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Mel Bay Presents LY MPV] Rey Ue), oe om Pager hy st PACIFIC, MISSOURI 63069-0066 MB95376BCD $17.95 FINGERSTYLE “SVL | Exerase 2 Boample62 Evorose 8 Latin ines, [a] Exorese 4 5 “fa Seanene fig Exoroses 7") Majer Two Fve One Pats [5] Exoeses. [Bd nor two Five One Patome fo Wale n fag Wate m3 [Ey example 71 [il Bample 72 fa Jaze Suse amp 31 [al arosues fal Exampi 32 — fe] Baro s Barr Crd ues [Paral ines Gusméluee tal Staraang Electric and acoustic guitars played by Paul Musso. Enginoered and edited by Rich Sanders — Salt Productions. (© 1995 BY MEL BAY PUBLICATIONS, ING. PACIFIC, MO 69089 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT SECURED. BL, MADE AND PRINTED INUS.A Contents ‘The Rules Beginning Technique Beginning Technique Exercises Blues Progressions. Minor Bar Blues. Root-Note Approaching — Whole Step... 12 Chords Used In Blues Progressions - Metronome TrickS «nen 13 Barr Chord Blues.. wld G Jam Blues 1S Root-Note Approaching — Half Step .. 16 ‘The Thrill Isn’t Gone ...... Guide-Tone Upper Chords Tritone Blue Latin Progressions .......0. Latin Lines... ‘Two-Five-One Progressions Seasons .. Moveable Two-Five-One Patterns Walkin In 4... Walkin In3 Dominant Seventh Cycles Ragtime Technique. Southern Ragtime... Southern Swing .. Rhythm Changes... Jazz-Blues Progressions Jazz Blues .. Bird Blues Parallel Progressions... Parallel Lines. Star Gazing. About the Author ‘Mr. Mussoisa versatile guitarist, trained in jazz, blues, classical, and Latin styles. Paul performs throughout the Colorado area in many diverse musical settings including jazz festivals, symphonic work, musical theater and live music venues. Paul currently teaches guitar studies at the University of Colorado at Denver College of Music, where he has taught for the past seven years. He also teaches guitar, music theory, and music history at the Community College of Denver School of Music. The Rules In order to fully understand Teaching Your Guitar To Walk, it is necessary to identify some theoretical rules used in the first part of this book. RULE 1: The root of a chord must be played on beat J (the down beat of the measure) whenever a chord change occurs. RULE 2: The upper part of the chord must be played on the “and” of the beat (the up beats of the measure).* *The majority of this book uses rule two, but not exclusively. There will be | measures where the upper chord is played on the down beat. The following example shows one measure of Dm7 and one measure of Gm7. The root notes of each chord (D and G) are played on beat number one. The upper part of each chord is played on the and of one. Ex. Ll Tere 2 43 +a a a + Root o Root | 2 eae | a 3 4 | Upper Chord Upper Chord RULE 3: The best way of developing proper right-hand technique is to play the bass part with the thumb and the upper chord with the ring, middle and index Ex. 12 Ring ida ¢ Fingers — Thumb ve Example 1.3 is designed for students using tablature. The ring, middle and index fingers play the Ist, 2nd, and 3rd strings respectively. The thumb plays the Sth- and 6th-string quarter-note walking pattern, Ex.13 Ring Middle Index [Eeeey iia Thumb (Bass Line) Example 1.4 illustrates the standard classical notation for the right hand. Anular Ex. 1.4 Medio Gao Indice P ze Pulgar RULE 4: Think of the staff as two separate and independent parts: bass and upper chord. The bass part is written with each note stem going down. The upper chord part is written with each note stem going up. This example illustrates the separation of the staff. The bass part stands by itself as a complete measure with four beats. The upper chord part also stands by itself