Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 65

The Digestive

System

Digestive Functions

Ingestion - obtaining and eating the food


Digestion - breaking down the food into
molecules small enough for the body to
absorb.
Absorption cells lining the digestive
tract absorb nutrient molecules and then
they travel into the blood system
Elimination: undigested material is
released
2

Digestive System

The Digestive System is


actually a LONG, HALLOW
TUBE measuring between
6.5 and 9 meters in length.
This muscular tube is
collectively called the
Gastrointestinal (or G.I.)
tract. It begins with the
Mouth and winds through
the body to the Anus.
The gastrointestinal tract
includes the mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine
(colon), rectum and anus.
4

Several major organs along the


digestive tract aid digestion but
ARE NOT PART OF THE GI
TRACT. These include:
the salivary glands,
the pancreas,
the gall bladder and
the Liver.
Food DOES NOT pass through
these organs!!!
5

Organs of Digestion

Digestive Process
Three activities are involved in the
digestive process:
A.
B.
C.

Mechanical Digestion
Chemical Digestion
Absorption

A. Mechanical digestion

The first task of the Digestion System is


to BREAK DOWN food into a fine PULP.
This increases its surface area and
exposes more food molecules to the
actions of Digestive Chemicals.
The process of Mechanical Digestion
breaks food into tiny pieces WITHOUT
changing the CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
of the food.
8

B. Chemical Digestion

The SECOND TASK of the Digestion System


is to CHEMICALLY act on Food, breaking it
down into smaller and smaller particles.
The molecules must be small enough and
chemically simple enough to be absorbed
into the Bloodstream. Large macro
molecules are broken down into simple
nutrients.
Starch monosaccharides
Protein Amino Acids
Lipids Fatty acids and glycerol
9

C. Absorption

The LAST TASK of the Digestion


System is to ABSORB the small
molecules and pass them to the
BLOODSTREAM for distribution to
the rest of the body. The circulatory
system takes nutrients from the
digestive system and delivers these
nutrients to each cell of the body.
10

THE MOUTH

Mechanical and Chemical Digestion both


begin in the mouth.
CHEWING is the FIRST step in Mechanical
Digestion. During Chewing, SALIVARY
GLANDS produce SALIVA, a mixture of water,
mucus, and a Digestive Enzyme called
SALIVARY AMYLASE, which mixes with the
chewed food.
Saliva is produced by three sets of glands
located near the mouth.

11

The Tongue helps to keep


the food between the
Chewing surfaces of the
Upper and Lower Teeth by
manipulating it against the
HARD PALATE, the Bony
Membrane-covered roof of
the mouth.
The mucus in the saliva
softens and lubricates food
and helps hold the food
together.The tongue rolls
the mixture of food and
saliva into a ball called
the Bolus which is easy to
swallow.
12

Also, located on
the tongue are
taste buds. These
chemoreceptors
are specialized
cells which can
detect certain
tastes when food
chemicals are
dissolved in saliva.
13

Enzymes in the saliva KILL Bacteria


and BEGIN the process of CHEMICAL
DIGESTION by breaking down
STARCHES to SUGARS.
The Enzyme Salivary Amylase begins
the Chemical Digestion of
Carbohydrates by braking down some
Starch into the Disaccharide Maltose.
Once the teeth and salivary glands
have completed the initial processing,
the food is ready to be SWALLOWED
14

ESOPHAGUS

Food (The Bolus) moves from the pharynx


to the stomach by way of the
ESOPHAGUS, A 25 cm LONG
MUSCULAR TUBE

15

The pharynx is an area at the back of the


throat that connects the digestive and
respiratory tracts together.
In the Pharynx, the GI TRACK AND THE
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CROSS EACH
OTHER.
As the tongue moves food into the Pharynx,
it presses down on a SMALL FLAP of
Cartilage called the EPIGLOTTIS.
When the Epiglottis is Depressed, it
CLOSES the entrance to the Respiratory
Track and Guides the Food down the GI
Track.
16

Swallowing

1) Once the Bolus enters the


Esophagus, MUSCLES in the
Esophagus Wall move food
toward the Stomach. The
Esophagus has Two Muscle
Layers: a Circular Layer that
wraps around the Esophagus
and a Longitudinal Layer that
runs the length of the tube.

2) Waves of muscular
contractions called
PERISTALSIS move food
down the esophagus and
through the rest of the
digestive tract. The bolus is
pushed through a Valve called
the cardiac sphincter where
the Esophagus joins the
Stomach.

