Pioneers of Animation

Joseph Plateau inventor of the
phenakistoskope
• Born in 1801
• He was a talented physicist fascinated with persistence of motion
• Invented device made of equally spaced out pictures and on made of
equally spaced windows, when the disks were spun at the same
speed and the viewer looked through the window it would give the
illusion of movement through a strobing effect.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r4B3FHHt_k8

William Horner Zoetrope
• In 1834 William Horner proposed a more convineint way to use
Plateaus device without the use of a mirror and could be viewed by
more than one person. It was a barrel with pictures placed around
the inside in a ring and the viewer would look through the slit on the
outside.
• William Horner was a mathematician and school master, his device
which was called the daedalum was forgotten about for over 30 years
before it was rediscovered and immediately patented by William
Lincoln in American and called the zoetrope
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBg6dAE3mI0

Emile Reynaud
• He was responsible for the first projected animated cartoons and he
created praxinoscope
• The praxinoscope was an improvement of the zoetrope as it replaced
the viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors so the viewer just had
to look at the mirrors, and would see a quicker and less distorted view
of the images
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOItdZOGnx8

Edward Muybridge
• Muybridge was a pioneer of stop motion photographing over 100’000
picture of animals in motion.
• He is famous for proving that all four of the horses legs are off the
ground during gallop, he was hired by the former governor of
California and Muybridge developed a system of twelve camera being
triggered when the object passed them he invented a nearly film
projector called the zoopraxiscope.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aG5erS2GNG0

Thomas Edison
• Thomas Edison was An American inventor who produced many
important things such as the phonograph and long lasting practical
lightbulb.
• He also invented the kintetoscope the films could be viewed through
a peep hole, the pictures were captured on film with a high speed
shutter to capture all the movement, the basics of modern
filmmaking, they also invented a high speed motion picture camera
called the kinetograph
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sfI0NVC0hLU

Lumiere Brothers
• They invented the cinematograph a hand operated film projector
which allowed large audiences to view the films. The films they
played were up to 17 metres long and used a sort of fork to grip the
grooves in the film
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OaOCN3pHDQ

George Pal
• George Pal was a filmmaker and animator who developed a process
of animation called puppetoons. It was different to normal stop
motion in which one puppet was moved in between each frame but
instead a new puppet was used or a replaceable limb or head was
used for different expression or mannerisms. These films became
incredibly popular although halter in time they were discontinued
due to their enormous cost
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4kXczJzL21k

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