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FINAL REPORT

1. Title of the Project


Designing and manufacturing of a go-kart.
2. Discipline/ Subject Area (Engineering/ Medical/ Computer/ Life Science/ Biotechnology/ Textile/ Home
Science Veterinary, Botany etc.)
Engineering

3. Name & Class/Year of the Students (indicate clearly the semester in case of semester system)
S.no.

NAME

CLASS

YEAR OF
STUDYING

SEMESTER

1.

Saurabh Yadav

Automobile-I
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

2.

Deepak Tripathi

Automobile-I
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

3.

Yashpal Singh Gaur

Automobile-I
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

4.

Sourabh Kankhedia

Automobile-I
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

5.

Nitesh Lalwani

Automobile-II
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

6.

Arvind Singh Shekhawat

Automobile-II
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

7.

Akshay Sharma

Automobile-II
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

8.

Devesh Sadarangani

Automobile-II
Shift

IV Year

VII Sem

FINAL REPORT

TITLE OF THE PROJECT


Designing and manufacturing a Go- Kart.

ABSTRACT
The Objective of this report is to highlight the final design report of our go kart with minimum deformation
as being designed and worked on by the team.
The team represented here has taken an initiative to design and build a vehicle which is safe and functional
based on a rigid and torsion free frame, an appropriate power train to achieve finer aspects of vehicle design
and vehicle dynamics. Secondary objective of the team was to participate in competition Elite karting-14
which has given us a way.
A few broad outcomes of such a project included overcoming design difficulties, expansion of knowledge
in respective designing, and interpersonal group management.

INTRODUCTION
We have approached our design by using CAD software:
1. SOLIDWORKS (used for designing and analysis) and AUTOCAD (used for cad designing of
ergonomics). Acc. to CAD result we have transformed and fixed a single design.
2. The design process chosen was in such a way that it fulfills the various requirements as based on the
engineering skills, cost reduction, durability, serviceability, strength, ruggedness and other such factors.

DESIGN APPROACH:The design approach has a consideration as described below:


1. Simple Frame We have tried to keep our frame simple and light weight. Avoidance of
overdesigning in order to reduce the cost requirements keeping in mind the strength of the vehicle
as well.
2. No suspension No suspension is installed in our Go kart as the track is smooth.
3. Ergonomics We have kept all the ergonomics angles which is an optimized combination of drivers
safety and comfort.

TIME SCHEDULE:

DESIGN OF THE VEHICLE:


The design section of this report includes the following sections:
1. Design objective
2. Design calculations and analysis
3. Actual considerations.
Frame design:

Objective:
We have designed our frame according requirement of competition and considering the safety &
ergonomics of driver and to obtain standard speed by maintaining the optimized weight of frame. The
primary consideration of the frame design was the drivers safety and encapsulates the various
components within the minimum space requirements.
Design:
Our frame is aerodynamic in shape as the chassis are at an angle from the front. The vehicle space is
divided into two sections. One of which is the compartment called Cockpit, where driver will be sited.
And another one is at the back called the Engine Compartment for the mounting of the engine and the
drive.
Material:
The material we have chosen is ASTM A106 Grade B because of its higher strength, rigidity, good
manufacturability and weld ability. The material chosen for the roll cage must have the property of
absorbing as much energy during the breakdown event so as to prevent the roll cage from fracturing.
Also the material has a good strength to weight ratio.
The design consists of a tubular frame structure having tubes of 1.25 in diameter and 3.34 mm thickness.
The thickness above 3 mm is taken to ensure the safety of the driver during the event of sudden
breakdown of the vehicle. Also this increment of thickness enhances the weldability. Physical properties
of the material are as follows:

S.no.

Properties

Values

1.

Tensile Strength, min

415 Mpa

2.

Yield Strength, min

240 Mpa

3.

Elongation (% in 2 in)

57%(max)

4.