as a complete ‘measure with four beats. Count each part carefully. Upper Chord Bass Beginning Technique ‘The following exercises are designed to develop the fundamental skills needed in playing bass lines and chords. Exercise 1 utilizes two barred chords (G7 and C9) with whole notes in the bass part. Repeat this example until mastered then progress to the next five exercises. Exercise 1 DDODDD ste. 3 DODOD co +o Keep Ist finger on 3rd fret Exercise 2 uses the same chord shapes as the previous page. The bass line now becomes a bit more complicated incorporating a dotted half note followed by a quarter note. The quarter note is considered an approach tone. (See Root-Note Approaching) Exercise 2 Exercise 3 also uses the same two chords as Exercise 1. The bass line has a “walking” feel utilizing continuous quarter notes. (Notice the notes on the fourth beat are the same as Exercise 2.) Exercise 3 G7 Exercise 4 changes the right-hand position on the G7 chord only. Notice how the three notes in the G7 chord are lower than the three notes in the G7 of Exercise 3. Exercise 4 Alll the exercises on this page use Gm7 and Cm7. Play both chords as barr chords. Exercises 5 and 6 demonstrate half-step approaching, (See Root-Note Approaching) Pay close attention to the fourth beat of each measure. j Exercise 5 — Exercise 6 CTT se. EOIGID se. a) Exercise 7 incorporates a quarter-note “walking” feel to the Gm7 Cm7 progression. Exercise 7 Exercise 8 lowers the right-hand position on both chords. The upper chord is phrased with a short staccato feel, | Exercise 8 Gm7 cm7 Gm7 cm7 Exercises 9 through 12 focus on the chord change GMaj7 to CMaj7. The GMaj7 is not a barr chord. Read the right-hand fingering and the chord block in the first measure to assure correct fingering. Exercise 9 GMaj7 Exercise 10 GMaj7 CMaj7 GMaj7 id Exercises 11 and 12 incorporate more of a connected, chromatic concept to the bass line. The upper chord is again played short and not sustained. Exercise 11 Exercise 12 GMaj7 ‘CMaj7 GMaj7, CMaj7 \ rRih Rhee FR ER Rh te | Blues Progressions The first blues study is based on a standard minor blues chord progression used in standard tunes like “The Thrill is Gone,” “Stolen Moments,” “Mr.PC” and “Equinox.” “Minor Bar Blues” utilizes the four bar chords listed below. The chord tones indicated with a white dot (3rd finger) do not need to be played; this finger is used for the moving bass line. Dm7 Gm7 AT BL7 Soscee” 600000: eogese 00000 «: © o® Example 2.1 illustrates the bass notes and chords needed to play through “Minor Bar Blues.” The white circles indicate the bass notes and will be played separately using the first, third and fourth fingers. The black circles indicate the upper chord tones. These notes will remain held down using the first and second fingers, EXERCISE: | Play each chord and try to keep the black notes fingered while playing the white notes one at a time. Ex. 2.1 Dm7 Gm7 AT B7 OO4 600 5000009 »« 006000» (06060 on. DS dS dB DS ® © “The tape of example 2.1 plays the bass notes from low to high. The bass notes can be played in any order. 10 Minor Bar Blues This study uses simple E- and A-type minor seventh and dominant seventh barr chords on the third, fifth and sixth frets. The bass line primarily uses stepwise movment approaching the root of each chord by a whole step above or below. 