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Theories of Failure

Ramadas Chennamsetti

Summary
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Maximum principal stress theory


Maximum principal strain theory
Maximum strain energy theory
Distortion energy theory
Maximum shear stress theory
Octahedral stress theory

Ramadas Chennamsetti

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Introduction
 Failure occurs when material starts exhibiting
inelastic behavior
 Brittle and ductile materials different modes
of failures mode of failure depends on
loading
 Ductile materials exhibit yielding plastic
deformation before failure
 Yield stress material property
 Brittle materials no yielding sudden failure
 Factor of safety (FS)
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Introduction
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 Ductile and brittle materials

p
Ductile material

0.2%

Brittle material

Well defined yield point in ductile materials FS on yielding


No yield point in brittle materials sudden failure FS on failure
load
4
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Introduction
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 Stress developed in the material < yield stress


 Simple axial load
x

If x = Y => yielding starts failure


x

Similarly in pure shear only shear


stress.
If max = Y => Yielding in shear

Multi-axial stress state ??

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Yielding is governed by single stress


component, x

Introduction
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 Various types of loads acting at the same time


T
N
M

Internal pressure and external UDL


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Axial, moment and torque

Introduction
 Multiaxial stress state six stress components one
representative value
 Define effective / equivalent stress combination of
components of multiaxial stress state
 Equivalents stress reaching a limiting value property
of material yielding occurs Yield criteria
 Yield criteria define conditions under which yielding
occurs
 Single yield criteria doesnt cater for all materials
 Selection of yield criteria
 Material yielding depends on rate of loading static &
dynamic
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Introduction
 Yield criteria expressed in terms of quantities
like stress state, strain state, strain energy etc.
 Yield function => f(ij, Y), ij = stress state
 If f(ij, Y)<0 => No yielding takes place no
failure of the material
 If f(ij, Y) = 0 starts yielding onset of yield
If f(ij, Y) > 0 - ??
 Yield function developed by combining stress
components into a single quantity effective
stress => e
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Introduction
 Equivalent stress depends on stress state and
yield criteria not a property
 Compare e with yield stress of material
 Yield surface graphical representation of
yield function, f(ij, Y) = 0
 Yield surface is plotted in principal stress
space Haiagh Westergaard stress space
 Yield surface closed curve

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Parameters in uniaxial tension


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 Maximum principal stress


Applied stress => Y
Y

1 = Y, 2 = 0, 3 = 0

 Maximum shear stress


2

Y
=
2

 Maximum principal strain


1 = Y, 2 = 0, 3 = 0

Y
Y = ( 2 + 3 ) =
E E
E

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max =

1 3

Parameters in uniaxial tension


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 Total strain energy density


1
1Y2
U = Y Y =
2
2 E

Linear elastic material

Y
[ ] = 0
0

0
0
0

0 Y p
0 = 0
0 0

0
p
0

0 p
0 + 0
p 0

0
p
0

0
0
p

First invariant = 0 for deviatoric part => p = Y/3

U = UD + UV
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 Distortional energy

Parameters in uniaxial tension


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Volumetric strain energy density, UV = p2/2K

UD

Y 2 (1 2 )Y 2
Y2
Y2
(3 1 + 2 ) =
(1 + )
=

=
2E
6E
6E
3E
Y2
UD =
6G
Similarly for pure shear also
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UV

(
p2
Y2
1 2 ) 2
=
=
=
Y
2 K 18 K
6E
U D = U UV

Failure theories
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 Failure mode





Mild steel (M. S) subjected to pure tension


M. S subjected to pure torsion
Cast iron subjected to pure tension
Cast iron subjected to pure torsion








Max. principal stress theory Rankine


Max. principal strain theory St. Venants
Max. strain energy Beltrami
Distortional energy von Mises
Max. shear stress theory Tresca
Octahedral shear stress theory
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 Theories of failure

