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DesignExamples...
1.PackagePlantExtendedAeration...
Designanextendedaerationpackageplant(prefabricatedorpreengineered)totreatamunicipalwastewaterflowof125,000L/d(33,000gal/d).
Solidsretentiontypicallyrangesfrom20to30daysMLSSvariesbetween3,000and6,000mg/L.TheFoodtoMicroorganismratio(F/M)typically
variesbetween0.05to0.30.InfluentBODandTSSwillgenerallybeabout250mg/L.Thedissolvedoxygen(DO)concentrationisinthe1.5to2.5mg/L
rangeandpreferablywillneverbebelow2.0mg/L.Coarsebubbleaeratorswillbeused.Detentiontimeintheaerationtankwillbeoneday.

(a)Sludgeproduction.
CalculatethesludgeproductionratebasedonthedesiredBODremoval.Calculatethesystemtotalsolidsmassbasedonthesludgeproductionrate
andtheassumedsolidsretentiontime,asshowninTableE2.
(b)Aerationpower.
Calculatetheblowercapacitybasedonthesludgeproductionrate,desiredTKNremoval/synthesis,andthesitespecificconditions,asshowninTable
E2.
(c)Unitdimensions.
Estimatetherequiredunitprocessdimemsionsincludingthechlorinecontacttankbasedononedayhydraulicdetentiontimeandusingtwosludge
settlinghoppers,asshowninTableE2.

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(d)Equipmentspecifications.
FigureE1presentsaplanviewandasideviewofthepreengineeredpackageplantextendedaerationwiththefollowingspecifications:
(1)Theunitpackageplantwillrequirenopretreatmentotherthanwastewaterpumpingfromaninfluentmanholeliftstation.
(2)Theinfluentpipeshallhaveaminimumofa150mm(6in.)diameterfromtheinfluentmanholeandwilldischargedirectlytoacombination
comminutor/barscreenlocatedaheadof(andontopof)theaerationtank.
(3)Two3.73kW(5hp)blowerassembliesshallprovideairat31kPa(4.5psi)toensurea2.0mg/LDOlevelintheaerationtankatalltimes.

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(4)Aminimumof44diffuserswillberequiredtodistributeaerationattheaerationtankfloorlevel.Atleastsix(6)diffuserswillbeprovidedinthe
sludgeholdingtankandone(1)inthechlorinecontacttank.
(5)Atotalizingflowmeterwillbeprovidedtorecordthedailyflowpatternsandtotal.
(6)Aminimumofeightspraynozzleswillberequiredonthetopoftheaerationtankonthesideoppositetotheaerationdiffuserdrops.
(7)Eachsludgehopperwillbeequippedwithanairliftpumpwithopenings150mm(6in.)abovethehopperbottoms.
(8)Theairliftpumpswilldischargetoacombination75mm(3in.)sludgereturnandsludgewastelinetotheheadofthetank.
(9)Blowerunitsshallbecontrolledbyablowerpanellocatedabovetheaerationtank.
(10)Scumskimmerswillbeprovidedatascumbaffleaheadofthetankdischarge(byVnotchweir)tothechlorinecontacttank.
(11)Shouldultravioletdisinfectionbechoseninlieuofchlorinationoftankeffluent,aninpiperatherthanopenchanneleffluentflowmaybespecified.

FigureE1.Preengineeredpackageplantextendedaeration.

2.OxidationDitch(ContinuousLoopReactor)CarrouselWraparound...
Designacarrousel(circularorwraparound)oxidationditchtotreatmunicipalwastewateratanaverageinfluentflowrateof378,500L/d(100,000
gal/d).ThenewsystemwillusemechanicalaeratorsandhavethedesignparametersshowninTableE3.