30} of. fTEER) str ul i | Root-Note Approaching - Whole Step “Minor Barr Blues” utilized a bass line that approaches the root of each chord by a whole step (two frets) above or below on beat number four. This “stepwise” movement is extremely effective in creating bass lines that connect in a conjunct, manner. The following example is taken from the first three measures of “Minor Barr Blues.” Notice how the fourth beat of the first measure (A) resolves to (G) on beat one moving down a whole step. The fourth beat of the second measure (C) moves up a whole step resolving to D. Ex. 3.1 = = —s Whole step Whole step above root (G) below root (D) RULE 5: Dominant seventh (G7), minor (Dmin) and minor seventh (Dm7) chords can always be approached by a whole step above or below. RULE 6: Major Chords (G) and major seventh (Gmaj7) chords can only be approached by a whole step above. 12 Chords Used In “Barr Chord Blues” and “G Jam Blues” ‘The next two studies, “Barr Chord Blues” and “G Jam Blues,” illustrate a standard 12-bar, major blues progression. Simple barr chords are used so that more attention can be given to the bass line moving independently from the chords. EA 7 This is the normal Ee SDDDDD str. fingering for D9. DDD str ) rae By avoiding the fourth string it can be a @1 GSO 5 tr. simple barr chord. G7 co E9 DTODDDD 3 tr DT BRD str. DODD 7. x x Metronome Tricks For Blues And Jazz ‘The most efficient way of developing solid time is to feel the beats 2 and 4. All good jazz-blues drummers play their hi-hats (left foot) on the beats 2 and 4, The hi-hat beat serves as a metronome for the entire group. 1. Use the metronome on the beats 2 and 4, as if it were the hi hat. To do this simply cut your desired tempo in half. 2. If your desired time isd =100, set the metronome to o = 50, Ex. 3.2 fee r 2.3 -[ 41, Beta click click click click 13 Barr Chord Blues G Jam Blues G7 Proper or parr: cg G7 Do. Terr ee pr TF Root-Note Approaching — Half Step RULE 7: When constructing a bass line, approaching the root by a half step above or below will always work on beat four, regardless of the chord type. Breaking Rule 2: Playing the upper chord on beats other than the and of one creates a “comping” effect so that the two parts sound independent of each other. The example below (taken from “The Thrill Isn't Gone”) illustrates both the exception to Rule 2 and Rule 7. The following example demonstrates this principle, using an E4 on beat four to approach the D on beat one. The half step above creates more tension and “pull” on beat four, so that the chord on beat one sounds resolved. Ex.4.2 Rhythmic interest in upper chord Ve 2 Se 4 AE ge 2 Be Dm7 Gm7 Dm7 a 7 Approach by a half step above root (D) 16 The Thrill Isn't Gone Fort ort — — Sradad on. rrrrvag Bb7 Az Dm7 AT Dm7 gaa ie) eens a ea A es eas Guide-Tone Upper Chords RULE 8: The upper chord only needs the 3rd and 7th (guide-tones) to effectively define the chord type. This method of upper chord playing greatly simplifies the left-hand fingering. ‘The following example illustrates the guide tones in three different seventh chords. Notice how the 3rd and 7th change from chord to chord while the Root and Sth remain constant. Ex. 5.1 g ° ZB a fl o 9/9) 0090 919 6 Guide-tone 7th Sth Guide-tone 3th Root Defines chord type amaw ° a Chords Used In “Tritone Blues” The next study, “Tritone Blues,” utilizes guide-tone upper chords throughout the entire piece. The ‘guide-tones are played on the third and fourth strings of each chord (see example below). Ex. 5.2 c7 x= kx 7 fr. Bb (7th) E (ara) J Suidetones c7 F7 B7 Bb7 AT x xx Rexx x xx Xs KK eae Thr. @ Thr, ¢ 7m. © or. 5 fr. 5 9 a I IT D7 G7 c7 Eb7 Diz Daas RMN KesuIXK Kix MenieK x. 4. OT 3fr t 2tr. i Str. i Str, 18 19 This page has been left blank to avoid awkward page tums Tritone Blues \ 20 21 Latin Progressions | In order to fully understand bossa nova playing, three important stylistic elements must be understood. 