2 EKeX2 _

B(Y)] dy

ds

[~EK.lI' + R(x)] : '

231

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAKS

where we make use of the relations


dy
cos (x, v) = d8'

dx

cos (y, 1') = - d8

The functions R(x), S(y) may be prescribed arbitrarily.


them now to be any functions satisfying the relations
(60.5)

R(x)

= -%EK.y',

S(y) = %EK.x',

We choose

on Cj

then the condition on T(x, y) becomes


dT
d8

on C.

Thus, the function T(x, y) is constant along the contour C, and since the
choice of this constant cannot affect the stresses, we shall take it equal to
zero. With this choice of the functions R(x) and S(y), the stress function T(x, y) is determined by the differential equation (60.3) and by the
condition

T=O

(60.6)

onC.

It is to be noted that the function R(x) [or S(y) may take any value

along a portion of the boundary whcre

~: (

~) vanishes.

or

It should be recalled that the constant of integration a was seen in


Sec. 52 to be the mean value of the local twist :: over the section (or the
value of the local twist at the centroid). As noted in that section, the
constant a is to be chosen equal to zero if the load is applied at the center
of flexure of the end section.
The stress function T(x, y) can be given an interesting physical interpretation. Comparison of the differential equations (60.3) and (46.1)
shows that T(x, y) may be thought of as the deflection of an elastic membrane stretched, with tension t, over an opening of contour C in a rigid
plane plate and distorted by a nonuniform load p(x, y), where
-p(x,1!l = -2"uK x _ dR(x)

,...

dx

+ 2,,"K
y
,..%.

_ dS(y) - 2"a

dy

,.. .

When the general flexure problem considered above is specialized to


the case of bending by a load (W., 0, 0) along a principal axill (Sec. 54),
we have

= W. =
W.
,
K. = O.
EI.
2jJ(1 + IT)I.
The stress function T(x, y) is determined by the conditions

(60.7)

V'T(x y)
,

= _u_ W. y _ dS(y) - 2jJa,


1

+ IT

=0

I.

dy

on C,

232

KATHEKA.TI<!AL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

where 8(y) is any function such that


8(1/) =

(60.8)

W~

21.

on 0,

X2

except that 8(y) may take any boundary value along a portion of the
contour where

~! is zero.

The stresses are .given by

_ aT
r - ay

(60.9)
r .. = -

+ 8()
y

W.

21. x ,

aT

ax

The position of the center of flexure can be found in terms of the function T(x, y) by applying the definition given in Eq. (53.1) and using
Eqs. (60.2). We have
xc,W. - Yc'W. =

[f

{x [ - : ; - R(x) -

- y

[:~ + 8(y) - ~ EK.x']} dx dy

ff

{2T(X, y)

~ EKyy2]

+ :x [ -xT(x, y)

- xy8(y)

+ ~ EK.x1y]

- :y [YT(X, y)

= 2

ff

+ xyR(x) + ~ EKyXY']}

dx dy

T(x, y) dxdy

Ie

[YT(X, y)

+ xyR(x) + ~ EK.x y3 ] dx

Ie [

-xT(x, y) - xy8(y)

EK.x 3y] dy,

where Green's Theorem was used in the last step. A reference to


boundary conditions (60.4) shows that this can be written as
(60.10)

X.,W. - Y.,W. = 2

~he

T(x, y) dx dy

~E (K.

fexy, dx + K. feX'ydy),

",herein we are to set in the function T(x, y) the constant a equal to zero.
The coordinates Xc"
of the center of flexure are then found by comparing the coefficient!! of W. and W.. For the special case of bending

y.,

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

233

by a load W. along a principal axis, Eq. (60.10) becomes


(60.11)

Ye' = - ;'z ff T(x, y) dx dy + 3~.Jc x'y dy.


B

As an illustration of the use of the stress function T(x, y) in the solution of the flexure problem, we consider the bending of a beam of elliptical cross section with a contour given by the equation x'/a' + Il'/b' = 1.
We suppose that the load W. is applied at the centroid of the end section. Since on the boundary one has
x2 =

a'

bi (b 2 -

y2),

one can, evidently, choose


S(y) =

Wa' 2
21:
bi (b -

y2).

From Eq. (60.7) it is seen that the function T(x, y) is subject to the
conditions
"21'(
Wz ( 1 +
u u
v
x, y ) -_ T.
T(x, y) = G

I>n

x'
Q2

+ abi2)

y I nR,

y2
+ b2
-

1 = G.

The differential equation and boundary condition suggest that we seek a


solution of the form
T(x, y) = ky

(f. + f. - 1).

and it is readily found that

T(x, y)

+ u)a 2 + ub 2J W.
+ u)(3a' + b2) T. y

a 2[(1
=

2(1

(x.Q2 + b2 y2

)
1 .

The stresses 1'"., 1'". can now be found from Eqs. (60.9). This method of
solution should be compared with that applied in Sec. 56 to the oame
problem.
The stress function T(x, y) will now be used to solve a special ease' of
the flexure problem for a beam whose cross section is an equilateral
triangle (Fig. 46).
The boundary of the triangular section can be written as

2a+
) = 0,
y'3
V'3 Y
( + 2a+Y)(

(y - a) x
1

x -

The flexure function for a beam with an arbitrary triangular cross section is not

known. Some special triangUlar cross sections have been considered by B. R. Seth,
Prt)Cfledings of the London Mathematical Society, ser. 2, vol. 41 (1936), pp. 323-331.

234

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

where the origin has been taken at the centroid of the section.
side y == a we have

Along the

== 0, and hence no condition is imposed on the

boundary values of the function B(y) ruonlt this side, whereas we require
that
B(y) = W. x, = W. (2a + y)~
x = 2a + y.
on
21.
21.
3

va

Therefore we tako.
B(y)

== ::;: (2a

+ y)2,

and from (60.7) it follows that


2

V T(x, y) =

W. [2(<1 - .J1)
T.
3(<1 + 1) y

32a] ,

where we have set a = 0 and are, accordingly, solving the problem of pure
flexure by a load applied at the center of flexure.

FIG. 46

The differential equation and boundary conditions on T(x, y) can be


readily satisfied when Poisson's ratio takes a particular value, namely,
<1 == .J1, which corresponds to incompressible materials. In this case, we
have
'
V 2 T(x, y) = T(x, y) = 0

on

~ ~. a

t!.:

We try
T(x, y)

0=

k[x 2 - U(2a

in R,
aU (2a

+ y)2J(y

+ y)!.
- a)

and find that the stress function is given by


(60.12)

T(x, y} = ::;:

[X2 - ~ (2a +

y)l] (y -

a).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

235

Equation (60.11) now yields the position of the center of flexure.


Straightforward calculations give
I. =

[f

3.y3 a'
2

T(x, y) dx dy = 3

~I~a' = a:~,

( x'ydy = 2 (av'3 x'(.y3x - 2a) .y3dx =

Jc

Jo

~.Y3_a,

5
and therefore
= O. Since the cross section is symmetrical about the
y-axis, we see that the center of flexure is at the origin, and hence at the
centroid of the section. Thus, the function T(x, y), given above, furnishes the solution of the flexure problem for an incompressible beam of
equilateral triangular section when the load W. is applied at the centroid.
The flexure function T(x, y) was introduced, for the case of bending by
a load along a principal axis, by Timoshenko' and was used by him to
solve the flexure problem for a number of cross sections.
It will be recalled that, when the functions R(x) and S(y) were introduced, it was remarked that they might be so chosen as to yield either a
simple boundary condition or a simple differential equation for the function T(x, y). The first course led to Timoshenko's stress function
T(x, y), discussed above, which can be interpreted physically as representing the deflection of an elastic membrane stretched over an opening
of boundary C in a plane plate and subjected to a nonuniform load. We
follow now the alternative course and choose R(x) and S(y) to make
T(x, y) a harmonic function.
Let us define
R(x) = -w,Ky x 2 - J1.OiX,
(60.13)
{ S(y) = p.uK.y2 - J1.Oiy.

y.,

We shall designate the function 7'(x, y) defined by Eqs. (60.3) and (60.4)
with this choice of R(x) and S(y) by lI1(x, 'y). Then these ~quations
become
\l211f(X, y) = 0

(60.14)

and

ddM
= [J1.(1
8

+ rr)K.x' -

J1.rrKrl/'
.

+ J1.OiV] dt!!l8

- [J1.(1

+ rr)K.y' -

J1.rrK.x 2

J1.OiX) ::

on C.

S. Timoshenko, Proceedings of the London M atherna.tical Society, aer. 2, vol. 20

(1922), p. 398.

An account of this work will be found in S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory


of FJastieity, Sees. 106-113.

236

IIATIlJIlKATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

This boundary condition can be integrated in part to give


(60.15)

+ y2) + I'K. [ -

M ... 72l'a(x 2

+ I'K. []icrx'

]iuyl

+ (I + cr) l<,,,.w)
Xl dy]
....w.)

+ cr) j(%O.lIo)
((z.) Y'dx] + const

- (I

on C.

The stPesseS 1',.,1',. can be written from Eqs. (60.2) and (60.13) as

aM
Ty

T,.

= -

+ Jl.K.[cry'

a;~ +

- (1

I'K.[crx 2

+ cr)x']

(1

- I'ay,

+ cr)y'] + I'ax.

In the case of bending by a load W. along a principal axis, the formulas


for the stresses become

aM
By

1',.

= -

w.(1 +

+ 21.

cr

.)
cr y - x
- I'ay,

aM
ax
+ I'ax,

while M(x, y) is subject to the condition


(60.16)

M = :21 jJ.0l (x'

+ Y 2)

- 6(1

W..
+ cr) Yo
y
W f("W)
+ --=
21.

cr

(z)

x'dy

on C.

One can interpret the determination of the harmonic function M(x, y),
subject to the condition (60.15) or (60.16) on C, in terms of a membrane
analogy, as was done in connection with the torsion problem in Sec. 46.
Thus, the solution of the flexure problem by means of the membrane function M(x, y) is mathematically identical with the determination of the
deflection of an unloaded elastic membrane stretched across a closed space
curve whose projection on the xv-plane is the contour C and whose
variable height above the plane is given by the boundary values of
M(x, y) [(60.15) or (60.16). This analogy, for the case in which the
boundary values are given by Eq. (60.16), has been used by Griffith and
Taylor,l among others, to obtain experimental solutions of the flexure
problem for beams whose cross sections are such that the problem does
not yield readily to mathematical treatment. N emenyi2 has derived both
M(x, y) and another flexure function Fl(x, y) as special cases of a more
1 A. A. Griffith and G. 1. Taylor, National AdvUory Committee on Aeronautic.
'l'ecJmical Report, Great Britain, vol. 3 (1917-1918), p. 950.
Bee S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 800. 113, for a descrip.
tion of the experimental proeedure.
P. Nem6nyi, ""Ober die Bereehnung der Sehubspannungen Un gebogenen Balken,"
ZeitBchriftjfJ.r G~ Mathematik und Meclum.ik, voL 1 (192t), pp. 8!Hl6.

237

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

general flexure function and has discussed these two formulations of the
flexure problem in the light of the membrane analogy and of numerical
solutions, respectively.
There exists a very close connection between the membrane function
M(x, y) and the canonical flexure functions 'Pll, 'P12, 'P21, 'P22, discussed in
Sec. 53. A comparison of the boundary condition (60.15) with the
boundary values taken by the torsion function 1{1 [Eq. (35.4)] and by the
flexure functions 1{1, and 1{12 [Eqs. (52.17)] shows that
(60.17)

M(x, y) = p.at/t(x, Y)

+ pKm1{l,(X, y) + pK",y.(x, y)

on C.

Since a harmonic function is uniquely determined by its boundary values,


it follows that Eq. (60.17) holds throughout the region R of the cross

:(

X
FIG. 47

section. If we define the conjugate membrane function L(x,


L + iM is analytic in R, then we can write
L

+ iM

= I'a(rp

y)

so -that

+ i1{l) + I'K.('PI + i1{l,) + I'K.(rp2 + i1/t.).

Equations (53.5) now furnish the following relation between the complex
membrane function L + iM, on the one hand, and the torsion function
'P + i1{l and the canonical flexure functions CPll + i1{ll1, . . ,on the other
hand:
L

+ iM

I'a(rp

+ i1{l) + I'K.{(1 + O')(cpll + i1{lll) - O'(rp12 + i1{lI2)]


+ "K.[(1 + 0') (CP.2 + i1{l22) + O'(CPn + i1{l21)J.

61. Flexure of Semicircular Beams. As a further illustration of the


usefulness of the function T(x, y), introduced in Sec. 50, we outline a
solution of the flexure problem for the semicircular beam, shown in Fig.
47. If the load (Wz, 0, 0) is applied at an arbitrary point Oo(xo, Yo, l) of
the end section and the origin of coordinates 0 is chosen at the centmid
of the fixed end, the function T(x, y) satisfies Eq. (60.7) in the semicircle
and vanishes on its boundary. To obtain a more convenient form for
the equation of the boundary, we introduce new coordinates x', y' defined

238

EL.~STICITY

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF

by
(61.1)

where tl = 4a/31T is the distance of the centroid 0 from the point 0' on
the diameter of the semicircle of radius a.
Making this change of variables in Eq. (60.7), we get
(612)
.

V2T(")
x ,y = 1

W. (y' + T.
(f

11

y-)

+ T.
WE y

- 2

1'0<,

where we take S(y) in accordance with (60.8), and note th~t along the
circular part of the boundary x" = a2 - V"~, and along the diameter
dy'jd8 = O. The corresponding boundary conditions are:
(61.3)

T=O
{ T=O

on y' = 0,
on y' =

va

2 -

/2

A particular integral of (61.2) can be taken in the form


To(x ' , y') = A y'(x '2

and, on setting y' = r cos

(J

+ y") + B(X + y"),


/2

and x' = r sin

B=

(61.5)

(J,

we easily find that

!4 (W.
I. 1 +

_(f_

+ 21'0<)

tl

(f

and I. = 1Ta 4 /8.


Thus the general solution of (61.2) can be written as
e

(61.6)

T(r, 8) = Ar' cos 8 + Br 2

(An r" cos n8

+ B"I." sin n8).

,,=0

The coefficients Aft, Bft must be chosen so that the conditi0I1S (61.3) are
fulfilled; that is,

(61.7)

T(r,

~) = 0,

T{a,8) = 0,

The first of these equations will be satisfied if we take


(61.8)

T(r, 8) = Ar' cos 8 + Brl

+ Crt cos 28
+ A I a+J1''''+l ow, (2n + 1)',

.. -0

239

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

and choose B = C.
A 25+1 so that
Aa' cos 8

To ss.tisiy the second of Eqs. (61.7), we select the

+ Ba 2 (1 + cos 28)

... -

AIa+Ia!..+1 cos (2n

+ 1)8,

.. -0
".

- 2<

".

< 2'

On multiplying both members of this equation by cos (2m -t 1)8 and


integrating with respect to 8 between the limits -1(/2 and 7r/2, we find
(61.9)

Al = - 16a B - a 2 A
37r
'
a- 2' H I6a 2( -1)-B
A'''+l

".(2m

1)(2m

m=

1)2 - 4)'

1,2, ....

Accordingly, the solution of our problem is given by the unif()rmly and


absolutely convergent series
(61.10)

T(r, 8) = A r 3 cos 9

+ Br (1 + cos 29)
+ A.n+lr' n+
2

L
~

cos (2n

+ 1)8.

n=O

The center of flexure obviously lies on the y-axis, and, by using (60.11),
it ('an be shown that'

y:,= 15(18:1T)1([3+1T(~~-1)l
Leibenson' used a similar method to obtain an approximate solution
of the flexure problem for a semicircular tube of small thicknefls.
The flexure problem for a cylindrical beam whose cross section is a
segment of the circle was solved in bipolar coordinates with the aid of
Fourier integrals by Uflyand. 3
62. Multiply Connected Domains. Deformation of NonhoDiogeneous
Beams with Free Sides. Other Developments. Although the mathematical formulation of the flexure problem for beams with multiply
connected cross sections is quite straightforward, an explicit determina1

In obtaining this result we have noted that


e

\'

1..

m-a

(2m

+ 1)2(2m

- 1)2(2111 .~

ai - 8 -

a".s

128'

L. S. Leibenaon, A Course in the Theory of Elasticity (1947), pp. ~8-305 (in


Russian).
Ya. 8. Ullyand, Doklady Akademiya Nod SSSR, vol. 69 (1949), PI'. 751-754,
See also an interesting monograph by this author entitled Bipolar Coordinates in the
Theory of Elasticity (1950) (in Russian), which contains a solution of the flexure
probkm for a cylinder with the lens-shaped CI'OI18 seetiOl. rormed by two circular axes.
A special case of this, when the section is a segment of the cirek, is treated 011 pp. 50-59.

240

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTIOl'I'Y

tion of flexure functions, in specific problems, presents computational


difficulties. 1
The deformation of beams with mUltiply connected cross sections is a
special case of the deformation of compound beams. The deformation
of compound beams by end loads was first treated from a general point of
view by Muskhelishvili and his treatment was extended by Rukhadze
and Vekua. 2
The mathematical formulation of the problems of simple extension,
pure bending, torsion, and flexure of compound cylinders differs from that
for homogeneous beams only in the added boundary conditions on the
interfaces of the media with different elastic properties. Thus, consider
y

FIG. 48

the cross section bounded by the exterior contour Co and several interior
contours Ck (k = 1, 2, . . . , m), shown in Fig. 48. The regions R.
(k = 1, 2, . . . , m), enclosed by the C., are filled with materials whose
1

The general flexure problem for a hollow beam bounded by two eccentric circles

was solved by A. C. Stevenson, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, vol. 50


(1949), pp. 536-549, and R. Capildeo, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical
Society, vol. 49, Part II (1953), pp. 308-318. Capildeo also discUBBeB the flexure
problem for a beam with Cl"Ol!8 section bounded by two confoea.l1ima90ns.
N. I. Muskhelishvili, "Sur Ie probleme de torsion des poutres tllastiques compost!es,
C_pta rmm hebdomadaires de. seances de /' acadhnie des 8ciencos, Paria, vol. 194
(1932), p. 1435; "On the Problem of Torsion and Flexure of Elastic Beams Composed
of Different Materia.ls," Iz_tiya Akademiya Nauk SSSR (1932), pp. 907-945 (in
Russian). See &Iso Chaps. 22-25 in MuskheIishvili's monograph Some &sic Problems
of the Mathematiea.i Theory of Elasticity (1953), 'pp. 56HI55.
I. N. Vekua and A. K. Rukhadze, "Torsion Problem for a Circular Cylinder Reinforced by a Longitudinal Circular Rod," I_stiya Akademiya Nauk 8SSR (1933),
pp. 1291-1308; "On the Problem of Bending of Elastic Beams Composed of Different
Materials," &obaIIcheniya Akademii Nauk Gnmnskol SSR. vol. 1 (1940), pp. 107-114.
See &Iso A. I. Usdalev ... Bending of an Anisotropic Two-layered Cylinder by a Trans_
Foree," [nsheMrnyi Sbarnik. vol. 15 (19113), pp' 35-42. and I. V. Suharevskil,
"On ths Problem of Torsion of a Composite Multiconneeted Bar," l~
B60mik. vol. l ' (111M). pp. 101-124. These papel'8 ate in it'11lIIIian.

EXTENSION, TOBBION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

241

elastic properties differ from those of the surrounding medium in the


region R o
lf the components of such a beam are glued or welded so that in the
course of deformation there is no separation of material along the con-

u,

Ti

tours Ck, the displacements and the internal stresses


= 'r1;P; will be
continuous across the contours C.. Accordingly, the boundary conditions
on the C. can be formulated as follows:
(62.1)

Tij'; = 0
(a)
(b) (T,;.;)O = (Ti;';).
{
(c)
(Ui)O = (Ui).

on Co,
011 C. (k = 1, 2, . . . ,m),
on Ck (k ;", 1, 2, . . . ,m).

The subscripts 0 and k outside the parentheses in these expressions indicate that the values of affected quantities are computed along the interior
contours C. for the regions R. and R., respectively. The unit normal
vectors ("i)O and (Pi). along such contours point int,o the regions Ro and
R. as shown in Fig. 48.
The satisfaction of boundary conditions (62.1), in the instance of the
Saint-Venant torsion problem, when it is patterned along the lines of
Sec. 34, presents no logical difficulties. However, in the problems of
extension, pure bending, and flexure by the transverse force, the Saint-..
Venant assumption that Tn, T 1III , and T"" vanish does not lead to continuous
displacements along the contours C. unless the media on either side of the
contours have the same Poisson's ratios. The reason why no difficulty
of this sort arises in the torsion problem is that the displacements there
do not depend on Poisson's ratios.
To remove the discontinuities in displacements, it is necessary to
superimpose un displacements resulting from the hypothesis

the displacements present in certain two-dimensional elastostatic problems. Such problems are discussed in the next chapter. In this manner
valid solutions have been deduced for several interesting problems on
deformation of compound beams. Besides solutions of the torsion and
flexure problems for circular beams reinforced by circular cores (in
general, eccentric), solutions are available for the torsion of a composite
rectangular beam formed by gluing two rectangular beams along their
sides' and for the torsion of an elliptical cylinder reinforced by a circular
rod whose axis coincides with the axis of the cylinder. s
The Saint-Venant torsion and flexure problems for cylinders having a
small initial twist in the natural state has been considered in a series of
1 See papers in the preceding footnote and a paper by L. E. Payne, "Torsion of
Composite Sections," lqwa Stau College JOU'I"It4l qf SciImce, vol. 23 (1949), pp. 381-395.
D. I. Sherman, lnzlienernyi SOOrnik, vol. 10 (1951), PI'. 81-108 (in RWlllian).

242

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

papers by Riz, Lourie, Dzhanelidze, Gorgidze, and Rukhadze. 1 All these


authors assume that the cylinder with free sides has a small initial twist
determined by the angle a = kz, where z is measured along the length
of the rod and k is a small parameter. This problem is essentially a
nonlinear one, since it is necessary to take account of the twist produced
by bending. It is generally treated by a method of perturbations on the
small parameter k.
With the exception of Sec. 49, rods considered in this chapter have been
cylinders wit.h cross sections defined by an equation of the formf(x, y) = 0.
Consider now the surface defined by
j[x(1 - kz), y(1 - kz)]

= 0,

where the parameter k is such that kz 1. This equation defines the


surface of a slightly tapered rod. The torsion and bending of such rods
with free sides were analyzed by Panov and Rukhadze 2 by methods similar to those used by Riz in solving the corresponding problems for naturally twisted rods.
A problem similar to that just mentioned is also encountered in the
study of the deformation of cylinders whose surface is defined by

+ kz

) = 0,
with k, again, a small parameter. This cylinder has a slightly curved
axis. The torsion and bending of such cylinders were studied by Riz
and Rukhadze. 3

f(x, y

1 P. M. Hiz, D()/dady Akademii Nauk SSSR, New Series, vol. 23 (1939), pp. 17-20,
441-444, 765-i67.
A. I. Lourie, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, New Series, vol. :.I (1938),
pp.55-68.
A. 1. Lourie and G. Dzhanelidze, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, New Series, vol. 24
(1939), pp. 24-27, 227-228; vol. 25 (1939), pp. 577-579; vol. 27 (1940), pp. 436-439.
A. Gorgidze and A. Rukhadze, Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskol SSR,
vol. 5 (1944), pp. 253-21.'2.
A. K. Rukhadze, Soob8hcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskol SSR, vol. 5 (1944),
pp. 483-492; Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 11 (1947), pp. 533-542.
This paper contains an explicit solution of the flexure problem for an elliptical rod
with a small initial twist.
All these paIWrs are in Russian.
'D. Y. Panov, "Concerning the Torsion of Nearly Prismatic Rods," Prikl. Mal.
Meleh., Aleademiya Nauk SSSR, New Series, vol. 2 (1938), pp. 159-180; Dolelady
Aleademii Naule SSSR, New Series, vol. 20 (1938), pp. 251-253.
A K. Rukhadze, "The Problem of Bending Nearly Prismatic Beams," Soobshchenilla
Akademii Nault Gnmmleoi SSR, vol. 1 (1940), pp. 577-582; Prikl. Mal. Mek".,
Aleademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 6 (1942), pp. 123-138.
Ail these are in Russian.
P. Riz, Dokladll Akademii Naule SSSR, New Series, vol. 24 (1939), pp. 110-113,
229-232 (in Russian) .
.A. K. Rukhadze, Boobsheh."iyu Akademii Nauk GruzifIBkoi SSE, vol. 2 (1941), pp
.3&-42 (in Russian).

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

243

Approximate solutions of the torsion, flexure, and pure bending of


compound beams with slightly curved axes were obtained by Gorgidze,
Minasyan, and Rukhadze ' and similar solutions for the initially stretched
compound beams by Gorgidze and Mecugov.' The behavior of twisted
compound beams under stretching and pure bending was studied by
Rukhadze and Shangriya. 3
63. Deformation of Cylinders by Lateral Loads. In all the foregoing
considerations the lateral surfaces of cylinders were free of external loads,
and it remains to investigate the deformation of cylinders by forces distributed over their surfaces. If the cylinder is long and the load docs
not vary along its axis, the resulting deformation does not depend on
the coordinate measured along the length of the cylinder. This case of
plane deformation is treated in Chap. 5, where some effective methods of
solving such problems are provided. If, however, the load varies along
the length, the problem becomes a three-dimensional one, and the difficulties of obtaining useful solutions of three-dimensional elastostatic problems are very great. An engineer faced with the necessity of dealing with
such problems is obliged to introduce a variety of simplifying assumptions that reduce them to problems in two or, even, in one dimension.
In the category of such one-dimensional problems is the problem of the
elastica, which is concerned with the determination of deflection of the
central line of the beam. The underlying assumption of the theory of the
elastica, which forms the core of the technical theory of beams, is that
the curvature 1/ R of the central line is related to the bending moment M
by the Bernoulli-Euler law, M = EI/R. This relation leads at once to
a differential equation for the elastica inasmuch as the moment M, at
any point of the central line, can be calculated from the specified distribution of external loads. ' In actual fact it is possible to load the beam
so that the Bernoulli-Euler law is not satisfied even approximately.
1 A. Ya. Gorgidze, Trudy Tbilisi Mat. In.t., Akademii Nauk Gruzinsko! SSR, vol. 17
(1949), pp. 95-130 (in Russian).
A. K. Rukhadze, Soobslu:heniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, vol. 14 (1953),
pp. 525-532 (in Russian).
R. S. Minasyan, Soobslu:heniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, vol. 1& (1954),
pp. 207-214 (in Russian).
A. Ya. Gorgidze, Soobshcheniya .4kademi; Nauk Gruzinsko! SSR, vol. 14 (1953),
pp. 589-594 (in Russian).
V. H. Meeugov, Soob.lu:he"iya Akudemii Nauk Grazinskol SS}{, vol. 14 (1953),
p. 459 (in Russian).
A. K. Rukhadze, Soobshchenilla Akademii Nauk Gruzinskol SSR, vol. 13 (1952),
pp. 137-144,265-272 (in Russian).
A. G. Sbangriya, Soobslu:henilla Akademii Nauk Gruzinskol SSR, vol. 13 (1952),
pp.389-396 (in RUlIIIian).
A brief discussion of the technical theory of beams and some comments on the
validity ol the Bernoulli-Euler law in the theory of continuous beams are contained
iu _,. E. H. l.ove, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Eluticity (1927),
Chapll. 16 and 17.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

The problem of deformation of a homogeneous cylindrical beam by


forees T; distributed over its surface so that the T. dl} not vary along the
length. of the beam is easily formulated. Indeed, if the x.-coordinate is
taken along the axis of the beam, the problem reduces to the solution
of the following system of equations:
G.

Equilibrium equationa
7'''.i

= 0,

(i = 1,2,3),

b. Beltrami' a C()'fnpatibility equationB

V'rOj

+ 1 + t1 9.;1 = 0,

(i,j = 1,2,3),

c. Btnmdary conditiona'
7'11"1
7'21"1
7'11'"

+ 7'U"2 =

+ 7'.'''' =
+ 7'''''' =

T 1(x" X2),
T.(x" Xii),
T 3(x" X.),

on the lateral surface.

This problem was first considered by Almansi and Michell,' who demonstrated in effect that it is possible to reduce it to the determination of
two stress functions, one of which is harmonic and the other biharmonic.
Some broad clasBes of boundary-value problems in the biharmonic equation are discussed in Chap. 5, but, as an introouction to them, we consider in the following section the problem of torsion of a long cylinder
by tractions suitably distributed over its surface.
64. Torsion of a Cylinder by Forces on the Lateral Surface. Let a
cylinder with an arbitrary cross section R be twisted by tractions T
applied to the lateral surface. We suppose that the cylinder is of length
1 and that one of its ends is fixed in the plane XJ = 0, while the end
x, = 1 is free. The surface tractions T, assumed independent of the
xrCoordinate, are directed parallel to the x,x.-plane and proouce a twisting moment in the cross section Xa = const. We take the magnitude of
this moment to be Ml, so that M is the torque per unit length of the
, If the system of stresses T, is not self-<lquilibrating, it is necessary to apply a suitable distribution of forces on one of the ends of the cylinder in order to maintain the
cylinder 88 a whole in equilibrium. This can be done by supposing that the end
$0 ... 0 is fixed and the other end is free.
t E. AIma.nsi, Nota II, Alti della Accademia naziOMle lUi Lin~ Rmciieomi, Rome,
aer. 5, voL 10 (1901).
J. H. MicheD, Qwrterlll Journal of M~, vol. 32 (1901). Almansi also conthe _
when the external stresses T. are polynomials in
A summary of
these eontn'butions is contained in Love's Treatise (1921), Sees. 239-241. The eorreIIJIOndiDc problem for compound beams when PoiBm'll ratios are identical thtoughout
the .en. section, but Young's moduli are diff_t for each component of the beam,
WM treated by O. M. Hatiasi:tvili, SoobBheAeniva Akademii Nault ~ 88R.
vOl. 13 (1902), pJ). 335--341; vol. 14 (1953), pp. 197-204 (in RU8I!ian).

ei_

z..

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

cylinder.

245

Thus,

Ie T(xI,

T. - 0,

fe [xIT.(x., xz) -

x.) d8 - 0,

x.TI(XI, x.)] ds = M,

where C is the contour bounding R.


Since the end x, = I is free, we demand that
(64.1)

T13

while at the fixed end x,

II
II
II

1'13

the
= H
'J

(XIT32 -

X2T 31)

XIT,.

du =

II

l,

du

= 0,

must yield:

1'.,

for x,

0,

T33

Ti;

du

(64.2)

T23

du

II

1"3

du = MI,
X.T'3

du = O.

The conditions in the first line in (64.2) demand that the resultant force
vanish on the end x, = 0, the second line states that the twisting moment
in the section X3 = 0 is MI, and the last line requires that there be no
bending by couples.
The conditions on the lateral surface of the cylinder, clearly, are
1'11",

(64.3)
{

1'21'.
1'31"1

+
= T , (x" x.),
+ 1"'''' = T .(x., x.),
+
= 0,
on C.
TU'"

1'321'2

The problem thus consists in determining the set of functions Ti; satisfying the equilibrium and Beltrami's equations and the boundary conditions (64.1) to (64.3).
A solution of the problem stated with this degree of generality presents complications because the third of the boundary conditions in (64.1)
is .difficult to satisfy. If, however, we relax the condition 1'3' = 0 for
x, = l, by merely requiring that the resultant force in the direction of
the xraxis vanish, that is,
(64.4)

for x, = l,

Tas du = 0

and that the distribution of Til over xi = I yield no bending moments,


(64.5)

XITaa

du =

XiTaa

du = 0,

then the problem can be solved quite readily.

246

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

One can argue on the basis of Saint-Venant's principle that the solutions of the original and relaxed problems can differ significantly only
near the end $, .. l of the cylinder.!
The fact that the forces assigned on the lateral surface produce torsion
of the cylinder suggests that the expressions for the Tlj in the relaxed
problem have, in part, an appearance similar to the stresses in SaintVenant's torsion problem. Taking cognizance of the linear variation of
the twisting moment along the length of the beam, it is reasonable to
consider [cf. Eqs. (34.4)] the shearing stresses in the form
(64.6)

rW
{ TlV

= pa(l - X3)(cp .
XI),
= pa(/ - X3)("".1 - xo).

If we now make use of the equilibrium and Beltrami's equations and


take

TW =
Til> =
Ti\' =

-2pOl(p,
T~V. = ,.,.0:<;,

%pa(xi - xi),

we find that cp satisfies Laplace's equation, and the stress system Tl}' is
an admissible system. Inserting from (64.6) in the third of the boundary
conditions (64.3) yields
d""
dv =

XOVI -

XIV.,

on C,

which is precisely the condition (34.6).


The nonvanishing distribution of the normal stress 1'33 further suggests
that we consider the stress system,

rir
r'W

rW

rW = TW =
BXI

+ Cx.,

r~W

= 0,

since a system of this sort arises in the problems of stretching and


pure bending. Finally, we must consider a system that gives rise to a
deformation
(64.7)

u. = 0

(a = 1,2),

which is independent of the length of the cylinder. A deformation of


this type may be expected to be present in the relaxed problem since
applied tractions do not vary along the length of the cylinder.
If we denote the stress system cO~8ponding to the plane deformation
(64.7) by rlJ>, we can assume a solutiou.of the relaxed problem in the form
(64.8)
I Indeed, we haw already invoked the Saint-Venant principle in formulating the
DIAIlI'OIIOOpie boundary conditions (64.2) on the fixed end z. - 0, where the aetual
_ _ disttt'bution is not kuown.