The Sphincter allows food


to pass into the stomach
but usually NOT Letting it
move Back Up into the
Esophagus.

17

Esophagus to Stomach

18

The Stomach

19

THE STOMACH

The stomach is a J-shaped muscular sac with


thick expandable walls located in the upper left
side of the abdominal cavity, just below the
diaphragm. The stomach can expand to contain
about 1.5L of food. In the stomach food
continues to undergo both physical and
chemical digestion.
Mechanical Digestion occurs when the Stomach
Walls Contract Strongly, Mixing and Churning
the food. These contractions are responsible for
the "Growling" noises our stomach makes, they
are the loudest when we have an empty
stomach.
20

The stomach is lined


with millions of cells
that secrete a variety
of fluids called
gastric juice. Gastric
Juice includes:
Hydrochloric Acid
(HCl), mucous,
pepsinogen and
Rennin. The inner
lining of the Stomach
is a Thick, Wrinkled
Mucous Membrane
composed of
Epithelial Cells.

This

Membrane is dotted with small


openings called GASTIC PITS, they
are the open ends of GASTRIC
GLANDS that release secretions into
the Stomach.
Some of these Glands secret
Hydrochloric Acid, some secrete
Digestive Enzymes, and still others
secret Mucus. The Mixture of these
fluids form the Acidic Digestive Fluid.

21

Digestive Fluid

1) Hydrochloric Acid lowers pH in


the stomach to between 2.0 and 3.0.
The extremely acidic environment
helps to kill pathogens and it
converts pepsinogen into its active
form: pepsin.
2) PEPSIN Breaks Down proteins
into shorter chains of amino acids
called polypeptides.
22

Cells are made of protein: so the enzyme


pepsin could potentially break down the
cells of the gastric glands that are making it,
Literally digesting the stomach itself!!
Pepsin works best in an Acidic Environment,
which is provided by the Hydrochloric Acid.
The cells of the inner stomach protect
themselves by producing the enzyme in its
inactive form: pepsinogen.
Once pepsinogen is out of the cell membrane
and past the mucous lining of the stomach it
comes into contact with the acid and is
turned into pepsin, which is active.

Pepsinogen (inactive) + Low Ph Pepsin


(active)
23

3) Mucus lubricates food so that it


can travel through the digestive tract
more easily. Mucus also COATS the
walls of the Stomach, protecting the
muscle tissue from being broken
down by other digestive fluids.
Lives of stomach wall cells are short;
they are replaced about every three
days.
24

After about 3-4 hours of Mechanical


and Chemical Treatment in the
Stomach, food is reduced to a SOFT
PULP CALLED CHYME
Chyme is a thick liquid made up of
partially digested proteins, starch,
vitamins, minerals, acid, mucous,
and undigested sugars and fats.
Stomach wall

Chyme
25

At this point, the PYLORIC SPHINCTER


VALVE between the Stomach and Small
Intestine opens, allowing small amounts of
Chyme to pass into the Small Intestine.

By the time Chyme has left the Stomach,


MOST PROTEINS have been Broken down
into smaller Polypeptides. Sugars and Fats
have NOT YET been Chemically altered.
Some Starch Molecules have been broken
down into Disaccharides.
26

THE
SMALL
INTESTIN
E
Stomach
Small
intestine

27

THE SMALL INTESTINE

The majority of chemical digestion


takes place in the small intestine.
The Small Intestine is long (7m), but
its diameter (2.5cm) is smaller than
the Large Intestines. The Small
Intestines consists of Three Parts:

28

THE SMALL INTESTINE

A. DUODENUM - THE FIRST SECTION


(25 cm)
B. JEJUNUM - THE MIDDLE SECTION
(2.5 m)
C. ILEUM - MAKE UP THE REMAINING
PORTION.

29

As Chyme is pushed through the Pyloric


Valve, it enters the DUODENUM, the first
part of the Small Intestine. It is in the
Duodenum that most of the chemical
digestion takes place.
The Duodenum continues to digest
carbohydrates and proteins and starts
to breakdown fats.
Although the stomach absorbs some water,
specific vitamins, some medicines and
alcohol, most of the absorption of digested
materials occurs throughout the length of
the small intestine.
30

Long fingerlike projections called


villi (singular: villus) line the walls of
the small intestine. These villi
increase the surface area for
absorption by 10x.

31

Each cell of the


villi have even
smaller projections
called microvilli
which further
increase surface
area.