Max. principal stress theory


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 Maximum principal stress reaches tensile yield


stress (Y)
 For a given stress state, calculate principle
stresses, 1, 2 and 3
 Yield function
If,

f < 0

) Y

no yielding

f = 0 onset of yielding
f > 0

not defined

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f = max ( 1 ,

Max. principal stress theory


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 Yield surface
Represent six surfaces

Yield surface

Yield strength same in


tension and compression

3
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1 = Y => 1 + Y = 0, 1 Y = 0
2 = Y => 2 + Y = 0, 2 Y = 0
3 = Y => 3 + Y = 0, 3 Y = 0

Max. principal stress theory


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 In 2D case, 3 = 0 equations become


1 = Y => 1 + Y = 0, 1 Y = 0
2 = Y => 2 + Y = 0, 2 Y = 0

-Y

Closed curve

Stress state inside elastic, outside => Yielding


Pure shear test => 1 = + Y, 2 = - Y

-Y

From the above => Y = Y

Experimental results Yield stress in shear


is less than yield stress in tension
Predicts well, if all principal stresses are tensile
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Pure shear

y
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For tension => 1 = + Y

Max. principal strain theory


 Failure occurs at a point in a body when the
maximum strain at that point exceeds the value
of the maximum strain in a uniaxial test of the
material at yield point
 Y yield stress in uniaxial tension, yield
strain, y = Y/E
 The maximum strain developed in the body
due to external loading should be less than this
 Principal stresses => 1, 2 and 3 strains
corresponding to these stress => 1, 2 and 3
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Max. principal strain theory


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Strains corresponding to principal stresses -

2 =
3 =

2
E

3
E

( 2 + 3 )
( 1 + 3 )
( 2 + 1 )

Maximum of this should be


less than y

For onset of yielding


Y
=> 1 ( 2 + 2 ) = Y
E
Y
2 = => 2 ( 3 + 1 ) = Y
E
Y
3 = => 3 (1 + 2 ) = Y
E

1 =

There are six equations


each equation represents a
plane

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1 =

Max. principal strain theory


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 Yield function
f = max i j k Y , i, j, k = 1, 2, 3
i jk

f = e Y

e = max i j k

 For 2D case

i j k

2 1 = Y => 2 1 = Y
There are four equations, each equation represents a
straight line in 2D stress space
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1 2 = Y => 1 2 = Y

Max. principal strain theory


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Equations

1 2 = Y , 1 2 = Y
2 1 = Y , 2 1 = Y

Plotting in stress space


2 2 1 = Y
1 2 = Y

1 2 = Y

Failure equivalent
stress falls outside yield
surface

2 1 = Y
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Max. principal strain theory


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 Biaxial loading

-2

For onset of yielding


2

= (1 +

Y = (1 +

Maximum principal stress theory


Y=

1 = | 2 |=

Max. principal strain theory predicts smaller value of stress


than max. principal stress theory
Conservative design
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Y = 1

Max. principal strain theory


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 Pure shear
Principal stresses corresponding to
shear yield stress

1 = +y , 2 = -y
For onset of yielding max. principal
strain theory

Relation between yield stress in tension and shear

y = Y/ (1 + ) for = 0.25
y = 0.8Y Not supported by experiments
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Y = y + y = y (1 + )

Strain energy theory


 Failure at any point in a body subjected to a
state of stress begins only when the energy
density absorbed at that point is equal to the
energy density absorbed by the material when
subjected to elastic limit in a uniaxial stress
state
 In uniaxial stress (yielding)

= E => Hookes law


Strain energy density,

U =

ij

d ij => U =

1 Y 2
U =
2 E
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d
0

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Strain energy theory


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 Body subjected to external loads => principal


stresses

Strain energy associated with principal


stresses
1
U = ( 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 )
2

2 =
3 =

1
E

2
E

2
E

( 2 + 3 )

U=

( 3 + 1 )

For onset of yielding,

( 1 + 2 )

Y2
1 2
=
1 + 22 + 32 2(1 2 + 31 + 2 3 )
2E 2E

1 2
1 + 22 + 32 2(1 2 + 31 + 2 3 )
2E

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1 =

24

Strain energy theory


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 Yield function

f = 12 + 22 + 32 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) Y 2
f = e2 Y 2