247

EXTENSION, TORSION, AND FLEXURE OF BEAMS

We shall see in Sec. 69 that the system of stresses Tljl corresponding to a


plane deformation (64.7) has the form l

Ti'r

T~'i = -aU. ll ,
TW = aU. lt ,
T.f = -auV'U,
where U(XI, X2) satisfies the biharmonic equation
T~f

= -aU. lt,

= TW = 0,

VU

= U,llll + 2U. 1l22 + U,2222 = 0


Tif, TW, we get

in R.

On combining the systems Tl]>,


Tn =
- U,
a
1'12

V,l!

a
T}3

-;; =

(64.9)

+ /J'P,

+ ~ (xl

- xV,

-;; = /J(l - x')('P,.

+ ,..,,)
"'~

/J(l - X')('P,l - x.),

1'23

1'83

= -U. 11

Tn
a.

+ x,),

= -2/J'P - uV'U

BXl

+ Cx .

If we now insert from (64.9) in the first two boundary conditions (64.3)

'1' reIa t'lons


an d rec all t he f amllar

P, =

dx,
ds'

P2

= -

= To/a -

/J'PP2 -

:2 /J(xl

Ttla -

/J'PP, -

:2 /J(xl

(64.10)
=

dx,
. fin d
da' we easlly

xnp"

on C,

X~)V2'

on C.

Thus, if the torsion function 'P is known for the region R, the values of
the derivatives U. G of V can be calculated on the contour C. The problem of determining the biharmonic function U from prescribed values of
the partial derivatives of U on the contour C is known as the fundamental
boundary-value problem in the biharmonic equation. We shall see in the
next chapter that there are effective methods for solving it.
It remains to show that the constants a, A, B, and C can be chosen in
such a way that the end conditions (64.2), (64.4), and (64.5) are fulfilled.
The fact that 1'13 = 1'2. = 0 on x. = l is obvious from (64.9). The verification that the resultant forces ffT13 dtr and ffT" dtr vanish over the
end x. = 0 is, in every detail, identical with that given in Sec. 34. The
condition

(x IT.,

X2T_U)

dtr = Ml yields at once the result that


M

= D'

1 See Eqa. (69.4) and (69.5). The constant -a was introduced here for convenience. It can clee.rly be absorbed in U(.,., .,.).

248

MATHEM.~TICAI,

THEORY OF ELASTICITY

where D is the torsional rigidity of the seetion. For the determination


of the remaining constants A, B, and C, we have three equations (64.4)
and (64.5). If the xraxis is taken through the centroid of the section H,
the formulas for A, B, and C become quite simple.
Using the theory outlined in this section, it is not difficult to deduce
formulas for stresses in a beam of elliptical cross section twisted by constant tangential tractions.' The corresponding problem for the circular
section was first considered by Filon 2 and for cylinders of arbitrary cross
seetion by Zvolinsky and Riz. 3 Extensions of this theory to the anisotropic media have been made by Lekhnitzky and Luxenberg!
Solutions of the biharmonic equation suitable for the investigation of
axially symmetrically loaded thick-walled circular tubes of finite length
have been constructed by Prokopov. 6 An exact solution of the torsion
problem for a solid cylindrical shaft consisting of two circular cylinders
of different radii Gwisted by axially symmetric tractions applied to the
lateral surface of the shaft was deduced by Abramyan and Dzerbashyan.
An approximate treatment of the deformation of cylinders of variable
cross sections by forces distributed on the lateral surface was sketched
by Shapiro, 7 who considered the equilibrium of cones and paraboloids of
revolution.
1

The biharmonic function U, in this CSlje, is


b'x1x: - aJx:Xt
U (Xl, X,) =

12(a2

+ b')

where a and b are the semiaxes. The torsion function '" for this section is given by
formula (36.6).
L. N. G. Filon, Phiu",ophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London) (A), vol.
198 (1902), p. 147. This problem was reconsidered by A. Timpe, MatheTTW.tisc1te
Annalen, vol. 71 (1912), p. 480.
N. V. Zvolinsky and P. M. Ri~, IZ!Jestiyu, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, No. 10 (1939),
pp.21-26.
P. M. Biz, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, New Series, vol. 4 (1940),
pp. 121-122.
These authors also consider the case where T varies linearly along the length of the
cylinder. The paper hy Zvolinsky and Biz contains explicit formulSl! for the displacements and stresses in a circular cylinder twisted hy tangential tractions.
S. G. Lekhnitzky, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk S8SR, vol. 2 (1939),
pp. 345-368; vol. 6 (1942), pp. 3-18. See also this author's monograph Theory of
Elasticity of an Anisotropic Body (1950) (in Russian).
H. Luxenberg, Journal oJ ResearcA oJ the National Bureau of Standards, vol. 50
(1953), pp. 263-276.
V. K. Prokopov, Pri1cl.. MGt. Melch., Akademiya Nauk 888R, vol. 13 (1949),
pp. 13&-144 (in Russian).
B. L. Abramyan and M. M. DzerbSl!hyan, Pri/d. MGt. Mekk., Akademiya Nauk
888R, voL 15 (1951), pp. 451-472 (in Russian). See also B. A. Kostandyan, IZf1estiya
AkademU Nauk A~ 8SR, Physics and Math Series 7, No.4 (1954), pp. 2353 (in Russian),
'G. S. Shapiro, Prikl. Mai. Mekh.., Akademiya Nauk 88BR, vol. 8 (1944); vol. 17
(1953), pp. 243-252 (in Russian).

CHAPTER

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

65. Introductory Remarks. This chapter is devoted to a concise


presentation of one general method of solution of certain broad classes
of two-dimensional boundary-value problems in elasticity. In contradistinction to familiar general methods, which rarely provide more than
the proof of the existence of solutions, the method presented here proved
effective in deducing explicit solutions of many technically important
problems. It also gave a powerful impetus to several new theoretical
developments, particularly in the domain of the contact problems in
elasticity.
The method is based on a reduction of the boundary-value problems in
elasticity to the solutions of certain functional equations in a complex
domain, and, in its simpler aspects, its effectiveness has already been
demonstrated in the preceding chapter.
Although the systematic use of the complex variable theory in pla.ne
elasticity was proposed by KolossolP as early as 1909, nearly forty years
elapsed before the theory, based on Kolossoff's idea, was brought to a
E!uccessful conclusion. This was accomplished, in the main, by a group
of Russian mathematicians inspired by the work of Muskhelishvili. 2
The two-dimensional problems with which we shall be concerned in
this chapter fall into two physically distinct types. One of these arises
1 G. V. Kolossoff, "On One Application of the Theory of Functions of a Complex
Variable to a Plane Problem in the Mathematical Theory of EI9.!!ticity," a dissertation
at Dorpat (Yurieff) University (1909) (in Russian). See also G. V. Kolossoff,
ZeiUchrift fur Mathematik und Physik, vol. 62 (1914), pp. 384-409, and his Russian
monograph An Application of the Complex Variable in the Theory of ElMticity (1935).
An accessible account of the earlier work is contained in N. I. Muskhelishvili's
paper entitled, "Recherches sur les probl~mes aux limites relatifs !\ l'equation biharmonique et aux equations de 1'''I9.!!ticite a deux dimensions," Mathematische
Annalen, vol. 107 (1932), pp. 282-312. .A comprehensive up-to-date treatment,
b9.!!ed, in part, on Muskhelishvili's Theory of Singular Integral Equations, W9.!! published in the third edition of Muskhelishvili's remarkable monograph entitled Some
B9.!!ic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1949). An English translation of these books was rele9.!!ed in December, 1953, by P. Noordhoff, N. V., of
Groningen:
N. I. Muskhelishvili, Singular Integral Equations (1953).
R I. Muslilielishvili, Some Basic Problem. of the Mathematical Theory of E1aa-

ticity (1953).
249

250

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

in the study of deformation of large cylindrical bodies acted on by the


external forces so distributed that the component of deformation in the
direction of the axis of the cylinder vanishes and the remaining components do not vary along the length of the cylinder. This is the class of
problems in plane deformation, or plane 8train. The other type appears
in the study of the deformation of thin plates, the state of stress in which
is characterized by the vanishing of the stress components in the direction
of the thickness of the plate. These are the problems in plane streS8.
It turns out that the mathematical formulation of these physically
distinct types of problems is identical and that their solution hinges on
the determination of two functions' of a complex variable from certain
functional equations.
We proceed to derive these equations and solve them for several technically important problems.
The coordinates Xi used throughout this chapter are rectangular
cartesian, and we use Latin indices for the range 1, 2, 3 and Greek indices
for the range 1, 2. As in the earlier chapters of this book, a repeated
index represents the sum for all allowable values of that index. The
notation for all symbols is identical with that introduced in the first three
chapters, except that we omit writing the superscript " in the designation
of the components T, of stress acting on an element of surface with the
unit normal v.
66. Plane Deformation. A body is said to be in the state of plane
deformation, or plane strain, parallel to the x,x:rplane, if the component
u. of the displacement vector u vanishes I and the components u, and U2
are functions of the coordinates XI and X2, but not of x.. Thus, the state
of plane deformation is characterized by the formulas,
(66.1)

u.. = u"(x,,
{ u. = o.

X2),

It follows from (66.1) and from the definitions (7.5) of the strain and
rotp,tion tensors that the non vanishing components of these tensors are
given by the formulas,
(66.2)

e..p = ~(u...~ + Up ...),


{ w..p = ~(u...p - u, ...),

X,.

which, clearly, do not depend on


n we insert from (66.2) in the stress-strain relations,

{22.S1
Some writeM define t])e .we plane atrain by requiring that v, - conat and
and 'lit 1M! the ~ '!;tand "'

VI

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

251

we get
(66.3)
(66.4)

TafJ

= AIH~

Tn

+ P,(ua.~ + u~.),

Ar'J,

TI3

= T = 0,

where the dilatation r'J = U a a


It is easy to show that Taa is proportional to the sum TU
using (66.3), we get
TU

T22

(M
2(A

+ T.~'

Indeed,

+ 2p,ul.l) + (Ar'J + 2p,U2 .)


+ p,)r'J,

and, noting (66.4), we have


(66.5)

T33

+ p,) +
= a(Tl1 + T),
= 2(A

(TU

T2.)

since a = A/[2(" + p,) by (23.3).


It is clear that the deformation and stresses of a body in t;he state of
plane strain are completely determined by the five functiontl Ta~(Xl, x.)
and Ua(Xl, x.). We consider next the physical circumstances giving rise
to the state of plane strain.
From ectuilibrium ectuations
[15.3)

we conclude that the components F I and F 2 of the body fotOO must be


independent of x, inasmuch as the Tij do not depend on x.. Also, Fa "" 0,
since Ta". = -Fa and Tn is not a function of x.. Assuming that these
conditions are fulfilled by the body force Fi , we have, for the determinat.ion of the five quantities Ta~, U a , a pair of equilibrium equations
(66.6)

and three equations (66.3), The substitution from (66.3) in (66.6) yields
the appropriate Navier equations:
(66.7)

where
82
V' ""_

8"
+-.

<lxfax~

Since the deformation of a body in the state of plane strain is iJldependent


of the zrCOOrmnate, we need consider only the def~tion of any section
of the body by a plane norrruU to the xraxis. Equation (66.7) then must
be satisfied in some two-dimensional felion .R of the cross seetion of the
body formed by the piane x; = const. If the displacements # ...of points
on the boundary C '0{ Jl are speeified, we have a two-dimensional analog

252

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

of the second boundary-value problem formulated in Sec. 24. The


uniqueness of solution of this problem for finite' domains follows from
considerations of Sec. 27.
An analog of the first boundary-value problem of elasticity can be got
by phrasing the plane-strain problem entirely in terms of stresses. We
recall that if the solutions of the equilibrium equations (15.3) are to
correspond to the state of stress that can exist in an elastic body, the T.;
must satisfy the Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations (24.15). A
specialization of these equations to the problem of plane strain leads to
only one nontrivial compatibility equation in the form,'
(66.8)
where
Now if the components T.(x" X2) of external stresses are specified along
the contour C in the form
(66.9)
where the v. are components of the exterior unit normal vector to C, the
formulation of the first boundary-value problem is complete. We seek
a solution of the system of Eqs. (66.6) and (66.8) in the region R, subject
to the conditions (66.9) on the boundary. Again, the uniqueness of solution of this system, for finite domains, follows from the considerations of
Sec. 27.
The physical situation corresponding to this problem is the following:
Consider a cylinder with plane ends and with generators parallel to the
x,-axis (Fig. 49). If the lateral surface of such a cylinder is subjected
to the action of surface tractions with components T.(x" X2), which do
not vary along the axis of the cylinder, and the component T, = 0, the
situation corresponds to the mathematical problem just considered, provided the tractions T .(x" X2) maintain the cylinder in equilibrium. If
the body forces F. are present,' we must further suppose that the components F. are independent of the x..-coordinate and that F, "" O.
The state of stress in the cylinder, in this case, is determined by the
I Only such domains have been considered in Sec. 27.
To ensure uniqueness in an
infinite domain, it Ia necessary to impose certain restrictions on the behavior of displacements (or stresses) at infinity. These arise from the requirement that the
integrals in the transformation theorems used in Sec. 'J:l have a meaning. Sec See. 74.
We omit calculations which are entirely similar to thOse performed in Sec. 24 for
.the. three-dimensional case. Since u. - U and the u.. are independent of z., the set
of six Saint-Venant's compatibility equations (10.10) reduces to one nontrivial equation '110ft + est.ll - 2e ttl1.
Of co_, the external forces T. al)d F. must be assigned in such a way that the
resultant force and the resultant mom!!'!" acting on the eyljnder as II whole VIIBiIh.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATlC PROBLEMS

253

l'

solution of th!! syst!!m of Eqs. (66.7) to (66.9). From Eq. (66.5)


follows that the ends of the cylinder are subjected to the action of the
longitudinal force with the resultant

If

dx~

dx.

The distribution of stress Taa "" U(TU + Tn) over the ends of the cylinder
may also produce a bending couple whose moment lies in the planes of
the ends. Indeed, the longitudinal stresses Tn are necessary to maintain
the cylinder in the state of plane deformation; without their presence
the displacement u. will not, in general, vanish. If, however, in the
given physical problem the ends of the cylinder are free, the desired solution can be got by superposing, on the Ilolution of the plane problem just.

FIG. 49

considered, the solution of an auxiliary problem. This auxiliary problem concerns the deformation of a cylinder with free lateral surface by
the end loads equal and opposite to those given by equation (66.5). If
the cylinder is long, the auxiliary problem is in the category of simple
Saint-Veuant's problems' fully considered in Chap. 4. After superposing the solution of an auxiliary problem on the solution of the planedeformation problem, the resulting deformation will not, in general, be
plane.
67. Plane Stress. Generalized Plane Stress. A body is in the stare
of plane 8tres8 parallel to the x.x.-plane when the st.ress components T.,
TU, Ta. vanish.
If we wrire the stress-strain relations (22.3) in the form
(67.1)

T'j

MO,j

",(u..j

Uj ),

iJ

11,

and let Taa = 0, we get


},

(67.2)

UI. .... -

"

+ 2# (ULI + Ut,t).

1 We thus have to consider the problem <;>f extension of cylinders by longitudinaJ


foroea and the problem of pure bending. These, as we 8&W in Sec. 30 and 32, are
quite elementary problems.

254

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OP ELAS'l'tCITY

Substituting this ill (67.1) jields the following expressions for the
vanishing components 'Tall:

(67.3)

2>""
+ 2" (11,1.1

'TIl

= >..

'T'2

= >.. 2>""
+ 2" (11,1"

TU

= ,,(11,1,2

IlOJl~

+ 11,2,,) + 2,,11,1,1,
+ 11,.,,) + 2"11,,,2,

+ 11,.,1).

If these expressions are inserted in the equilibrium equations


(67.4)

'T:aII,P

+ F.

0,

one obtains a pair of differential equations for the 11,., namely,


(67.5)

where {h ...

( >..
11,1.1

2>"p.

) 0"1

2_

+ 2" +" ox. + "V u. -

11,2,2

and Vi""

0'

"2
"Xl

-Fa,

o
+ "X,
"2'

Formally, Eqs. (67.3), (67.4), (67,5) become identical with (66.3),


(66.6), (66.7), if one replaces the constant 2A,,/(>.. + 2,,) "" X by A, but
there is a fundamental distinction in the two sets of stressed states. In
the plan~strain problem, the 11,,,, and 'Tall are independent of the xa~coordi
nate, whereas in the problem of plane stress these functions may depend
on XI. Since the variable Xa may appear as a parameter in all equations
of this section, the problem is not truly two-dimensional. However,
following the idea of Filon,1 it is possible to modify the system of Eqs.
(67.3) to (67,5) in such a way that the resulting two-dimensional system
corresponds to a physical problem of great practical interest.
Consider a cylinder with the generators parallel to the xs-axis and with
bases in the planes Xa = h (Fig. 50). We shall term such cylinder a
plate if its height 2h is small compared with the linear dimensions of the
cross section. The bases of the cylinder are the faces of the plate, and
the plane Xa = 0 is the middle plane of the plate.
Let us suppose that the faces of the plate are free of bo}lplied loads and
all external surface forces act on the edge of the plate, that is, on the
lateral surface of the cylinder. Moreover, we shall suppose that the
forces acting on the edge lie in the planes parallel to the middle plane
and are symmetrically distributed with respect to it. If the components
of external surface forces acting on an element au "'" 2h ds of the edge
are T a2h ds, the ve(ltor T" is the stress vector applied to the contour C
bounding the middle plane. We shall further suppose that the comt L. N. O. Funn, PhilOS{)phical Tramactitmll of the Royal Society (London) (A), vol.
201 (1900), pp, 6.'-155; Quarkrly JourIlal of Applied Mat1temati~, Oxford &riea, I
(19!lO), pp, 289-299,

255

TWO-DUUilNSlONAL ELASTO$TATIC PROBLEMS

ponent Fa of the body force vanishes and the ,components F. are symmetrical with respect to the middle plane. Under these hypotheses, the
points of the middle plane will undergo no displacement in the directiOll
of the xraxis, and 'if the plate is thin, the displacement '1, will be small.
Indeed, the symmetry of distribution of external forces implies that the
mean value of '13 with respec~ to the thickness of the plate is precisely
zero. For thin plates the mean values Uo of the displacements Ui give as

FIG. 50

useful information as that furnished by the


with the average values
(67.6)

U.(XI, X2) e

u..

This suggests dealing

;~ f~h U,(XI, X2, X3) dx"

where, as we already noted, U3 = 0.


Since the faces of the plate are assumed free of external loads,
(67.7)

T13(XI, X2,

h) =

T23(XI, X2,

h) =

T33(X1,

X2, h)

= 0,

and these equations together with the equilibrium equation


(67.8)

1"13.1

1"23.2

+ T33.3 =

0,

demand' that 1".8 (X" X2, h) = O. The fact that T3. and its derivative
with respect to x. vanish on the faces of the plate suggests that T33 can
differ from zero but slightly throughout the plate if h is small. This
justifies us in assuming that T33 e 0.
The remaining equilibrium equations
T

1 From

al.l

Td.1

1"aI.3

+ Fa = 0,

(67.7) we conclude that "1O.1(X1, Xo, h) - ,.....(X1, X" h) = 0, and since


(67.8) is valid throughout the plate, it rollows upon setting x. = h in (67.8) that
,.....(X" Xt, h) - O.

256

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

upon integration with respect tGXI between the limits -It and
(67.9)

1
2ii

fA~Io

(T.. l.1

1'... 1

1'01.1

+1&, yield

+ F ..) dxa = u.

Since

by (67.7), we can write (67.9) in the form


(67.10)

1'.. ,.,

+ 1'..... + P.. = 0,

where
T..#(X" x.) ""

(67.11)
P,,(XI, X2)

E!

~ J:A T. #(X" x., X3) dXa,


2~ F .. (XI, x., X3) dx.,

J:.

are the mean values of T# and F...


If we form the mean values in the stress-strain relations (67.3) we get
three equations,
(67.12)
with i '"' ZAp/ex + Z,,) and J "" '11...... These, together with two equations (67.10), serve to determine the five unknown mean values 11.. (XI, X2)
and 1'#(XI' x,).
The substitution from (67.12) in (67.10) yields two equations of the
Navier type,
(67.13)

1'v"1l..

a;; +
+ (A- + 1') .,,--"x..

f!,

l' ..

(XI, x.) = 0,

from which the average displacements 11.. can be determined when the
values of the 11.. are specified on the contour.
The system of equations involving the average stresses 1'..~ can be got
by deducing the corresponding Beltrami-Michell compatibility equations.
It turns out to bel
(67.14)
where 9 1 = 1'11 + Ttt.
This equation, together with the equilibrium equations (67.10), suffices
to determine the mean stresses 1'# when the boundary conditions on the
edge are given in the form,

For integrating these equations with respect to X3 between the limits -It
I

Compare with Eq. (66.8).

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

257

and +h and dividing by 2h yields,


(67.15)

nnC,

where '/'",(8) dB are the components of applied force acting OJ{ the element
of.arc dB of the contour C.
The two-dimensional boundary-value problem consisting I)f the lIystem
of Eqs. (67.10), (67.14), and (67.15) is known as the problem in generalized
plane stress. 1
68. Plane Elastostatic Problems. The discussion of the plane-deformation problem in Sec. 66, and of the generalized plane-strell!s problem in
Sec. 67, shows that their mathematical formulations are idtlntical. The
relevant differential equations and
%2
boundary conditions in Sec. 67 differ
from those in Sec. 66 only in the
appearance of the barred symbols:
iz"" T",~, X, '/'a, etc. Henceforth we
shall refer to problems of these two
types as plane elastostatic problems.
In the formulation of these plane
problems no restrictions on the connectivity of the region R was introduced. If the region R is multiply
connected and finite, we shall supFIG. 51
pose that its boundary C consists of
m + 1 simple closed contours Co, such that the exterior cont<lUf Cm +1 contains within it m contours C; (Fig. 51). We shall BUPP()8e that the
contours C" with the possible exception of a finite number 4f points, are
smooth. This means that a smooth contour C. can be represented
parametrically by equations of the form Xa = X,,(8), where the functions
X,,(8) have continuous derivatives that do not vanish for th() same value
of the are parameter 8. We shan agree that the positive direction of
description of the contours is such that the region R remain.s on the left
in the course of tracing the contour Co. The positive direlltion for the
tangent vector t along C; is that of the positive direction of description
of C; and the positive unit normal y at any point of the contOln is directed
outward relative to the region R.
In the boundary conditions,

"

(68.1)

on C,
on C,

I This terminology was introduced by A. E. H. Love, but such 8ta~ of stress were
first investigated by Filon in the study of bending of a beam with rect~lar cross section. See L. N. G. Filon, Philo8ophical Transactions of the Royal SociUII (London) (A),
vol. 201 (1903), pp. 63-155.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

the boundary C is interpreted to mean C"*l + (Jl + ... + a.., so that


the functions T .. and fa are specified on each of the contours C, forming
the boundary of R. The functions T must clearly be such that the
resultant force and the resultant moment of all external forces applied to
C vanish, since the region R is in equilibrium
. If the exterior contour C_l is allowed to recede to infinity, an infinite
region R is obtained. This region is bounded by the contours C1, Cs,
. , C"" and it corresponds to an infinite plate with m holes bounded
by the C, (i = 1,2, . . . , m), or, alternatively, to an infinite solid with
longitudinal cavities. To ensure the existence and uniqueness of the
solution of plane elastostatic problems for infinite regions, it is necessary
to impose certain restrictions on the behavior of stresses and displacements at infinity.!
The treatment of plane problems of elasticity simplifies somewhat when
the body forces Fa do not appear in the differential equations. But since
these equations are linear, it is always possible to reduce them to a homogeneous form by finding one of the infinitely many particular integrals.
Thus, if T~J is any set of functions satisfying the equilibrium equations
(67.4), then the functions T~~ defined by

satisfy the homogeneous system


T~J.~

o.

Similar considerations apply to Eqs. (66.7).


In the following sections we shall suppose that the differential equations
have been reduced to a form in which the body forces are not present.
Since in technical applications constant gravitational forces (the weight
of the body) and uniform centrifugal forces frequently arise, we record
here suitable particular integrals for these types of body forces:
1. Let the constant gravitational force Fa be directed along the
xraxis. Then
FI = 0,
where p is the density per unit volume and g the gravitational acceleration. The particular integrals T~~ and u~O) of Eqs. (66.3) and (66.7),
respectively, are:

Boo Sees. 72 and 74.

~'O-DIMENSIONAL

259

ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

2. If So uniform centrifuga.l force acts on a body, rotating with constant


angular velocity", about the xa-s.xis, then F,. == pultx,. and we can take
(01 "" -

(68.3)

T,.~

I
.

2X + IJ.
4(X + 2p,)

U~I = - 8(X

pul

+ X22) u~

!(

2
X,

2(X

P,
+
2/,) pw XaX~,
2

pul2

+ 2/,) (xi + X~)Xa.

Clearly, the boundary conditions (68.1), upon setting


Ta~ = T~DJ
u = U~D)

+ T~1J,
+ U~l),

will yield new boundary conditions, associated with the homogeneous


equations. They wia be in the form:
(68.4)

T~'JV~

T~l),
on C.

U~l) = f~l),

69. Airy's Stress Function. We noted in the preceding section that


the boundary-value problems in plane elasticity can always be reduced to
the study of the case in which the body forces are absent. Accordingly,
we consider the equilibrium equations in the form

(69.1)

'Ta~.~

= 0,

in which the 'Ta~, as follows from Eqs. (66.8) and (67.14), satisfy in the
region R the compatibility condition
(69.2)
On the boundary C of R, the functions

Ta~

must be chosen so that

(69.3)
where the Ta(s) are known functions of the arc parameter son C.
The equilibrium equations (69.1), as first noted by a British astronomer
G. B. Airy, imply the existence of a function U(X1, X2) such that
(69.4)

T12

= - U,l2,

T11

= U,22'

Indeed, the 'Ta~ thus related to the Airy function U(X1, X2), satisfy Eqs.
(69.1) identically, while the compatibility equation (69.2) demands that
U(X1, X2) satisfies the biharmonic equation
V'"V2U = 0,

or
(69.5)

V'U e U. lll1

+ 2U. ll22 + U. 2222

0,

in the region R.
Every solution of this equation of class C' is termed a biharmonic function, but inasmuch as we are interested in those states of stress for which

260

MATIUilMATlCAL THEORY OF ELAaTlClTY

the,.all are single-valued, we need consider only biharmonic functions with


single-valued second partial deriVatives [see (69.4)]. Thefunction U and
its first derivatives may be mUltiple-valued.

o
FIG. 52

The boundary conditions (69.3) impose a restriction on the choice of


U. Substituting in (69.3) from (69.4), we get
U.22I1, - U.ltll, = T,(s),
( - U. 12 I1, + U. 11 I1. = T.(s),

(69.6)
but, from Fig. 52,

v, = cos (x" v) = cos (X2, s) =

(69.7)
V2

= cos (Xt,

v)

=-

COS (Xl, 8)

:2,
= _ :"

. so that (69.6) can be written in the form


d

~ (U. 2)

= T,(s),

- ds (U. I )

= T.(s).

(69.8)

Integrating these equations along C from some fixed point


able point 8, we get
U.1(s) =

(69.9)

( U .(8)

J...

I.:

T.(s) ds

T,(s) ds

== /,(s)

== "(s)

80

to a vari-

+ CI,

+ Ct.

It is clear from (69.9) that the derivatives of U along C are not determined uniquely. Moreover, if the region is multiply connected, the

TWO-DIMlilNSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROB)"lIlMS

261

integration has to be performed over each contour C. forming the boundary of R and the resulting functions /,.(B) need not be single-v&lued. Some
degree of arbitrariness in the choice of U and its derivatIves is to be
expected, however, inasmuch as the stresses rail are determined by the
second derivatives of U.
We see that the boundary-value problem characterized by the system
of Eqs. (69.1), (69.2), (69.3) is intimately related to the boundary-value
problem of the type:
in R,
V'U = 0
(69.10)
{ U.", = 1",(8)
on C,
wherein the 1",(8) are certain known functions. The problem (69.10) was
the subject of numerous investigations that have led to developments of
cardinal importance in the theory of differential and integr&l equations,
in the calculus of variations, and in several other branches of analysis. 1
It is known as the fundamental biharmonic boundary-value problem.
This problem can be phrased in a somewhat different form, by observing
that the knowledge of the U. a (8) on C permits one to compute the value
of U(8) and of its normal derivative

~~ on C.

Indeed

and since
dU = U. a dx a = la dx""
U(s)

Conversely, if U and

~~

f",

~a ds "" f(8) + const.

are known on C, we can compute the U,.. (s).

Accordingly, the problem (69.10) can be written in an equivalent form,

(69.11)

V'U = 0
in R,
U = f(8) + const }
dU
dv = g(s)

on C,

which is more convenient in some investigations.


A mmple modification of computations of this section permits one to
extend the results to problems in which certain types of body forces are
present. If the body forces have a potential V determined by equations'

Fa = -V,,,,,
1 A apecia1 case of this problem first arose in the study of the transverse defleetions
of elsmped elastic plates.
This ill the ease with the gravitational and centrifugal forces discussed in Sec. 68.

262

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF EL.-I.STlCITY

we consider the Ilonhomogeneous equations (67.4) and write


Tn ...

U. tl

+ V,

TU -

-U.1>,

Tn'" U,lI

+ V.

The compatibility equation (66.8) now yields the equation

21' V'V.
V'U =->'+21'
If V is harmonie, then, as above, U is a biharmonic function.
we are led to consider equations of the form

Otherwise,

in R.

V'U = F(xI, x.)

'10. General Solution of the Biharmonic Equation. The solution of the


. fundamental biharmonic boundary-value problem can be made to depend
on a certain general representation of the biharmonic function by means
of two analytic functions of a complex variable. I We consider the
biharmonic equation
(70.1)

in R,

and if we let ViU "" PI(XI, x.), the function PI is, clearly, harmonic in R.
Consequently' we can construct an analytic function
F(z) "'" PI

of a complex variable z = XI

+ iP.

+ ix. by computing from PI the conjugate

This representation was first obtained by E. ~ursat, Bulletin de la 8oci&e 11UJlM


11UJlique de France, vol. 26 (1898), p. 236, who assumed that the biharmonic function
is analytic. A derivation given here is due to N. 1. Muskhelishvili, Izvestilla (Bulletin)
Akademiya Nauk SSSR (1919), pp. 663-686. The analyticity of the biharmonic
function is not hypothesized here, and, indeed, it follows from the representation
itself.
We uae the term harmonic function only for single-valued functions of class CS
which satisfy Laplace's equation in the given region. Since the second derivatives of
the biharmonic function U are related to stresses by (69.4), the function P. E V'U is
necessarily single-valued. If p.(x., x,) is known, its conjugate P.(x., x,) is determined
by integrating
dP, - p . dx. + P". dx,
= -p . , dx. + P.,. dx"
since Cauchy-Riemann equations demand that p,. = -P . , and p, . = p....

J:'

Then

+ P dx.)
.Is independent of the path joining an arbitrary point M ,(x!., x:), with the point M (X"
P.(x., x,) -

(-P."dx.

z.), II' PI is harmonie. 'It follows that P.(Xl, x,) is determined to within an arbitrary
constant C and, hence, F(z) .. P. + iP to within a pure imaginary constant Ci. If
" x.), and hence F(z), is single-valued. In a
the region R is simply connected, P,(x.,

multiplY connected region, F(z) is, in general, multipll'-valued, and we can confine our
attention to some single-valued branch of F(z). The same considerations apply' to
.,('1") ... ~~ JF(z) liz.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELAST08TATIC PROBLEMS

harmonic function p..

263

The function fO(Z), defined by

(70.2)

fO(Z) "" )4fF(z) dz

= PI

+ ip.,

is surely analytic, and therefore

+ l.op.
- = -1 (P + t'P)
.

'( ) op.
fOZ=ox.

ox.

It follows from this, upon noting the Cauchy-Riemann equations


= P'." PI. = -P'.I, that

PI.I

PI.I
PI .

= p'.' = ~~p ..
= -P2.l = -%p .

Using these results and the fact that PI and p. are harmonic in R, we
readily verify that

v'( U -

PIXI - pox.) "'" 0

in R.

Hence U has the structure,


(70.3)
where ql(XI, x.) is harmonic in R.
Now if x(z) == ql + iq. is an analytic function of z whose real part is
ql, the formula (70.3) can be written as
U = m[ZfO(Z)

(70.4)

+ x(z)],

where z == XI - ix. and mdenotes the real part of the bracketed expression.
Since fO(Z) and x(z) are analytic functions, it follows from (70.4) that
U(XI, x,) is of class C" in R. The important representation (70.4) was
first deduced by Goursat by different means.
If we denote the conjugate complex values by bars, so that, for example,
~(z) == PI - ipo, then (70.4) can be written as
(70.5)

2[1 = ZfO(Z)

+ z~ + x(z) + Xtz).