1: The bass part primarily plays on the first and third beats of the measure, | 2: The upper chord is highly syncopated with a consistent rhythmic pattern repeating every } two measures. 3: The rhythmic feel incorporates straight or even eighth notes. ‘The following example (taken from “Latin Lines”) illustrates a traditional bossa nova chord pattern. ‘The bass part incorporates a simple one-and-three feel with an approach by a half step on beat four of the second measure. The upper chord rhythmic pattern is consistent through the entire song. ‘Compare this pattern to "Latin Lines" and notice how upper chord rhythm repeats every two measures. Ex. 6.1 Syncopated upper chord Approach by 1/2 steps Bass stress on first and third beat 22 Chords Used In “Latin Lines” “Latin Lines” utilizes several chord voicings that are common to bossa nova playing. ‘The grey numbers on the chord charts indicate the alternate bass played on the third beat of each measure. The alternate bass note is usually a note a fifth above the root. A fourth below the root will give you the same note. In some chords a flatted fifth is used as the alternate to create tension, CDEFG ABC CDEF 12345 4321 1234155 Sth above = 4th below cmg Fm7 Dm7b5 G+7 ® at. O[@ 3 fr oa} 34 @@| oe @ I Ebmo Ab13 DbMag Cm11 i 4. @O[@ 4 fr. a 3 fr. DODD ad @@| |@| @ ® @2| @@ Tips For Practicing Latin Progressions 1. Practice with a metronome at around the Andante-Moderato settings: J = (76-116) 2. Use the metronome on beats one and three. If the desired tempo is 100, set the metronome to 50 and each click will represent the first and third beats. Ex. 6.2 1 2 3 4 click click 23 Latin Lines 25 Two-Five-One Progressions One of the most common chord progressions used in jazz literature is the two-five-one progression. Jazz harmonies can be broken down into two types of two-five-one progressions: major and minor. ‘The next study “Seasons,” utilizes both the major and minor two-five-one chord progressions. The Major ii V I: The chords listed below are the diatonic seventh chords for the key of G ‘major. The chords in black indicate the major ii V I progression (Amin7 - D7 - Gmaj7).. In the major key, the two chord will always be a minor seventh, the five chord will always be a | seventh and the one chord will always be a major seventh chord. | 1 ili iv v vi vii Gmaj7_ Amin? Bmin? Cmaj7 D7 Emin? Fi The Minor ii V i: The chords listed below are the diatonic seventh chords in the key of E minor.* The chords in black indicate the minor ii V i progression (Fim75 B79) Emin7). In the minor key, the two chord will always be a minor seventh flat five and the one chord will always be minor seventh. The five chord, in minor progressions, will be a seventh or a seventh flat nine. Sometimes the five chord will be altered, containing one or more of the altered tones (45 b5 9 19). ii Eminj7 Fimin7>5 QUICK REFERENCE : The easy way to distinguish major from minor: The two chord in the minor key is a minor seventh with a flatted fifth. "The five chord in minor is borrowed from the key of E harmonic minor Now it is time to look for the two-five-one progressions in “Seasons.” The major ii V I progression can be found in the measure groups {1-2-3}, {9-10-11} and {21-22-23}. The minor ii Vi progression can be found in the measure groups (5-6-7), {13-14-15}, {17-18-19} and {25-26-27} *Remember that hundreds of jazz songs can be broken down into two-five-one progressions. This progression is one of the most important tools used in jazz harmony. Chord Voicings Used In “Seasons” ‘The chords used in “Seasons” are common jazz. voicings that can be applied to any song. Many of these chords will be played using the bass note plus two or three upper notes. The chord