Equivalent stress => e2 = 12 + 22 + 32 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 )

 For 2D stress state => 3 = 0 Yield function


becomes
f = 2 + 2 Y 2
1

For onset of yielding => f = 0

12 + 22 1 2 Y 2 = 0

Plotting this in principal stress space


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Yielding => f = 0, safe f < 0

Strain energy theory


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Rearrange the terms


2

This represents an ellipse


Transform to - csys

45o
Y

Equivalent stress
inside no failure

1
( )
1 = cos 45 sin 45 =
2
1
( + )
2 = sin 45 + cos 45 =
2
Substitute these in the above
expression

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1 2
1 2
+ 2
=1
Y Y
Y Y

Strain energy theory


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2
2

Y
(1 )

Semi major axis OA => a =


Semi minor axis OB => b =

2
2

Y
(1 + )

= 1 =>

Y
(1 )
Y
(1 + )

2
a

2
b

=1

45o
o

Higher Poisson ratio bigger major axis, smaller minor axis


If = 0 => circle of radius Y
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Simplifying,

Strain energy theory


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 Pure shear

Principal stresses corresponding to


shear yield stress
1 = +y , 2 = -y

(1 + ), 2 = (1 + )

Strain energy, U =

(1 + ) 2 2
2E

1
Y
2E

=> Y =

2 (1 + ) y

y = 0.632 Y
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1 =

Distortional energy theory (von-Mises)


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 applying uniform stress from all the


directions on a body
 Large amount of strain
energy can be stored
 Experimentally verified
Pressure p applied from all sides
 Pressures beyond yield
stress no failure of material
 Hydrostatic loading change in size volume
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 Hydrostatic loading

von-Mises theory
 Energy associated with volumetric change
volumetric strain energy
 Volumetric strain energy no failure of
material
 Strain energy causing material failure
distortion energy associated with shear
First invariant of deviatoric stress = 0
 For a given stress state estimate distortion
energy this should be less than distortion
energy due to uniaxial tensile safe
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von-Mises theory
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 Given stress state referred to principal coordinate system


1
[ ] = 0
0

2
0

0 1 p
0
0 p
0 = 0
2 p
0 + 0
3 0
0
3 p 0
Firstinvariant, J1 = 0

0
p
0

0
0
p

1
=> p = ii
3

Principal strains => 1, 2, 3


Volumetric strain => V = 1+ 2 + 3
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(1 p) + ( 2 p) + ( 3 p) = 0

von-Mises theory
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1
V = 1 + 2 + 3 = {( 1 + 2 + 3 ) 2 ( 1 + 2 + 3 )}
E
(
1 2 )
3(1 2 )
( 1 + 2 + 3 ) =
V =
p
E
E
1
Volumetric strain energy, U V = p V
2
1 3(1 2 )
3(1 2 ) 2 (1 2 )
( 1 + 2 + 3 )2
UV = p
p=
p =
2
E
2E
6E
U = strain energy due to principal stresses & strains

1
2
2
2
U =
1 + 2 + 3 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 )
2E
E
32

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This gives

von-Mises theory
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 Distortional energy

2 - m

m
m

1 - m

3 - m

1
1 2
2
2
2
2
UD =
1 + 2 + 3 2 ( 2 1 + 2 3 + 3 1 )
( 1 + 2 + 3 )
2E
6E

[(

Simplifying this

1
2
2
2
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
UD =
12G
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]
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UD = U - UV

von-Mises theory
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 Compare this with distortion in uniaxial tensile


stress

Y2
1
( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2
U D ==
=
6G 12G
2
2
2
=> 2Y 2 = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )

f = e2 Y 2

1
2
2
2
Equivalent stress, = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2
2
e

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Yield function,

von-Mises theory
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Principal stresses of deviatoric shear stress, Sii