We shall make frequent use of this result in the sequel.


71. Formulas for Stresses and Displacements. The components
,."" of the stress tensor can be expressed in terms of the functions fO(Z) and
x(z), introduced in Sec. 70, by substituting in the relations
[69.4)

1"11 ...

U. n ,

1"11

= -U,lt,

1""

= U. ll,

from the Goursat formula,


(70.5]

2[1 =

~(z)

+ z;W + x(z) + ifz).

lIlATREMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

To simplify calculations, we rewrite (69.4) as


(71.1)

'1"11
{

+ ~'I"12
STU

'1"22 -

and compute first the


find 1 that
(71.2)

U,l

~U'12

= U,22 -

-i(U,l

7" iU,2)."

+ $U,12 a (U,l + $U,I),l,


expression U,l + iU" from (70,5),
= U,I1

+ iV,. =

I"(z)

We easily

+ Zl"'(z) + ~,

where we have set


I/I(Z) a x'(z),

(71.3)

Calculating the derivatives of (71.2) with respect to Xl and x. and


inserting the results in the right-hand members of (71.1) yield
'1"11

+ iT12

'1"22 -

iTI2

I"'(z)

= I"'(z)

+ I"'(z) - ZI""(z) - I/I'(z),


+ I"'(z) + ZI"I/(z) + I/I'(z),

which can be written more compactly as'


(71.4)

T11

+ Tn
1'11

'1" . . -

= 2[1"'(z)

+ 2iTn

+ 1"'(z)J "" 46{[I"'(z)],


2[zl""(z) + I/I'(z)J,

The formulas for displacements can be obtained by integrating the


stress-strain relations (66.3), which we can write as

U, = 'Ar'J
21'Ul,l,
= U,lI = 'Ar'J + 2I'u".,
= - U,I' = I'(UI,2 + U',l).

T11'=

(71.5)
{

1'22
1'12

Solving the first two of these for Ul,l and U,," we get
2",Ul,l

X + 2}o!
+ 2(X
+ "') V U,
X + 21'
U,2' + 2(X +-~ V U,

= - U,lI

2",U.,2 = -

and, recalling the definitions

V'U = PI = 4pI,I = 4p202


1

We omit the details of elemtmtary calculations making use of the formula

U . = aU at

a. ilx,

+ au ~
iI' ax,

where 6 - Z, + iz. and if = z, - iz.


These useful formulas were deduced finlt by G. V. Kolossoft in references given in
Sec. 65. The derivation sketched above is due to N, I. Muskhelishvili. See, for
example, See. 32 of his hook Some Basic Problems f the Mathematical Theory of
FJasHcity (1953).

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELAST08TATIC PROBLEIIS

265

in Sec. 70, we obta.i.n


2"''''-1 = - U. ll

2"u.,! = - U. 22

2(X + 2,,)
+ X +" Pl.l,
2(X + 2,,)
+ X +" P.,10

The integration of these equations yields,


2(X + 2,,)
+ X +" PI + f(x,) ,
2(X + 2,,)
-U. 2 + X +" Pi + g(Xl),

- U. 1

(71.6)

where f(x.) and g(Xl) are, as yet, arbitrary functions. The third of Eqs.
(71.5) serves to determine! and g. Since P,.' = -Pt." we easily find that
f'(x,)

+ g'(x,)

0,

and hence
!(x,) = ax, + fl,
g(x,) = -ax, + 'Y,

where a, p, and'Y are constants. The forms of! and g indicate that they
represent a rigid displacement and can thus be disregarded in the ana.lysis
of deformation.
If we set! = g = 0 in (71.6), recall that <p = p, + iP2, and make use
of (71.2), we easily deduce the compact formula
(71. 7)
where
(71.8)
being the Poisson ratio.
The formula (71.8) for" is that corresponding to the state of pla.ne
strain. In the generalized plane-stress problems, X must be replaced
by ;; = (2X,,)/(X + 2,,), and if the corresponding value of " in (71.7) is
denoted by X, we find

0-

X + 3"

5X

+ 6"

3 -

+" = 3X + 211- = 1 +
We note that both x and x are greater than 1.
X

;;

00-'

Inasmuch as the functions ",(z) and I/I(z) are analytic in the interior of
the region R, it follows from formulas (71.4) and (71.7) that the T~ and
u. are analytic functions of the real variables x, and x, throughout the
interior of the region occupied by the body.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF. ELASTICITY

As a consequence of this it is pOSllible to prove tha.t, if on any part of


the boundary, however sma.ll,

T..

= u.. = 0,

then the '1'~ vanish throughout the region R. This result is due to
Almansi, l who proved this theorem for the three-dimensional case.
12. The Structure of Functions l"{z) and I{I(z). The consideratiolls of
Sec. 70 indicate that there is some freedom in the choice of fUllctions
appearhig in the representation (70.5) of the general solution of the
biharmonic equation. This implies some arbitrariness in the selection
of functivns rp(z) and "'(z) in the representation of stresses and displacements by formulas (71.4) and (71.7). In this section we discuss the
precise extent of this arbitrariness and record the structures of l"(z) and
!/t(z) for several domains of interest in applications.
We begin with a finite simply connected domain R bounded by a contour C and raise the question: What is the difference in the forms of two
sets of functions (rp, "') and (l"o, !/to) that correspond to the same stress
distribution in R?
If the stress distribution specified by l" and", is to be identical with that
given by rpo and !/to, the formulas (71.4) demand that
<R[l"'(z)] = <R[rp~(z)]

(72.1)

and
(72.2)

il""(z)

+ ",'(z)

From (72.1) we conclude that


stant. Consequently,
(72.3)

= zrp~'(z)

l"~(z)

rpo(z) = rp{z)

= l"'(z)

+ "'~(z).
+ ci,

where c is a real con-

+ eiz + a,

where a is an arbitrary complex number.


Inserting this in (72.2) yields
!/tf(Z) = Wz),

so that
(72.4)

"'o(z) = ",(z)

+ fl,

where {J is a complex constant.


Thus, if the state of stress in R is specified, the single-valued analytic
functions l"(z) and "'(z) are determined to within a linear function eiz + a
and a constant {J, respectively. Conversely, the state of stress in R will
be unaltered if rp is replaced by <p + ciz + a and ." by '" + 13.
Consider now the situation in which the displacements throughout R
, E. Almanlli, Atti della re4le accade""a dei _wnale Lince>, vol. 16 (1907) pp. 86S868.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATlC PROBLEMS

267

are specified. Inasmuch as the specification of displacements uniquely


determines the state of stress, the extent of arbitrariness in choosing ~o(z)
and !/-o(z) cannot be greater than that indicated by (72.3) and (72.4).
This time, however, the equality of displacements, as follows from
(71.7), requires that
)(~(z) - z7(zj - ~ = x~o(z) - z~~(z) - !/-o(z),

and the substitution from (72.3) and (72.4) shows that

c=o

(72.5)

and

xC<

p.

Hence, if the displacements u; are known in R, the function 'P is determined to within a complex constant c< and the specification of this constant completely determines the constant (3 in !/-o(z).
If the origin of coordinates is taken within R, the functions ~(z) and
!/-(z) will he determined uniquely for the given state of stress, if c, c<, and
(3 ar,e chosen so that
~(O) =

(72.6)

0,

g~'(O)

= 0,

!/-(O) =

o.

If the displacements are known, c is necessarily zero and we can choose


a so that ~(O) = O. This choice fixes the value of p. We emphasize the
fact that, in a finite siIuply connected region R, ~(z) and "'(z) are singlevalued analytic functions of z, and hence they have the power-series
representations ~(z) =

L" a.z",

L" bnz

I/I\Z) =

fl

in R.

n=O

n=O

If R is not simply conne<;ted, ~ and'" need not be single-valued, but it


is not difficult to determine their structures if the stresses and displacements are assumed to be single-valued. Without going into details of the
analysis, we record here the forms of ~ and'" in finite and infinite mUltiply
connected domains.
We sketch the argument I(>ading to the determination of the structures of these
functions, As noted in Sec, 70, the real part PI(x" x,) = rll + r" of the analytic
function F(z) = P, + iP, is sin!!;le-valuetl, but, in describing once each interior contour C. (k = 1, 2, . . . , m), the imaginary part P, acquires a constant increment.
If this increment is denoted by &rA., then the function ,,'(z) - J.~F(.) acquires an
increment 2.riA . - But the function A. log (z - Zk), where z. is a point in the simply
connected region R. bounded by C., acquires precisely the increment 2.-iA. in going
around the contour C.. Hence
",'(z) -

L'"

A. log (z - Ir.)

+ fez),

k-I

where f~) is single-valued and analytic in R.


m

(a)

,,(z) -

A,z log (z - zo)

t-I

The integration then yield!


..

B. log (z - '.)

k-I

+ ".(z),

268

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

since the indefinite integral of fez) ha.s the structure

I(z) dz -

B. log (z - z.)

+ 9'.(z),

k-l

where ".(z) is an&1ytic and single-valued in R. It is clear from (a) that 9'''(z) is a single-valued function, and since the left-hand members of {71.4) are single-valued, it
follows that >f'(z) is &180 single-valued. Therefore

L
".

(b)

>fez) -

C.log (z - z.)

+ >f.(z),

k-1

where >f.(z) is analytic and single-valued in R. If we further suppose that the displacements u" are single-valued functions in R, then the increment acquired by
21'(ft, + iu.) in describing the contour C. is zero. Using this condition in (71.7),
with 9' and >f in the forms (a) and (b), we find
21ri[("

+ I)A.z + ,.B. + 6.1

o.

Hence A. - 0, and C. = -xB.. The B. have a simple physical meaning explained


in formulas (72.7) and (72.8). These follow from the calculation of the resultant
force acting on each contour C. with the aid of formulas (71.1). The details of this
argument will be found in Sees. 35, 36 of N. I. Muskhelishvili's Some Basic Problems
of the Mathematic&1 Theory of Elasticity (1953).

If R is a finite multiply connected domain bounded by the exterior


contour Cm+' and by m interior contours Ck (k = 1,2, . . . ,m) (Fig. 51),
and if the displacements and stresses are single-valued functions throughout R, then 'P and !/t have the following structures:

(72.7)

!/t(z) = 2".(1 ~ x)

(Xlk) -

iX~k) log (z - z.)

+ ..yo(z),

k-l

where (Xik\ X~) is the resultant vector of external forces applied to the
contour C. and is an arbitrary point in the simply connected region R.
bounded by C.. The functions 'Po(z) and !/to(z) are single-valued analytic
functions in R.
If R is an infinite region, bounded by several simple closed contours'
C. (k = 1, 2, . . . , m), and if the stress components T'j are bounded in
the neighborhood of the point at infinity, then' it is not difficult to prove
that for sufficiently large Izl,

z.

, The region R in this case can be thought to be obtained from the region R of
Fig. 51, by making the contour Cm +, expand to infinity. It corresponds to an infinite
plate with m holes bounded by the C ..

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

(72.8)

'P(Z
I)

t/t(z )

Xl + iX,
= - 211"(1 + ,,) log z
=

K(XI - iX t )
211"(1 + x) log z

.
(B + 1.C)Z

269

+ rpo(z),

+ (B' + zC')z + t/to(z),

provided the origin of coordinates is taken outside R, that is, within one
of the contours Ck. The Xl and X. are the components of the resultant
vector of all external forces acting on the boundary C l + ... + Cm, so
that
m

Xl

+ iX.

(X\k)

+ iX~';

k-l

I"c(z) and fc(z) are single-valued analytic functions in R including the


point at infinity.! The constants B, B', C' are related to the state of
stress at infinity as follows:

(72.9)

2B - B' = TU( <Xl),

2B

+ B'

= T'2( <Xl),

TU( <Xl) = C',

where Ta~( <Xl) represents the limiting value of Ta~(X) as the point x recedes
to infinity. The constant C has no effect on the state of stress and is
related to the rigid rotation", "" lim H(U2.1 - u, .) at infinity by the
1-1--

formula

C = 1

2"

+ K""

In the analysis of stress C can always be set equal to zero.


It is worth noting that the requirement for the Tap to be bounded a"
infinity does not imply that the displacements U a remain bounded. If
the displacements are to be bounded at infinity, then' TaP( <Xl) = 0,
Xl + iX. = 0, and C = 0.
.
If R is an infinite region bounded by a single contour C, the representation (72.8) is valid throughout the region.
73. First and Second Boundary-value Problems in Plane Elasticity.
We are now in a position to show that the fundamental boundary-value
problems in plane elasticity can be reduced to the determination of rp(z)
and t/t(z) from prescribed values of certain combinations of these functions
on the boundary of the region.
1 This means that, for Bufficiently large Izl, ".(z) and >/I.(z) can be represented in the
forms

..

".(.)

-,,-0" ~,
L., .'

>/I.(z) =

L-~.

.. -0

See' the concluding paragraphs of See. 36, in N. I. !Vluskhelishvili's Some Basic


P.roblems of the Mathematical Theory of EJagticity (19D3).

270

MATHEMATICAL 'l'fJl!l()RY OF ELASTICITY

We begin with the first boundary-value problem in which the T6 must


be such that
T6J1~ = T .(8),
where the stress vector T. is specified on the boundary C.
Formulas (69.9) yield at once the result
(73.1)

U. 1

+ iU. t

where

It + i/t

+ i!.(s) + cOnSt

= ft(8}
= i

[TJ(s)

on C,

+ iT.(s)] ds.

But if we recall the formula (71.2), we can write the condition (73.1) as
(73.2)
on C.
",(z) + z7{z} + "f(z'j = fl + if. + const
The constant in the right-hand member of this formula is, in general,
complex and has a different value on each of the contours forming the
boundary C. However, we saw in the preceding section that there is some
freedom in the choice of ",(z) and >/I(z) corresponding to the same state of
stress. This freedom can be utilized to fix the values of some constants
in (73.2).
Thus, if the region R is finite and simply connected, the replacement of
'" by '" + ciz + a and of >/I by >/I + fJ does not change the state of stress in
R. Accordingly, the left-hand member in (73.2) can be replaced by
",(z) + z9lfz) + "f(z'j + a + p, and hence, by choosing suitably the value
of a + p, the constant in (73.2) can be fixed in an arbitrary manner. If,
for example, we set this constant equal to zero, we can no longer take l
~) = 0,1",'(0) == 0, and >/1(0) = 0, but we can still choose ",(0) = 0 and
11",'(0) = O. The condition ",(0) = 0 fixes a, and g",'(O) = 0 determines
c. But if a is known, the value of a + P fixing the constant in (73.2)
determines If and hence we no longer have control over the choice of p.
The situation with an infinite region bounded by one contour C is
similar. In this case '" and >/I have the structures shown in (72.8). If the
constant in (73.2) is fixed, we can consider ",o( <I = 0, C ... O. This
choice, together with the choice of the COnstant in (73.2), determines "'.
and >/1o completely.
If the region is multiply eonnected (finite or infinite), the constant in
(73.2) may have a different value on each contour C. forming the boundary of R and only on one of these contours can it be fixed arbitrarily. On
the remaining contours the integration constants are determined from
the requirement of continuity and 8inil~uedness of displacements and
stresses. ,
The determination of the corresponding. boundary conditions in the
1

See {7:l.6}.
See an analog()t18 problem in Bee. 4.T.

TWQ-DIHEN510NAL ELAST08TATlC PROBLEMS

second boundary-value problem is just 808 simple.


conditions
U .. g.. (8)
on 0,

271
This time "e have the

where the g,,(8) are known functions. We recall t.he formula (71.7) and
deduce at once the boundary condition
(73.3)

1<!O(Z) - z!O'(z) -

'f(Z'j = 2,.[g,(S)

+ ig.(s)

on C.

The displacements g.(s) specified on C determine completel the states


of stress and deformation in R. Hence we can no longer specify the
values of both 1 100 and 1/10 at a given
point of R in formulas (72.7). If
%2
the region is finite, we can take
the origin in R and set 100(0) = O.
If the region is infinite, we can
N
consider that 100 in (72.8) is chosen
so tha.t !oo( "") = o.
R
We conclude this section by
recording another form of the
boundary condition for the first
0
boundary-value problem when the
norma.l' ana' tll.llgent'ls.t" components Nand T of the stress vector
FIG. 53
are prescribed on the boundary
instead of the cartesian components T a. We take the posithre direction
of the normal component N along the normal" and the tangential component T as shown in Fig. 53. Then'
(73.4)

2(N - iT) = T11

+ T2.

T11

(T .. -

+ 2iT12)e''',

where 01 is the angle measured from the positive directi~n of the xl-axis
to the normal ...
The substitution in (73.4) from (71.4) yields the desired boltndary conI See (72.5).
This fonnula is easily cheeked by using the transformation fonnula; (16.4) upon
taking the direction of N along the Z:-axis and that of T along the x':-axis. Then
N - ,.~., T - ..:.. and the transfonnations connecting the coordfuate sY~tem8 are:

a:. ..

Zl CO$

,
Q: -

2;,

am. a,

a:.-z:sinQ+~~C08..

It is also easy to verify that,


1'~1 + T~ ..~. - ..:. + 2iT:. -

1'11

+ TO,

{Tn - 1"11

The first 01 theae fonnuJas is obvious, aince 9, -

+ 2trll)s....

T_

is an invariant.

272

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

dition in the form


(73.S) cp'(z)

+~ -

es;..{!<p,,(z)

+ 1//(zl] =

N - iT

on C,

where Nand T are specified along C.


T4. Remarks on the Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions. The
boundary conditions (73.2) and (73.3) for the basic two-dimensional
elastostatic problems can be written in the form
(74.1)
oup(t) + l'{1'(Jj + Ri'5 = I(t)
on C,
where we use the symbol t to represent the values of z on the contour C
of the region. In the first boundary-value problem a = 1 and

I = It + il. + const,
while, in the second, a = - 1 { and 1= -21'(g, + ig.).
The existence of solutions of the first and second boundary-value problems in plane elasticity can thus be made to depend on the demonstration
of the existence of functions ",,(z) and I/t(z) which satisfy on the boundary
C the conditions of the form (74.1). We shall see in Secs. 83 and 86 that
the boundary conditions (74.1) can be used to construct a Fredholm
integral equation of the second kind for the determination of these functions, and their existence would then follow directly from the fact that the
associated homogeneous integral equation has no solution other than the
trivial (zero) solution.'
As regards the uniqueness of solution, it should be noted that the
Kirchhoff proof (Sec. 27), for finite three-dimensional domains, is clearly
valid for finite two-dimensional regions. Instead of formula (27.1) we
now have the equation
(74.2)
1 The first boundary-value problem, as was shown in Sec. 69, is equivalent to the
fundamental biharmonic boundary-value problem. The existence of the solution of
it, for finite simply connected domains, was established by: J. Hadamard [Memoir68
468 llllilnla eJ.ranger8, vol. 33, No.4 (1908)], G. Lauricella (Alti della reals accademio
fIIUionale dei Lincei, vol. 15 (1906), pp. 426-432), T. Boggio (Alti della aceodemia
~ di Torino, vol. 35 (1900), pp. 219-239; Atti del reals institute Veneto di
~, latIN. ed arti, vol. 61 (1901-1902), pp. 619-636]. and A.. Korn (Annal68 de
t'lools I'IONIIiJle BUpbieuN. vol. 25 (1908), pp. 529--583).
The matter of the existence of solutions of the first, second, alia mi:!ced problema for
finite and infinite multiply connected domains (including anisotropic media) was
eettled principally by: N. I. Muakhelishvili [Malhem4li8che Annahn, vol. 107 (1932),
pp. 282-3121, S. G. Mikhlin IMtJtematichuki Sbornik, vol. 41 (1934), pp. 284-291, ~
420; TnMlt/ &i&mological InstUule Akademii Nauk SBSR, No. 65 (1935), No. 66
(1935), No. 76 (1936)1, and D. I. Sherman (Trudy &iBmological lnetitute Akadilmii
Nouk SS8ll, No. 54 (1935), No. 86 (1938), No. 88 (1938), No. 100 (1940); DlJlclady
Ak<Id.emii Nouk SSSR, vol. ?:1 (1940), pp. 911-1113; vol. 28 (1940), pp. 29-32; vol. 32
(1941), pp. 31H15; PriId. Mal. Mula., AkademiJIG Nauk SSSR, vol. 7 (1943), pp.
34J~, 4lH2O}.

aeu.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL LA8TOSTATIC PROBLEMS

where

w=

3-2).(e11

273

+ en}' + ,.(eI1 + el. + 2e1'>.

If the region is infinite, the proof of Sec. 27 is easily extended. We apply,


first, formula (74.2) to a finite domain bounded by the contour
C

= C1

+ ... + C...

and by the circle C. with center at III = 0 and with radius p so large that
Cp contains C within it. Then if the integral
as

(74.3)

p~

J,

the argument in Sec. 27 establishes the uniqueness of Solufi?n in the twodimensional infinite region. The fact that (74.3) is, ind, true follows
from (71.4) and (71.7) if we recall' that, for sufficiently large izi,

For, in this case, the integrand Taua is at least of the order lip', and hence
the integral tends to zero as p becomes infinite.
76. The Role of Conformal Representation in Plane Problems of
Elasticity. We have indicated in the preceding chapter how effectively
conformal mapping can be used in solving the Dirichlet problem for
simply connected domains. Techniques, similar to those used in calculating the complex torsion and flexure functions, can be applied to the
boundary-value problems in plane elasticity. We suppose that the given
region R (finite or infinite) is simply connected and map it conformally
on the unit circle Irl :$ 1 by the analytic function
(75.1)

III

= w(r).

If the correspondence of points specified by (75.1) is one-to-one, then,


as noted in Sec. 43, w'(!") does not vanish at any point of the region. To
ensure the nonvanishing of w'(r) throughout the closed region Irl :$ 1, it
suffices to assume that the boundary C of R has continuously changing
curvature. t We shall suppose that such is the case. Then, if the region
R is finite and the origin III == 0 is taken in the interior, we can represent
(75.1) in the power series
(75.2)

Z ...

",(l") =

.
l

s",

k ..

lsI

:$ 1,

.. -1

See (72.11), where we have set X, _ X. - B - C - B' - C' - 0, since we supthat the Uiapl.&eementa remain bounded at infinity.
This is a apeeiaI. case of a theorem due to V. Smimoft', M ~ Annalen,
vol. 107 (1932), pp. 313-323.
.
l

]lOBe

274

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF "ELASTICITY

by making the point z = 0 correspond to .I = O. If the region R is


in&.nite, we shall suppose that z = 0 is an exterior point and represent
",a) in the form
(75.3)

"'(.I) =

.
f + l k"r",

1.11 ~ 1,

.-0

by taking z "" CI() and .I = 0 as t,he corresponding points. I


Let us determine next how the essential formulas (71.2) and (71.7) and
the boundary conditions transform under (75.1). We denote the results
of the substitution z '= w(r) in 1"(21) and "'(21) by lOla) and ",,(.I), respectively, so that
(75.4)

I"[w(r) "'" I",(r),

"'[",(.I) "'" "',(.I).

Since
'( )
I" z

dil'l dr

= dr dz

'()

1"1 .I w'(r) ,

formulas (71.2) and (71.7) assume the forms


(75.5)
(75.6)

lJ,1

+ ill"

21'(Ul

= 1"1(.1)

+ iU2)

+ ~ 1";(.1) + "'I(n,

1.11 ~ 1,

w \il

= 1<1",(.1) -

~ 1";(.1)

w \.1)

- ",,(.I),

1.11 ~ 1.

Hence the boundary conditions (73.2) and (73.3) become


(75.7)

1",(.1)

+ ~ 1";(.1) + ",,(n

= F(.J),

on 1.11 = 1,

1"1\.1) - ",,\.1) = G(.J),

on 1.11 = 1,

'" \.1)

(75.8)

1<1",(.1) -

w(n
=

w \.1)

-rr.:\

....-T.:\

where F(") and G(") are uniquely determined by (75.1) on the boundary
of the unit circle from known values, I, + i/2 + const and 21'(U' + ig2),
specified' in the contour C of R.
The structure of the left-hand members in (75.7) and (75.8) suggests
that we impose on Fl(.r), F:<r), and .pdi) the requirement of continuity
in the closed region Jil ~ 1. Moreover, if the domain is bounded, I"I(r)
'Y

1 Occasionally it proves oonvenient to map an infinite region R on'the region 1.1 <:: 1
and make the point at infinity in the z-plane correspond to the point - .. . The
appropriate mapping function is obtained then from (75.3) by repla.cing by llr.
We 8UppnBe that the value of the integration conatant in (73.2) is fixed in some
definite way, aay, by setting it equal to zero. This can be done by utilizing the available freedom in the choice of fez). The transform of !t(8) + il.(8), which we denoted
by F("}, is then a known function 1.(6) + il.(") of the angular variable" in the
.-plane. The functional forme of 1M) + if.(") will, in general, differ from /t(.)
i/.(s), but the values of these functions at the corresponding pointe on ')' and (J are
the_.

275

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

and ",(!) are analytic in the region Irl < 1. In the first boundary-value
problem for such domains, we are free to assign arbitrary values to ,,(0)
and to 11[,,'(O)J. Hence ' the values of "1(0) and s["i(O)/w'(O)J can be
specified arbitrarily.
In the second boundary-value problem we can assign the value to
either ,,(z) or ,,(z) at some point of R, and in the sequel we shall choose
to assign an arbitrary vah"" to ",(r) at some point r = ro of the transformed region.
If R. is a bounded region, ",(r) and ",(!) have the representations
.,
.,
iCI(r)
/'

aftr",

'her)

b..t",

ItI ~

1.

n-O

71-0

The substitution of these series in the boundary conditions (75.7) or


(75.8) leads to a system of equations for the coefficients a. and b.. We
shall use this elementary method of solving the boundary-value problems

----:0::+-1- - - , . l : l
FIG. 54

in the following section. In general it is cumbersome, and the procedure


resulting from the conversion of the boundary conditions into certain
functional equations, presented in Sees. 82 to 86, leads to considerably
more effective methods of solution.
Occasionally it is convenient to use the boundary condition in the form
(73.5), and we deduce next the corresponding expression in the t-plane.
The relationship z = wet) determines an orthogonal curvilinear net
p = const, fJ = const in the z-plane corresponding to the families of circles
a1f<i radial lines in the t-plane. If 0: (Fig. 54) is the angle made at z = 20
by the coordinate line fJ = const with the x,-axis, then the cartesian components A .. of an arbitrary vector A at z = Zo are related to the components A., A" along the coordinate lines p = const, fJ = const by the
formula

Bee See. 73.

276

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

It is not difficult to express e-i in terms of the mapping function z ... (aI(l).
For, if df represents a displacement of .I == peif along the radius, the
eorresponding displacement dz in the z-plane will be along the line
iJ == const. Hence

dz = e'"

Idzl

and

and we find

(75.9)

e-> ==

f;rm

p1",'(.1)1"

Thus, the components u., U. of the displacement vector in the z-plane


are related to the cartesian components U a by the formula
(75.10)

Up

. == f;rm(
+ tu"
pIw' (n I Ul +.)
tu .

Replacing z by (aim in (73.5) and noting (75.9), we get the boundary


condition in the form
(75.11)

4>(0')

+ 4>(0')

~ ~4>'(O') + ",'(O')v(O')]

'" (0')

== N - iT

on 1.11 == 1,

where
fI(.I) == ,y; (.I)
(ai' (.I) ,

If we let Th == 1'.., 1';. = Til, 1';. == Tp~ in the formulas in the footnote
on page 271 and recall formulas (71.4), we get the useful expressions,l
Tpp

(75.12)

1'"" -

Tpp

+ T~"

== 2[4>(.1)

+ iW],

+ 2&", ==.plw~
Mn4>'(.I) + (aI'(.I)v(.I)]
\.1)

16. An Elementary Method of Solution of the Basic Problems for


Simply Connected Domains. The boundary conditions (75.7) and (75.8)
have the form
w(0') '77:\
'T7:'\
(76.1~
a'l(O')
'l\O')
,yl\O') == H(tT),
w \0')

+=

where IT ... ell is the value of .I on the boundary of the unit circle. In the
first boundary-value problem a == 1 and HelT) "'" ft(iJ)
i!.(iJ), and in
the second problem a == -7t: and H(IT) == -2I'[gl(iJ)
ig.(t1)1. If the
region R is finite and simply connected, the functions 'l(f) and '{tl(r) can
be represented in the power series

+
+

Note that eI'" _ ~ ...' (l").


pt;;7(ff

277

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

(76.2)

lI'l(r)

U.re,

~l(t) =

k-O

bktk,

k-O

and it is natural to attempt to calculate the a. and b. by the method of


undetermined coefficients. To this end we expand ,he right-haud
member 'Of (76.1) in the i'ourier series (39.6) to obtain

(76.3)

H(a)

);=_

Cke"'~'"

Coer",

GO

and write the complex Fourier series for the known function
(76.4)

The insertion from (76.2), (76.3), and (76.4) in (76.1) yields the equation
110

(76.5)

00

a.uk

1:=1

00

coer"

k=-110

GO

kU.u-H1

k-l

IlO

b.a- =

k=O

C.cr",

k=~oo

if we take 'I(O) = ao = 0 and note that {f = e-i6 = a-I.


On performing the indicated operations, which are surely legitimate
if the involved series are absolutely convergent, we get
GO

CIa

aoer"

1:-1

k-l

00

CIQ

CIO

l (L mamCmH-I) cr" + l (l
",-1

k-O

m-l

mamCm_;_I) a-'

b.u-k =

k-O

L Coer",

k __ oo

and, on comparing the coefficients of like powers of a, we obtain:


e

(76.6)

aUk

l
l

mUmCm+k_1

= Ck,

(k = 1,2, . . . ),

",-1
e

(76.7)

6.

ma..c.,_;-1 = C_;,

(k = 0, 1, 2, ... ).

",-1

If the system of Eqs. (76.6) can be solved for the ak, the b. are determined at once from formula (76.7). In the first boundary-value problem
the system (76.6) cannot be expected to yield a unique solution if the
imaginary part of at is left unspecified, since the function 't(r) is not
determined uniquely unless the value of g[,~(O)/c.l(O)J "" g[at/",'(O)J is
assigned. No such supplementary condition is needed for the second
boundary-value problem, inasmuch as the condition !"1(0) = 0 completely determines both lI'l(t) and tIm

278

:MATHEMArlCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Further, to ensure the existence of solution of the first boundary-value


problem for finite domains, the resultant force and the resultant moment
of assigned stresses T .. (a) must vanish. It is not difficult to shawl that
the vanishing of the resultant force implies that the function H(,,) is
single-valued on the unit circle, while the moment condition imposes a
restriction on the coefficients Ck in the representation (76.3). An important special case arises when w(!) is a polynomial of degree n,
because, as we shall presently see, the determination of at's, in this case,
reduces to the solution of the system of n linear equations in n unknowns.
The practical importance of this becomes obvious if it is noted that the
mapping function for a finite domain can be approximated with arbitrary
accuracy by a polynomial.
We note first that, when w(t) is a polynomial of degree n, the function
w(,,)/;rr;;y has the representation'
we,,)

w'(tT)

2:
n

-- =

(76.8)

ckuk

k-O

2:

k
C_kU-

k-1

Consequently, on setting c. = 0 for k 2': n


we get:
1

H the resultant force vanishes, then


/1(8)

+ il,(8)

fe

= i

(T,

1.'..

+ 1 in

+ iT,) do

(T,

= O.

(76.6) and (76.7),


But

+ iT,) do,

and hence the increment in I, + if. as the contour C is traversed is zero. This is
another way of qaying that H(tf) = /1(r'J) + ij.(r'J) is single-valued on 1,1 - 1. The
vanishing of the resultant moment requires that

fe (x,T. - x,T,) do

fe (x, d/,

+ x, d/t)

= O.

Integration by parts gives


[X./,(8)

+ X".(8)]C

fe [/,(8) dx,

+ 1,(8) dx,]

= 0,

and since the function in the brackets is single valued, the bracketed term vanishes.

The integrs.l can be written as <ll


z - ..,(f), /1(8)

fe [/,(8)

+ if,(8)] az =

+ if.(s) goes over into H(,,)

!lEI

+ if.(8)] az -

<ll

G\

fe [/'(8)

f,(r'J)

O.

Under the transformatioll

+ if.(r'J), and since dz -

",'(,) d"

f. H(u);;T(;)i'l::: - O.

The last of these equalities inlplies a restriction on the choice of the C~ in (76.3).
"The left-hand member of (76.8), viewed as .. function of .. complex variable ..,
has a pole of order n at inlinity and no other singularities in the region 1..1 2: 1. Hence
it has a Laurent series representation in the region 101 2: 1, whieh, for ",j - 1. has the
form (7G.8).

279

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELA.STOSTATIC PROBLElIlS

+ aIel + UsCt + ... + na,.c.. = Ct,


all. + alet + 2asCa + ... + (n - 1)a.._Ic.. = c"

aliI

(76.9)

+ alC..

aa,.

.. +k+l

(76.10)

2:

bk = -

+ 1.
mdmCm-IH + C-k,
k ~ n

aak = Ck,

(k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) .

