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# Exercises in Advanced Quantum Theory

WS 2013/14
B. Kubis, C. Urbach, F.-K. Guo, P. Hagen

2. Exercise
P.3: Integration in the complex plane
Use the residue theorem to calculate the following integral:
Z
p2
dp 2
,
(p k 2 i) [(p k)2 + 2 ] [(p + k)2 + 2 ]
0
where = 0+ is a small positive number, k

(1)

R, and > 0.

## H.3: The second-order Born approximation

In the lecture, the first-order Born approximation for the scattering amplitude for the Yukawa
potential
er
V (r) = V0
r
was derived. It is given by
2mV0
1
f (1) (~k, ~k 0 ) = 2 2
,
(2)
~ q + 2
with q 2 = ~q 2 , and ~q = ~k ~k 0 is the transferred momentum.
(a) What is the Yukawa potential in momentum space? (3 points)
(b) The second-order Born term for the scattering amplitude reads

m
1
(2) ~ ~ 0
0
~k V
~k .
f (k, k ) =
V

2~2
E H0 + i
Show that the second Born term for the forward scattering (~k = ~k 0 ) amplitude for the
Yukawa potential reads
2V 2 m2
f (2) (~k, ~k) = 4 2 0
,
(3)
~ ( 2ik)
with k 2 = ~k 2 . (7 points)
Hint: In the lecture, the first Born term was calculated in coordinate space. However, it
is easier to calculate the second-order term in momentum space. Use the residue theorem
to perform the integration.
(c) The optical theorem relates the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude to
the total cross section. However, as can be seen from Eq. (2), f (1) (~k, ~k 0 ) is real. This is
because the optical theorem is inhomogeneous in the scattering amplitude, and should be
understood in a perturbative manner. To see this, check whether the optical theorem is
satisfied when the scattering amplitude is taken to the second order in the Born series. (5
points)

## Exercises in Advanced Quantum Theory, WS 2013/14

(d) In order for the Born approximation to be valid, the higher-order terms must be much
smaller than the lower ones. Compare the magnitudes of the first and second Born terms
for the forward scattering amplitude of the Yukawa potential, find out the condition for
the validity of the Born approximation for both the low-energy (k  ) and high-energy
(k  ) cases. (5 points)