0 1 p
2
0 = 0
3 0
0
0
S1
[ ] = 0
S2
0
0
0

2 p
0
0 p
0 + 0
S3 0

0 p
0 + 0
3 p 0
0
p
0

0
p
0

0
0
p

0
0
p

Sii = ii p => ii = Sii + p


2Y 2 = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2

2Y 2 = ((S1 + p ) (S 2 + p )) + ((S 2 + p ) (S3 + p )) + ((S3 + p ) (S1 + p ))


2

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1
[ ] = 0
0

von-Mises theory
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Simplifying this expression


2Y 2 = (S1 S 2 ) + (S 2 S3 ) + (S 3 S1 )
2

 von-Mises criteria has square terms result


independent of signs of individual stress
components
 Von-Mises equivalent stress => +ve stress
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Hydrostatic pressure does not appear in the expression

von-Mises theory
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 2D stress state => 3 = 0


f = 12 + 22 1 2 Y 2

Onset of yielding,

12 + 22 1 2 = Y 2
2

Re-arrange the terms

1 2 1 2
+ 2 =1
Y Y Y
This represents an ellipse
2

45o
o

Semi - major axis, OA = 2Y


2
Semi - minor axis, OB =
Y
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Yield function,

von-Mises theory
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 Pure shear

Principal stresses corresponding to


shear yield stress
1 = +y , 2 = -y

Y 2 = 12 + 22 1 2 = 3 y2 => y = 0.577Y

Suitable for ductile materials

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Shear yield = 0.577 * Tensile yield

von-Mises theory
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 Plot yield function in 3D principal stress space


1= 2= 3

1= 2= 3

1 + 2 + 3 = 0

Deviatoric plane

f = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 ) 2Y 2 = 0
2

Cylinder, with hydrostatic stress as axis

i
+
j
+
k

~
3 ~ ~ ~
OA = 1 i + 2 j + 3 k
n =

Axis makes equal DCs with all axes

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von-Mises theory
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 Projection of OA on hydrostatic axis


~

= OB

i + j + k . i + j + k
1~ 2

3
~
~
~
~
~
OB =
3
1
( 1 + 2 + 3 )
OB =
3
1
1
(
=> OB = OB n =
1 + 2 + 3 ) i + j + k
~
~
3
3 ~ ~ ~
(
1 + 2 + 3 )
= p i + j + k
+
+
OB =
i
j
k
~

~
3
~ ~
~ ~
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OA = OB + BA
~

BA = OA OB
~

BA = r = radius
of cylinder
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OA . n = OA n cos => OA cos =

OA . n

von-Mises theory
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 Radius of cylinder
BA = R = OA OB = 1 i + 2 j + 3 k p i + j + k
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~ ~ ~
2 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
R= 1
i+
j+
k
~
3
3
3

~
~
~
R = S1 i + S 2 j + S 3 k
Radius =>

R=

S12 + S 22 + S 32

First invariant of deviatoris stress tensor, J 1 = 0 => S1 + S 2 + S 3 = 0

(S1 + S 2 + S 3 )2 = 0 = S12 + S 22 + S 32 = 2(S1 S 2 + S 2 S 3 + S 3 S1 )


2
2
2
Yield criteria => (S1 S 2 ) + (S 2 S 3 ) + (S 3 S1 ) = 2Y 2
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von-Mises theory
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Yield criteria,
Y 2 = S12 + S 22 + S 32 S1 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 S1

Use, S12 + S 22 + S 32 = 2(S1 S 2 + S 2 S 3 + S 3 S1 )

1 2
Y = S + S + S + S1 + S 22 + S 32
2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2
Y = S1 + S 2 + S 3 = R
2
2
3
Y =
R
2
2
1

2
2

2
3

Yielding depends on deviatoric stresses


Hydrostatic stress has no role in yielding
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von-Mises theory
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 Second invariant of deviatoric stress