.. -1

It follows from these formulas that, if ICkl < M/k', then the series
(76.2) define the analytic functions "",(I), ",,~(r), and ",,(I) in the region
1rl < 1, which satisfy the boundary condition (76.1). The Fourier

coefficients Ck will surely be of this order if the second derivatives of


H(rr) are of bounded variation. To ensure this, it would suffice to suppose that, in the first boundary-value problem, the functions T(s) have
first derivatives of bounded variation and, in the second problem, the
second derivatives of the displacements Ya(S) are of bounded variation.
If the domain R is infinite, the mapping function has the form (75.3),
and it follows from (72.8) that "",(r) = ",,[w(n] and ",,(r) = "'[w(l)] have
the representations,

"", ()
r =

X,

++iX.x) log r + (B + ~'C) fc + ",,(1),


x~:(1-+i~2) log r + (B' + iC') f + ",O(l),

2,..(1

(76.11)

",,(r) = -

where ""O(r) and ",O(r) are analytic and single-valued for'lrl < 1.
The constants B, B', and C' are related to the stress distribution at
infinity. They are,
B

= T11(OO)

+ T22(oo),

B' _ T2.( uO) -

T11 ( 00 )

--~-2--'

C'

= T12( 00 ).

As noted in Sec. 72, the constant C can be set equal to zero. To obtain
the boundary conditions for ""O(r) and "'O(l) in the first boundary-value
problem, we substitute from (76.11) in (76.1) and find
(76.12)

".O(rr)

+ :,~;) ""O'(u) + ",O(u)

PO(u),

where
(76.13)

FO(u) "'" F(u) _ Xl

~ iX210g u

~c

_ ",(a) [Xl - iX. u _ BCu'] - (B' - ie/)eu,


i7[u'5 2r(1 + x)

with F(u) = ft(~)


iJ.(t'J).
The function FO(u) is clearly single-valued when the components Xl, X.

280

1(ATHElILATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

of the resultant foree acting on C vanish. In this case we have for the
determination of <pO (i') and fO{S) the boundary condition similar to (76.1).
If the resultant external force does not vanish, F(u) acquires an increment
i(X I
iX 2) as the point u traverses the circle Ii'I = 1 once in the counterclockwise direction. I But as u traverses the circle, log u acquires an
increment 211'i and thus the contribution from the second term in the
riilht-hand member of (76.13) annuls the contribution from the first
tern. It follows that FO(u) is single-valued in this case also. Thus, in
either circumstance, we have a problem of the same type as for the finite
domain.
The treatment of the second boundary-value problem for an infinite
domain v!hen the values of Xl, X 2, B" C" B', and C' are specified in
advance obviously leads to the boundary condition

"!,,O(u) _ w(u) <po/(u) _ fO(u)


w'(u)

(76.14)

= GO(u),

where <pm and fO(S) are single-valued and analytic functions for Ii'I
and GO(u) is a known single-valued function.

<1

PROBLEM

Show that whenever the function "(il, mapping an infinite simply connected domain
on a unit circle 1,1 - 1, has the form
n

.,(il -

f + L -r..r,
i-I

then

..

and hence the system of equations for the coefficients a. in q>(rl -

L aor.,

from

k-l

(16.12), is:
a,

a.

+ <l,c, + 2atC. + ... + (n


+ a,c, + 24tC. + ... + (n

(16.15)
a_I

+ 41Cft._1

a. - A:'

- 2)a._tC._. = A~,
- 3)4._ae._. = A~,

k ~ n - 1,

the A: being the Fourier coefficients in the representation, FO(,,) =

..

l
k--.

A:".

"11. Solution of Basic Problems for a Circular Region. We specialize


the formulas of the preceding section to obtain the solutions of the first
t

Reca1l that ft(.)

+ ./.(11)

(T,

+ iT.) tis,

281

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

and second boundary-value problems for the circular region


The appropriate mapping function ",(r) in this case is

(77.1)
sothat"'(cr)~

Izl

R.

Rr,

= cr. Thusall Ct in the expansion (76.8), with theex~

ti~n c, = 1, vanish.
If we represent the function

+ if.(tJ),

f,(")

characterizin~

the stress

distribution on the boundary, in the form

F(,,) =

(77.2)

A~,

k,--" .,

where
k = 0, 1, 2, .. ,

the systems (76.9), (76.10), upon setting Ct = At,


(77.3)

a, + a, = A,
at = At,
b. =

.iLt

(k

IX

= 1, yield:

k;':: 2,
k = 0, 1,2, .

+ 2)Ak+2,

The first of these equations requires A, to be real, and it is easy to


check that it is the consequence of the vanishing of the result~nt moment
of forces applied to the boundary. In order to determine "",(r) uniquely
we take S(a,/e,) = Sea,) = O. Then a, = A,/2, and we ha"e

..

(77.4)

2: a.r i
..
.
"'I(!) == L b.r = L
"",(r) ""

'-1

and
(77.5)

1-0

..

L Atrt ,

r+

k-2

[A-k -

(k

+ 2)A t +2Jrt

1-0

Setting r = z/R, we obtain ",,(z) and ",(z).


The displacements and stresses in cartesian coordinates are then
determined from formulas (71.4) and (71.7). The corresponding components in polar coordinates are given by:

+ iu,) = e-i8[x",,(z)
+ 'Til = 4<R[",,'(z)],

21'(ur
(77.6)

'Trr

- z",,'(z) - ~J

'Til - 'Trr + 2i'TrB = 2[i<p"(z) + ,y'(z)Je''',


as follows from (75.10) and (75.12).
When the displacements are specified on the boundary, vve represent
the function O("} = 21'[g,(") + ig.(,,)] in Fourier series,

..

0(") =

L B~

t - - .,

282

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ!' ELA8'l'ICITY

and, upon setting B t


(77.7)

..

-Ct and ...

",at 41 = B l ,
",a, == B"
5. == - R... - (k

-It

in (76.9). find that

k> 1,
k ~ O.

+ 2)4HI,

These completely determine the functions <Pl(t) and !/Il(t).


AB an illustration of the use of these formulas we consider several
special problems.
a. Un~form Pre88ure. If a uniform pressure of intensity P acts on the
boundary of the circle, we take Tl = -P cos 8, T2 = -P sin (J and
compute
/1(8)

+ if2(8)

= i

(T1

+ iT.) dB

- i JD PeiDR d8

-PRe".

Thus,
and hence all

A., in the expansion (77.2), with the exception of

Al = -PR,
vanish.
The substitution of A., = -PR and Ak = 0, k
(77.5) then gives

I, in (77.4) and

,her) = 0,
so that
<p(z)

pz

= - 2'

!/I(z)

O.

Making use of these results in (77.6), we easily find that


Ur
Trr

P(l - x)
4",

= Tee =

r,

-P,

Us

= 0,

TrS

= O.

b. Uniform Radial Displacement. If a uniform radial displacemen1


",,' = -Uo is specified on the boundary,
UI

-UQ

cos 8,

and we find
2",(g1

+ ig,)

... -2I'UetT.

Hence the coefficients B t in (77.7) are:

B. == 0,

k"" 1.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC l'ROBLEMS

283

Thus,
all = 0, Ie;;if: 1,

and, hence,

'h(1") = O.
Using

I'(z)

2J,1u o
- x-I

"'(21) = 0

R'

in (77.6), we easily find that


TUO

ur=-l['
c. Concentrated Loads.

U,

= O.

Let the concentrated force with components

(0, - P) act at the point 210 = Re' of the circular boundary and an equal
and opposite force with components (0, PA_act at zo = Re-'<l (Fig. 55).
IO,-Pj

IO,P)
FIG. 55

The concentrated force P can be regarded as the limiting case of the


uniform distribution of stress T applied to a small segment L of the
boundary, wherein T is allowed to increase as L -> 0 iri such a way that
TL = P. With this interpretation, the function
fl(8)

+ if.{s}

= i

(Tl

+ iT.) ds

will be Constant &long the part of the boundary where no load is applied,
but as the variable point passes the point of application of the load,
h + ifa suffers a discontinuity of magnitude P.

MATHEMATlCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

284

In our case,

/1 + if,

F(II) ""

a<8<21<-a,
< a,
~ 8

= 0,

=P,
~ 0,
Hence,
1
A. = 21<

2,.. -

IX

<8~

t2... F(O)e-ok'dO = -P f.2~-a e-

ikl

211' "

211".

dB

= -;: (11" - a),

k = 0,

Pi(1k
=21Tk
e a-e-u)
",

,c O.

The substitution of these vlllues in (77.4) and (77.5) gives:


Pi I~ elka - e- ika
'Pl(t) = -~
k

.-1

rk

Pi
-

(e a - e-ia)r ,

where

Since for

Ixl

xjk

.<::: 1,

log (1 - x) and

k-l

x' "'" 1/(1 - x),

.-0

the formulas for V'1(!) and .,h(!) can be written in closed forJIlS:
V'l(t)

oa

(
e - I:
e" - e- )
+ Pi
2,.. log e-ia _ I: - --2--- i: ,
pa + bo + ~ (log e~ - i: + .ez,..
e---i: ea-i:
pa

= -;

h(S) =

ia

1(

Since z = RI: and


(z)

Zo

_j:__).

e-,"-i:

= Reia , we can write these as

Pi (
Zo
= z;:
log fa

tf;(z) =

- Zo )
ZZ - Zo
----zR2
z ,

!:!. (lOg :0Zo -- zz + Zo~


_ Zo~),
- z
- z

21r

where we dropped the nonessential constants that do not affect the stress
distribution.
The computation of stresses and displacements presents no serious
difficulties. 1
1 These are recorded in N. I. Muskhelishvili's Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (l953J. pp. 327-328, where the functions '('(z) and I/t(.)
are obtained in a different way. See also TimOllhenko And Goodier, 1'beory of Elas-

285

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

d. Rotating Disk. 1 If a circular disk rotates with constant angular


velocity (ol about the axis through its center, we consider the stresses in
the form
where the r~'li are given by (68.3), and the
equilibrium equations
r'jJ.~

r~~

satisfy the homogeneous

o.

If no forces are applied to the boundary of the disk, T a


boundary condition in (68.4) for r~~ gives
T~lJ"8 =

Ta -

=0 -

""

0 and the

T~OJlI{J
(r~Ol

cos e + r~oJ sin e)

Ta

(l)

Thus,
T,

+ iT,

-[rIT cos

e + rIO.' sin e + i(rW cos e + r~"i sin 8)].

Substituting for r~J from (68.3) and noting that, on the boundary of the
circle of radius R,
X, = R sin 8,
XI =. R cos 8,
we find,
T1

Hence

fI

+ tf 2 =

+ t'T" --

j'

2>'
4(>.

T t'T ,
tI

+
+ 3"
2,,) pw 'R'"
e' .
d8

2>'
4(X

+
3" pw"R'"
+ 2,,)
e' .

It is clear from this that the problem of determining the stress distribution r~'J is identical with the uniform-pressure problem considered in (a)
2>'
a b ove, wh ele we must set P = - 4(>.

+ 3"
+
2,,) pw "R"

ticity (1951), pp. 107-111, where this problem is solved by indirect means. This
problem was originally treated by H. Hertz, Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik,
vol. 28 (1883), and later by J. H. Michell, Proceedings of the London Mathematical
Society, vol. 32 (1900), pp. 35-61, vol. 34 (1902), pp. 134 142, who solved severa)
similar problems by ingenious devices. A unified and systematic trep.tment of this
category of problems was first given by G. V. Kolosoff and N. I. Muskhelishvili in
Itvestiya Petrograd Electrotechnical Institute, vol. 12 (1915), pp. 39-55 (in Russian).
1 For different solutions of this problem see Love's Treatise, Sec. 102, and Timoshenko and Goodier's Theory of Elasticity, Sees. 30 and 119. The problem of the
disk rotating about an axis normal to the disk at an arbitrary point of the disk was
solved by Ya. K. I1'yn, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 67 (1949), pp. 803--806
(in Russian). A solution of the problem of rotating disk with att!).ched concentrated
m _ is outlined in Sec. 80 of Muskhelishvili's Some Ba.sic Problems of the Mathematic!).l Theory of Elp-sticity (1953).

MATHEMATlCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

It should be kept in mind that the va.lue of X in formulas (68.3),


appropriate to the problem ofa rotating disk, is given by X = 21../1-/ (X + 2/1-),
since we are dealing with the state of generalized plane stress. In the
corresponding plane-deformation problem, that is,-in the problem of a
rotating shaft, X is the Lame constant given by (23.5).
78. Solution of Problems for the Infinite Region Bounded by a Circle.
If we consider the region Izl ~ R and map it on the unit circle in the
r-plane by means of
(78.1)

z = we!) =

R
T

the functions 1I',(r) "" lI'[w(r)] and "',(!) "" ,p[w(r)] assume the forms [see
(76.11)],

If

+ (B + iC) + 1I'(r),
",SX, - iX.) log r + (B' + iC')!!_ + ",O(r).
211'(1 + x)
.I

\O,(!) = ;:.\{; : ) log r

(78.2)

,p,(r)

We recall that X, + iX. is the resultant force acting on the circular


boundary and the constantl! B, B', C, C' are related to the stresses and
rotation at infinity by formulas (72.9).
We shall assume that C "" 0 and take
B "" ~4hl( 00) + TO.( 00 )],
B' = ~2[T22( 00) - TU( 00 )],
{ c' = Ta( 00).

(78.3)

For the determination of the analytic functions 11'0(.1) and ",oCI) we thus
have the boundary condition
1

(78.4)

11'0(0') - -11'0'(0')
0"

+ "'0(0')

= FO(O') ,

where
78. 5)
(

BR
F O()
0'= F()
0'- Xl +
211' iX, IogO'---;-

+ fa [;:"(1-;:) a -

BRu 2

J-

(B' - iC')Ra,

and F(u) '"" f,(O) + i}2(O), determined by the specified stress distribution
on the circular boundary.

Setting

.yom

Lbk5\

A-O

in (78.4) a.nd writing in the right-hand member the Fourier series representation for the single-valued function,

287

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

we obtain

..

(78.6)

..

a~ -

k-1
-

aD

kii.".-k-!

k-l

k-O

X,
+ iX. [ . + ~L. k1 (-k
-~ 1I't
q
-

..

fj.".-k

uk)]

A"uk

k--"
-

2BR
-q-

(B'

t'C')Rq

k-l

Xl - iX.

+ 2... (1 + x) U-
The comparison of like powers of u then yields:

+ Xl + iX. - (B' - iC/)R


211'
'
iX.1
k> 2
A + Xl +
211'
k'
-,
A
i(XI + iX.)
02
'

al = Al

ak=k

0=

(78.7)

61

= A_1

Xl

iX

- 2BR,

iX.!
b-2 -- A -2 _ Xl +
211'
2
-k
A
(
)b =

-k -

k - 2

+ X, -

ak_2 -

XI

iX.

+ x)'
+
iX 1
211'
ii'

211'(1

3.

These formulas simplify considerably when Xl + iX. = 0, that is


when the stresses on the boundary are self-equilibrating.
We next specialize these results to several problems of technical
interest.
a. Uniform Internal Pres8ure. When constant pressure P acts on the
boundary of the hole, T, = P cos fJ, T. = P sin fJ, and'

f.

+ if.

+i
-i

(Tl

+ iT.) ds

f' Pe"R dfJ = -PRe".

Thus,
F(u)

= -PRq-'.

1 The negative sign is introduced in the integral because the positive direction of
integration along the circle is clockwise, inasmuch as the normal v is directed toward
its cent-er.

288

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Clearly, Xl + iX, = 0 and, if we assume that the stresses at infinity


vanish, B = B' = C' = O. Thus FO(O') "" F(".), and
= ..

"1m

O(n,

I/I,(r) ,., I/IO(r).

Since all Fourier coefficients A k , with the exception

A_, = -PR,
vanish in tne expansion for F(O'), we conclude from (78.7) that
at
b,

= 0,
k
= - P R,

1,
bk

0,

k",cl.

Hence

1/11 = -PRj,
and, therefore,
Hz)

.. (z) '" 0,

PR2
Z

Using the formulas (77.6), we get,


PR2
u,. = - ,
u, = 0,
2J.1r
PR2
Tn' =

-T"

= - 7'

'Tr 8 =-

0,

and the problem is completely solved.


b. Cuncentraied FQf'ce in tM Plane. The streB6 distribution produced
by a concentrated force applied to a point in the plane can be obtained
by analyzing the effect of the constant stress distribution

T2=~'
2'11'R

(78.8)

acting on the boundary of the circle JzJ = R. The resultant force produced by the stress distribution T, + iT, is, clearly, X, + iX 2. If we
assume that the stresses at infinity vanish, FO(u) defined by (78.5)
becomes,
iX, I
_!_ Xl - iX,.
(78.9)
F O(".) = F(U ) _ X, +
2'11'
og U + u' 2'11'(1 + x)
But

;~
J1 + ~n
80

that

'J'(T
'T)d 8 =
= t
I l .

i(Xl
iX,) r'J
F()
". =
211'

X,
!!5

2
.X1 +iX
21r

-l

..
v,

+ iX, Iog "..

211'

Inserting this in (78.~j ..-e see that the right-hand member in (78.6)
reduces to the single term
X, - iX 2 -2
F O(" ) -_ 211-(1
+ x) 0'

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

289

We thus conclude that


a~

= 0,
Xl

> 0,

+ iX.

= 211"(1

k F- 2,

+ x)'

and hence
",O(r)

""O(r) = 0,

++iX.x) s' .

= X,

211"(1

Inserting these in (78.2), and recalling (78.1), we get

X,

(78.10)

+ iX. R
+ x) log ""i'

'" (z) = 211"(1

.1'(2)
..

-x(X , - iX.) 10 ~
2... (1 + x)
g z

The stress distribution in the region


if we insert

(78.11)

Izl 2:

'( ) __ X, + iX.!
'" z 2... (1 + x) z'
""(z)

= x(X , - iX,)
2... (1

+ x)

+ X, + iX. R'.
211"(1 + x) z'
R is determined by (77.6),

"( ) _ X,
'I'

+ iX.!_
+ x) Z2'

2... (1

! _ X, + iX. R'.
z

...(1

+ x)

z'

To obtain the stress distribution produced by the concentrated force


X, + iX. applied at z = 0, we let R -> 0 and allow T, and T. in (78.8)
to increase in such a way that the resultant force is always equal to
X, + iX,. The resulting stress distribution is that given by formulas
(77.6), where we use (78.11) with R = O. The result of simple calculations is,
x
TN"

(78.12)

"r"
orr'

= -

1C

+ 3 X, cos (J + X, sin (J

x - I X I cos

+1

21fr
(J

-,

+ X. sin (J
211'1'

'

x - I X I sin (J - X, cos
X + 1
211'1'

(J

The solution recorded here corresponds to the state of plane strain.


In dealing with the generalized plane stress, x in (78.12) must be replaced
by ;( = (3 - u)/(1 + u), while X, and X, are reckoned per unit thickness of the plane. That is, X, = Xf/2h and X. = Xgj2h, where 2h is
the thickness of the plate and X~ + iX~ is the concentrated force.
c. Concentrated Moment in the Planl-. We consider next the effect of
the stress distribution

M.
T 1 = - 2... R' sm

(J,

T,

M
2... R' cos 8,

290

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 011' ELASTICITY

applied to the boundary 1:1 = R. This distribution is produced by the


constant tangential stress T of magnitude Al/2TRt.

Binoe
fl

+ if.

if'

(TI

+ iT.) ds = ~
2rR

f'

eil dB - -

Ali elf

2rR

'

Mi
F(u) = - 2rR u- I
Thus, the only nonvanishing At in (78.7) is A_I = - Mi/2rR.
stresses at infinity vanish, the system (78.7) yields,
ak = 0,

k = 1, 2, .

Mi

b, = 2rR'
inasmuch as Xl

+ iX

= O.

If the

.,
k"" 1,

bk = 0,
Hence,

and
<pCz) == 0,

"{I(z)

Mil

= 2r Z

Making use of (77.6), we easily find,


'T".

'TIS

- 2,""2
-M,

= 0,

where M = -2rTR2.
d. Uniaxial and Biaxial Tension. Pure Shear. We consider next the
effect of the stress concentration in the neighborhood of the hole Izl = R,
located in a plane subjected to the action of constant loads at a great
distance from the hole.
Let us suppose first that the plane is stretched by the tensile forces
acting in the x,-<iirection. We take
.
'Tl2( 00) =

'Tu(

00)

o.

Since the hole is free of stress, XI + iX. = 0 and F(u) = O. The constants B, B', C' in (78.7) are determined by (78.3), and we find,
B =
~quations

!1.P1,

C' = O.

(78.7) then yield,


at = 0,

bo = 0,

Itt

b. = 0,

k> 3.

= _

P~R,

Ie> 1,
b: = 0,

291

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

Thus

and, from formulas (78.2),


<p,(i") =
",,(!)

(1 )
P,R (1f + r - r").

2P,R 2r +! '

= - -2-

Hence
<p(Z) =
",(z) =

~' (~ + ~}
- ~' [z +

R'G - ~82)J

Using formulas (77.6), we find:


Ur

U, =

(x - l)r'

PI [r2

41'r

+ 2R2 + 2 [ R2(X + 1) + r'

+ R2(X _

1)

~2'J cos 2+

+r
R'] sin 28
2'

r<r

~' [(1 - ~2) + (1 - 4r~2 + 3r~') COS2DJ

T66

~' [(1 + ~:) -

T 8

= -

I
(78.13)

~~

~2

(1 + 3~') cos 28J.

(1 + 2R'r' -

3R') sin 28.


r'

For tension ru( 00) = Po in the x.-direction, we have,

=P
~ [( 1 - -R') - ( 1 - 4R2
- r2
2
r2

T
1'1'

(78.14)

+ 3R')
-r cos 29 'J
4

. '

p. [( 1 + -;:0
R2) + ( 1 + 3R')
"2
--:;:< cos 29 ] ,

T"

Tr8

P. (
="2
1

+ 2R2
--;:0 -

3R<).

--;:< sm 26.

By superposition of (78.13) aild (78.14), we find, for the uniform


biaxial tension with P, = P. = P,
(78.15)

Trr

P(1 - ~!}

T"

P(1 + ~:}

Tr ,

O.

On the boundary of the hole in all these cases Trr =' T r 6 = 0, !J.I! it should,
but for the case of the uniaxial tension the hoop stress 1" is,
'Til

= P t (1 - 2 cos 29).

292

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

This assumes a maximum value (T'S)m.. = 3P, at 8 = r/2 and 6 = ar/2,


which is three times the l't,ress in a plate without the hole. For the case
of biaxial tension (Tqe)maz = 2P, as is clear from (78.15).
If we set TU(oo) = P and T.,(OO) = -P in (78.13) and (78.14), and
combine the ,esults, we shall get the solution corresponding to the plate
in the state of pure shear. I
On the boundary of the hole, in t,his case,
-rqe

I
I.-R

-4P cos 28,

which has an absolute maximum h,1 = 4P at IJ = 0, ."./2, ."., 3r/2.


79. Infinite Region Bounded by an Ellipse. .All a further illustration
of the method outlined in Sec. 76, we consider the first boundary-value
problem for an infinite region bounded by an ellipse
(79.1)

It is easy to verify that the mapping function


(79.2)

>

o~

0,

1,

transforms the region exterior to the ellipse (79.1) into a circle


if we take
a-b
R = a + D,
m = a + b'
2

It I ~

I,

It should be noted that, as the point t = eiD describes the circle


1 in the positive (counterclockwise) direction, the corresponding
point z traces out the ellipse (79.1) in the clockwise direction, Accordingly, the parametric equations of the ellipse must be taken in the form:

It I =

x, = R(1

+ m) cos D,

x.

-R(1 - m) sin iJ.

If m = 0, the ellipse becomes a circle. When m = 1, the point in the


z-plane traces out the segment of the Xl-axis, between Xl = 2R I>nd
x, = -2R, twice, as the point t describes once the boundary It I = 1.
Thus, in this case, the function (79.2) maps the z-plane, slit along the
line joining the points (2R, 0) and (-2R, 0), onto ItI ~ 1.
The solution of the first boundary-value problem for an infinite simply
connected domain, as we saw in Sec. 76, can be reduced to the determination of two functions '1'0(1) and 1/10(1), analytic in the circle III < 1, which
sati'lfy t.he boundary condition
(79.3)
, See See. 19.

~o(.,-)

+ wC"-)

",'(a)

rpOI(a)

+ 1/-0(a)

= FO(a).

TWQ-1>lMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

293

In our problem,

so that the coefficients en, in the expansion (76.4), vanish for all n ;:: O.
It follows then from (76.6) that
k;:: 1.

so that
(79.5)

'l'0(S) =

.'l.r',

.=1
where
(79.6)

with PO(o") given by (76.13).


An integral representation for <p(r), which is more convenient for calculation purposes than the series (79.5), can be readily deduced by substituting from (79.6) in (79.5). We have,

since 0' = e''}.


Noting that do = eihi d.J, we can write

or
(79.7)

(I) -- 2n'
r

'I'

PO(u)

~ ueu _ r) dO'.

This is the desired integral formula for <p0(r).


Instead of the series representation of the function ",O(r), based on the
calculation of the coefficients bk , one can also deduce a useful integral
representation as f~llows: We rewrite (79.3) in the conjugate form,
(79.8)

1"(0)

&

1"0'(0')

multiply both members of (79.8) by

+ "'O(u)

= FO(o),

2~~' and integrate over the


ilr't 0

294

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

contour -y.

We get,

But,l

1
",o(u)
2ri i.,u _ t du = ~O(O)

0,

and we have,
(79.9)
Since in our problem
w(u)
u(u 2
w'(u) = - 1 -

+ m)

mIT! '

<

1,

we see that the first integral in the right-hand member of (79.9) can be
evaluated by Cauchy's Integral Formula to yield,
(79.10)

>f0(r) = r(i

+ m)

I-mr'

O'(r)

+ __!_.

FO(u) du.
211'1i.,u-t

We proceed to illustrate the use of formulas (79.7) and (79.10) in two


special problems.
a. Uniform Pressure on Elliptical Boundary. If the ellipse is subjected
to a uniform presflure of intensity P, then
(a = 1, 2),

where
PI = cos (Xl, V) = cos (X2, 8)
pa

Thus,
I!O

that

= cos (X2, v) = -

it

(TI

+ iT.) ds

:2,

cos (Xl, 8) = _

= -

~"

P dz = -Pe,

FO(a) = -Pw(u) = -PR(tr l

+ mIT),

if we suppose that the stresses at infinity va.nish.


Substituting this in the integra.ls in forll\ulas (79.7) and (79.10). we
1

See the corresponding ealeulations in (42.3).

TWO-DIVllINSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLlCMS

295

obtain, virtually without caiculatioIl!l,


",(r) ". -PRmr,

~(r)

= -PR

[r + mr(r
+ m)],
1 - mrs
2

which solve the problem.


b. Stretched Plate Weakened by an Elliptical Hole. If the boundary of
the opening is free of stress and the plate is deformed at infinity by the
application of a uniform tensile stress of intensity P, making an angle a
with the xl-axis, the formulas in Sec. 19b demand that
TU( 00) = P cos' a,

T22( 00)

= P sin' a,

T12( 00) = P sin a cos a.

Thus the constants B, B', C'in (76.13) are determined by


B'

+ iC'

~ e- ia

= -

and hence
FO(I) = _ PR
4

P
B =4'

'

[!(I _2e2ia(l + (1(1(12+- mum )J.


2

The substitution of this in (79.7) and (79.10) yields, after simple calculations,
>O(t) = PRt (2e 2ia
4

PRt

.!.O(I-) _
'Y

Thus

p:r (2e

[2 _ 1 - e""'(r'

2(mt2 _ 1) m

2ia - m

",(I)

~(t)

= _ PR [e-2ia!

m),

+ m)].

+.p}

+ e2iar
m

_ (1

+ m2)(e
m

2ia

m) __
r_],

1 - mrs

from which the displacement and stresses can be computed without


difficulty. 1
PROBLEMS

1. Compute the displacements and stresses in the problem treated in the illustration
of Sec. 79a, for the case when m - o.
I. Solve the problem of deformation of an infinite plate with an elliptical hole. when
a constant tangential force acts on the boundary of the hole.
1 The solution of this problem was first obtained by C. E. Inglis, Transactions of 1M
l'Mtitute of Naoal Artihitec18. London, vol. 55 (1913). pp. 219-230. The solution given

here is due to N. I. Muskhelishvili, [Zll68tiya (Btdletin) Akademii Nauk SSSR (1919).


pp. 663-686. It is also contained ill See. 82&. pp. 337-339, of Muskhelishvili'. book,
Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953).

MATHEMATICAL THl!IORY OJ' JllLASTICITY

SO. Problems for the Interior of an EUipse. Theoretically the method


of solution illustrated in the foregoing can be used to solve problems for
simply connected domains whenever the mapping function II == ",(1) is
known. But the function ",(r), mapping the region interior to an ellipse
onto a circle, is very complicated. However, as was shown by Musk.,_
helishvili,' it is possible to make an effective use of the function employed
in the preceding section to solve the interior problem as well.
lpIane

FIG. 56

We consider
(80.1)

z = ",(I) = R

(I + T).

and, upon setting I = pe;' and z = x,

R > 0,

m ~ 0,

+ ix., find

(p + ;-) cos t'J,


R(p - ;)Sint'J.

Pl

x, = R
X2

Thus, the circle of radius


C, with the semiaxes

in the I-plane corresponds to an ellipse

(80.2)

provided that pf ::::: m.


The circle of radius

p = p.

corresponds to another ellipse C. (Fig. 56),

N. I. Muskhelishvili, Prikl. Mat. Mekk., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 1 (1933),


pp.5-12. See also, Some Basic Prohlems of the Mathematical Theory of Ela.sticity
(1953), pp. 244-250. This problem was also treated by much more complieated means
by O. Tedone, AUi della accademia delle 8cUnze di Torino, vol. 41 (1906), pp. 86-101,
and T. Boggio, AUi del reale inatituto veneto di 8cUnze, lettere ed uete, vol. 60 (1901),
pp. 591-6011. A solution of the problem, with the aid of integral equations, was also
given by D. I. Sherman, Doldady Akatkmii Nauk SSSR, vol. 31 (1941), pp. 309-310.
I

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOBTATIC PROBLEMS

297

and the elliptical ring bounded by C 1 and C2 is mapped conformally by


(SO.I) on the a.nnulus formed by the circles P = P1 and P = P.. If PI is
increased indefinitely, the function in (80.1) maps the region exterior to
the ellipse C1 onto the region 'exterior to the circle P = Pl. For m = pI,
the ellipse C 1 degenerates into a segment of the real axis. If we take
m = 1, the mapping function

R>O

(80.3)

maps the entire z-plane, slit along the real axis between Xl =- -2ft and
= 2R, onto the region III 2 1. As the point I = e'l) traverses the
circle once, the corresponding point z traverses the slit twice, so that the
points tT = e'/I, and tT = e-ill , correspond to one and the same point Po
on the slit. The ring bounded by the circles P = Po > 1 and P = 1 then
corresponds to the interior of the ellipse Co, cut along the real axis between
the points (-2R, 0) and (2R, 0).
If either the displacements or the stresses are specified on the boundary Co of the uncut ellipse, the functions ~,(I) and ",(t) are determined by
the condition of the form
Xl

(80.4)

"''1'1(1)

w(t) -:rr.:\
-;:-r.:'\
+ wl(t)
~1\1) + >/11\1)

= H(I),

Since 'l'1(t) and 'h(t) are analytic in the ring 1


represented in Laurent's series as

(80.5)

'l'1(t)

k--

akr,

>/1,(1) =

< It I < po,

L M.
k--

110

they ca.n be

10

Moreover, the point Po on the cut corresponds to the points I = e'll


and I = rill. on 111 = 1, and the continuity of 'I'(z) and 1/I(z) requires
that
(80.6)

'l'1(tT) = '{>,(It) ,

1/I,(tT)

1/I,(It).

The condition (80.6) implies that the coefficients ak and b. in (80.5)


are related by the formulas:
(80.7)

k = 0, 1,2, . . . .

The further conditions connecting these coefficients, which enable one to


determine the functions in (80.5), are obtained from the boundary condition (80.4) in the manner of Sec. 76. The reader interested in further
calculational details will find them in the cited works of Muskhelishvili.
81. Basic Problems for Doubly Connected Domains. We shall see in
this section that the method of solution outlined in Sec. 76 can be easily
modified to yield an effective solution of the basic problems for the cir-

298

MATHEMATICAL THBOllT 0"' JlLASTlCJTY

cular ring. Although a doubly connected domain can be mapped conformally on a circular ring, a generalization of the formulas of Sec. 76 to
doublY" connected domains usually leads ~o intractable systems of equations for the coefficients in the series representations of '1'(21) and '{t(z).
The treatment of the first and second boundary-value problems for
the circular ring is identical, and we confine our discussion to the first
problem.
Let the ring be formed by" a pair of concentric circles C.., a = 1, 2, of
radii R", where R, < R.. To simplify" calculations, we shall suppose
that the external stresses applied to each boundary- are such that the
resultant force and moment vanish for each bound8.ry. In this event,
the logarithmic terms do not appear in the representations (72.7), and
the functions tp(z) and '{t(z) will be analytic in the ring R, < Izl < R .
Accordingly, we can write

LakZ",
~

(81.1)

'P(z) =

The coefficients
(81.2)

tp(z)

where
(81.3)

at

R, <

and bk in (81.1) must be chosen so that

+ ztp'(z) + f(zj'

Izi < R,.