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(a)Carrouselvolume.
CalculatethesludgeproductionratebasedonthedesiredBODremoval.Calculatethesystemtotalsolidsmassbasedonthesludgeproductionrate
andtheassumedsolidsretentiontime.CalculatethecarrouselvolumefromthecalculatedsystemtotalsolidsmassandtheassumedMLSS
concentration,asshowninTableE4.
(b)Aerationpower.
CalculatetheblowercapacitybasedonthedesiredTKNremoval/synthesisandthesitespecificconditions,asshowninTableE4.
(c)Clarifierdiameter.
Estimatetherequiredwraparoundclarifierdiameterbasedontheassumedclarfieroverflowrateandthesidewaterdepths,asshowninTableE4.
(d)Carrouselspecifications.
ThecarrouselshowninFigureE2hasthefollowingspecifications:
Clarifierdiameter:6.4m(21ft).
Innerchannel:4m(13ft).
Outerchannel:4m(13ft).
Entiretankdiameter:14m(46ft).
Wallsandmiscellaneousequipmentthickness:2m(6.5ft).
Constructedcarouseldiameter:14m+2m=16m(52.5ft).

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3.StabilizationPond...
Designafacultativestabilizationpondwithprimarytreatment(clarifierandanaerobicdigesterofImhofftankdesign)tobefollowedbysecondary
clarificationtotreatadomesticwastewaterflowof378,500L/d(100,000gal/d).InfluentBOD5willbe250mg/L.Assumeaprimaryclarifierremoves

33percentoftheinfluentBOD5(BOD5=0.68BODU),andinfluentwastewater[SO 42]is<=500mg/L.Fourrectangularpondsinparallelaretobe
constructed.Thecontrollingwintertemperatureofeachpondwillbe4.5OC(40OF).Lengthtowidthratioofeachpondwillbe3:1,asistypicalfor
suchfacilities.
Find,asshowninTableE5:
Totalareaofponds.
AppliedBODloading.
Dimensionsoftheponds.

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FigureE2.Oxidationditchcarrouselwraparound(closedloopreactor).

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UsetheGloynaequation(FacultativeWasteStabilizationPondDesigninPondsasaWastewaterTreatmentAlternative,byE.F.Gloyna,J.F.Malina,
Jr.andE.M.Davis):

4.ZeroDischargeorWaterRecycle/ReuseForToiletFlushWaterinRestAreas(ClosedLoop
Reuse)...
(a)Background.
(1)Acombinationofanextendedaerationactivatedsludgewastewatertreatmentsystemfollowedbymixedmediapressurefiltrationhasbeen
successfulintreatingliquidwastefromacomfortfacilitywitheightwaterclosetsandtwourinals,pluslavatories.Thedesignwastewaterflowis
37,800L/d(10,000gal/d).
(2)Theclosedloopreuseprincipleisgenerallyapplicablewhereliquiddischargesfromarecreationalareaarenotpermittedordesired.Afterthe
systemisinitiallyfilledandoperational,afractionofthetreatedwastewater(about6percent)isfedtotheterminalholdingpondorlagoonto
evaporatetoaccountforthemakeupwaterusedforlavoratoriesanddrinkingfountains.Themakeupwaterisestimatedtorepresentabout6percent
oftotalwateruse.Thesludgefromthewastesolidsholdingbasinisperiodicallyremovedbytanktruck.Thedesignparametersfortheoriginal
extendedaerationtreatmentsystemarepresentedinTableE6.FigureE3presentsaschematicflowdiagramofthewastewaterrecyclereuse

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system.

(3)Itistobeexpectedthat90to95percentofwaterusedinacomfortstationfacilityisforthewaterclosetsortoiletflushingfunctions.Generally,
10to20cyclesarerequiredforthesystemtoreachequilibriumwithaninputof5to10percentofpotablewaterforthelavatoriesordrinking
fountains.Thewastewaterfromlavatoriesanddrinkingfountainsisconsiderednewwaterandisafactorinthecontroloftheamountof
wastewaterthatmustbefedtothefinalholdingpondtoevaporate.
(4)Operatingrecordsrevealnoobjectionableodorsfromthewaterclosetsorlavatories,noobjectionablecolorsfromblue(orotherfooddyes)
introducedtogiveasanitizedlooktotheflushingwaters,nofoaminginthesanitaryfacilities,andnobuildingoftotalsuspendedsolids.The90to95
percentofreusedwaterinthewaterclosetsandurinalshasanacceptablequalityfollowingtheextendedaerationprocessandmultimediafiltration.
(5)Usesurveystoindicatethattoiletflushwateruseisabout12.7L(3.4gal)perflushand15.0L(4.0gal)pertoiletuser.Potablewateruse
(lavatoriesanddrinkingfountains)isapproximately0.8L(0.2gal)pertoiletuser.Averageresidenttimeinthetoiletfacilityisexpectedtobe3min.
(b)Recycledwastewater.
(1)ThedesiredtreatmentcharacteristicsoftherecycledwastewaterareshowninTableE7.