0
S2
0

0
S 0 S2
0 => J 2 = 1
+
0
0 S2
S3
J 2 = S1S 2 + S 2 S3 + S 3 S1

0 S1
+
S3 0

0
S3

1 2
S1S 2 + S 2 S3 + S3 S1 = S1 + S 22 + S32
2
1 2
1 2
R2
2
2
2
2
J 2 = S1 + S 2 + S3 => J 2 = S1 + S 2 + S3 =
2
2
2
3
Y 2 = R 2 => Y 2 = 3 J 2
2
Redfining yield function => f = 3 J 2 Y 2

J2 Materials

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S1
[S ] = 0
0

Max. shear stress theory (Tresca)


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 Yielding begins when the maximum shear


stress at a point equals the maximum shear
stress at yield in a uniaxial tension
max = KT =

1 2
2

=> max =

Y
= KT
2

If maximum shear stress < Y/2 => No failure occurs

max = KT =

1 2
2

=> max = y = KT

Shear yield = 0.5 Tensile yield


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For pure shear, 1 = +y , 2 = -y

Tresca theory
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 In 3D stress state principal stresses => 1, 2


and 3
 Maximum shear stress
1 2 2 3 3 1
max .

1 2 2 3 3 1
Y
f = max .
,
,
KT =
2
2
2
2
f < 0 => No yielding
f = 0 => Onset of yielding
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 Yield function

Tresca theory
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 Following equations are obtained


= K T =>

2
f1 ( 1 , 2 ) = 1 2 2 K T ;

2 3

= K T =>

2
f 3 ( 2 , 3 ) = 2 3 2 K T ;

3 1

= K T =>

2
f 5 ( 3 , 1 ) = 3 1 2 K T ;

1 2
2

= KT

f 2 ( 1 , 2 ) = 1 2 + 2 K T

2 3
2

= KT

f 4 ( 2 , 3 ) = 2 3 + 2 K T

3 1
2

= KT

f 6 ( 3 , 1 ) = 3 1 + 2 K T

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1 2

Tresca theory
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 Redefining yield function as,


f ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = f1 ( 1 , 2 ). f 2 ( 1 , 2 ). f 3 ( 2 , 3 ). f 4 ( 2 , 3 ). f1 ( 1 , 2 )

) = ( 1 2 2 K T )( 1 2 + 2 K T )
( 2 3 2 K T )( 2 3 + 2 K T )
( 3 1 2 K T )( 3 1 + 2 K T )
3

Each function represents a plane in 3D principal stress space

)(

)(

f ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = ( 1 2 ) 4 K T2 ( 2 3 ) 4 K T2 ( 3 1 ) 4 K T2
2

No effect of hydrostatic pressure in Tresca criteria


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f ( 1 , 2 ,

Tresca theory
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 Yield function in principal stress space

Hydrostatic axis

Tresca yield surface

1 - 2 = 2KT

2 - 1 = 2KT

View A along hydrostatic axis


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Tresca theory
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 Yield surface intersects principal axes at 2KT


Wall/plane of hexagon

Hydrostati c axis => 1 = 2 = 3

3 - 1 = 2K

1
cos =
=> = 54 .73 0
3
+ = 90 0 => = 35 .26 0

OA = 2 K T

C
Hydrostatic axis

Deviatoric plane, 1 + 2 + 3 = 0

OB = OA cos = 2 K T

2
3

OB projection of OA on
deviatoric plane

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Tresca theory
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 Tresca hexagon
2KT

2
3

A, B

300
D

OC = OD cos 30
=> OC = 2 K T
=> OC =

2 3
3 2

1 - 2 = 2KT

2 - 1 = 2KT
C

2KT
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Tresca theory
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 2D stress state - 3 = 0
Each equation represents two
lines in 2D stress space
2

1 2 = 2 K T
2 = 2 K T
1 = 2 K T

- 2KT 2 = 2KT C

1 = - 2KT
2 = - 2KT

450

1 = 2KT
450

A
2KT

B
1 - 2 = 2KT

OB = OA cos 45 = 2 K T

1
= 2KT
2

OA
OC =
= 2 2KT
cos 45

Yield curve elongated hexagon


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- 1 + 2 = 2KT
O

2KT

Tresca theory
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 2D stress state - 3 = 0