[T\")(s)

= f\")(s)

+ if~")(8) + const

on 0,.,

+ iT~")(8)1 ds = fl") + if~") + const.

The value of the integration constant in (81.2) can be fixed arbitrarily


only on one of the contours; on the other it must be determined so
that the stresses and displacements in the ring are single-valued and
continuous.
The arc parameter 8 on the circular boundaries C.. can be taken equal
to R8, where 8 is the polar angle; thus, the right-hand member in (81.3)
can be viewed as a function of 8, say F.. (J). Assuming that 1<'.. (8) can
be represented in the complex Fourier series,

F.. (J) =

.
L
Ak")e
-

ik ',

and, recalling (81.1), we can write the boundary conditions (81.2) in the
form
(81.4)

..
.
...
L
akR!uk + R.." L GkkR:-'u-(k-ll + L6.R:U-ll '" LA~")uk,
-.
-..
-..-.

where u == eO'.
The system of equatiollS for the unknown coefficients <It a.nd b. is then

299

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELAST08TATIC PROBLEMS

got by comparing the coefficients of like powers of fT in (81.4). The solution of this system presents no difficulties, and the resulting series (81.1)
can be easily shown to correspond to the desired solution if the derivative of F,,(fJ) is of bounded variation.'
We limit ourselves to the study of the case in which the boundaries of
the ring are subjected to constant pressures. 2
Let the pressures acting on contours Ca. be P". Then, on taking
account of the convention for the positive direction of the normal to Ca.,
we have,
TiO) = -Po cos fJ,
T~2) = -Po sin fJ,
T~') =< P, sin fJ.
T~') = P, cos II,
Thus,

F,(II)

==

(81.5)
F.(II) "" i

t
t

(Tl"

+ iT~l)

ds

= -i
(Ti2J

+ iT~2)

Je P,e"R, dfJ = -PIR,e" +

ds = -i

J' P,eiBR. de

=<

CIt

-P.R,e",

where the integration constant in F.(II) has been set equal to zero.
Substituting in the right-hand member of (81.4) from (81.5), we get,
on equating the coefficients of like powers of fT, the following systems:

+ 2Ria. + 50 = 0,
+ R.a, + fi_,Ri' = -P,R.,
akR~ + (2 - k)a2-kR~-k + 5_kR-;:k
ao + 2R1a. + bo = c"
a,R, + R,a, + b_,Rt ' = -P,R"
akRt + (2 - k)a._kRr-k + 5_kRt
ao

a,R.

(81.6)

= 0,

for k ;c 0, 1.

= 0,

for k ;c 0, 1.

In order to obtain a unique solution, we set ao = 0, fia, = and, after


Bome simple algebra, find that the nonvanishing coefficients are:'

_ RiRf(P, - P.)

-1 -

Ri - Ri

An analogous system, corresponding to a somewhat different choice of functions,


is disc1l88ed in detail on pp. 218-225 of N. 1. Muskhelishvili's Some Basic ProblelDB
of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953). There are other (more complicated) solutions available. See, for example, A. Timpe, ZeiI.8ckrift fur Matllef1l4tik
1400 Physik, vol. 52 (1905), pp. 348-383.
This problem WllS first solved by G. Le.m~ in Le90na sur la thoorie de l'6lasticit~
(1852), with the aid of Navier's equations.
I The positive description of the contour C. is clockwise, and it is counterclockwise
lor C..
'The constant c, turns out to be "ero in this problem.

300

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Thus
(81.7)
Using formulas (77.6) we find that,
P2R~
T..,

- P,Rf

Ri - Ri

_ P2R~ - P,Rf

(81.8)

T88 Tr8

Rf - Ri

P2

- Rl -

+P

2 -

P, RiRf
R~

ro'

P, RiRf

Rf - m----;T'

= O.

and we see that the radial stress Trr is compressive, while the hoop stress
It is interesting to note that (r88)", .. > P, regardless of
how thick the ring is.
The procedure indicated above, when applied to the problem of the
ring deformed by two oppositely directed concentrated forces on the
exterior boundary, yields very slowly converging series (81.1) when the
ring is narrow. The concentrated forces acting on the boundary C2 give
rise to the singularities in <p(z) and 1/I(z) , and it is advisable to modify the
problem by making use of the solution of the corresponding problem for
the solid disk found in Sec. 77c.
If the radius of the solid disk is R 2 , the concentrated forces produce in
it certain known shearing and normal stresses along the circle Izl = R,.
On subtracting the known solution of the problem of the solid disk of
radius R 2 , under the action of the same concentrated forces, from the
desired solution of the ring problem, one is led to consider the following
auxiliary problem: Find the state of stress in a ring whose exterior boundary jzl = R2 is free of stress and whose interior boundary Izl = R, is subjected to continuously distributed shearing and normal stresses equal
and QPposite to the stresses present in the solid disk along the circle
Izl = R I The superposition of the solution of this auxiliary problem
on the known solution of the problem for the solid disk yields the desired
solution.'
Te8 is tensile.

1 This familiar device has been used by S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier [Theory of
Elasticity (l!l51), pp. 116-123] and K. Wieghardt [Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der
Wiemchafte:t in Wien, vol. 124 (1915), p. 11191 to solve the problem in Fourier series.
However, the series converge slowly when R,jR, is near unity. An application of the
alternating method, discussed in Sec. 88, enabled M. Z. Narodetzkv [Izveatiya Akademii Na"k i:;SSR, Technical Series, No.1 (1948), pp. 7-18] to deduce a solution
that converg"" more rtlpidly. The stress distribution in a circular ring under the
action of twc "aual and oppositely directed concentrated forces applied at the neare&t

TWO-DIMEN8IONAL ELA8T08TATlu PROBLEMS

301

The function

r---1,
z=wW =ar
-1

a> 1.

maps the region between two eccentric circles onto a circular ring. The
reader may find it instructive to formulate the first boundary-value problem for the region bounded by two eccentric circles with the R,id of this
mapping function and deduce from the boundary conditions the appropriate systems of equations for the coefficients ak and bk in the expansions for <PI(r) and ",,(r). The solution of the resulting systems presents
difficulties, and it is simpler to treat the equilibrium problems for eccentric rings in bipolar coordinates. I
The function

R > 0,

> 0,

as we saw in Sec. 80, maps the region bounded by two confocal ellipses
onto a circular ring of radii P = pa, ex = 1, 2. If the external stresses
acting on the elliptical boundaries are such that the resultant force and
moment acting on each boundary vanish, the functions <p(z) and ",(z) will
be single-valued and analytic in the elliptical ring. Consequently their
points of the boundaries of the ring has been studied by D. V. Weinberg lPrikl. Mat.
Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 13 (1949), pp. 151-158J. By increasing the radii
of the circles, Weinberg deduces the known solution for an infinite strip subjected to
the action of two oppositely directed concentrated forces. See also L. N. G. Filon's
paper, entitled "The Stresses in a Circular Ring," Institution of Civil Engineers, London, Selected Engineering Papers, 12 (1924).
1 See G. B. Jeffery, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Soeiety (London) (A),
vol. 221 (1921), pp. 265-293, and Ya. S. Uflyand, Bipolar Coordinates in the Theory
of Elasticity (1950), pp. 193-210 (in Russian). The equilibrium problems for a semiinfinite plane with a circular hole are also in this category. Bipolar coordinate. have
been used by Ya. S. Podstrigach, D"VOvidi Akademii Nauk Ukrain'sko'i RSR (1953),
pp. 456--460, to study the stress cc,Ltcentration in an infinite elastic plste weakened
by two unequal circular holes, when the boundary of each hole is subjected to uniform
pressures. The case of uniformly stretched plate weakened by two unequal circul8J>
holes is also considered in this paper.
As an illustration of the "alternating method," the equilibrium of an eccentric ring
is discussed in See. 88.
The state of stress in a heavy semi-infinite sheet with one circular hole was investigated by R D. Mindlin, "Stress Distribution around a Tunnel," Proceedings of the
American Soeiety of Civil Engineers, vol. 65 (1939), pp. 619....642.
Stress distribution in a heavy semi-infinite sheet with two circulsr holes was studied
in detail by D. I. Sherman, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., A1w.demiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 15 (1951),
pp. 297-316, 751-761.
An investigation of the stress concentration in a heavy semi-infinite sheet, near
arch-shaped and trape~oidal openings stiffened by absolutely rigid rings, was made by
I. S. Ham, DoptMdi Akademii Nauk Ukrmn'.koi RSR (1953), pp. 299-303.

302

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

transfofms
(81.9)

<Pl(t)

<Pl(.i) =

and ,h(f), fOf

PI ~

IfI

~ PI,

have the representations,

~..air,

The boundary conditions in the transformed domain are:


a = 1,2,

where 0'" = p"e'6 and the c" are constants. The functionsf,,(O',,) are completely determined from the assigned stresses on the boundaries C" of
the elliptical ring. If these functions are expa.nded in Fourier series and
the series (81.9) are inserted in (81.10), it is possible to write down the
system of equations for the determination of the Gk and bk Although
this procedure is quite straightforward in principle, the calculations are
quite involved and we shall not pursue them here.'
PROBLEMS

1. Use formulas (81.8) to show that

(~99) ....x

P,(Ri+Rl)
(R. + R,)t '

where t - R. - R., and that for thln rings (or long pipes)

(
) UlU =. P.R.
T69
-,-'
2. Consider the problem of the stress distribution in a hollow shaft, of inner
radius R, and outer radius R" rotating with constant angular velocity (d. Take
~Il - 1'l:j + 1';;6, where T~4 is given by (68.3). Show that the formula

1 The solution of this problem, proposed by A. Timpe, M atJtematiBche Zeit8chri!t


vol. 52 (1923), pp. 189-205, as was noted by Muskhelishvili, is incorrect. The correct
solution was given recently by A. I. Kslandiya, Prikl. Mat. M6kh., Akademiya Nauk
SSSR, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 69~704, and a satisfactory approl(inlate solution by M. P.
Sheremetev, Prikl. Mat. Mekk., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 107-113.
An outline of a solution of this problem with the sid of an integral equation whose
kernel depends on Green's function for the confocal elliptical ring is contained on
pp. 229-233 of S. G. Mikhlin's Integral Equations (1949). Although it is possible to
deduce approximate solutions by replacing the kernel in Mikhlin's integral equation
by a degenerate kernel, the necessary calculations are quite heavy. It appears that
there is no royal road to the solution of the simplest elastostatic problems in multiply
eonneeted domains.
The construetion of eonformal maps, for the doubly conneeted region bounded
externally by an ellipse a.nd internally by a cire1e with coineident center, onto a circular ring was WseUSBed by M. Z. Narodetzkyand D. I. Sherman, Prikl. Mat. Mekk.,
Aka<kmiI/G Nauk SSSR, vol. 14 (1950), pp. 209-214.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELAST08TATIC PROBLEMS

003

yieldll

(T!"
1

+ iT.{UlIC. _ ~
-'ll', 4{>'+2,.)
2>' + 3,. ."

(T{l)
1

+ iTCl) c,

_ _

til' 2>.
4(>.

pw,

on the bouruiary C"

+ 3,.
"
+
2,.) e

on the boundary C 1.

Henoe conclude tb&t the solution of the equilibrium problem of rotating shaft with
free lateral surface is deducible from the results of Sec. 81. Show tb&t the maximum

hoop stress is on the inner boundary.


8. Deduce the system of equations (81.6) by multiplying the boundary conditions
",(t)

! : ~:::

+ t",'(I) + Wi '" {=~;. + c"

1 t-+1
at and'mtegrating the result over the contours
by 21I'i

Izl - Rl and I_I - R,.

Note

that the coefficients in the Laurent series (81.1) for ",(z) snd f(z) are given by

a. '" _2_
2ri

r ",(t) dt

JC

and

b. _

t,,+l

_2_ ( f(t) dt.


2~ } c tn + 1

82. Integrodifierential Equations for the Basic Problems. We have


seen that the basic problems of plane elasticity for finite and infinite simply connected domains are reducible to the determination of two functions 'l'Cr) and >/t(r), analytic in the circle Irl < 1, which satisfy on its
boundary l' a conditiOli of the type'
(82.1)

"''I'(er)

w(IT) - -+~
'I"(er) + >/t(er)
w (er)

H(er),

where H(IT) == h,(,'}) + ih,(,'}) is a single-valued function having continuous derivatives with respect to i} satisfying Holder's condition.'
The boundary condition (82.1) can be reduced to an integrodifferential equation for the determination of 'I'(l) and >/t(l) by a technique similar to that used in deriving Schwarz's formula in Sec. 42.
1 der
If we multiply both members of (82.1) by 2ri er _ l' where Irl < 1,
and integrate over 1', we get
(82.2)

with

1 We omit the subscript 1 and the superscript 0 on", and f in the formulas (76.11),
(76.12), (76.14) and in sll expressions of this snd the following three sections.
I See Sec. 40.

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

By Harnack's Theorem of Sec. 41, Eq. (82.2) is equivalent to Eq. (82.1).


But for every F(r) continuous in IfI ~ 1 and analytic for IfI < 1,

_!_.1 F(O') du = F(f) ' 2 n


_!_.1 F(u) dO' = F(O),

2n

~O'-f

so that (82.2) yields


(82.3)

a<p(l)

+ 2n
~

~O'-f

1
~

.ilO')

"'(0')
dO'
",1(0') 0' - r

+ ,yeO)

= A(l).

This is the desired integrodifferential equation for <p(l). It contains


an unknown constant ,y(0) , which can be determined by imposing the
condition 1"(0) = O. ThuB, if the value of ~ in (82.3) is tentatively
fixed in some arbitrary way and the corresponding solution for I"(r) is
obtained, then the actual value of ,y(0) in (82.3) can be computed from
the condition 1"(0) = O. For, if 1"*(0 is any solution of (82.3) for a
given ,y(0), and if 1"*(0) = ao .., 0, then <p*(r) - ao is a solution of
(82.3) with ~ replaced by ,yeO) + aoa.
Once a solution of (82.3) satisfying the condition 1"(0) = 0 is obtained,
the function ,y(l) can be calculated by Cauchy's Integral Formula from
(82.1). The value of ,y(l) on ,/, as determined by forming the conjugate
of (82.1), is,
,yeO') = H(O') -

;~~ 1"'(0')

- a;;(u).

If we mUltiply this by 21. du ,.' integrate over ,/, and note that
nO'-,

~ 1"(0') dO' = 1"(0) = 0


2nj yO'-f
'
we get an explicit formula,
(82.4)
From considerations of the following section, where it is demonstrated
that the solution of the functional equation (82.3) can be made to depend
on the solution of the standard Fredholm integral equation, it follows
that there exists a unique solution of Eq. (82.3), because a supplementary
condition 11[1"'(0)/",'(0)] = 0 can be imposed in the first boundary-value
problem for the finite domain.
We shall see in Sec. 84 how effective solutions of Eq. (82.3) can be
deduced for a broad class of plane problems, without making reductions
to integral equations.
83. Integral Equations for the Basic Problems. It is easy to reduce
the solution of the integrodifferential equation (82.3) to the solution of

305

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELA'J:T08TATIC PROBLEMS

the standard Fredholm integral equation. The existence of a solution of


Eq. (82.3) then would follow, almost directly, from the Fredholm theory.
We outline briefly this reduction.
The equality

w(r~

""'(0') ~

J~w'(u) 0' -

211"1

w(r)

= ",,'(0)

",'(0)

permits us to rewrite Eq. (82.3) in the form


(83.1)

a",,(r)

+ __!_,
211"1

r ~0' (0'- -weI)I) ""'(0') dO' + kw(r) + ~

J~ w

= A(r),

where
k = ",,1(0).
w'(O)

(83.2)

We observe that when the domain is infinite, Ie = 0, since for such


domains w'(O) = 00. If the domain is finite, Eq. (83.1) can be reduced
to the same form as for the infinite domain by setting
k

(83.3)

",,(r) = - ;; w{l)

where ""o(!") is the new unknown function.


we readily find that
(83.4)

a""o(t)

+ J_

r w(u) -

we!")

2," J~ ""(0')(0' - l")

+ ""o(!"),
On substituting (83.3) in (83.1)

",,~(u) dO'

+ 1f(0)

A(r).

Differentiating both members of (83.4) with respect to r, and letting r


tend to an arbitrary point t of 'Y, yields the Fredholm integral equation
of the second kind,
(83.5)

a '(t)
<Po

+~

riat

211"1 J~

[w(u) - wet)] <p~(u) dO'


0' - t
w'(u)

A'(t).

Since
lim w(u) - ~(t)
...... t

w'(t),

0'-

the kernel
K(u, t)

55

_1_ ! [w(u) - wet)]


w'(u) at
cr - t

IS continuous for all 0' and t in the closed circle 'Y (except for 0' = 0, t = 0
in the case of the infinite domain) so long as the contour C is such that
"," (r) is continuous in ItI ~ 1.
Thus (83.5) is of the standard type.l
1 By separating (83.5) into real and imaginary parts, this equation can be reduced
to a pair of standard :real equations, but such reduction is not neceM&rY for our

\)IJl1)OIIe8

306

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELASTICITY

The existence of '" continUOll8 solution of (83.5) follows from the fact
that the related homogeneous eqUIIJtion [in which A'(t) ... 0] can bve no
solution other tbn the trivial solution 1P~(t) ... O. For the homogeneous
integral equation corresponds to the physical situation in which either
the displacements or the stresses vanish on the boundary 0, and the
assumption tbt a nonvanishing solution exists in such cases violates the
uniqueness theorem.
Let us suppose that by some means we have obtained a solution 'P~(t)
of (83.5). Inserting it in the integral of (83.4), we obtain 1P0(r) and fix
it so that "0(0) = 0 [see (82.3)]. We then construct lP(r), defined by
(83.3), and choose k in accord with (83.2).
From (83.3),
,,'(0) = -

~IX ",'(0)

+ IP~(O),

and hence

and, therefore,

(83.6)

+ ~ = ,,~(O).
IX

",/(0)

In the second boundary-value problem this equation completely determines k. In the first problem a = 1, and (83.6) demands that

/; + k =

,,~(O)
",'(0)

be real.

But from (83.2)

k + k = 2ill ,,/(0),
(T(O)

that the first boundary-value problem will surely have a solution if


d["'(O)/,,,'(O)] = O. This is the familiar condition we encountered
previously.
When the domain is infinite, the mapping function has the structure

80

(83.7)

",m = fc + ",oen,

where "'o(r) is analytic in Irl < 1. It is easy to verify' that the function
11'01(.1), introduced in (76.H), satisfies the integral equation given in the
problem at the end of this section. Thus the problems for the simply
connected infinite domains differ in no essential particulars from the
problems for finite domains. This fact has already been noted in Sec. 76.
1 Detailed ealeulatiollS will be found in N. 1. Muakhelishvili's Some Basic Problema
of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953), Sec. 79.

307

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

IntegraJ. equations of the type <,onsidered here have been thoroughly


studied by Shermlln , l who proved, among other things, that they can be
solved by a method of successive approximations. Moreover, if the
mapping function ",(I) is rational, the kernel Kerr, t) has the degenerate
form
n

K(rr, t)

.-1L

a.(t)b.(IT) ,

and hence Eq. (83.5) ia solvable in the closed form. This remarkable
result, first established by Muskhelishvili, can also be deduced in the
manner of Sec. 84, where two special forms of rational mapping functions are considered.
PROBLEM

Show that, if the domain is infinite and the mapping function has the form (83.7),
the function ",'(1) satisfies the equation

where
K(" I) = _1_~ [wo(O') -wo(I)].
,

w'(u)iJl.

0'-1

84. Solution of Integt:'odifierential Equations. The integration of Eq.


(82.3) can be carried out in the closed form, and by quite elementary
means, whenever ",(n is a rational function. 2
We consider first the simplest case where w(1) is a polynomial
(84.1)

w(s)

'Yt!

+ 'Y2S2 + ... + 'YnS',

'Yt ;;c 0,

'Yn ;;!.

0,

and recall' the notation


w(1)

'=

11S

+ 1.s + .. + 1.s.
2

In this notation, the l'ational function

... + 'Y.s
.. + n1ns- +
+ 'YnS n... + n1n
n

(84.2)

reduces to "'(IT)/"i2(rr) for S = rr.


1 D. I. Sherman, Trudy Sei8m%gicai 111.8titute, Academy of 8cienee. of the USSR,
Nos. 82 and 83 (193S).
N. I. Muskhelish.,rili, Some Basic Problems of ,.he Mathematical TheOry of Elasticity (1953), See. 85.
'See. 42.

308

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OJ' ELABTICI'l'Y

Moreover, since ",'(I:) F- 0 for ItI S 1, ';"(I/t) 'F 0 for ItI ~ 1, and
thus (84.2) represents an analytic function for all Il"l ? 1, except for
t = QO, where it has a pole of order n. It follows, then, that for Il"l ~ 1,
(84.3)

",(t)
';"(l/r)

= cnr n +

... + clr + '"'

C-kr

k-O

The fact that this expansion has a finite number of positive integral
powers of r will enable us to evaluate the integral in (82.3) in finite terms.
Since
",et) = all" + a.r' +
Il"l :$ 1,
nan.
(84.4) 'P'
Ih +
+ . + rn - I + .
Il"l ~ 1,

2;.

G)=

and the product of the series (84.3) and (84.4) gives


(84.5)

(!) -- K

~:AI t
';"(l/rl"

+ K n-I,>-n-l + ...

>-n
n,

L K~l
~

+ Klr + Ko +

...,

m-~

where
K"
K n-

(84.6)

== (heft.,

+ 2a.c.,
== litc. + 2a.c. + ... + (n - l)an_lCn,
= alcl + 2d.c. + . . . + nanc.

iitCn_1

We do not write out the expressions for K~, m ~ 0, because, as will be


seen presently, they are not required in the calculation of ",(r).
It may be observed that Eqs. (84.6) contain only n coefficients c; in
the principal part of the Laurent expansion (84.3). The determination
of the principal part calls for quite elementary algebraic computations.
If we now set r == 11 in (84.5) and insert the result in (82.3), we obtain

~ "'(0-) ",'(0-) du =
2," ~ ",/(U) U -::- r

.. -0

r-,

K ..

..

since

f . L K_,..r-

1
2ri.,

Thus (82.3) yields

1m

(84.7)

+ ~

a<p(r)

-1

u-r

U=.

explicit formula for <p(r),

'/:'0

K..r"

+~

_!_

B(IT) d#

2ri .,IT -

r. '

309

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTA'DlC PROBLEMS

yet containing the unknown constants K...


easily determined. Since

These, however, can be

&8

_1_ = .!
u - t
u

1
2ri

(84.8)

+ i + . . . + u+
J:._ + -...

J,

US

.,

where
1

C~ "" 2ri

H(u)
~
u _ ,. du = L. C~t",

k-O

J., H(u)u_"-l du,

k = 0, 1, . . .

The substitution of the power series (84.8) in (84.7) and the comparison
of coefficients of like powers of t then give,
(84.9)

f(O) + Ko = Co,
aa.. + K .. = Cm ,
;,:

la",

= 1,2, . . . ,n,
m> n.

e".,

The first of these equations determines the value of f(O) + Ko. If


the values of the K .. from (84.6) are inserted in the n ~quations in the
second line, one obtains the system
(84.10)

~~' ~. ~'C~
aa.

-: :-

+ ale.

~~n~". ~ ~~'
= Cn ,

identical with the system (76.9) deduced previously. The solution of


this system for the ai, . . . , an completely determines the values of
K I , , Kn in (84.7). The value of f(O) + K o, as already noted, is
determined by the first equation in (84.9). Thus, ",,(t) is fully determined by formula (84.7). To obtain "'(t), we make use of (82.4).
Now, referring to (84.5), we can write

ItI ::;;

1,

and hence

_!_ (w(I/u) ",,'(u) d = ~

2ri J,'Y ",/(U) U - t u

L.

m-Q

0-,...

A."

w(I/t) '(,.) _ ~
",'(t) ""

L.

,..-1

g ~
.

Inserting this result in (82.4), we get finally,


(84.11)

t(O =

~i uH~u~ tJg -

wS(r;) ",,'(t) + ~i J(..r-.

310

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

If the domain is infinite and the mapping tunction has the form
(84.12)

wet) ==

~ + k-O 'Ykrt,

we first reduce the problem to the calculation of \"o(t) satisfying (83.4).


From the structure of w(!) we conclude that

and for

Irl ==

I c-nr",
.-0
~

~ _
&'(l/n -

,..n-2+

-i- cil

n
C -2>

1 we find

,,' (IT)
W'W(IT)
(IT) '-0

K(O) .".,-.

+ KjO)1T + K'o) +

n-T'

K'!!;"IT- m ,

",-1

where
K~O_:2 = alC n_2,

(84.13)

K~.'.3

= alCn _3

KiO)

aiel

+ 2a"cn-2,

+ 2a,c. + . . . + (n

- 2)a n-"cn_2,

Evaluating the. integral in (83.4), we get


n-2

~ ( w(lT) - w(r) <p~(IT) dlT = ~ K:::)rm,


Z," J~ w'(IT)(1T - n
",1:.0
so that 1"0(1) is determined by
(84.14)

"<Po (i)

-2

K::)r

+~

(Fo(lT)

= Zri J~ IT _ i dlT,

m-O

As in the case of the finite domain,


K(O)

+ "'(0)

== _!_. ( Fo(lT) dlT '" _!_ (lW Fo(lT) d"


2riJ~

IT

211'Jo

and the values of the remaining K~) are determined from (84.13) upon
solving for the a.. the system of n - 2 equations
"al

(84.15)

"a,

+ aici + 2a,c. + .. , + (n + ale. + 2a"ca + ... + (n -

2)an_,cn-' =

AY,

3)a._scn-. =- A\,

with

k = 1, . . . ,n - 2.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATlC PROBLEMS

311

The ideas leading to the calculation of <p(t) [or <po(t)], in principle, are
identical tE> those of Sec. 76, but generally formulas given in this section
enable one to compute <p(t) and Ht) with less effort.
Similar results can be obtained by considering w(t) in the form of the
quotient of two polynomials.
85. llinstrative Examples. For comparison purposes we apply the
formulas of Sec. 84 to problems which have already been solved by the
series method in Secs. 77 to 79.
When the region is a circle of radius R, the mapping function is

= w(l') = Rl',

and the expansion (84.3) reduces to

w(l)

w'(lIll
Thus all Ck, with the exception of CI
(84.6) that
K .. = 0,

I.

1, vanish, and it follows from

m = 2, . . .

,n.

Accordingly, formula (84.7) gives


(85.1)

a<p(l) = -1.
2".t

H(u) du - KII - [Ko

---

,u-l'

+ ",(0)].

From the first of Eqs: (84.9)


(85.2)

Ko

+ -",(0)

Co

==

1 iH(u)
- - du,

2-'
7rt

and from the second of Eqs. (84.9), with m

>

1,

(85.3)
The value of

a" as follows from

(84.10), is determined by

(85.4)
inasmuch as c, = I, Ck = 0, k > 1.
In the first boundary-value problem a = I, and the imaginary part of
a, can be set .,qual to zero. Equation (85.4) then yields

a,

+ a, '= 2a,

and from (85.3), with a = 1,


K,

= Qi = _!__
2

41ri

= C,

1
>

H(u)
,,'

.L

au.

312

lIlATHEMA TICAL THEORY 01' ELASTICITY

The substitution in (85.1) then yields .p(r), for the first boundaryvalue problem, in the form
(85.5)

(0
.p

..!_, (

J.... ( H(fT) duo

H(fT) du _.1_. ( H(tT) du _


r
4ri}y fT'
2ri

211'1 }~IT -

j..,

fT

The corresponding function tIter) from formula (84.11) is determined by!

tIter) =

(85.6)

~ iITH~~ du -

.ply) + ~r i HtT~) duo

In the second boundary-value problem ex = - x, and at is completely


determined by (85.4). We leave it to the reader to write out the appropriate solutions in the form analogous to (85.5) and (85.6).
Instead of using formulas of Sec. 84, it is frequently simpler to determine the function 'P(r) directly from Eq. (82.3). We illustrate this by
solving the problem of Sec. 79 for the infinite region bounded by an
ellipse.
Inasmuch as the boundary condition (79.3) is identical in structure
with (82.1), the integrodifferential equation for .p0(!) is
(85.7)

'P0m

+ ,L ~ ,.,UI(tT~ dfT + "'0(0) ~ ...~.


mn }~(J) (fT)

IT -

_..

If we insert
"'(IT)
",'(tT)

rFO(fT~ duo

}ytT -

+ ma-'

= tT(m

- fT')

from (79.4) in (85.7) we get


(85.8)
'P

0(1)

1
ma-~ 'Pi)I(tT) dq
2ri}ytT(m - tT')fT - r

+ _!_.

+ "'0(0)

_!_.J,

FO(IT) duo
211'1 ytT - r

Since,

lui ;:::

1,

the value of the integral in (85.8) is zero.'


Thus,
,.,O(r) =

But ,.,(0)

~i:::-~du -

"'(0).

0, so tha.t

Since a, - el" X, - tt.


Note (79.4), and reea.U that the expansion for .... ("') contains no positive po_
ol
I

TWO-DIMEN810NAL ELAST08TATlC PROBLEMS

313

and, hence,
(85.9)
The calculation of
(85.10)

.;O(t) =

_!_,

2ri

FO(u) du

"yU -

+ r(r'
+ m) 'l'0'(t)
1 - mr t

was carried out in detail in Sec. 79.


For m = 0 these formulas yield the solution of the first boundaryvalue problem for the region exterior to the circle III = 1.
The reader may find it instructive to solve these problems by determining the function 'I'~(t) from the integral equation (83.5) and by following the argument of Sec. 83.
For either of the mapping functions considered in this section the
integral in (83.5) vanishes, so that

'I'~(t)

.! A'(t).

'"

The substitution in (83.4) then yields at once


"'1'0(1) = A(t)

+ p,

where p is a constant. This constant and the constant k in (83.3) can be


easily determined by making use of (83.6) and recalling that '1'(0) = o.
86. Further Developments. Multiply Connected Domains. The
methods of solution of plane problems considered thus far depend vitally
on the knowledge of the mapping function. Since only simply connected
domains can be mapped conformally on a circle in a one-to-one manner,
the considerations of Secs. 82 and 83 do not apply to multiply connected
domains. However, there is a simple connection between the mapping
function W(I) and Green's function for the domain.!
Thus the integral equation (83.5) can always be written in the form
whose kernel is expressed in terms of Green's function. Since Green's
function can be constructed for multiply connected domains, this at once
suggests a generalization of the integral equation. One such generalization has been made by Mikhlin, who reduced the basic problems of plane
elasticity in multiply connected domains to the solution of certain Fredholm integral equations whose kernels depend on Green's functions.'
Although Mikhlin's equations serve admirably to establish the existence
of solutions in multiply connected domains, they possess the disadvan1 H Olle writes th& mapping function in the fonn r - /(z) and makes the point z - '.
of tbe region R correspond to the center of the circle Irl - 1, tben Green's functioa
G(p, P,) - (1/2.0) log (l/ll(z)l), with tbe pole P. at the point I ..
A connected account of this work is contained in a monograph by S. G. Mikhlin.
I!Iltitled Integral Equations (1949) (in Russian).

314

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

tage of being dependent on the solution of an auxiliary Dirichlet's problem for Green's function. It is clearly desirable to formulate the relevant equations so that they depend only on the assigned boundary values.
The fs.ct that this can be done was demonstrated by Lauricella l in a
rather involved paper concerned with the integration of the equilibrium
equations for the clamped elastic plate. This particular problem, as we
have already observed in Sec. 69, is closely related to the first boundaryvalue problem in plane elasticity. The Lauricella equations have been
rediscovered by Sherman, 2 who deduced them in a very simple way and
made use of them in solving the standard boundary-value problems, and
certain important new types, in plane elasticity.
A detailed account of Sherman's work would consume more space than
we have at our disposal, and we give only a sketch of the essential ideas.
We recall that in a finite simply connected domain ",,(z) and I/I(z) are analytic in the interior, and on the boundary C they satisfy the condition,
(86.1)

a",,(t)

+ t,,/ (t) + I/I(t)

= J(t)

on C.

Sherman seeks to represent ",,(z) and I/I(z) by the following integrals of


Cauchy's type:'
",,(z) = _!_. ( W(8) ds

2" Jes - z

(86.2)
!{t(z)

r
2"}es-z

= ~

'

W(S) ds _

__!_ ( AW' (8) ds,


211'z}e s -z

where w(s) is an unknown density function whose derivative satisfies


Holder's condition on C.
.
The choice of w(s) is restricted by the boundary condition (86.1). We
proceed to determine the nature of this restriction by substituting from
(86.2) in (86.1).
We first note that
I

"" (z) = 2-'


11'1.

w(s)

ds ,
c (--)2
s- z

I G. La.uriooll&, Acta MatMmatica, vol. 32 (1909), pp. 201-256.