Each villus is supplied


with a capillary
network which
surrounds it. Also
intertwined with the
villus is a small lymph
vessel called a lacteal.
Monosaccharides and
amino acids are
absorbed by the
capillaries and fats
are absorbed by the
lacteals. Absorption
can be by passive
transport or by active
transport.
32

Anatomy of the Small


Intestine

33

34

It is in the small intestine


that the auxiliary organs of
the digestive system come
into play.

35

THE PANCREAS

When Chyme moves from the stomach into


the Duodenum it is soaked in acid
hydrochloric acid and pepsin, two
compounds that could do major damage to
unprotected tissue such as the lining of
the small intestine.
When the ph of the small intestine is
lowered by the acid, a chemical called
prosecretin is turned into secretin.
Secretin is absorbed into the bloodstream
and carried to the pancreas.
36

When the pancreas gets this


chemical messenger it releases a
solution containing bicarbonate ions
(HCO3-). The bicarbonate ions raise
the pH from about 2.0 to about 9.0.
This increased pH then inactivates
the pepsin turning it back into
pepsinogen.
Secretions from the pancreas also
contain enzymes which breakdown
proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
37

Protein Digestion

Trypsin: the inactive form of trypsin is


called trypsinogen.
The pancreas releases trypsinogen into
the small intestine where it comes into
contact with an enzyme called
enterokinase.
When trypsinogen comes into contact
with enterokinase, the trypsinogen is
turned into trypsin.
Trypsinogen + Enterokinase
Trypsin (inactive)
38
(active)

Trypsin

Trypsin works to further break down


proteins.
As you will recall, in the stomach
proteins were broken down into longchain polypeptides by the enzyme
pepsin. Here the long chain
polypeptides are further broken
down into short chain peptides by the
trypsin.
39

Erepsins

Another group of enzymes that work


on breaking down proteins.
These enzymes finish the job of
protein digestion by taking the short
chain peptides and further breaking
them down into amino acids, the
building blocks of proteins.
The amino acids are absorbed into the
bloodstream
40

Carbohydrate Digestion

Pancreatic amylase- continues to


break down complex carbohydrates
into disaccharides. The small
intestine then secretes its own
enzymes to break the disaccharides
(such as lactose) into
monosaccharides (such as glucose)
which are absorbed into the
bloodstream for use as cellular energy.
41

Lipid Digestion

Pancreatic Lipase: Secreted by the


pancreas into the small intestine.
Lipase breaks lipids into fatty acids
and glycerol. These are then
absorbed into the bloodstream.

42

Review of Chemical Digestion

Mouth (salivary glands)

Stomach (chief cells, parietal cells)

HCL turns pepsinogen into pepsin


Pepsin (pepsinogen) breaks large proteins into long chain
polypeptides

Pancreas (pancreatic juice secreted into Small intestine)

Salivary Amylase starts to break down starch

Bicarbonate buffers HCL and turns the environment of the


duodenum alkaline
Trypsin (trypsinogen)- breaks long chain polypeptides into short
chain peptones
Erypsins finishes protein digestion by taking short chain
peptones and turning them into amino acids
Pancreatic amylase- Continues to breakdown starch into
disaccharides
Pancreatic Lipase breaks fats and oils into glycerol and fatty
acids
Nucleases breaks down nucleic acids

Small intestine

Carbohydrases disaccharidases (eg. Lactase, maltase, sucrase)


breaks down sugars into glucose
Enterokynase- changes trypsinogen into trypsin

43

Chemical digestion

44

THE LIVER AND


GALL BLADDER
Liver

Gall Bladder

45

THE LIVER

The liver has 4 main functions:


Synthesis, Breakdown/conversion,
storage, detoxification
The liver is continually producing a
fluid called bile. Bile is a greenish
liquid that contains bile salts and
pigments from old red blood cells
that have been broken down by the
liver.
Bile
46

Bile continues
mechanical
digestion by
emulsifying fats in the
small intestine.
Emulsification
occurs when large fat
droplets are turned
into smaller fat
droplets. This
increases the surface
area of the fats so
that the lipase can
work more efficiently.

No chemical bonds
in the fats are
broken by the bile,
so this is
considered
physical digestion,
NOT chemical
digestion. Bile is
what give feces its
characteristic
brownish colour.

47

Bile is continually
produced by the
liver and is stored
in the gall bladder.
When fats are
detected in the
small intestine a
hormone called
cholecystokinin
(CCK) is released
into the
bloodstream.

CCK is carried to
the gallbladder
which triggers the
gallbladder to
release bile into
the small intestine.