Reduction in area (%)

80.7%(max)

The chemical composition of the material is as follows:


Carbon

C = 0.265%

Silicon

Si= 0.200%

Manganese

Mn = 0.730%

Phosphorus

P = 0.011%
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Sulphur

S = 0.022%

Nickel

Ni = 0.030%

Chromium
Molybdenum

Cr = 0.020%
Mo = 0.020%

The above specified properties match the technical requirements for the material to be chosen for a
frame.
FEA ANALYSIS APPROACH:1. Less Deformation The strategy chosen was to lessen the deformation of the frame while reducing
the overdesigning factor and making the frame light weight and simple.
2. Stability of Components: The stability of other consisting components and their relative analysis
results helps to decide their compatibility with the vehicle to be manufactured.
3. Safety: Safety of the driver during a sudden collision is the major factor on which the frame depends.
The analysis results decides the impact upto which it affects the drivers safety which decides the
design of the frame.
4. Calculations: Theoretical calculations are done precisely and initially based on the vehicles own
weight (including the driver). These loads are applied on the design and simulated to derive its
impact on the frame.

FRONT IMPACT ANALYSIS:Maximum speed of the go kart will be 60km according to information regarding the given track. We
have calculated the force during front impact.
Thus, we calculate the front impact force using the mass momentum equation:
F= p x dt
Where dt is the duration of time,
Generally the collision takes place for a very short time, therefore we have assumed dt=1.33 s
And the weight of the vehicle is W=180 kg
P=M x v
= 180(kg) x 16.66(m/s)
=2998.8 Kgm/s
And the front impact force is:
F= p x dt = 2998.8 x 1.33
F= 4000 N (approx)

Now, the calculated force is applied on the front part of frame by keeping the rear portion fix using
Solidworks software as a source.

SIDE IMPACT ANALYSIS:


Force due to side impact will be calculated same as we calculated the force on front impact.
P= M x v
=180(Kg) x 13.3(m/s)
=2394 Kgm/s
The side impact force
F=2394 x 1.33
=3184.02 N

REAR IMPACT ANALYSIS:


Force due to the rear impact will be calculated as follows in the same way explained above:
P= m x v
=180 x 13.8
= 2484 kgm/s
F= P x dt
= 2484 x 1.33
= 3303.72 N

BODY COMPONENTS
We have designed all the components with intent of protecting the driver from several impacts. Seat is
designed to support the comfortably and safety. And the design has been done in solid works.
ERGONOMICS
We have set the angles of paddle legs and steering etc. according to the safety of driver and keeping the
rules of rule book in mind. We have calculated all angles after making the sketch on floor as shown in
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figure with the wood and batten test and then we have made the sketch with the entire angle dimension
in the form of a cad design.
The below stated angles are being observed through the test and assembled by the use of Autocad

SAFETY FEATURES
1) We have provided three point seat belt for the safety of the driver so that during turns, jerks and during
braking driver dont feel heavy jerks and remains along its position.
2) Helmet is also provided with driver so that during any type of collision driver's head remains safe.
3) Fire extinguisher is there attached to the kart to stop any activity of fire.
4) Bumpers are there so that chassis does not deform directly, all impact will be on bumpers first.
SEAT
1. Seat is designed as per the ergonomics of driver.
2. Made up of glass fiber.
3. Dimensions of seat is 14"*14" from base.
4. The back is tilted 100 deg and extended up to 17".
5. The side walls of seat are designed as per the safety of driver which will keep him stable while turning
the go kart.

STEERING SYSTEM
The steering system is designed to withstand the stress of safely maneuvering the vehicle through any type
of possible condition at the time of driving. The purpose of the steering system is to provide directional
control of the vehicle with minimum input.
Design
To keep simplicity we have chosen mechanical linkages as the basis for steering system design. While
designing the steering system constraints our main aim was to keep the center alignment of the steering
system.
The fact we considered was to keep the radius of rotation less than 3m and to have 100% Ackermann
steering.
The mechanical steering linkage we adopted is light weight, easy to implement, low cost and less play.