D. I. Sherman, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 27 (1940), pp. 911-913, vol. 28
(1940), pp. 25-32, vol. 32 (1941), pp. 314-315; Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk
SSSR, vol. 7 (1943), pp. 301-309, 413-420, vol. 17 (1953), pp. ~92. Equstions
.,.bQSe sppesrsnce is strikingly simiIa.r to the Sherman-Lsurioolls equstions have also
been deduced by N. I. Muskhel.ishvili, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 3 (1934),
pp. 7 and 73. However, the content of Muskhelishvili's equstions is quite different,
and they appear to be less lIIII!OOptible of extensions to the new types of eIa.tJtoststie
pI'Oblems.
These forms are suggested by the known solution of the equilibrium probleln lor
the aemi-infiuite plane, See &Iso formuls (82.4}. Integrsls of Csuehy'll type wertintroduced in See. f().

315

TWo-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

which is not an integral of the Cauchy type.


parts we get
'(z) =

(86.3)

'"

But on integration by

r W'(S) ds.

2n}os-z

II .ve now let z in (86.2) and (86.3) approach an arbitrary point t of C.


we get from Plemelj's formulas (40.7),
<p

()t = wet)
2

W(8) d
2ri } 0 s _ t 8,

+~.

1{;(t) = aW{t)

(86.4)

r w(s)

ds _ tw'(t) _

21N}os-t

'(t) = w'(t)

<p

+ _!_

+ _!_
r w'(s) d
2ri } 0 s _ t 8.

r sw'(s) ds

_!_.

2n}os-t'

The substitution from (86.4) in (86.1) leads to the integrodifferential


equation,
aw(t)

a
+ -2'
w(s)d
rto

(8-t)
log --_ + 11=(8-t) ds =
8-t
no
s-t
-2'

w (s)

-_- _

f(t).

This equation, on integrating by parts the second integral in the left


hand member, yields thE' <{esired integral equation,
(86.5)

aw(t)

af
+ 2-'
w(s)d
n
0

(8-t)
log -_-_ 8-t

11

2-'
n

-t
W(sjd 8
-_-_
8-t

= f(t).

If we set
8 -

t = re"

we get the equation


(86.6)

aw(t)

+!r }o [aWes)

WTs)e 2"] dO = f(t).

It is easy to check that on writing w(s) = pes) + iq(s), where p and q


are real functions, Eq. (86.6) is equivalent to two real equations,
ap(t)

+!r Jor [p(s)(a

ag(t)

-! }o
r [P(s) sin 20 -

(86.7)

'If

- cos 20) - q(s) sin 20) dO


g(s)(a

+ cos 29)] dO

= f,(t),
=

/2(e),

Where II
ifI .,. I
The simultaneous integral equations (86.7) are of the Fredholm type.
and by a familiar device they can be reduced to a single real Fredholm's
equation.

816

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 011' ELASTICITY

It is not necessary to write out this equation since it is essential t.o


know only that such reduction is fea.sible. Equations (86.7) are sufficiently simple to permit numerical solutions. I
In a mUltiply connected domain, the boundary condition of the form
{86.1) must be satisfied on the contour C = C1 + C, + ... + C_"
Imd m unknown C9Ilstants of integration will appear in the boundary
conditions. If one should attempt to represent 'P(z) and -{!(z) in the form'
(86.2) , the unknown integration constants would enter in the integral
equation for w(t). To avoid this, Sherman modifies t.he formulas (86.2)
by adding to their right-hand members the BUms

_!!t__, where the

if1 Z -

Zj

lie within the interior contours Cj The constants b; are then defined
so that the resulting equation for w(t) is free of unknown constants. 3
As a simple illustration of the use of Eq. (86.6) conFider the determination of 'P(z) and "'(z) for the problem of the solid disk of radius R comprp,ssed by a uniform pressure P on its boundary.

Zj

1 For example, if we take n points s., St, , 8. on the boundary C and apply
some formula of mechanical quadrature. to the integrals in (86.7), we get a system of
2n algebraic equations in 2n unknowns,

"p,

+~

[PI(a -

cos 28'1) -

ql

sin 28'1] AlI<I - I.(t,)

+ (t,),

;-1
n

aq, -

[Pi

sin 28;; - ql(Clt

+ cos 28'1)] A8'1

- I.(t,)

+ ..(1,),

;-1

where the '" are the errors made in the process of replacing integrals by finite terms.
The solution of this system would enable us to compute pet) and get) approximately.
The functions <I'(z) and ,,(z) can be regarded a8 single-valued in all cases, since
the multiple-valued terms in (72.7) can be incorporated in I(t).
I An account of this is contained in the first two of Sherman's Doklady papers, cited
on p. 314. These papers are reproduced practically without clu1nge in Muskhelishvili'. hook Some Basic Problems of the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953),
pp.412-420.
An illustration of the use of F.q. (86.5) in the solution of the first boundary-value
problem for the interior of the region bounded by an ellipse is contained in D. I.
Sherman's paper in Doklady Alcademii Nauk 88SR, voL 31 (1941), pp. 301HJ10, and
in S. O. Mikhlin, Integra! Equations (1949), pp. 292-294. For applications of the
Sherman method to doubJy and triply connected domains Bee D. I. Sherman, "On
the Stresses in a Heavy Balf-plane Weakened by Two Circular Openings," Pri/r;l. Mat.
Mekk., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 297-316, 751-762; "On the State
of Stress in Some Shrink-fitted Members," r-.tiya Akademii Nauk 888R, 'fechniea.l
Series (1948), pp. 1371-1388. See a.lso M. F. Gur'ev, "Distnbution of Stresses in a
Stretched Isotropio Rectangular Plate Weakened by a Circular Hole," Dopavi.di
Akademii Na ..k Ukrdin'lIkdi MIt (1953), pp. 133-139.

317

TWO-D1M:ENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

fn this ease, as shown in Sec. 77a, f(t) = -Pt, so that we seek the
solution of

wet)

(86.8)

Since 8

+!.r Jc
( [WeB)

- W(s)e""j dcp = -Pt.

t = re''', we see from Fig. 57 that


r = 2R sin ~(8 - 80),

and hence
e'" = e"(e,(I-,.) - 1).
2 sin ~(Ii - 80 )

Thus, as the point P describes the contour C, cp varies between the limits

FlO. 57

lio
7r/2 and 80
311/2. The structure of the right.-hand member in
(86.8) suggests that we seek the solution in the form wet) = at + b,
where a and b are constants.
The substitution of the assumed solution in (86.8) yields [since
W(8) = wet + rei,,) = at + are'" + b]

at

11"+(3r!2)

+ b + -r

'.+(r!2)

(at

+ are''' + b - ate'" -

be'" - 4re''') dcp = -Pt,

and, on integration, we readily find that a = -P/2, b = O.


W(8) = -

P8

2"'

and substituting this in (86.2) yields a.1I once


pz
cp(z) = - 2"'
{I(z) = O.
These agree with the va.lues found in Sec. 77.

Thus

318

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

8'1. Schwarz's Alternating Method. Since elastostatic problems in


multiply connected domains present serious computational difficulties, it
is natural to attempt to reduce their solution to a sequence of problems
in simply connected domains. This can be done by making rather obvious modifications in Schwarz's treatment of the Dirichlet problem for
the overlapping domains.' We first sketch the essence of the method
and then show how the solution of elastostatic problems for multiply connected domains can be made to hinge on the solution of the familiar problems in simply connected domains.
Consider a region (Fig. 58) formed by the overlapping domains R, and
R2 each of which is bounded by a simple
closed contour. Let the portion of the
contour C, bounding R, that lies within
the region R. be C~ and the part that is
outside R. be C~'. Then C, = C~ + C~'.
C; Similarly, denote the part of the boundary C. of R2 that is interior to R, by C;
and the remaining part by C;'. The
FIG. 58
region R12 that is common to R, and R.
is thus bounded by Cf and C;, while the region R, + R. has the curve
C~' + C;' for its boundary.
We shall suppose that the values of some function tp, specified on the
boundary Ci' + C;', determine tp in the region RI + R2 and that tp satisfies in this region the functional equation L(tp) = 0, where the operator L
is linear. In the classical Dirichlet problem, L is the Laplace operator
VI ... :'.
"Xl

+ uX,
:'.; in other problems,

L(tp)

0 might denote an integral

or integrodifferential equation such as we have encountered in preceding


sections.
An algorithm for the solution of the boundary-value problem
(87.1)

L(tp) = 0
tp = F(s)

in R, + R 2,
on C~' + C;',

from the solutions of the corresponding boundary-value problems for the


regions RI and R I , can be constructed as follows:
Determine in the region RI the function Ut, which satisfies the equation L(<p) = 0 and which is such that
UI

= F(s)
"" f(8)

on Ci',
on Ci,

where f(8) is assigned arbitrarily on C;. Having determined U1, construct in the region R. the function II, which satisfies the equation
1

H. A. Schwan, Geaammelte mathematiscIUJ Ablmndlu""en, vol. 2, pp. 133-143.

TWO-OIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

319

L(",) = 0 and which assumes on C. the values


VI

= F(8)

= Ul(S)

on C',f
on C~.

Next determine the solution u. of L(",) = 0 in RI such that


u. = F(s)
on C~',
= VI(8)
on C~,
and then obtain the solution V2 of L(",) = 0 in R 2, subject to the condition
v. = F(s)

= u.(s)

on C',f,
on C~.

The successive applications of this alternating procedure would yield


two sequences of functions, {unl in RI and
{vnl in R., such that
Un

= F(s)
= Vn_I(S)

on
on

C~',
C~,

and
v. = F(s)
= un(s)

onC;'
on C;.

FIG. 59

If the solutions of the equation L(",) = 0 possess suitable properties,


the sequeMes {unl and Ivnl may converge to U and V, respectively, with
It == V in the common region R 12
Also, on the boundary Ci' + C;' of
Rl + R. the functions u and V assume specified values F(II) , and if they
also satisfy the equation L(",) = 0, our problem (87.1) is solved.
Whether this formal process would yield the desired solution or not
clearly depends on the properties of the operator L and on the nature 0:
assigned boundary values. If L is the Laplace operator and F(B) is a
continuous function defined on a sufficiently smooth boundary of the
region, this process actually yields the solution of the Dirichlet problem. I
It was observed by Neumann that the Schwarz method can be modified to yield the solution of the Dirichlet problem for the domain R12
formed by the intersection of R, and R., and hence for the doubly connected domain. For the region R12 can be considered as the intersection
of the infinite region Rl bounded by CI with the finite region R. interior
to C. (Fig. 59).
We indicate next how the alternating method of Schwarz can be made
to yield the solution of the basic problems of elasticity for doubly connected domains.
We define the operator L by the formula

L("" "') == a",(z)

+ z",'(z) + ~

The proof of this is contained in many books. See, for eu.mple, ~. GoUl'Sat,
CoUts d'an,uy$, 5th ed. (1942), vol. 3, pp. 207-210.
1

MATHEMATICAL 'l'HEOltI OF ELASTICITY

+ C as
L[~(t), .y(t)] ... ;p(t) + ~'(t) + W'5

IIoIld write the boundary condition on C1


(87.2)

To obtain the first approximation


the functions ~(l), .y(1) in Rl so that

(~(I),

.y(1 to

= f(t).
(~,

.y), we determine

To get the second approximation ('1'(2), .y(2, we consider the solution in R,


such that

For the third approximation, we determine in Rl the solution satisfying


the condition

and 80 on.
The use of this procedure in constructing the approximate solutions of
special elastostatic problems in doubly connected domains is presented
in detail in Sec. 88.
The proof of convergence of the Schwarz algorithm in the solution of
the second elastostatio boundary value problems for a doubly connected
domain R12 (Fig. 59) for the case when the contours C 1 and C 2 bounding
this domain are sufficiently far apart has been supplied by Mikhlin.l
In essence Mikhlin's proof is based on Neumann's modification' of the
Schwarz procedure for solving the Dirichlet problem in Laplace's equation
for the domain Rl + R,.
A more general proof of the Schwarz algorithm for the second boundary
value problem of elasticity in three dimensions was sketched out by
Soboleff. This proof reduces the consideration of convergence of
sequences of approximate solutions for the sum Rl + R, of the overlapping domains Rl and R" and for their product domain R 12 , to a study
IS. G. Mikhlin, Trudy, SeiBmDlogicallns!itute of the Academy of Science8, USSR
vol. 39 (1934), pp. 1-14.
'
J C. Neumann, Leipziger Berichte, vol. 22 (1870), pp. 264-321.
A detailed and
careful presentation of the Schwan-Neumann method of solution of the Dirichlet
problem for a class of elliptic partial differential equations in two dimensions and in
solving certain systems of integral equations will be found in L. V. Kantorovich and
V. I. Krylov, Approximate Methods of Higher Analysis, 4th ed. (19&2), pp. 637-695.
The trea.tment given in this book is also applicable to three-dimensional problems.
S. Sobolelf, "L'algorithme de Schwan dans la thoorie de l'e1a.sticite," C_ptea
Rend"", (/)()klady) de L' Academie deB Sci61lCe8 de I' URBS, vol. IV (XUI), No. (I9S.),
pp. 243-246.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL EL.\STOSTATIC PROBLEMS

321

of convergence of sequences that minimize the integral for the strain


energy. 1 We indicate briefly this connection because of its bearing on
the methods of solution of the boundary value problems in elasticity
developed in Chap. 7.
.AI! in the beginning paragraphs of this section, we denote by C 1 the
boundary of a given simply connected (two- or three-dimensional)
domain HI and by C. the boundary of another such domain H2 which
intersects H , . The part of the boundary C I interior to H2 is denoted by
C~ and the part exterior to H. is C~'. Similarly, the part of C2 interior
to HI is C~ and the part exterior to HI is C~ (Fig. 58).
The determination of displacements u. in the interior of HI + R2 from
specified displacements on its boundary C~' + C~ requires the solution
of Navier's equations
(87.3)

L(u;) "" ",V2u.

(A

+ ",)1. .... = 0,

(i

= 1,2,3),

subject to
u.. .

(87.4)

j01" = F1,

1..[
... as" = G... ,

+-

where the F. and G. are assigned on the boundary of R,


R 2
The corresponding determination of displacements in the product
domain R12 calls for the solution of Eq. (87.3) satisfying the conditions
1..10., = Pi,

(87.5)

1..\
... Ct' = G... .
We shall see in Sec. 107 that the solution of the boundary value problem
(87.3), (87.4) is equivalent to obtaining the vector 1.; which minimizes
the energy integral
(87.6)

U(u.) =

)Rl+RJ

[(A + ",)(uu)2 + -2'" (1.;.; + 1.;,;)] dT,

on the set of all continuously differentiable vectors u. taking on the


boundary Ci' + C:; the values (87.4). If one is concerned with the
problem (87.3), (87.5), the integral (87.6) is minimized on the set of u;'s
satisfying on the boundary of H12 the conditions (87.5). Soboleff constructs suitable minimizing )Sequences luI}, k = 0,1,2, . . . for these
problems (in a manner suggested at top of page 319) and shows that they
converge in the mean to the desired ditsplacements u;. The difficult
question of the rapidity of convergence of approximating sequences has
1

See See. 107.

322

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

not yet been investigated. It is known, however, that if L(u)


Vlu,
then the convergence is not slower than that of a geometric progression. I
88. Applications ox the Alternating Method. As an illustration of the
use of the Schwarz alternating method in deducing approximate solutions of the equilibrium problems in multiply connected domains, we
consider two examples.
a. Eccentric Ring under Uniform Pressure. Consider the region in
Fig. 60 bounded by the circles Izl = Rand Iz - al = r, where a is the
distance between their centers and the circle C I, of radius r, lies within
the circle Co of radius R. We shall suppose that the boundary Co is subjected to a uniform pressure p and the interior boundary C, is free of
stress.
Then' the problem reduces to the determination of two'function& 'I'(z)
and 1/I(z) analytic in the ring bounded by Co and C, from the boundary
conditions:
&:

(88.1)

'I'(t)

+ t'l"(t) + W>

= const
= -pt

on C"
on Co.

The foregoing resume relates to a proof of convergence to the desired


solution of the minimizing sequence constructed in accordance with the
Schwarz algorithm. However, it suggests no specific method for effective construction of the elements of the sequence. The construction of
the set of functions ('1'(;), 1/1(;) can be made to depend on techniques
depending on the use of integrals of Cauchy's type, or on closely related
procedures involving the determination of solutions of appropriate integral equations. Exact solutions would require, of course, the determination of the limits of sequences of approximating functions, but useful
approximate solutions can be got by terminating calculations after a
finite number of steps. This is indicated in the following section where
two particular problems for doubly connected domains are solved approximately by the Schwarz alternating method. 3
1 See L. V. Kantorovich and V. 1. Krylov, Approximate Methods of Higher Analysis,
4th ed. (111&2), p. 675 or E. Goursat, Cours d'analyse, 5th ed. (1942), vol. 3, p. 209.
'!'lee Sec. 77a.
An example of highly effective use of the alternating method in solving the
Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation for the sum of two rectangular regions forming an I..rahaped polygon is given on pp. 683-695 of the L. V. Kantorovich and V. 1.
Krylov monograph cited in the preceding footnote. This example contains detailed
calcUlations and tables which include estimates of errors in successive approximations.
On pp. 657-682 and 679-683 of this monograph the a.uthors discuss a reduction of the
Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the second-order elliptio partial differential equation to the solution of integral equations by successive approximations. This, in fset,
.is equivalent to the Sehwarz alternating method. See also the concluding paragraph
of Sec. 88 of this book with corresponding references.

323

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATtC PROBLEMS

We shall seek <p(z) and -/I(z) in the forms


.,.(z)

{88.2)

L
,,-0

cp(.)(z),

t[t(z)

t[t(,,)(z),

.-0

where the functions '1'('.), >/;".) are single-valued and analytic in the finite
region Izl < Rand <f('.+1) , 1/1(2.+1) are single-valued and analytic in the
region Iz - al > r, including the point at infinity.

FIG. 60

The functions .,.(O)(z), I/I(O)(z) will be determined in the region


so that
w(O)(t)

+ t<p(O)I(t) + >/;(O)(t)

-pt

Izl < R,

on Co.

These functions, clearly, will not satisfy the conditions (88.1) on the
boundary C I We next obtain the solution '1'(1), >/;(1) in the region Iz - al
> r, corresponding to the zero stresses at infinity, such that
(cp(l)(t)

+ tcp(l)'(t) + I/I(I)(t)

-l~[",'<)(t),

1/1(0)

(t)l

on C"

where I
(88.3)

L(<p,

.y) ""

",(z)

+ z?(zi + ~_

Then the functions ",(0) + cpCI), .y(0) + >/;(1) will be such that L(",(O) + '1'(1),
+ .p(l) vanishes on C but it does not reduce to -pt on Co"
In general, ",(.) (z), +(")(z)
will be determined from the boundary
conditions,

!/teo)

I It is not difficult to show from the uniqueness theorem that, if L[",(I),.,(I)J - const
on 0" then LI",(z), .,(z)] - eoo.st throughout the region.

324

MATHEMATICAL THBORY OJ' ELASTICITY

, L[,,(b+I)(t), t/r(t'.H)(t}] ... _L['I'lb)(t), .,<I..)(t)]

(88.4)

L[,,(2..)(t),

t/r(2 ..)(t)]

on C1> n '"' 0, 1, 2, . . .
... -L[,,(2..-1)(t), .y(t-"(t}]
on Co, n == 1,2, . . . .

The general solutions of the exterior and interior boundarY-value problems for the circular region are known. Thus, if
,,(t)

+ i7(l5 + "f(l)

then tp(z) and !/t(z) for


",(z) = J._.
2"

(88.5)

fez)

= F oCt)

on C"

Izl < R are given by the formulas:'

r Fo(t) dt _ 4ri~ 1re. Fo(t) dt _ 2"


_!__. r Fo(t) dt
1e. t '

1e. t - z
= _!__. r Fo(t) dt _
2111 le. t - z

t'

R" <pf(Z)

+!!!.,.

4riz

r Fo(t}
dt
t2
,

le.

On the other hand, the functions <p(z} and !/t(z), analytic in the regior.
Iz - al ~ r and satisfying the condition
!pet)

+ t!pl(t) + "f(l)

= F ,et)

where 5 == z - a, and, on C" 5 = rei".


If we set Fo(t} = -pt in (88.5), we obtain after simple calclllations'
(88.7)

!p(o)(z} = - ~pz,

",<O)(z} == 0,

Izi <

R.

Inserting from (88.7) in (88.3), we get


L(!p(O), ",(0 = _pz,

and, therefore, the functions <P(1)(z), "'(1)(z) are determined in the region
It - al > r, from the boundary conditions,
tp(l)(t)

+ ~ + ",U)(t)

'"' -L(,,(O), ",(O)}

'"' pea
1
I

Ie.

+ t).

TheIle follow from Eq. (85.S) and (85.6) upon setting, - Rr.
TheIle follow from (85.9) and (85.10) upon setting m - 0 and , .. ,./. where

- . -0.
~ Ia verifyinc

these ca1cuIationl, note that I - B' It.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELAST08TATIC PBOBLlDS

SettingFl

..

pea

+ t) in (88.6) and integrating. we find,


",(1)(0) = 0,
",(I) (0) =
+ pa,

ri

80

that

(88.8)

",(I)(z)

r 2p
",(I)(z) '" - -

= 0,

z-a

+ pa'

Iz - al > r.

We next form
I

L(",(l) ",(1) = J!!__


l'
Ii - a

and determine ",()(z), "'("(z) for


L(",('), ",(2

Izl < R

Ie. =

+ pa'

from the boundary condition,

-L(rp(l), ",(1lc.

= -

pr'
r=a
- pa.

Making use of the formulas (88.5) with Fo(t) given by the right-hand
member of the expression just found, we obtain,

+ az)
2R'(R' - az)'
pr2a
",(2)(Z) = -pa +
(2)( ) '" _

(88.9)

'"

pr2z (R2

(R2 - az)2

(2R2 - az).

This process can be continued to obtain the approximating functions of


higher orders. The series (88.2) constructed in this manner converge,
but clearly the rapidity of convergence will depend on the magnitudes
of the parameters a, r, and R. As noted earlier, this problem can be
solved more simply in bipolar coordinates. l
b. Concentric Ring under Concentrated Forces. Let the ring bounded
by concentric circles Co and Cl of radii Rand r, respectively, R > r, be
acted on by the concentrated forces P at z = Ri.
The functions ",(z), "'(z) are determined in the region r < Izi < R from
the boundary conditions:
(88.10)

",(t)

+ t7m + ~ = const
= J(t)

J(t) = 0,

for t = Re",

=P,

for t = Re",

on C1 ,
on Co,

1 See, for example, Ya. S. Uflyand, Bipolar Coordinates in the Theory of Elasticity
(1950), pp. 204-210 (in RWl8ian).
See Sec. 77c

326

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OP ELASTICITY

We again seek a solution in the form (88.2), where '1'(2.) , >/I<k) are analytic
for 1:1 < R and '1'( ..... 1), 1/1(2..+1) are analytic for Izl > r. AI> our first
approximation '1'(0) (z), I/I(O)(z) we take the known solution, dedy.ced in Sec.
77, for the solid circle of radius R, under the action of concentrated
forces. It is,
'1'(0)(:)

!2 (log: - ~R + ~),
2r

.1.(0)(:) = Pi
"
2.".

(10

z + ~R
z - ~R
g Z + ,R

+ _!!!__,_ _ ~).
z - ,R z + $R

The subsequent approximations are determined from the boundary conditions (88.4), with the aid of formulas (88.5) and (88.6).
Although the process indicated here leads to convergent series (88.2),
the convergence is slow. However, because of the special character of
loading, it proves possible to deduce the general expressions for '1'(1,,),
t(l,,) and sum the dominant terms in the resulting series.
Narodetzky'
obtained in this manner an approximate solution, valid to any specified
degree of accuracy.
Variants of the Schwarz method have been used by Mikhlin and
Sherman to solve certain integral equations furnishing solutions of the
first elastostatic boundary-value problem for the semi-infinite plate with
an elliptical hole. 2
89. Concluding Remarks. The principal object of this chapter has
been to introduce the reader to certain powerful general methods of solution of the two-dimensional problems in elasticity. These methods have
recently been extended to plane problems in anisotropic elastic media
and modified to include the problems of transverse deflection of thin
plates and several categories of contact problems s in elasticity. Among
the more comprehensive contributions of this type are: 4
S. G. Lekhnitzky, Anisotropic Plates (1947).
1. N. Vekua, New Methods of Solution of Elliptio Equations (1948).
1. Ya. Shtaerman, The Contact Problem of Elasticity (1949).
S. G. Lekhnitzky, Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body
(1950).
.
1 M. Z. Narodetzky, IZ1Je$tiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Technical Serie8, No.1
(11148), pp. 7-18 (in RUllI!ian) .
S. G. Mikhlin, Trudy Seisnwlogical Institute, Academy of Science of the USSR,
No. 391 (11134) (in RllBSian).
D. 1. Sherman, Trudy &iBmological InstitutB, Acade>/ty of S~ of the USSR,
Nos. 53 and 54 (1935) (in RUIlSian).
The contact problems are treated in Chap. 13 of N. I. Muskhelishvili's Singular
Integral Equations (11153), as well as in his monograph Some Basic Problema of the
Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1953).
With the exception of the book by Green and Zerna all these monographs are in
the RUIlSian language.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELASTOSTATIC PROBLEMS

327

G. N. Savin, Concentration of Stresses around Openings (1951).


A. E. Green and W. Zerna, Theoretical Elasticity (1954).
Savin's book contains solutions of numerous special problems on the
stress concentration near openings in stretched isotropic elastic plates. I
A survey of the recent work on the theory of plates, published in the
USSR, is contained in a paper by G. Dzhanelidze, Prikl. Mat. Mekh.,
Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 12 (1948), pp. 109--128. An English translation of this paper, prepared by the American Mathematical Society,
Translation 6 (1950), is available. References contained in this translation should be supplemented by the following papers dealing with the
deflection of thin elastic plates whose boundaries are simply supported,
clamped, or partly clamped and partly simply supported. All these
papers' appeared in vols. 14 to 17 of the Russian journal Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR): Z. 1.
Havilov, vol. 14 (1950), pp. 405-414; M. M. Friedman, vol. 14 (1950),
pp. 429--432, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 258-260, vol. 16 (1952), pp. 429--436;
G. F"Mandzhavidze, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 279--296; V. K. Prokopov, vol. 14
(1950), pp. 527-536, vol. 16 (1952), pp. 45-56; A. 1. Kalandiya, vol. 16
(1952), pp. 271-282, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 293-310, 692-704; G. A. Greenberg, N. N. Lebedev, and Y. S. Uflyand, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 73-86; G. A.
Greenberg, vol. 17 (1953), pp. 211-228.
1 These may be supplemented by J. R. M. Radok's paper concerned with the problems of plane elasticity for reinforced boundaries, Journal of Applied Mechanic.,
vol. 22 (1955), and by Eugene Levin's doctoral dissertation entitled "Reinforced
Openings in Plane Structural Members," University of California, Los Angeles (1955).
See also I. S. Hara's paper cited in Sec. 81, and I. O. Abramovich, Doklady Akademii
Nauk SSSR (NS), vol. 104 (1955), pp. 372-375.
, The following papers on the deflection of thin elastic plates were published while
this book was in press:
V. A. Likhachev, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 19 (1955), pp.
255-256; O. M. Sapondzhyan, Izve8tiya Akademii Nauk ArmyanskdL SSR, Phy. Mat.
Nauki, No.5 (1954), pp. 19-43, No.6 (1955), pp. 27-34; D. I. Sherman, Doklady
Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 10 (1955), pp. 62:Hl26.

CHAPTER

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

90. General Solutions. The key to effective treatment of the twodimensional boundary-value problems, discussed in Chap. 5, is in the
special representation of solutions of appropriate field equations with the
aid of certain arbitrary functions. Although several attempts have been
made to construct analogous "general solutions" of the three-dUnensional field equations of elasticity, such solutions have not been exploited
in a systematic way. The so-called general solutions are but particular
forms of solutions of the field equations involving arbitrary functions of
special types. Thus one can construct a solution of Navier's equations,
containing srbitrary harmonic functions that enter in particular combinations with certain known functions. The choice of known functions
and the form of solution are determined, in part, by the differential equations and, in part, by the topology of the region. Another" general
solution" of Navier's equations can be constructed with the aid of the
biharmonic functions, and there is no a priori reason why one form of
general solution should be readily transformable into another. The criterion of the generality of a given form of solution lies in the possibility
of determining the arbitrary functions 80 that the boundary conditions
are fulfilled.
Thus, in dealing with the two-dimensional elastostatic problems in simply connected domains, the general solution of the homogeneous Navier's
equations was obtained in the form 1
(00.1)
where lP(z) and 1/I(z) are single-valued analytic functions. This solutioll
is general in the sense that the unknown functions II' and", can be determined, essentially uniquely, when suitable boundary conditions are
Unposed. If one relaxes restrictions on the connectivity of the region,
or on the behavior of displacements on the boundary, the representation
(OO.I) may cease to be valid.
An equivalent form of the general solution involving four arbitrary
plane harmonic functions can be deduced from (00.1) by setting,
1 See.

71.
328

TBllE1!l-DDlENSIONAL PROBLEMS

<p(Z) = <PI(:l:I, X2)


"'(z) = "'l(Xl, 3:s)

329

+ i'l'S(:l:I, X2),

+ i"'2(XI, X,).

We readily find
(a,

(90.2)

P = 1,2),

which is the general solution of the two-dimensional Navier equations in


a simply connected domain involving four harmonic functions '1'.., "'...
However, only two of these are independent in the sense that the specification of '1'1 and 1/11 enables one to calculate the conjugate harmonics '1'2,
to within nonessential constants of integration. The determination
of these functions, whenever the displacements or tractions on the boundary are specified, is clearly possible, since the problem is equivalent to
the calculation of 'I'(z) and 1/I(z).
Inasmuch as the apparatus of the complex variable theory is not readily
available for the treatment of the three-dimensional Navier equations,

"'2

(90.3)

p.V~

+ (X + p,)".i =

(i = 1,2, 3),

0,

" = 14. ,

it is natural to seek a general solution of these equations I in terms of


space harmonic functions. To avoid the introduction of multiple-valued
harmonic functions, we confine our considerations to simply connected
domains T bounded by smooth surfaces.
It is well known that the divergence and curl of the displacement vector can be specified independently.' It follows from this that the displacement vector u can be represented as the sum of two vectors v and w
of class C2 such that div v = 0 and curl w = O. But a necessary and
sufficient condition for this is the existence of the vector A and the scalar
ir such that v = curl A and w = Vir. It is easy to show that, for a
given u, A and ir can be determined from the solution of Poisson's equations whenever div A = O. This justifies us in seeking a solution of the
system (90.3) in the form
u = _1_ Vir

X + p.

+ ! curl A
fJ

'

I Only homogeneous systems (90.3) need be considered in the problem of general


integration since body forces can always be eliminated in the manner explained in
Sec. 68.
If the region T is finite, the system of equations

curl u = f(xl, X" x.),


div u = g(x" x., x.),

is known to have a solution whenever 11 is of class (J1 in T. H .. is infinite, we further


require that the specified functions f and g vanish at infinity as l/r>. Sec, for exampit', M. Mason and W. Weaver, The Electromagnetic Field (1932), pp. 352-365. See
also A. E. H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Sec. 16.

330

ATBlIlIIATICAL TBlIIOllY OJ' ELASTICITY

or
(90.4)

'Ui ..

>. +

j.I >t,. + ; curl; A.

On calculating the divergence of u; in (90.4), we get

".....
.. = A+j.I
_1_ V'>t "" " ,

(OO.5~

so that (90.3) can be written in the form


V2(j.lU;

+ w,,) = o.

Hence
(90.6)

j.lU;

+ >t"

= '11"

where 4>, is an arbitrary harmonic vector.


j.lU;,;

It follows from (90.6) that

+ V'>t = 4>",

and, on noting (90.5), we get


_
A + j.I '"
V2.T,
,.. - A + 2j.1'*"'"

(90.7)

A particular integral of this equation is ~ : : ;j.I x,.4>" and hence' the ~en
eral solution can be written in 'the form
(90.8)

where 4>0 is an arbitrary harmonic function, Referring to (90,6), we see


that the displacement vector U; can be represented in the form
(90.9)

j.lU;

= 4>, - 4>0,; -

+21'I' (X,.4>,.)",
'12 >..>.. +

involving four arbitrary harmonic functions,


This formula can be cast in the form whose structure i~ identical with
the representation (90.2) of the displacements in plane elasticity. On
carrying out the indicated differentiation in (90.9) and simplifying, we
find,
p.U;

>.. + 3j.1
= 2(>" + 2j.1) 4>, -

1 >.. + JI.
A + 2j.1 xlIIi,' - 4>0.,.

'2

But
>.. + 3j.1
3 - 4a
2(>" + 2j.1) = 4(1 - a)'

>.. +2j.1
- - = 2(1 - 0')

>"+,u

and hence

3 - 4a
1
,uU; "" 4(1 _ 0') 4>, - 4(1 _ 0') Xlpi,' 1

Note that V'(z,..) - 24>"" since 4>, is harmonic.