48

The liver stores glycogen (an energy


reserve), vitamins A, B12 and D. the
liver can also detoxify (turn harmful
substances into less harmful
products) many harmful materials
dissolved in the blood such as
alcohol, pesticides, carcinogens etc.

49

THE LARGE INTESTINE


(COLON)

50

THE LARGE INTESTINE


(COLON)

Chemical digestion is complete by the


time it reaches the large intestine.
After absorption in the small
intestines is complete, undigested
material leaves the small intestine
through a valve and enters the large
intestine.
The large intestines are about 1.5
meters in length and about 6cm wide.
51

The large intestine absorbs water, water


soluble vitamins (vitamin K) and excess
salts from the material remaining after
digestion.
When most of the water has been removed
from the undigested material, a solid
waste matter, called FECES remains.
PERISTALSIS propels the feces through
the large intestine and into The RECTUM,
the last few inches of the large intestine.
Feces collected in the rectum are
eliminated through the ANUS.
52

An organ called the Appendix is


located near the junction of the
small and large intestine. The
Appendix is a finger-shaped pouch,
which does not serve any known
function. If the Appendix becomes
infected with Bacteria, resulting in
Large
appendicitis, the appendix must beIntestine
removed.
Small
intestine

53

appendix

In addition, your colon is filled with


billions of bacteria (such as E. coli)
which aid in absorption and produce
vitamins B-12 and K as well as some
amino acids.

54

CONTROL OF
DIGESTION

The control of digestion belongs to the


nervous and the hormonal systems.
Seeing, smelling or tasting food as well as
the motion of swallowing will produce
gastric juice even before food reaches the
stomach.
The hormone gastrin is produced when
the walls of the stomach are distended.
Gastrin travels to the parietal cells/chief
cells of the stomach and signals them to
release HCL and pepsin.
55

The passage of Chyme from the stomach


to the duodenum (via the pyloric
sphincter) inhibits contractions of the
stomach, preventing more chyme from
entering the small intestine.
This allows the complete treatment of
the chyme by pancreatic juices.
This inhibition is caused by hormone
secretions by the duodenum which travel
in the bloodstream back to the stomach.
56

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Secreted by the duodenum in response to chyme


Targets stomach, pancrease and gall bladder
Chyme with high fat content enters. Fats are hard
to break down so cck allows for high fat meals to
stay longer in the small intestine.
CCK also tells the pancrease and gall bladder to
secrete more pancreatic liapases and bile

GIP (Gastric Inhibitory Peptide)


Food in the duodenum stimulates cells to produce
GIP.
It has the opposite effects of gastrin; it inhibits
gastric glands in the stomach and it inhibits the
mixing and churning movement of stomach
muscles. This slows the rate of stomach emptying
when the duodenum contains food.
57

SecretinSecreted by the duodenum in response


to high acid levels.
Results in decreased stomach motility
(movement)
Secretin also targets the pancreas.
Causes the pancreas to secrete more
bicarbonate so that stomach acid can be
neutralized more readily.

58

59

Nerves in the stomach can slow down or


speed up muscle contractions depending
on the composition and size of the meal.
Large meals require more robust
contractions to ensure the food is mixed
appropriately.
If lots of fat is detected in the small
intestine then the hormone
enterogastrone is released which
slows peristalsis, allowing more time for
fat digestion and absorption.
60

DISORDERS OF
THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM

61

Ulcers

form when the thick


layer of mucous
protecting the stomach
erodes. Gastric Juice
eats away at the
exposed stomach wall.
The bacteria
Helicobacter pylori is
thought to be the root
cause of ulcers but
factors such as caffine,
smoking and stress can
compound the problem.
Ulcer
62

HepatitisA, B and C

An inflammation of the Liver caused by a


viral infection.
Hepatitis A is contracted by consuming
contaminated water.
Hepatitis B is contracted by sexual contact
and
Hepatitis C is contracted by coming into
contact with infected blood.
There are vaccines that help protect against Hep
A and B but Hepatitis C is incurable and
eventually fatal.

63

Cirrhosis:

occurs when scar


tissue replaces
healthy liver tissue.
This prevents the liver
from carrying out its
many functions.
Happens as a result of
chronic damage to the
liver from alcoholism,
a diet high in fatty
foods and Hepatitis C.
64

Gallstones:

Hard masses that form in the


gallbladder. Cholesterol in the bile
can crystallize out of solution. These
crystals form into large and painful
gallstones. If the gallstones become
too much of a problem the
gallbladder must
be removed.
Largest
recorded
gallstones

65