charts are only guides to help you find each fingering in “Seasons.” The chords are listed in the order that they appear in the study. Am7 Pr) GMa7 CMa7 CHOOHDD sr. []@ ® @| 3tr. DODD 3 tr. B| OOO str. Oe @ S | @ Fim7b5 B7>9 GMa7 @ oe) Ol 4 Tf 2 |@@ OIG ¢ 3) Fam7b5 B+7 E}13 Db13 OST] or « Thr. DODDD 6 fr. DOOD 4 tr. a|@ 3@ | 2 |@@ 2 |@@ 27 Seasons a Major it V 1 ---~ Fem7(b5) B7(b9) renee 28 siete Min OF ih V jane F#m7(b5) B7(59) Emg mee Wr OP or te ae Ae 4 secccccceeeeen MINOT ih Vj mmannnaneemmem FEm7(b5) B7(b9) OTP op eee oe Say a seceeeeeees Mayor it VP onaanaaam Em9 Amz oro? We Fim7(b5) B+7 Em7 Eb13 4 30 Dm7 Dbi3 Maz B7(b9) 1 Too FER oe bp 31 Moveable Two-Five-One Patterns “Seasons,” “Walkin in 4,” and “Walkin in 3” all incorporate several major and minor two-five-one progressions. These progressions are extremely important to jazz playing, therefore it is essential to have I several ii v I patterns memorized. The following two progressions should be transposed to all 12 keys. If helps, think of the shape of each chord in each progression. The first progression starts on a 6th-string minor chord and the second starts on a Sth-string minor chord, Memorizing these progressions will serve as springboard to going your own walking bass line/chord playing. Major Two-Five-One Patterns (Starting on Root 6) LD 5 a Leis (Starting on Root 5) fn x x ay] 3 T] at HH 1 Lia} I 32 The next two chord progressions are minor ii V i progressions. Transpose both progressions through all 12 keys. Like the previous page, the first progression starts on a sixth-string root minor seventh flat five chord and the second starts on a fifth-string root minor seventh flat five chord Minor Two-Five-One Patterns (Starting on Root 6) xem T a 3fr (Starting on Root 5) x Te st. ala 3fr Dm7(}5) Gaug7 Cm7 33 Walkin in 4 34 35 Walkin in 3 T] St. Am7(b5) 37 Chords are similar to those at the beginning of the piece BbMa7 Am7b5 D7(b9) Gm7 co Fm7 bo F709) 1 39 Dominant Seventh Cycles The dominant seventh chord (C7) is an important part of the harmonic structure in jazz and blues repertoire. Blues harmony is comprised of all dominant seventh chords. (See “G Jam Blues,” “Tritone Blues,” and “Barr Chord Blues”) Early jazz (Dixieland) music also used an abundance of dominant seventh chords in its chord progressions. One of the most common dominant seventh chord progressions utilizes movement by fourths. ‘The example below shows how the chords progress up a fourth interval each time until they ultimately reach the beginning and start over. 7th Chord Cycle of Fourths ‘The next three songs incorporate several dominant seventh up a fourth-type chord progressions. Look ahead to “Southern Ragtime” and notice the first four chord changes (D7 G7 C7 F7). Now look above to the D7 chord and notice how the following three chords are identical, 40 Ragtime Technique “Southern Ragtime” introduces a different kind of bass line/ chord technique. Rather than walking in quarter notes the bass line moves with a “two feel.” The bass line stresses two notes in each measure on the first and third beats. The upper chord utilizes a slightly syncopated pattern stressing the beats two and four. Example 7.1 illustrates this ragtime technique. Ex. 7.1 D7 lee | “Two-Feel” Bass Line Southern Swing “Southern Swing” incorporates the same chord progression as “Southern Ragtime” but instead of using a two-feel it utilizes a walking feel in four. Notice the different rhythms of the upper chord in this swing style of playing, The upper chord rhythm creates a “comping” effect. Ex. 7.2 07 tify Mt et —— SS Walking Feel 41 Southern Ragtime 42 43 Southern Swing ED 3". ran tpt 4 er tere vr pt of top tt rae