+G.l,

THB.l!lE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

331

and .if we define,


tp; "" 4\/[2(1 - u)],
and recall from (71.8) that x = 3 - 40-, we get

(90.10)

21lu;

X"" -

"'0.'.

Xj<Pj., -

The formula (90.10) involving four arbitrary harmonic functions <P.


(i = 0, 1, 2, 3) is identical in structure I with (90.2). Aside from the
mode of derivation and notational differences the formula (90.10) is that
deduced independently by Papkovich and Neuber.'
We remarked, in connection with the two-dimensional problems, that
the general solution (90.2) contains, in effect, only two independent harmonic functions. This suggests the likelihood of eliminating one of the
space harmonics in the representation (90.10), so that the general solution of the three-dimensional Navier equations involves only three independent harmonic functions. Unsupported statements to this effect are
common. Thus, it is frequently asserted that anyone of the functions
in (90.10) may be set equal to zero without affecting the generality of the
solution. Neuber in his book, Theory of Notch Stresses, indicates that
the substitution
<PO = (x
{ <Pj = /pj

(90.11)

+ 1)/po
+ ipO.h

Xj/PO.h

in (90.10) yields
(90.12)

21lu;

which involves only /PI,


<Pa = ipa

(90.13)

ip2,

and

=
/P3.

xip. -

Likewise a substitution

+ ip3.a,

(O!

<p, "" /P""

<Po

= (x

Xj/Pj.i,

+ 1)/p,

X,/P,.i

+ ipo,

= 1, 2),

(i = 1, 2, 3),

results in the expression of the form (90.10) involving only ipo, /PI, and ip
To establish the validity of the assertion, it is necessary to show that
the systems of Eqs. (90.11) and (90.13) possess harmonic solutions ip for
the arbitrarily specified harmonic functions <p. If we suppose that the
same set of displacements u, can be represented in either of the forms
1 To make the formal analogy complete, set 1"'.1 = "'" 1"'" = "' .
P. F. Papkovich, Comple8 rendus hebdomadair des seances de l'acadhnie de.
8ciences, paris, vol. 195 (1932), pp. 513--515, 754-756; !zvestiya Akademii Nauk
888R, Physics-Mathematics Series (1932), pp. 1425-1435.
H. Neuber, Zeit8chrift fiir anyewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 14 (1934),
p. 203, or his book TheorY of Notch Stresses (1946), pp. 21-25.
These usually stem from misconceptions about the meaning of the term "general
solution" and from inadequate recognition of the fact that the form of such solutions
depends on the topology of the domain.
'The proof of this in Neuber's book is lacking. Indeed, as We shall see presently,
the statement is not always true.

332

MATBJll1r(A.'l'ICAL '1'BJDORY OJ' lIlLAS'l'IClT!'

(90.10) or (90.12), wherein the functions


aubtraetion
(90.14)

~; -

'P

are harmonic, we get on

XR;.; = 'Po.,

where
~; ... '1'. -~.

We rewrite (90.14) in the form


(90.15)

(x

+ 1)~; -

(x#;) .

and find, on differentiation with respect to


(90.16)

(x

1)~;,k -

(:c,~;),;t,

=
Xk,

'Po,.

that

= 'Po,...

Interchanging the indices i and k and subtracting the result from (90.16)
yields
=

~;,.

~.,.,

which implies the existence of a scalar function F such that


~.

(90.17)

= F,;.

On the other hand, if we set k = i in (90.16) and take cognizance of


the fact that 'Po and the ~j by hypothesis are harmonic functions, we find
that
~;.; =

(90.18)

O.

It follows from (90.17) and (90.18) that F is a harmonic function. Now


if it is possible to construct F, for an arbitrary harmonic function '1'0,
then the functions ~j, and hence the i{>i, will be determined for the preassigned harmonic functions 'Pi. The substitution (90.11) will then yield
displacements in the form (90.12).
The differential equation satisfied by F can be got by substituting
(90.17) in (90.15). We have
(x

+ I)F,; -

(x;F,;) . =

'1'0,

so that
(90.19)

(x

+ l)F -

xjF,j =

'1'0

+c

where c is the integration constant.


But if one assumes that every harmonic function '1'0 defined in the
finite, simply connected closed region can be represented 1 in the series of
solid integral harmonics as

'Po =

~ r"Y..(IJ, '1'),
0

A proof of tbitl for the genera.t Oi~ domains is lacking.


of the basic facta about integral harmonics ia given in See. 95.
1

A aummary

TBBEl!l-DIMEN8IONAL PBOBLBIIS

then Eq. (90.19) can be written in spherical coordinates &111

(x

of
~
r or = L.. r"Y.

+ I)F -

+ c,

.. -0

and one can, clearly, take


F = x

~ x + 11 _
+c 1 + ..L..
-0

nr

"

Y...

This solution is valid 80 long as x + 1 - n ;<! O. The exceptional c&lle


arises when 1< = 2 and n = 3, and since 1< = 3 - 4<1, we see that the representation in the form (90.12), in general, is impossible when 11 = %.
If the domain under consideration is an infinite domain exterior to
some closed surface T containing the origin, and if 'Po in (90.19) can be
represented in the form
e

'Po

r(n+1) Y ..,

n-O

we find, as above, that F can be taken as


e

F
.

=x+l

+ L..1<+n+2
~
1
r
n-O

(+1)Y

"

ft

Since 1< > 0, this solution is valid and hence a representation of the form
(90.12) may prove possible in an infinite simply connected domain.
The possibility of representing every solution of Navier's equations in
the form (90.10), wherein one of the functions 'Pi is set equal to zero,
say 'Pa = 0, hinges on the construction of the harmonic function la from
the specified values of its derivatives. It is clear from (90.13) that the
harmonic functions II, l2, and lo will be uniquely determined once the
harmonic function Is is obtained from the equation
(90.20)

la,a

'Pa

If the region is a sphere, the function 'Pa can be represented in the series of
spherical harmonics as
e

'Pa =

rny..

.. -0

""

,,-0

m[A..P..{cos 8)

.-1

(A:;, cos mrp

+ B: sin m'P)!'::'(cos 8)].

I The scalar product :r;;F.; of the vector r with the gradient vF of F is clea.rly equal
to r '!!..

8fo

YATHEMA.'l'ICAL TBE-QBY OF lIlLASTlClTY

It is easy to check' that the solution of (90.20) can be taken. in the form

-. '" i

.. -0

,.-+1

[n ~ 1

P,*1(COS9)

+ .. -1 (11. + + 1 cos mtp + n +~ + 1 sin mtp) P'"n+l(COS 9)

-!:

It was argued' that the harmonic solution of (90.20) in an infinite simply


connected region can be obtSlined only when certain terms in the representation of tpl in the seri6$ of spherical harmonics do not appear in the
expansion.
The formulas for the COInponents of the stress tensor associated with
the representation (90.10) can be easily written down with the aid of
the stress-strain relations. 3
Another interesting form of solution,
(90.21)
where the F. are biliarmonic functions, was obtained by Galerkin. This
solution is closely related to the Neuber-Papkovich solution (90.10).
Indeed, if we set
Ji'j,f = "!Jr,

(90.21) becomes
which is precisely the formula (90.6). This connection was first noted
apparently by Mindlin. 5 We shall see that in a finite simply connected
domain every biharmonic fUnction can be expressed in terIlU! of two harmonic functions. It follows from this, and from the representation
(90.10), that at least two Qf the six harmonic functions entering in the
Galerkin solution are not independent.
1 In verifying it is advisable to use the integral representation of 8Illid harmonics
such as is recorded in Sec. 18.31 of Whittaker and Watson's Modern imalysis.
M. G. S10b0dyanski, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., AkademiJlO NaUk :888B, \rot 18 (19M),
pp.54--78.
Such formulas have been ,..,corded by several authors: G. S. SW.piro, Compla
ren.dua (Doklady) de l'academi. des scienC68 de l'UB88, vol. 55 (1947), pp. 693--695;
W. Freiberger, AU8tra/ian JouT'fWol of Scientific &search (A), vol. 2 (11149), pp. 483492; G. Yu. DzhanelidJe, Doklady Akademii Nauk 888B, New Series, vol. 88 (1953),
pp. 423-425; M. Brdi~.ka, CzechQslmJak Journal of Phyllia, vol.. 3 (1953), pp. 36-52 B. G; GaIerkin, Compta rt1id... Mbtiomadaire8 du .knee. de l'~ des BCienceB,
Paris, vol. 190 (1930), p. 1047; Compla randua (Dokladll) de l'~ des BCienceB
de rUR88, aer. A, vol. 14 (1931), p. 353, vol. 10 (1931), p. 281; PriIt(. Mat. Mekh.,
Akademiya Naulc 888B, vol. 6 (1942), p. 487.
R. D. Mindlin, B-ullmn of 1M Ameri.:an MatMmtIIical 8oeietv, "ol. 42 (1936),
pp. 373-376.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROIlLEMS

335

The function 'fI, as is clear from (90.5), is biharmonic, and calculations


leading to (90.8) show that every biharmonic function is expressible in
terms of four harmonic functions. One can thus represent every biharmonic function F in the form
F

(90.22)

4>0

+ X;if>i,

(i = 1, 2, 3),

where the 4>'s are harmonic. 1 Any two of the functions <Pi can be aut
equal to zero without loss of generality, so that every biharmonic function (in a finite simply connected domain) is expre~sible in terms of two
harmonic functions in one of the forms:
F = <Po

+ XI4>,

= <Po

+ x.4>,

= <Po + X84>.

It would suffice to consider F in the form

(90.23)
Let F be an arbitrary biharmonic function. The functions 4>0 and <P can
then be constructed as follows: On forming the Laplacian of (90.23), we
get
(90.24)
and since V'F is known, we can construct the harmonic function <P satisfying this equation. Having determined <P, we insert it in (90.23) and
get
4>0 = F - XI4>,

which is harmonic by virtue of (90.24).


We conclude this section with a brief mention of the sets of solutions of
Cauchy's equilibrium equations,
(90.25)

Til.!

= 0,

deduced by Maxwell and Morera. It is easy to verify that Eqs. (90.25)


are formally satisfied if one assumes that

+ <P33.2' + <Pll.a> '1"3 = '1'11.22 + 'l'22.ll = CP3'.12 + '1'12.13 = '1'12.23 + <P23.2' 'I'll = <P 33

(90.26)

<P33,11

2CP.>.23
2<p31.31
2'1'12.12

'I'll

<P1I.23 -

'1'23.11

'1'31

'l'U.31 -

<P31.2'

'1'33.12 -

<P12.>3,

'1'12

<P23.31

'1'''.32 -

where the <Pi; = 'l'fi are of class C'. On setting <P12 = '1'23 = '1'31 = 0, we
obtain solutions proposed by Maxwell, and on taking <P1I = <Pn '" <P13 = 0,
I This is identical in form with the Goursat representation of the plane biharm'onic
motion U ("'" "'.) - 'PQ + "'o'P_ deduced in Sec. 70.
.

MA1'HJl:MATICAL TIllilORY QF ELASTlC1'1'Y

we get solutions due to Morera. 1 The functions <Ai are further restricted
by Beltrami's compatibility equations. These restrictions have been formulated implicitly (in tensor form) by Schaefer,' who aJBo indicates
a connection of relations (90.26) with the formulas for stresses deduced
from the Neuber-Papkovich solution (90.10).
91. Concentrated Forces. The general solution of the nonhomogeneous Navier's equations,
(91.1)

p.'V'u,

(l\

+ p.)""

= -F,

in

1',

can be got by adding a particular integral of (91.1) to one of the general


solutions deduced in Sec. 90. We record one useful form of the particular integral due to Lord Kelvin.' It is,
(91.2)

u,(x) = A

[B

F,;~)

O),.(X; - Ej)F;W] dT,

where

l\
31l
"" l\+p.'

and r = [(Xl - h)2 + (X2 - ~2)' + (xa - ~3)21~ is the distance from the
field point (Xl, XI, Xa) to the variable point (~1, ~., ~3) in T. The functions
F;(~) are the components of the body force F, expressed in terms of the
variables of integration E,.
The fact that (91.2) is indeed an integral of (91.1) can be verified by
direct substitution.'
A solution of Eqs. (91.1), appropriate to the deformation of an elastic
body by the concentrated force F2 applied at some point ~;, can be easily
deduced from (91.2). We suppose that the body forcesF. are distributed
over some subregion 1'1 of T, including the point ~;, and vanish over the
rest of the region. The resultant of the body forces acting on 1'1 is

F1

!." F, dT.

1J. Maxwell, TrlJMactitm8 of 1M Royal Society of Hdinburch, vol. 26 (1870), p. 27,


or Collecied Papers, vol. 2, pp. 161-207; O. Morera, AUi della reale accademia dei
Lincei, Rome, ser. 5, vol. 1 (1892), pp. 137-141, 233-234.
I H. Schaefer, Z~fUr angewandte Mathem4tik und MecIu1.nik, vol. 33 (1953),
pp. 356-362. See also a paper by R. V. Southwell in Timoahenko Anniversary
Volume, pp. 211-216 and a paper by W. Ornstein, "Stress Functions of Maxwell and
Morera," Qu4rterlll qf Applied MathsmaUc8, vol. 12 (1954), p. 198.
Sir WilIia.m Thomson, Cq.~ . - Dublin M~ Journal (1848), or
Mathematical and Physical Pa.pera, vol. 1, p. 97. See also A. E. H. LoVb, A Treatise
on the Mathe_tical Theory of Elaaticity (1927), pp. 183-185.
For the field points in the region r, the integral is improper, and care must be used
in dilYerentiating under the integral sign. Bee analogoua ca1culatiou in M. Maaon
and W. Weaver. The ~ JlWd, pp. 93-116.

THREE-DDIENSIONAL PROBLEMII

If we now let F. incJ:.ea.se in such a way that this integr&l. has a finite
limit 11 as 1'1"'" 0, we arrive at the notion of the concentrated force 11
acting at the point ~i'
The displacements ",(x) produced at the point Xi ;C E. by the force F~
APplied a.t ~., as follows from (91.2), are

These expressions satisfy the homogeneous Navier equations at all points


of the region except at the point of application of the force. They cease
having meaning at the singular point Xi = E,j but if this point is deleted
from the region by enclosing it in a sphere S of small radius a, the solutions (91.3) in the remaining region correspond to the deformation present in a body l' with a cavity S subjected to the action of forces with the
resultant F~.
If we choose the coordinate axes so that Ff acts at the origin ~. = 0
and take F~ = Fg = 0, Fg = P, the formulas (91.3) yield

(91.4)

where
(91.5)

Using the stress-strain relations,

we find,

(91.6)

338

MATHEMATICAL THI!lORY OF ELASTICITY

The tractions T;, produced by these stresses over the sphere S of radius

r "" a, are determined from


with '1 = x;/a.

We get,

T = _ 6pCx a x 3,
a
a'

(91.7)

and, on iptegrating over the 8urfaf'e of the sphere r

= a,

we find,

(91.8)

These are the components of the resultant force exerted on S by matter


exterior to S. On noting the value of C in (91.5), we see that the component in the x.-direction is - P, as it should be, since T is in equilibrium.
To solve the problem of deformation of the elastic half space bounded
by a plane subjected to the action of a concentrated force, Boussinesq
combined solutions (91.4) with certain other singular solutions of Navier's
equations, which we give next.
It is easy to verify that the displacements
u ..

(91.9)

= rer

DXa

+ X3)'

u,

= -;'

1, 2),

with r2 = x;x. and D = const, represent the dilatationless 1 solution of


Navier's equations so long as r r' O. The corresponding stresses are

(91.10)

x~

+ xi

xl

++ x: ) - 2( X~]
X3
r r + X3 )2'

T11

2pD [ ra(r-+ i;) - r 2(r

T.2

2pD [ r'( r

'Ta3

= -2pD~,
r8

712 =

T13 '"

+Xf]
X3)' '

X1
-2pD"ii'

'Til

+ 2r).
+ x.)'

-2 D X1 X.(X,
p

r'(r

As in the preceding example we calculate the tractions T. over the sphere


S of radius a a.nd find
(91.11)

T ..

=0

-2pD r 2(r ~

X3

)'

T.

1
-2pD;:o'

r == a.

The corresponding components of the resultant force R. exerted on S by


the matter exterior to the sphere of radius a a.re
(91.12)

Rc =

fs T .. dtr = 0,

Ra =

fs T3 dtr =

-SlruD.

'We note that, when, - 0, the BOlutiPn of Navier'. equations reduces to the
familiar problem in potential theory.

339

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM6

We shall see in the following section that a superposition of the elementary solutions (91.4) a.nd (91.9) ca.n be made to yield the state of deformation present in an elastic half space whose plane boundary is under the
action of the concentrated normal force. 1
92. Deformation of Elastic Half Space by Normal Loads. Let the
semi-infinite region Xa ~ 0 be occupied by an elastic medium, and assume
that the concentrated force P, applied at the origin, acts in the positive
direction of the x.-axis. Since the point of application of the load is a
singular point in the solution of Navier's equations, we delete it from the
region x. ~ 0 by describing a hemisphere of small radius a and confine
our attention to the semi-infinite region bounded by the hemisphere and
the xlx2-plane,
We shall construct a solution such that the resultant of all exterIl81
stresses acting on the hemisphere is P, and
(92.1)

T13

723

= T33

= 0

over the rest of the boundary. To this end we form the sum of displacements in (91.4) and (91.9) and get
x"x.

DXa

(92.2)

Ua

= C -r , + r (+
r
x, )'

(92.3)

U,

= C

(a

1, 2),

(xX+l'r
+ 31' ! + ~) + !:?,
r'
r

The distribution of tractions over the surface of the hemisphere, corresponding to the displacements (92.2) and (92.3), can be got by adding the
tractions in (91.7) and (91.11). From computations leading to formu4ul
(91.8) and (91.12), it is obvious that the resultant force on the surface of
the hemisphere acts in the x,-direction and has the magnitude'

R = _ 4r1'~(~ ~ 21') _ 4rI'D.


Since this represents the action on the hemisphere from the side of the
medium, we equate R to - P and get the equation
(92.4)

++

P = 4rjlC(X
21')
X
jl

+ 4rI' D ,

involving two unknown COIl8tants C and D. Another equation involving these constants is got by imposing the conditions (92.1),
1 Several problems in this category have been worked out by J. Boussineeq, ApplicatioIlll dee potentieJs A l'etude de l'6quilibre et du mouvement dee 80lidee 6laatiquee

(1885).
~ This is one-half the BUm of the valuee given by (91.S) and (IH.12), wherein the
integration was performed over the entire sphere,

340

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF EL.4.STlCITY

Forming the sum of appropriate stress components in (91.6) and


(91.10) with :1:, ... 0, we get,

r". = rll = 'O,

2"C:I:."

2 D:I:

(a = 1,2),

---;;a >. + " - " ra'

so tha

2,,2(1
riC>' + II)

(92.5)

2"D

+7

o.

The solution of (92.5) and (92.4) yields


P
D = - 41r(>' + II)'
41r"
and the substitution of these values in (92.3) gives,

C=~,

(92.6)

Xa:I:..

'U ..

= 41r"

'Us

= ~~
41r1' r'

- 41r(>' +

x.

p)

rex. + r)'

(O!

= 1,2),

+ P(>. + 21') !.
41rp(>. + II) r

It is worth noting ' that at a great distance from the origin the displacements vanish as 1/r, and hence the stresses vanish as l/r2. In this connection it should also be observed that the concept of the concentrated
load is a mathematical abstraction resulting from specific assumptions
concerning the behavior of continuous distributiOlis of loads when a definite limiting process is followed. It is not surprising, therefore, that different limiting processes might yield singular solutions different from
(92.6). A decision about the practical validity of any given singqlar
solution should rest on physical rather than mathematical grounds. The
definition of the concentrated load in the instance of curved surfaces
obviously involves an even greater degree of arbitrariness. Because of
the usefulness of the solution in the,form (92.6) it is natural to use it as
a criterion for an acceptable definition of the concentrated load acting
on a curved surface. s
The solutions (92.6) can be generalized, in an obvious way, to yield
the displacements produced in an infinite region Xa ~ 0 by suitably
restricted continuous distributions of normal loads.
1 See remarks in See. 74 regarding the behavior of displacements and streMea in the
two-dimensional ease and their bearing on the uniqueness of solution.
See in this connection:
E. Sternberg and F. Rosenthal, "The Elaatic Sphere under Concentrated Loade,"
Juumal t1/ Applied Mechanics, vol. 19, No.4 (1952), pp. 413-421.
E. Sternberg and R. A. Eubanks, "On the Singularity at a Concentrated Load
Applied to a Curved Surface," A Technical Report to ONR, Department of Mechaniea,
mina JDstitute of Technology (1953).
A. Huber, "The Elaatic Sphere under Concentrated Torques," QuarlerJw of A~
lIt111wtNJtica, vol. 13 (1965), P.iI. IllH02.

341

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

p(~, 'II) be

If we let

the distributed normal load acting at the point

eE, 'II) of the xtxrplane, the resultant force P on an element of area du is


P = peE, 'II) duo Inserting this in (92.6) and integrating over the XlXr
plane, we get,

'U
a

(92.7)

(7 p(~, 'II)rl d~ dTJ _

x,xa

4...", ))

Xa

4".(X

(7 pet, 'II)+dt dfl,

+ "'))

-~

r(r

x.)

-~

i[

where r2 = (Xl - t)'


(X. - 'II)' + X:.
The evaluation of the double integrals in (92.7) presents serious computational difficulties except in those cases where simplifying assumptions are made about the nature of the load pet, '1) and the shape of the
regiol). over which the load is distributed. If the load is axially symmetric about the x.-axis, it is possible to deduce tractable expressions for the
displacements by the method of Hankel transforms. l
A solution of the problem of deformation of the semi-infinite elastic
half space by the concentrated force acting in the interior of the solid
was given by Mindlin.' Mindlin's solution specializes to that of Boussinesq when the force is assumed to act on the boundary of the solid.
93. The Problem of Boussinesq. As an illustration of the use of
general integrals of N avier's equations
(93.1)

",V'Uj

+ (X + ",).,J.; = 0,

we construct a solution of the second boundary-value problem for the


semi-infinite region x. > 0 bounded by the plane x. = 0. 3
'I. M. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms (1951), pp. 468-486. This book contains a
treatment of several problems concerned with the deformfltion of semi-infinite elastic
media.
'
The torsion of an elastic half-space by shearing forces distributed over a circular
area was considered by N. A. Rostovoev, Prikl. Mat. M ekh., Akademiya N auk SSSR,
vol. 19 (1955), pp. 55-60.
I R. D. Mindlin, Compte. rendUB hebdomadair.. de8 seances de I' acadhnie de8 8ciences,
Paris, vol. 201 (1935), pp. 536-537; Ph1l8ie8, vol. 7 (1936), pp. 195-202. An exposi~on of Mindlin's work is contained in H. M. Westergaard's monograph Theory of
Elasticity and Plasticity (1952), pp. 142-148.
The first, second, and certain types of mixed boundary-value problems of elasticity for the semi-infinite region bounded by a plane are associated with the names of
J. BoU8llinesq and V. Cerruti. These authors solved a number of special problems
with the aid of potential theory. A resume of earlier work is contained in Chap. 10
of !.eve'. Treatise. Love [philHophicBl Tr0nsacti0n8 0/ the RolJal Societll (London)
(A), VIIL 228 (1929), p. 377J applied the Bouasineeq method to study the defonnation
of the eemi-infinite spaee by pressures di8tnouted over a circle and rectangle. An
account of recent developments in related problems utilizing the Fourier and related
transforms, is contained in I. N. Sneddon'. book Fourier Transforms (1951), pp. 450--

342

MATBJlMATlCAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Since the displacements


resented in the form

14J

(93.2)

are biharmonic functions, they can be rep-

UJ ... 'Pi

+ XI"'.i,

where the 'Pj and " are harmonic functions. These functions, as noted
in Sec. 90, are not independent since the 14 satisfy Navier's equations.
Indeed, on substituting (93.2) in (93.1) we easily find that

[(). + 31')"' + (). + p.)'PJo.k].i = o.


Hence, on disregarding the nonessential constant, we get
(93.3)

).+1'

>/t = -

).

+ 31' 'Pl.l.

The functions 'Pi and", must be chosen so that, on the boundary x, = 0,


the displacements 14j assume specified values/i(xl, x.) and vanish at infinity in a suitable manner. Setting XI = 0 in (93.2), we see that the harmonic functions 'Pi are required to satisfy the boundary conditions,
(93.4)
The determination of the 'Pi has thus been reduced to the familiar problem in potential theory, and there are several methods available for constructing these functions. Perhaps the simplest of these is a method
based on the Fourier integral representation of harmonic functions.
If we suppose that
(93.5)

'Pi(Xl,

X2,

XI)

..
II
gi(
-.

01,

fJ)e 7 m (<<Zl+''''') dOl dfj,

where i2 = -1, and require that (93.5) represent harmonic functions


vanishing for x, = >, we find that 'Y = - vi01 2 + fJ'. Moreover, since
the 'Pj satisfy conditions (93.4),

..

(93.6)

//(Xl, x.) =

j[ gi(OI, fJ)e'(='+''''') dOt dfJ.

But it is well known 1 that properly restricted functions /;(Xl, x,) can be
represented by the Fourier integral, in the form (93.6), where

(93.7)

gj(OI, 13) ==

(~)21[ };(E, ,,)e-i(<<Hhl d~ d.".

510, and a comprehensive treatment of the contact problems of elasticity (Including


the study of deformation produced by a rigid stamp, 88 a
is preaented in
L Ya. Shtaerrnan'smonographTheContact Prob1emof Elasticity (1949) (in RUIIIIian).
1 See, for example, Courant-Hilbert, Methoden der mathematischen Physik. voL 1,
Chap. il, or I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms, Chap. 1.

special_>

343

The substitution from (93.7) in (93.5) thel1 yields the desired functions <pj.

""j'

To determine the displacements, we also need the functions


But
once the <pj are determined, we find, on integrating (93.3) with respect

..

to Xa,

(93.8)

'"

= - : .:

:1' ff 'YU' + i(Olt + (JU.)

eY.o+i("",H ) dOl d{J.

The substitution from (93.5) and (93.8) in (93.2) then gives,

..

u, =

Jf

\g,lOl, fJ) -

..
r(
{g.(Ol /3) JJ
'
- ..
..
u, = r( {g8(a (J) JJ
'
- .
u. =

~.: :1' iOl;' ['yg3 + i(Olg, + fJg.)} eY-H("",-\-~") dot d{J,


A
A

+ I' i{Jx. ['Yg, + i(Olgl + ,69.)1} ey.,H(a.,H.,) dOl d{J


+ 31' 'Y
. '

I' x.['YU, + i(Olg, + {J9.)1}


++ 31'

A
A

ey+i(a.,+P) dOl d{J

The evaluation of these double integrals is a formidable problem, If the


stress distribution in the region X3 > 0 is axially symmetric, the problem
can be treated more effectively by the integral equations and Hankel
transform methods. Problems of the indentation of a semi-infinite space
by a rigid punch of circular and elliptical cross sections are in this
category,'
The method of Fourier integrals can also be applied to solve the corresponding first boundary-value problem, but since such calculations present no points of novelty, we do not include them here.'
The possibility of reducing the elastostatic problem for the semi-infinite space to the simpler problem in potential theory hinged on the special form (93.2) of the general solution of Eqs. (93.1). In applying this
method to problems involving spherical boundaries, it is natural to take
solutions in the form
U; = <Pi + (r' - a')"',i.
If the displacements are specified on the surface of the sphere r = a, one
ill led to the Dirichlet problem for the sphere. However, instead of
selecting this mode of attack, we solve the problem of elastic equiliLrium of the sphere with the aidof certain orthogonal functions.
9&. Spherical Shell under External and Internal Pressures. In rare
instances an interesting problem in' elasticity can be solved by quite ele See I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms (1951), Chap_ 10; I. Va. Sht&erman and
A. I. Lourje, Prikl. Mal. Me/r,h., Akademiya Nauk 888R, vol. 5 (1941); L Va. Shtaer1WUl, The Contact Problem of Elasticity (1949)., pp. 191-196,205-210.
See E. Trelftz, Handbw:h" J>h"aik (1928), voL 6.

344

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

mentary mea,ns. Such is the problem of deformation of a spherical shell


by uniform internal and external prt:ssures.
Let the internal and external radii of the shell be a, and at, respectively, and let the interior pressure be PI and the exterior pressure p .
We take the center of the shell to be at the origin and consider the
system
(94.1)
(i = 1,2,3),
P.V'Ui + ()I. + p.)"., = 0,
with appropriate boundary conditions.
Since the deformation of the shell is symmetric with respect to the
origin, we take displacements in the form
.

Ui = ",(r)x"

(94.2)

where r = XiX, and '" depends only on r.


in (94.1) yields the equation
2

d'", +! d",
dr'rdr

The substitution from (94.2)

0
'

whose general solution is


(94.3)

The stress-strain relations


'T'i

)l.uuo'i

+ I'(Ui.i + 1.4,;),

upon using (94.2), give


(94.4)

where iJ = 3A 1
given by

'Tij

= Mo,;

+ 2p. ["'0;; + ~ "" (r)xiX'].

The stress Tr in the radial direction

P,

= xilr is

and, on inserting in this formula from (94.4) and (94.3), we find


(94.5)

Tr = (3)1.

+ 2p.)AI -

4p.A.

--,:s'

Also, the stress T, acting on the planar element with the unit normal
to p; can be easily computed from

n; orthogonal

T, = 'T,j1t.1I;,
= (M

But n;n; = 1, and noX, = 0,


(94.6)

+ 2p.",)n.-n. + 2p.r ",'(r)(n;x;)'.


80

that

T, .., AD
==

+ 2!i<P

t
(3~ + 2!i)A 1 + 2p.1

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

345

For the determination of the A, we have the boundary conditions:


T. = -PI,
T. = -PI,

for r = ai,
for r = as.

Inserting these in (94.5), we find that


pia'I - paa"2 ,
2J.1)(ai - af)
- afa~(pi - P.)
4,.(ai - ail '

Al =
A
2

(3X

and hence (94.5) and (94.6) become:

Plaf - paa~
afai PI - p.
-----,
a~ - af
r' ai - af
PIal - p,.ai
a~ai PI - p'.
ai - af
2r 8 ai - af

T.=

(94.7)

T,

If the external pressure p. = 0, (94.7) yield,

T =
r

T =

plat

(1 - r~)3<-0'

Plat

(1 + 2r'
a~) > O.

a~-a~

ai - at

Thus, the maximum tension (T,)""", is at the inner surface of the shell.
We have,
(T )
fJmax

~ 2al + ai
2 a~-af'

and if the shell is of small thickness t = a - b, we get an approximate


formula
pia.
( T)
,,_ .....
- Tt'

The maximum extension ell obviously will occur on the inner surface of
the shell, so that the yielding will begin on the inner surface.
Most of the results recorded above have been deduced I by Lame.
Spherical Harmonics. The considerations of Sec. 90 indicate the
great usefulness of harmonic functions in elasticity. in solving the prot>-leIDS of equilibrium of an elastic sphere, one special class of harmonic
functions, known .as spherical harmonics, is particularly useful. The
essential facts about these functions are summarized in this section.
We first determine a class of particular solutions of Laplace's equation
(95.1)

.... = 0,

(i = 1,2,3),

10. J..am4, Lepa BUr Ia th60rie de l'6lMticit6 (1852).

MATllElIfATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

in the form of homogeneous polynomials of degree n.


tions we seek have the form
(95.2)

<l>n =

That is, the solu-

ap",xfxlx ',

p+q+r-n

where the sum is extended over all positive integral values p, q, r such
that p + q + r = n.
It is obvious that the polynomial of degree 0, satisfying (95.1), is
<1>0 = ao, where ao is a constant. The polynomial
<1>, =

(i = 1, 2, 3),

G;Xi,

clearly satisfies (95.1) for an arbitrary choice of the constants as. In this
case we have three linearly independent solutions of (95.1), namely,
X" X2, x..
The linear combination of these solutions is the most general
solution of Laplace's equation in the form of the homogeneous polynomial of degree 1.
If we take the homogeneous polynomial of degree 2, namely,
(95.3)

<1>.

(i, j

G;;X,xj,

= 1, 2, 3),

and substitute it in (95.1), we obtain one relation


all

+ a .. + a33

= 0

connecting six distinct constants in (95.3). Hence there are five linearly
independent homogeneous polynomials of degree 2 that satisfy (95.1) .
. These polynomials can be determined explicitly by setting
an = - (all
in (95.3).

+ au)

We thus get,

<1>. = au(xf - xi)

+ aS2(x~ -

xi)

+ a,,x,x. + a.,x,x. + a31X,x,.

Hence the desired polynomials are

xf - xl,

xl - x:,

and every solution of (95.1) in the form of the homogeneous polynomial


of degree 2 is a linear combination of these five linearly independent
solutions.
By taking a homogeneous polynomial,
(95.4)

of degree 3, substituting it in (95.1), and equating in the resulting expression the coefficients of the x. to zero, we obtain three relations among
ten tI.;ii in (95.4). Accordingly there are seven linearly independent homogeneous polynomials of degree 3 that satisfy Laplaoe's equation.