Stub Axle:

Stub axle length is 133 mm with the steering pivot length of 90.21mm at an angle of 80 deg.
Calculations:
SPECIFICATIONS

VALUES

Steering effort

2.2566N

Camber angle

0 deg

Caster angle

0 deg

Tie rod length

0.39m

BRAKING SYSTEM:
Objective
Purpose of brake is to lock the rear wheels without causing any jerk to the driver seat. In order to achieve
maximum efficiency we have minimized the weight of brake and weight.
Design
The brake system has a single disc which is mounted on the one third part of the rear axle it has a master
cylinder near the pedal and brakes are applied by the hydraulic force. Braking power will increase with
decrease in bore size of the master cylinder.
Another important factor that governs the position of the master cylinder was to provide the occupant an
easily accessible amount of space.

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Actual

BRAKE SYSTEM CALCULATIONS


SPECIFICATIONS

VALUES

Pedal Force

120 N

Leverage

1:4

Braking Force

5520N

Braking Torque

397.44Nm

Stopping Distance

4.33m

Stopping Time

1.41s

DRIVE TRAIN
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Objective
The main goal of the drive train is to transfer power from the engine to the drive shaft. It is the most
important feature in the case of the racing cars. The challenge is to use the engines 6 hp to road through the
wheels.
Design
The important fact while designing the go kart drive train was to optimize between the torque and speed of
the go kart. There are certain types of drives in go karts including the CVT, direct drives, etc.
The drive we have used is the direct drive including the centrifugal clutch with a sprocket installed at the
shaft to transmit power via the chain.

Components
Engine
The engine we are using is the Briggs and Stratton, 190cc, 6hp engine having a fuel capacity of 3.79 L.
The maximum rpm that the engine produces is 3600 rpm at 26 Nm.

Centrifugal Clutch
Centrifugal clutch is used where the use of gears is not necessary or otherwise if there is a requirement of
automatic transmission. They provide different torque at different throttle. For a go kart it is best suited.
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It has three shoes which will get attached at 2000 rpm and from which gear of centrifugal clutch starts
rotating and transfer torque to sprocket due to which axle rotates with rear tires which sets the kart into
motion.
Sprocket
The sprocket is another important component of the drive train. The sprocket specifications are as described
below:
Sprocket Diameter = 7.5 inches
No. of teeth = 45
The sprocket is so chosen as to optimize between the torque and the speed of the shaft. It is installed at the
shaft of the go kart.

Actual

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Calculations
The final drive from the above discussion concludes the chain sprocket drive whose gear ratio is calculated
as:
GEAR RATIO = T1/T2

Where T1 = 12 (on sprocket)


T2 = 45
Therefore, GEAR RATIO = 1:3.75

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Vehicle make
model
Wheel base

Value

Vehicle make model

Value

50.5

Engine and transmission

Wheel track

41

Engine max. Torque

190cc,4.5 hP,
centrifugal clutch
28.75 Nm at 2600rpm

Overall length
Ground clearance

73
1.5

Max. Speed
Gear Ratio(at rear axle)

60km/h
1:3.75

Overall weight
Material

180kg
ASTM A106
Gr B
11x7.1-5
48

Fuel Consumption
Steering

Ackerman

Turning Radius
Brake

2.55m
Disc brake

Tire size
Overall width

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Battery
Lithium ion 12V, 5A battery used to turn on the brake lights.

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Brake switch
Simple brake switch connected to pedals used to switches the brake lights while applying brakes.
Kill switch
2 Kill switch installed used to turn off or turn on the engine when the driver is hindered by the emergency
conditions. Power is disabled on primary ignition coil of engine. Because the kill switch closes the circuit when activated,
the kill switch function is achieved by using a pair of diodes to simultaneously ground out the engines primary coil
current. One diode prevents the engine from grounding through the relay and the other diode prevents battery current
from flowing back into the ignition coil.
One switch is installed at engine another at drivers reach.

ACTUAL VIEW OF THE FRAME

Fig. Frame

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FINAL VIEW OF THE VEHICLE

CONCLUSION
We tried our best to reduce the weight of our vehicle with durability and strength at the same time so that
it can perform at the better speed. And our design is done as per the driver ergonomics to give comfort to
the driver and everything is done considering the safety of the driver on the track.
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Automobile mechanics, by N.K. Giri


Dassault systems Solidworks
Matweb.com
Wikipedia

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