2
- 2KT 2 = 2KT C
- 1 + 2 = 2KT

1 = 2KT
O

1 = - 2KT

450

A
2KT

1 2 = 2 K T
2 = 2 K T
1 = 2 K T

B
1 - 2 = 2KT

2 = - 2KT

Yield curve elongated hexagon


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Each equation represents two


lines in 2D stress space

von-Mises Tresca theories


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1 = Y, 2 = 0, 3 = 0

1
(1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2
6
1 2 2 3 3 1
K T = max
,
,

2
2
2

von-Mises criteria => J2 = KM2 =


Trescas criteria =>
KM

1
=
Y,
3

1
KT = Y
2

Pure shear => 1 = +y, 2 = -y => K M = y = K T


1
1
KM =
Y = y , KT = Y = y
2
3
y = 0.577 Y (von Mises), y = 0.5Y (Tresca )
von-Mises criteria predicts 15% higher shear stress than Tresca
53
Ramadas Chennamsetti

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

 Pure tension

von-Mises Tresca theories


R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 2D stress space von-Mises and Tresca

2y

45o
o

45o

2y

Y 2 = 12 + 22 1 2

3 y2 = 12 + 22 1 2

Y = max .{ 1 2 , 1 , 2 }

Yielding in uniaxial tension

Yielding in shear

Tresca conservative

von-Mises conservative

2 1 2
= max . 1
,
,

2
2
2
2

Ramadas Chennamsetti

54

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von-Mises Tresca theories


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 Experiments by Taylor & Quinney**


 Thin walled tube subjected to axial and
torsional loads
A

xy
xx

xx

xx

xx
2
2 =

+ xy
2
2

xx

** Taylor and Quinney Plastic deformation of metals, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.A230, 323-362, 1931

Ramadas Chennamsetti

55

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

xx
2
1 =
+
+

xy
2
2

von-Mises Tresca theories


R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 Tresca criteria

xx

2
2
2
2
Y = 1 2 = 2
+ xy => Y = xx + 4 xy
2

xx xy
< 1

+
Y Y /2
2

No yielding if,

Y 2 = 12 + 22 1 2
Y 2 = xx2 + 3 xy2
xx xy
< 1
No yielding if,
+
Y Y / 3
2

Ramadas Chennamsetti

56

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

 von-Mises criteria

von-Mises Tresca theories


R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 Plotting these two criteria


Experimental data shows
good agreement with vonMises theory.

0.6

von-Mises
Tresca
1

Aluminium
Mild steel
Copper

xx/ Y

Tresca conservative
von-Mises theory more
accurate generally used
in design
Experiments show that for
ductile materials yield in
shear is 0.5 to 0.6 times of
yield in tensile
57

Ramadas Chennamsetti

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

xy/ Y

Octahedral shear stress theory


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 Octahedral plane makes equal angles with all


principal stress axes direction cosines same
 Shear stress acting on this plane octahedral
shear

Body subjected to pure tension, 1 = Y, 2 = 3 = 0

2 2
= Y
9
2
2
2
2
2Y = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2
oct

Ramadas Chennamsetti

58

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

1
2
2
2
= (1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + (3 1)
9
2
oct

Octahedral shear stress theory


R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 Comparing this with von-Mises theory =>


both are same
 Pure shear

1 = y, 2 = - y, 3 = 0

theory
Ramadas Chennamsetti

59

rd_mech@yahoo.co.in

1
Same as von-Mises
( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 3 1 )2 = 6 y2
9
9
theory in pure shear
2 2
2
oct = y
3
Octahedral shear stress
2
2
2
6 y2 = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
theory => von-Mises

2
=
oct

Tensile & shear yield strengths


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Ramadas Chennamsetti

60

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 Each failure theory gives a relation between


yielding in tension and shear ( = 0.25)

Failure theories in a nut shell

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61

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Ramadas Chennamsetti

62

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