;'47

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLlilMS

It is not difficult to prove' that, in general, there are 211. + 1 linearly


independent homogeneous polynomials of degree 11. satisfying (95.1). The
polynomials are called the integral ha1'1llQnic8 of degree n. It is worth
remarking that the corresponding polynomials in the two-dimensional
case can be got by separating into real and imaginary parts (x, + iX2)ft.
If we consider an integral harmonic ~. of degree 11., its derivatives ~.,.,
dearly, satisfy Laplace's equation, and since the ~ft,i are homogeneous
polynomials of degree n - 1, they are integral harmonics of degree n - 1.
From integral harmonics ~. one can deduce an important class of solutions of Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates known as spherical
harmonic8.
We introduce the transformation
sin 8 cos <p,
r sin 8 sin <p,

Xl = r
X, =

(95.5)

x.

= r

cos 8,

and, on SUbstituting from (95,5) in the integral harmonic


we get

~.(Xl,

x., x.),

(95.6)
where Y.(9, <p) is a polynomial in sin 9, cos 9, sin <p, and cos <po ,The
function Y.(8, <p) is termed surface, or zonal, harmonic and rn Y.(8, '() is
the solid spherical harmonic. Inasmuch as the number of linearly independent integral harmonics of degree 11. is 211. + 1, the number of linearly
independent surface harmonics Y.(8, '() is also 2n + 1.
We deduce next an explicit representation of the surface harmonic
Y.(8, <p), by investigating the solutions of Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates in the form
~ =

(95.7)

fer) Y(8, '().

In spherical coordinates Eq. (95.1) reads:


(95.8)

)
1 02~_
aro ( r or~) + sin1 8 ii80 ( sm. 8 o~
08
+ sin' 90<p' - O.

Substituting (95.7) in (95.8) and separating variables yields,


d
i1i[r2f'(r)]
f(r)

0 (.

SinS aD

OY)

sm 8 iii

1 o'Y
+ SEi'8 8ift'

1 See, for example, Courant-Hilbert, Methoden der mathematiachen Physik, vol. 1,


Chap. 7.

348

MATHEMATICAL THJ:ORY 011' ELASTICITY

which implies thatf(r) and Y(I, ,,) satisfy the equations:


(95.9)

+ 2rf'(r) - kf(r) = 0,
1 o'Y
+ sin' IJ 0",' + kY = 0,

rtf"(r)

1 0 (.
oY)
sin' iii \SIn "011

(95.10)

where k is a constant.
We are interested only in continuous solutions of Eq. (95.10) since, as
observed above, the surface harmonics are trigonometric polynomials.
Equation (95.10) will have such (nontrivial) solutions only for certain
values of the parameter k, and our problem is to determine these characteristic values and construct the corresponding functions Y(II, ,,). On
comparing (95.7) with (95.6) we see that fer) satisfying Eq. (95.9) is r\
and on inserting this in (95.9) we get an infinite number of the values
of k, namely
k

n(n

+ 1),

11.

= 0,1,2, . . . .

The substitution of this value of k in (95.10) then yields the differential


equation
(95.11)

&!

fJ

~ (Sin IJ o~.) + si:" o;~; + 11.(11. + l)Y.

=0

for the surface harmonic Y.(fJ, ",). The considerations pertaining to the
number of linearly independent spherical harmonics leads us to expect
that, corresponding to each characteristic number k = 11.(11. + 1), there
will be 211. + 1 linearly independent solutions Y.(II, "') of (95.11). We
can obtain these solutions by taking .
(95.12)

Y,,(fJ, "') = Q,,(fJ)R"(,,,),

for Y.(II, "') is known to be a trigonometric polynomial in cos I, sin I,


cos "', and sin ",.
The substitution of (95.12) in (95.11) leads, by familiar argument, to
the pair of equations:
(95.13)

R;:(",) = _ (Q~ sin 8)'_sin! _ 11.(11.


Ra("')
Q"

+ 1) sin' fJ = -m',

if we recall that R.(",) in (95.12) is a trigonometric function. From


(95.13) we see at once that suitable linearly independent solutions for

R.are
R( )
'"

where m = 0, 1, 2, . .

= {Sin

m""

cos m",

,n.

The equation for Q.(I) can be cast in the standard form by introducing a new independent variable x == COB 8. On making this change

TBBEJII-DIMlIlNSIONAL PllOBLBMS

and writinc Q.(,) - Plrl{2:), we find that


equation,
(95.14)

! [(1 -

Xl)

P~-I(Z)

dP~(X) J+ [n(n + 1) -

satisfies Legendre'.

1 ~. X2 ) Plrl(x) == 0,
(m = 0, 1,2, ... ,n).

There are two linearly independent solutions of this equation, only one
of which is continuous in the interval Ixl ~ 1, that is, for 0 ~ II ~ .
This solution is

P~-I(X) = (1 _ z.) ..12 d"~~X),


where P,.{x) are the Legendre polynomials defined by the formula
1 dn(x' - 1)
p .. (x) = 2nn!
dx"
.

We are now in a position to write out an explicit expression for the


surface harmonic Y .. (II, 1"). It is,
(95.15)

Y.(II, 1") = aoPo(cos II)

"
L
.. -1

(a.. cos ml"

+ b.. sin ml")Plrl{cos II),

where Go, a.., and b.. are arbitrary constants.


The solution (95.6) of Laplace's equation, with Y.(II, 1") defined by
(95.15), is continuous throughout all space. Another solution, which
becomes infinite for r = 0, and which is no longer an integral harmonic,
can be got by noting that the second solution of (95.9) is fer) = ,-,,-1.
It is
(95.16)
The functions Y n (lI, 1") can be viewed as being defined on the surface of
the unit sphere. They possess a number of remarkable properties, which
we state without proofs.'
The set of functions {Y.. (II, 1") I is orthogonal on the surface l: of thE>
unit sphere, so that
if i

j.

Moreover, this set is complete in the sense that every function f(lI, I{J),
specified on the unit sphere l:, whose square is integrable over l:, can be
represented in the series of spherical harmonics which converges in the
1

See, E. W. Hobeon, Theory of Spberical and ElliJlllKlidal HArmonics (1931).

MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF EUSTICITY

mean to f(6, rp). If f(6, rp) is of class C' on :2:, the series converges to
f(fJ, rp) uniformly. In fact, we have the following representation:

L {(I,~ft)P.(cos
e

f(6, rp) =

(I,~O)

.. _1

8)

(a!.:') cos mrp

+ b!.:') sin mrp)P~")(cos fJ)},

.. -1

where
(1,(.)

..

= (2n

l)(n - m)!
2r&..(n+m)!

l)(n - m)'.
be,,) = (2n
..
2r8.. (n + m)!

II) cos m,~ dtr


Jll(f(J ,~)P(")(cos
ft

II

,T

f(1I

,~)P(oo)
,T

(cos II) sin m,n dtr

with 0.. = 2 if m = 0, Om = 1 if m > 0, and ]X.!') (cos II) "'" Pft(cos II).
This representation permits us to solve the problem of Dirichlet for
the sphere of radius a in the series of solid harmonics. We first represent th~ function f(8, ",), s~ified on the surface of the sphere in the
series

f(fJ, "') =

Y ft (lI, "'),

.. -0

and then form the series


cI>(r, 8, "') =

~ Y ..(II, "') (~\".

n ... O

;)

This gives the formal solution for the region r


corresponding exterior problem is
cI>(r, fJ, <p) =

L
e

Y .. (8, "')

< a.

~..+1,

()

The solution of the

r> a.

.. -0

96. Elastic Equilibrium of a Sphere and Other Problems. We have


just seen that the problem of Dirichlet for the sphere can be solved in.
the series of spherical harmonics. It is natural to make an attempt to
solve in an analogous way the problems of elastic equilibrium of the
sphere. To do this, it is necessary to construct the family of particular
solutions of Navier's equations
(96.1)

pV~

+ (A + ",)u.,.; ... 0,

which are such that on the surface of the sphere of radius a they reduee
to a oomplete set of surface harmonics Y.(fJ, rp).

351

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

Following Lord Kelvin,' we seek a set of particular solutions of (96.1)


in the form (cf. Sec. 90),
(96.2)

(i, k

1,2,3)

where the <Pi are integral harmonics of degree nand c is a constant.


We note that the second term in (96.2) is not an integral harmonic
beml,use of the presence of the factor r2, but <Pk,k' being the sum of the
second derivatives of <Pi is an integral harmonic of degree n - 2. Nevertheless, on the surface of the sphere r = a both terms in (96.2) reduce to
the surface harmonics, the first term being the surface harmonic of the
type Y,,(9, <p) and the second Y,,_2(9, <p). This fact will permit us to
combine the particular solutions (96.2) in such a way that on the surface
of the sphere they reduce to the specified displacements. The value of
the constant c is readily determined by substitution of (96.2) in (96.1).
Making use of the Euler formula x,<p" = n", for homogeneous functions
of degree n and of the assumption that the <Pi are harmonic, we easily
find
;>'+1'

c = -

(96.3)

2{;>.(n - 1)

+ (2n

- 3)1..]

Since c depends on the degree n of the integral harmonic <Pi, we denote


it by c(..) and write the formal solution of Navier's equations in the form
c

L ("'In, + c(n)r'<p~~li)'
,,-0

u; =

But <pl?J1i =

<Pl~k =

0, and hence

L (",lnl + c("+)r2<pk~t.2l).
~

(96.4)

U;

,,=0

If we go over into spherical coordinates with the aid of (95.5) and set
r = a, each term in the series (96.4) becomes a surface harmonic of
degree n.
Now if the displacements u; = f,(6, "'), specified on the surface of the
sphere r = a, are represented in the series of surface harmonics as
c

(96.5)

u;

L AI"'ell, "'),

,,=0

it should prove possible to determine the solid harmonics <PI'" in (96.4)


so that the series (96.4) reduces to (96.5) when r is set equal to a.
I Sir William ThomSOD, Ph"->pkicaJ Tranaactiom of the Royal8oci.ety (Londcm) (A),
vol. 153 (1863); Mathema.tical and Physical Papers, vol. 3 (1890), p. 35L

352

MA'l'HElIlATlCAL THEORY OF EI,ASTIC1Tr

We next form the series of solid harmonics,


(96.6)

and note that the series of solid harmonics,

~ (<Pl

(96.7)

ft

+ cCft+2)a'<p~~~J)

n-O

must converge for r = a to the same function/.(e, "") as the series (96.6).
Making use of the theorem on uniqueness of representation in the
series of solid harmonics, we can write
for r = a,
and deduce
(96.8)

Using (96.8), we compute

(!)"]

[ A "I") a

and since

",,1,~t2)

""I"')

, i l

+ c C"+2)a ",,j,"H)
,Ain,
2

is harmonic, we get

(96.9)

Thus <PI::' is completely determined since the AI") are known functions.
The substitution from (96.9) in (96.8) determines the <PIn) in the form,
(96.10)

Hence the solution (96.4) can be written entirely in terms of the AI")
determined in (96.5). It is
(96.11)

u; =

.t

{Aln)

(~r + cC.H)(r' -

2
a ) (

A1,-+ 2) (~)"+tJ

Despite its formal simplicity the solution (96.11) is difficult to apply to


apecific problems because it can be effectively carried out only for very
simple distributions of assigned displacements. Kelvin also applied the

TB.JUIE-DUlENBIONAL PROBLlIIIfS

353

meth9d described here to solve the first bound.acy~value problem for the
sphere. Although, conceptually, this problem is not any more difficult
than the second boundary~value problem, the necessary ea.lcuia.tiOnB are
considerably heavier. 1
.An obvious generalization of the method, making use of particular
solutions in the form <P(")r-1_ 1, where the <P(n) are surface harmonics, has
enabled Kelvin to treat the problems of equilibrium of an elastic shell.
These problems have recently been reconsidered by Lourje, who, in following the Kelvin mode of attack, uses the Neuber-Papkovich expressions for displacements, involving four harmonic functions instead of
three used by Kelvin. This results in some simplifications, enabling
Lourje to carry out the computations more fully.s
When the radius of the inner shell is small, the solutions indicate the
nature of stress concentration in a large body near a spherical cavity.
A brief survey of the technically important problems on stress concentration is contained 3 in Timoshenko and Goodier's Theory of Elasticity.
Among the three~imensional problems for which explicit solutions are
available are several problems in the category of contact problems of
elasticity. The problem of deformation of an elastic half space by a
rigid circular punch, first treated by Boussinesq, was developed in some
detail by Shtaerman and Lourje and, more recently, by Leonov.' A systematic treatment of this and related contact problems of elasticity will
be found in 1. Ya. Shtaerman's'monograph entitled The Contact Proble~
of the Theory of Elasticity (1949).
Since exact solutions of the three-dimensional problems pose serious
mathematical difficulties,6 recourse is made to approximate solutions
1 See, for example, A. E. H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (1929), pp. 267-270.
A. I. Lourje, Prikl. Mat. Melch., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 17 (1953), pp.
311-332.
'See also H. M. Westergaard, Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity (1952), pp. 154157 and R. A. Eubanks, "Stress Concentration Due to a Hemispherical Pit at a Free
Surface," Journal 01 Applied Mechanica, vol. 21 (1954), pp. 57-62.
I. Ya. Shtaerroan and A. I. Lourje, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR,
vol. 5 (1941); M. Ya. Leonov, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 17
(1953), pp. 87-98. See also N. A. Rostovcev, "On the Problem of Torsion of an
Elastic Half-space," Prikl. Mat. Mekh, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 19 (1955), pp.
55-60.
Interesting recent contributions to exact solutions of the axially symmetric pro~
lems of elasticity are contained in two papers by E. Sternberg, R. A. Eubanks, and
M. A. Sadowsky, Joumal of Applied Physica, vol. 22 (1951), p. 1121, Pror.eedingB of
the First United State. National Congress of Applied Mechanics (1952), and in a brief
paper by G. S. Shapiro, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 58 (1947), pp. 13091312, in which the equilibrium of an ellipsoid of revolution is considered.
The equilibrium of an elastic parallelepiped was considered by M. M. FilonenkoBorodieb, Prikl. Mat. Mekh., Akademilla Nauk SSSR, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 136-148,
562-574, with the aid of Papkovich-Neuber str_ functions.

haaed ea the vat'ilt.tioDaJ or aimila.r techniques. The problem of elastic


equilibrium of & parallelepiped was thus treated recently.'
9'1. Betti's Method of Integration. In view of the close connection of
the general solutions of Navier's equations with harmonic functions, it
is natural to attempt to reduce the fundamental problelDS of elasticity
to the basic problems in potential theory. We shall see that this can be
done provided that the dilatation -8 = u; . and tbe rotation tensor
W.; =

72(U;.; -

Uj.;)

can be determined from the displacements or tractions specified on the


surface of the body.
Since D is a harmonic function,
(97.1)

is a particular integral of Navier's equations


(97.2)

Thus, if the displacements are assigned on the surface, and if -8 can be


computed from them throughout the body, the second boundary-value
problem in elasticity reduces essentially to the Dirichlet problem.
On the other hand, when the surface tractions T. are known, we can

write
T, =

Tv".

= (M&ij
= Mil.

+ 2j.1ll;j)"i

+ 2j.1U;,jllj + j.I{u". au
A-8". + 2j.1 a,: + 2j.1 ii"i

u;'i)lIj

Thus, on the surface 2': of the body T,


(97.3)

duo

d" = 2J.1 (T. - AD".) -

WIi"i'

Accordingly, if {} and Wi; can be determined from specified tractions, the


first boundary-value problem reduces to the problem of Neumann.
A mode of computing these functions, devised by Betti, 2 hinges on the
construction of certain auxiliary functions analogous to Green's functions
in Potential Theory. To derive the described formulas, we need a special form of the Reciprocal Theorem (established in Sec. 109) stating that
when an elastic body, in the absence of body forces, is subjected to the
1 M. M. Filonenko-Borodieb, Prikl. Mat. Mekk., Akademiya Nau/c SSSR, vol. 17
(1953), pp. 464-468. See also two earlier papers by this author in vol. 15 (1951) of
the same journal.
E. Betti, II N_ rimmtlo, aer. 2, vols. 6-10 (1872ff.).

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

355

action of two systema of surface tractions T. and T, producing the displacements "" and "'~' respectively, then
/::: T."" dtT = /::: T:u; do-.

(91.4)

In deriving this theorem it is assumed that the functions u" u~ and their
derivatives are continuous throughout the region r.
If we now consider a solution of Navier's equations in the form
(97.5)

a,.-'
ax.

",9=-,

which has a singularity at the origin,' and denote the corresponding


= uf and T, = ~
tractions by Tf, we can apply formula (97.4) with
to a region bounded externally by }; and internally by a sphere S of
small radius R centered at the origin. We thus get

u:

(97.6)

But.

Is

T;u?

au

Is

r;;vjuf

au

=
=

Since {} and

IJ;j

Js (Ma + 2/JlJ;j) ~
i;

or- 1

ox, du

Is + X:l au
Is (x;, + ;:. XiX~;;) au.
(Maii

2/Jeii)

are continuous at the origin and

/s

XiX;

au

= 'Ys.".R'a;;,

/s au = 4rR2,

it follows that, as R --> 0,


(97.7)

/s T;u~ do-

-->

+ 2/Je;;(0)'Ys.".a;;
+ %/J){}(O).

4rM(O)

= 4r().

We find similarly that


(97.8)

~o /s T~u; du

_1%1r/J{}(0).

Hence, on substituting from (97.7) and (97.8) in (97.6), we get


(97.9)
! We used such singular solutions in See. 91.
The displseements (97.5) correspond
to a center of uniform com\lression at the origin.

MATHEMATICAL TBJIORY OJ'- ELASTICITY

This formula. ena.bles one to compute the dila.tation a.t a.ny point (which
we have chosen. to be the origin) whenever both the displa.cement u. and
tra.ction Ti are known over 1:. If only the u. are known, we can eliminate the T. by 801vi~ the following auxilia.ry problem: Find a solution
u: of Navier'lJ equation8 in the region T such that u: = u2 on 2:.
For if such u~ are known, then, by the theorem (97.4),

f:z:

T;uidu =

fz

Tiu; du =

f:z:

T.uf M,

and hence the formula (97.9) assumes the form


(97.10)

where both the Tf and T; can be computed since the corresponding displacements uf and u~ are known.
We note that the determination of the u; is equivalent to finding a set
of functions
satisfying the following conditions:
1. v. satisfy Navier's equations, except at the origin.
2. v. = 0 on :t.
3. become infinite at the origin in the manner (97.5).
It is thus clear that the Vi are analogous to Green's functions.
If the surface tractions Ti are specified, we can compute {J by finding
the solutions u;' of Navier's equation corresponding to the tractions
Ti' = T2 on:t. Then, from the Reciprocal Theorem,

"i

I" T~U;M

J:z: T.-u,' M,

and this time we have the formula,


<h(X

+ 21'){J(0)

Jz

Ti(u;' - uf) M.

The calculation of the w;; is similar. We confine our discussion to the


computation of the xl-component of the rotation vector 61, namely,

We introduce a singular solution

UO

with components,

arl)

ar-l
0
- , -OXI
-,
, aXa

<

which corresponds to a center of rotation, at -the origin, about the


Xl-axis. The tractions associated with the ut are Tt. Using the Recip-

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

357

rocal Theorem and integrating, as before, ove'; l: and S, we find,

f T.-u? dO'

0,

lL~ 18 T?u, du

41rJ.'(Ua.2 - U2,Ifo

lim

R-0

= 81rJ.'W'(O).

Hence,
(97.11)
In order to express this formula in terms of the surface displacement8
alone, we consider a regular solution u! of Navier's equations such that
u; = uf on l: and find, as we did for the dilatation,
&rJ.'W,(O) =

Ix (T; -

T?)Ui dO',

where the T; are tractions corresponding to the displacements u;.


The elimination of the u, from (97.11) is slightly more involved this
time because the tractions T2 associated with the singular solution u2
are not self-equilibrating. Hence no solutions of the equilibrium equations analogous to u!' above can be found directly. To put the body in
equilibrium, we introduce a second center of rotation at a point 0, so
selected that the couple at 0 is equal and opposite to that at the origin O.
This can be done by considering another singular solution UO with
components

aT-'
- , -at-')
-,
(0
, aX3
ax.
where the origin of i' is at 0.
Let the tractions corresponding to uf - u? be T!', and let u;' be the
regular solution of Navier's equations in l' such that on t it yields the
tractions T;'. Then the Reciprocal Theorem and (97.11) yield
S"'J.'[w,(O) - w,(O) =
=

IE [Ti(Ur - u?) - T;'u,] du


Ix Ti(uf - u? - u:') duo

The function uf - uf - u;' is analogous to the second Green's function.


The obvious difficulty in the application of the Betti method to specific problems is in the construction of the auxiliary functions. They
have been deduced for the semi-infinite region bounded by a plane and
used by Cerutti' to solve the Boussinesq problem.
1 V. Cerutti, Atti deUa a.cc.ademia dei nazinale Lincei, Re11dioonti, Glau. di S<Mnu
;/iBidIe, malem4tkke e naturaii, Rome (1882); vol. 4 (1888).
All exposition of Cerutti's work is contained in Chap. 10 of Love'. Treatise.

358

UATIlIUlATlCAL TJlBOllT QI' JIlLASTlClTY

'The integral equati0D8 for " and .. have recently been derived by

Arzhanykh. 1
88. EDstence of Solutions. We saw in the preceding chapter that the
existence of solutions of the fundamental two-ditnensionall,roblems follows directly from the existence of soluti0D8 of certain wellknOWJ.I. int&gml equations. 'The demonstration of existence of solutions of the threedimensional problems can also be made to depend on the exjlJl;ence of the
solution of integral equations of the Fredholm type or, altefIllltively, on
the construction of Betti's auxiliary functions. We shall not pursue this
subject here and shall merely remark tltat the matter of existence of
solutions has been satisfactorily resolved for domains of grej\t generality
by Fredholm, Lauricella, Kom, Weyl, Lichtenstein, and Sh~man.!
The caliber of mathematicians who have concerned tltexnaelves with
the problem is indicative of its complexity.
An extension of the uniqueness theorems in the linear tltoory of elasticity to problems involving concentrated loads is provided. in a report
by E. Sternberg and R. A. Eubank.'
99. Thermoelastic Problems. We have assumed in preceJing chapters
that the elastic bodies undergoing deformations were maints.ined at oonstant temperatures. Thermal changes in a body are -accompanied by
shifts in the relative positions of particles composing the f>ody. Such
shifts, in general, cannot proceed freely, and tlte body beeoxne& stressed.
lJ'\\d~1: {ree i;.t>.~t'&.\Il ~~<\'\\ c;,i ~~~\.~ \\<li~ %. 'f<\t'M'lM\~1;. to.. tM.
shape of a rectangular parallelepiped with edges It parallel t4J coordinate
axes deforms into a similar parallelepiped with edges l;. For small temperature changes T(Xl, Xs, x.) the relationship between l'J &jld l; has the
1 Prikl. Mat. MeJcA., Akademiva Nauk 8S8R, vol. 15 (1951), pp. 381-391.
For proofs relating to the first boundary-value problem see:
A. Korn, Annales de l4/aeuJte deB IICitmca de Toulouse, aero 2, vol. 10 U908), pp. 1115-

269'

Ii.

Weyl, ReM.ictrati del cirotJlo 1R/lI6matio9 di Palermo, vol. 39 (1915), pp. 1-49
For the second:
I. Fredholm, Arkiv lOr MaIematik, .tBtronomi oc/& F1JBi/I;, vol 2 (1906), pp. 3-8.
G. Lauricella, Atti del14 rtlIIle acaJdemia nazionale !lei Lincei, aero 5, ~ol. 15 (1906),
pp. 426-432, vol. 16 (1907), p. 373; It Nuorocimento, ser.li, vol. 13 (1907), pp. I04-U8,
155-174,237-262,501-518.
A. Korn, Annales de fkok fIONIUlk IlUphieure, aero 3, vol 24 (1907), pp. 9-75;
RImdiconti del circtJlo mtJIematiI di Palermo, vol. 30 (1910), pp. 138, 336; MathematiKIte
Annalen, vol. 75 (1914), pp. 497-544;
L. Lichtell8tein, M~ Zeitachrift, vol. 20 (1924), pp. 21-2!l; vol. 24 (1925),
p.640;
D. I. Sherman, PriJd. MaL. Mel:1&... Akadomitl'l Nauk SSSR. vol. 7 (1943), pp. 341360.
A Technical Report to the 0Biee of Naval Reeearch, Departmenf of the ?iavy,
from the Department of Mechanica, DIinoiB Institute of Technology, June 15 (1954).

359

TJIIUIl]!l-DDlEN810NAL PBOBLltVS

form
~ = l1(1

+ aT),

where a is the coefficient of linear expansion.


Thus, the strain components eij due to the free thermal exp4nsion are,
(99.1)

e:'; = aT8u.

Since the expansion of volume elements cannot ordinarily proceed freely.


the total strain tlij can be thought to consist of the sum of the thermal
strain e~; and thEl elastic strain e~; produced by the resistance of the
medium to thermll.l expansion. Thus,
(99.2)

where
eo; = .),2(u;.J

+ 'Uj.,}.

In 1841, Franz Neumann' proposed a hypothesis that the components


~i of the elastic deformation are related to the T,; by the ullual stressstrain relations, so that
I
1 +a
a
(99.3)
e'ij = ~ Tu - It 9&;;,
where 9 = TH It is implied, of course, that the temperature changes T
are so small that the elastic moduli remain sensibly constant. On taking account of (99.1) to (99.3), we get,
(99.4)

and, solving these for the Tij, we obtain,


(99.5)

Tij

= >.."8i;

+ 2,.e;; -

a{3>..

+ 2,.)T&;;,

where" = e.u = U,.i.


The law (99.5) is called the Dukamel-Neunwnn law, because it waS also
deduced in 1838 by Duhamel,s who proceeded from a different hypothesis, based on the conception of an elastic body as a system of material
points under molecular interactions.
The substitution from (99.5) in the dynamical equatiolls

+ Fi = pu.,
#,V'u; + (>.. + ,.)"., + Fi -- {JT.,
TiJ.;

yields

==

~,

Abhandl..mgen tJet. devIachen Akademie der WisUft8Claa/kn Berlin, Part 2, (1841),


pp. }-254. See alao his ter:tbook Vorlesgungen i1ber die Theorie der ElasticitAt der
festen K6rper (1885), pp. 107-120.
IJ. M. C. Duhamm, M~
IG",,,,ta, Paris, "01. 5 (1838), pp. 440-498.
1

".....ti_.

MATIlEMATICAL TBJIlO:RT OF ELASTICITY

where

fJ ... (aX

+ 2p)a,

or, in the static case,


(99.6)

,..V'1t;

+ (X + "')""

= - (F, - pT.,I.

The system of differential equations (99,6) must be solved subject to


the specified displacements u; or tractions T, on the surface of the body.
The tractions T, can be expressed, of course, in terms of the displacement
derivatives on substituting from (99,5) in
(99.7)
The temperature function T is assumed to be known, and ordinarily it is
determined from the solution of the Fourier heat equation.
It is clear from Eqs. (99.6), (99,7), and (99.5) that the effect of the
temperature change T is equivalent to replacing the body forces F, in
Navier'sequations by F, - {JT., and to substituting T, + pTvdor the surface tractions T, in the boundary conditions. The additional term, {JTv"
is equivalent to a hydrostatic pressure. Thus, formally, the elastostatic problem with assigned body forces and the thermoelastic problem
are identical. As we have noted already, by introducing suitable particular integrals the problem involving body forces can always be reduced to
the solution of the homogeneous Navier's equations It is not difficult to
write down a particular integral for (99.6) when the body forces F, have
potentials, I For let us assume a solution of (99.6) in the form
(99,8)
where rp is a suitably differentiable scalar function.

Then

and

V'u; = rp,;a.
On substituting in (99.6), we get
j.lrp.;kk

+ (X + p)rp.kki

= -ft'i

+ {JT."

and if there exists a potential <I> such that Fi = -<1>,;, we can write,
(A

+ 2p)rp,Ui =

(<I>

+ PT),;.

The integration of these equations with respect to

'I'.u
L

:=

X + 2,.. (<I>

X;

yields

+ (3T) + const.

We recall thai this is "lways the case with the gravitstionalsnd centrifugal forces.

THREE-'&IMENSIONAL PROBLEl\IS

361

Bintle we are concerned only with the determination of particular


integrals, it suffices to Beek an integral of the Poisson equation
'P.,", =

>.

+ 21' (\1> + fJT).

Such an integral can be taken in the form of the gravitational potential


(99.9)

(x) = _
If'

_!_

41r J.

p(x' ) d1'(X ' )

r(x, x')

due to a distribution of matter of density


p

=h

+ 21' (\1> + fJT).

In the solution (99.9), rex, x') is the distance from the point (x) with
coordinates x, to the point (x') with coordinates x:, and the integration is
performed with respect to the primed variables. Once If' is determined
from (99.9), the desired particular integral is given by the formulas
(99.8). We note that, when the body forces vanish, the function p in
(99.9) is simply
fJ
_
p - h + 21' T.
Borchardt' has made use of integrals of the form (99.9) in the general
discussion of the thermoelastic problems and in solving certain special
problems for spheres and circular plates subjected to asymmetric temperature distributions. A method of integration of the thermoelastic
equations, with the aid of integrals similar to those of Betti and Somigliana, was outlined by Rosenblatt. 2 Goodier, Mindlin, Cheng, 'and
Mykelstad used integrals of the type (99.9) to study the effect of special
temperature distributions in the infinite and semi-infinite elastic solids.'
Instead of dealing with Eqs. (99.6) we can start with Cauchy's equations,
1'.;.; + Fi = 0,
where the 1'ij satisfy appropriate compatibility conditions. The latter
can be written down at once from (24.14) by replacing the Fi in (24.14)
by the "effective body force components," Fi - /3T. i Another way of
1 C. W. Borchardt, M()~ der Akt:ldemi. der WiB8emckaft, Berlin (1873),
pp.9-56.
A. Rosenblatt, Rendiconti del ciroolo matematioo di Pakrmo, vol. 29 (1910), pp.
324-328. See also W. Nowacki, Arch. Meek. Sto8., vol. 6 (1964), pp. 481-492
,in Ioliah).
'J. N. Goodier, Philoaophical Magazine, vol. 23 (1927), pp. 1017-1032; R. D.
Mindlin and D. H. Cheng, J(J!J.mal ()f Applied Physica, vol. 21 (1950), pp. 926, 931;
No O. MykJestad, J(J!J.mal ()f Applied McchtmicB (1942), p. A-13l.

362

MATHI!lMATICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

deducing such equations is to insert from (99.4) in the Saint-Venant compatibility equations (10.9).
The thermoelastic problem is further complicated by the fact that in
many instances it proves necessary to determine first the temperature T
from the Fourier heat-conduction equation. The available exact solutions
of the heat-conduction problems are limited to spheres and cylinders and
to a few problems involving plates and rods subjected to special temperature distributior.cs. t We shall consider some of these in the following
sections.
100. Thermal Stresses in Spherical Bodies. The deformation of a
spherical shell subjected to a centrally symmetric distribution of temperature can be determined2 in the manner of Sec. 94.
We take the temperature function in the form T(r), where r is measured
from the center of the sphere, and seek a solution of the system (99.6)
with Fi = 0 in the form
(100.1)

Ui = xiCP(r),

On substitution from (100.1) in (99.6) we get the equation

+ 2p.) (cpu + ~r cp')

!!.r T' =

where primes denote the derivatives with respect to


tion of this equation has the form'

r.

(100.2)

(100.3)

(X

cp(r) = At

where
(100.4)

+ ~: + )\ :

11'

cpo(r) = -.
r

r,

'

The general solu-

2p. cpo{r),

7'(r)r' dr.

The lower limit rl in the particular integral (100.4) can be chosen ill any
convenient, but definite, manner.
On noting (100.1), we get

u..;

= Oi,'P

+ xi<P'(r) ~,
r

1 Several app"oxil1late solutions of the engineering probleJlls cuncerned with thermal


stresses in plates and rods are discussed in Chap. 14 of Timoshenko and Goodier',
Theory of Elasticity (1951).

This problem and the corresponding problem for the circular cylinder were first
IIOI.ved by Duhamel in the mllmoir cited in See. 99. An independent solution was
alIo given by F. Neumann in 1841. There are numerous papers on these problems
rediscovering the DuhlUllel-Neumann solution; some of these contain e1aborate
eaJeulations.
Cf. (114.3).

363

THREJl-DlMENSlONAL PBOBLJilMS

and, on making use of this formula in (99.5), we find


(100.5)

{Tij = }'i'5;J + 21' (,,&v + x.:;; ",) - pT&v,

J = 3" + 1',,'.
Hence, i,he t'tress T. = Ti;lIi"; in the radial direction "i =

+ 21'[" + 1',,'(1')] -

T. = M

(100.6)

x./r ill

PT,

and the "hoop stress" T" in the tangential direction, isl


(100.7)
The substitution from (100.3) in (100.6) gives
(100.8)

T.

(3X

+ 2j.1)AI