(2)Toachievethebestoperation,therecycledwastewatermustbechemicallystableandthetotalsuspendedsolidsandtotalvolatilesolidsmust
remainrelativelyconstant.ThemostdesirablerangeforMLSSwouldprobablybe3,500to4,000mg/Lwithanaccompanyingsettleabilityof400to
600mL.
(c)Unitprocessesforclosedloopreuse.
(1)TheunitprocessesshowninTableE8havebeenaddedfortheclosedloopreusetomeetthedesiredcharacteristicsidentifiedinTableE7.
(2)Themultimediarapidfiltrationpressurizedvesselhasadesignfiltrationrateof80to160L/min/m 2andabackwashdesignflowrateof285to610
L/min/m 2.Thefilterappearstooperatebestatafiltrationrateof94L/min/m 2(2.3gal/min/ft 2)andatabackwashcleaningrateof345L/min/m
2(8.5gal/min/ft 2).Totalsuspendedsolidsintherecycledwastewatermustbelessthan15mg/Lforreuseinthetoiletfacility.

5.SequencingBatchReactor(SBR)...
(a)General.
(1)Thedesignofasequencingbatchreactor(SBR)involvesthesamefactorscommonlyusedfortheflowthroughactivatedsludgesystem.The
aspectsofamunicipallytreatedwastewhichrequiredentrificationaswellasnitrificationplusbiologicalphosphorousremovalneedadditionaldesign
considerations.PretreatmentofthewastewaterbeforeinfluentintheSBRreactorsystemisalsorequired.

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FigureE3.Flowdiagramforwastewaterrecyclereusesystem.

(2)Thefollowingexampleshouldbeconsideredanoutlinetoidentifyreactorvolumeelements,adiffusedaerationsystem,thebasisforsigning
effluentdecanterunits,andwastesludgesystemsforasystemreceiving378,500L/d(100,000gal/d)ofwastewater.
(3)Foodtomass(F/M)ratiotypicallyrangesfrom0.05to0.30withdomesticwasteF/Mratiostypicallyrangingfrom0.10to0.15.Attheendofthe
decantphase,theMLSSconcentrationmayvarybetween2,000and5,000mg/L.Atypicalvalueforamunicipalwastewouldbe3500mg/L.TheMLSS
concentrationchangescontinuouslythroughoutanSBRoperatingcyclefromamaximumatthebeginningofafillphasetoaminimumattheendof
thereactphase.
(b)Reactorvolume.
CalculatethereactorvolumebasedonthedesiredBODremoval,theF/Mratio,andtheMLSS.TheF/MratioandtheMLSSatthelowwaterlevel
determinethereactorvolumeatthelowwaterlevel,asshowninTableE10.
(c)Decantvolume.
Calculatethedecantvolumeasthedifferencebetweenthereactorvolumeandthelowwatervolume,asshowninTableE10.Eachoperatingcycleis
normallycomposedofmixedfill,reactfill,settle,decant,sludgewaste,andidle.Thenumberofcyclesdictatesthenumberofdecantsperdayorthe
volumeofliquidtobedecantedforeachcycle.Thevolumeperdecantpercyclemustbeselectedbasedonthemaximumsustaineddailyflow.
(d)Detentiontime.
Calculatethemaximumdetentiontimebasedonthereactorvolume.Calculatetheminimumdetentiontimebasedonthedecantvolume,asshownin
TableE10.
(e)SBRdimensions.

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Estimatetherequiredunitprocessdimensions,asshowninTableE10.Thebasinlengthcanbeestimatedbasedonarecommendedminimumdepth.
Theminimumdepthafterdecantisdeterminedasthedepthofaclarifierinaflowthroughsystem,i.e.,quiescentsettlingandalargesettlingarea.A
minimumdepthof2.75m(9ft)istypicallyrecommendedbydesigners.

(f)Aerationpower.
Calculatetheblowercapacitybasedonthesludgeproductionrateandthetotaloxygendemand,asshowninTableE10.Insizingtheaeration
equipment,itmustbenotedthattheequipmentoperatesonlyaportionoftheSBRoperatingcycle(partofthefillplusreactphases).Therefore,the
totaldailyoxygenrequirementsmustbemetinashortertimeperiodthaninaconventionalactivatedsludgeflowthroughsystem.Thetotaldaily
oxygenrequirementsareestimatedbyaddingthecarbonaceousoxygendemand(oxygenrequiredforBODoxidation)tothenitrogeneousoxygen
demand(oxygenrequiredforTKNoxidation).
(g)Sludgeanddecanterflows.
Calculatethesludgeanddecanterflowratesatdesignconditions,asshowninTableE10.
(h)Equipmentspecifications.
FigureE4presentsaplanviewoftheSBRsystemwiththefollowingspecifications:
(1)AtleasttwobasinsareprovidedinanSBRdesigntoprovideoperationalflexibilityandimprovedeffluentquality.SBRunitdimensions:
Maximumvolume=470m 3(16,598ft 3).
Highwaterlevel=5.80m(19ft).
Maximumdecantheight=3.05m(10ft).
Lowwaterlevel=2.75m(9ft).
Hydraulicdetentiontimeatlowwaterlevel=17.9hrs.

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(2)Blowers:Rotarypositivedisplacement.
(3)Diffusers:410tubecoarsebubbleretrieverdiffuserassembly(2perbasin).
(4)Mixers:2at3.73kW(5hp).
(5)Sludgepumps:2at1.49kW(2hp).
(6)Decantersizing:Cyclesperday=4.
(7)Volumeperdecant=70.5m 3(2,490ft 3).
(8)Decanttime=30min.
(9)Decantflowrate=2.35m 3/min(621gal/min).

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FigureE4.Sequencingbatchreactor.

(7)Influentvalves:2,each150mm(6in.)diameter.
(8)Airblowervalues:2,each150mm(6in.)diameter.

6.ConstructedWetlandsAerobicNonAeratedHyacinthSystem...
Designanaerobicnonaeratedhyacinthconstructedwetlandssecondarytreatmentsystemforamunicipalwastewaterflowof284,000L/d(75,000
gal/d).Thesystemwillrequirepreliminaryorpretreatment(Imhofftank).Disinfectionofeffluentmayberequireddependinguponregulatory
restrictions.
(a)BODloading.
CalculatetheinfluentBODloadingusingtheinfluentBODconcentrationandthedesignflow,asshowninTableE12.
(b)Basinsurfacearea.
CalculatetherequiredbasinsurfaceareaatmoderateBODloadingrateof50kg/hadandtherequiredareafortheprimaryorfirstcellsataBOD
loadingrateof100kg/had,asshowninTableE12.
(c)Primarycelldimensions.
Usetwoprimarycells.Calculatethedimemsionsofthetwoprimarycells,asshowninTableE12.
(d)Finalcelldimensions.
Usefourfinalcells.Calculatethedimensionsofthefourfinalcells,asshowninTableE12.
(e)Cellvolume.

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Calculatetheprimaryandfinalcellsvolume,asshowninTableE12.Allow0.5m(1.6ft)forsludgestorageandassume1.2m(4ft)effectivewater
depthforatotalponddepthof1.7m.Usea3:1sideslopesratiotodeterminethetreatmentvolume(approximationofafrustrum).
(f)Hydraulicdetentiontime.
Estimatethehydraulicdetentiontimeintheeffective,orabovesludge,level(zone)intheprimaryandfinalcells,asshowninTableE12.
(g)Hydraulicloading.
Checkthehydraulicloadingtoensurethataminimumof75percenttotalnitrogenreductionisachievedtocomplywiththeeffluentquality
requirements,asshowninTableE12.

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