D7, tpt 3 rypor 3 tap ot ot oF ee ia) G13 M a a: 2 ; ot Ps i “7 fre cae ee a oe at at COTE str. q ) Str. Dm7 Av Dm7 AT oo a ot Tt bee op FP = ay Gy Ata st. (aycals) 7 te. continue same fingering : z E9 Eb9 De ais c7_—si|"F1a At FI3 a aa ce a ae 3 Rhythm Changes x Of 1 Bb7 G7 c7, F7 B7 G7 c7 F7 et Pe por te I te Bb Bo7 : BS Ebmin) BT F7 Bb7 46 OPT gp PoP ar ie + This page has been left blank to avoid awkward page turns 48 Jazz-Blues Progressions The earlier section of this book entitled “Blues Progressions” focused on several basic blues progressions (Chicago style). This section focuses on a jazz-blues style of chord playing. Jazz-blues maintains the basic 12-bar format of the blues but takes several harmonic detours. Many of the concepts covered up to this point in the book will be incorporated in “Bird Blues” and “Jazz. Blues.” ‘The next example illustrates the difference between a basic blues progression and both jazz-blues and “Bird” blues progressions. “Bird” style blues were made popular during the be-bop era by saxophonist Charlie Parker. Some of the key differences are pointed out with common jazz terminology. (This is not a complete harmonic analysis) Jazz-Blues _, — BhI3 9 By7 BbI3. Quick change Basic Blues —> IR? FFL Perr res ere Bo Edim7 BbI3 AI13. AbI3. G13 Walle down lee? SPP Fees twee eset Pere Cm7 F13 Bb13 G79 C13) FO Major V progression ‘Tormaround WEFT MEST TTT BPD ETT Bird Blues —» — Pmaj7 Em%5 At7Dm7 G13 Cm7 P13 sminor itv progression Basie Blues —> IFT (PTI P EL adr re B13 Bbm7 Am7 Abm7 Im7 Fd Ae eT far reset Gm7 co Fmaj7 Abmaj7 Dimaj?_ C749 “Major iV I progression ‘Turnaround ter Fee iBT iPr rs creed 49 Jazz Blues Al ot. iG Ie 51 Bird Blues Am7 Alm? m7 52 53 Parallel Progressions The final section of this book deals with chord progressions and bass lines that modulate in a parallel manner. Parallel modulation means that both a major and minor chord share the same root note (C Major to C minor). ‘The “Blues Progressions” section of this book touched on guide-tone upper chords. Remember that the guide tones are the 3rd and 7th of any chord and they define the chord type. Therefore, by simply lowering the 3rd and 7th one half step a major to minor parallel modulation has occurred, See example below Parallel Modulation Ex. 8.1 ae ~~ Same root note ‘The next example illustrates the chord fingerings used in “Parallel Lines." Notice how the top two chord tones move down one fret, while the root note remains constant, The two examples represent both a sixth-string root and fifth-string root progression, 6th-String Root Sth-String Root Fmaj7 Fm7 Bmaj7 Bm7 Mon RR Xxx neaX xx | 3rd o role @ 7th This page has been left blank to avoid ‘awkward page turns Parallel Lines This unique study will take you throught six different keys, using parallel chord progressions. The first page utilizes only the 6th-string root chords and the second page utilizes the Sth-string root chords. Str 5 AMa7 Am7 pura? & 0 iar - te continue same chord fingering as above GMa7 Gm7 apar FMa7 Fm7 56 err ATED 6 Ebm7 2, continue same chord fingering as above DbMa7 Dbm7 57 Star Gazing a AR B13 t EbMag ) Am7: D9 Gm7 = — a of sp — a Fat at 1 a iF iF ar ae er Gegat| si BEEP see am7(s) D709, x G@Ma7 Am7 Bm7,— Bbmz i er fn er == = : Bbi3 EbMaz [ait Am7 bo GMa7 Am7(b5) 59 GUITAR BOOKS & VIDEOS METHODS & STUDY BOOKS cee Gaae-Goe ONAN Sos SGtast rhATpe Sh EAS oa Sapte meter ‘hr cag el Pret ape (tr antec Bs te So.o a ensewsue incites Saeene re galore te ties ee __ See Bey ie t rie ate Se rer y rete pty te soiree atte JAZZ & CONTEMPORARY ent non vane ste ati a 1 Gn ok sd Ra tr BoB Tan COUNTRY, BLUEGRASS & FINGERSTYLE ene = ‘Seebereuee epee met Scatwanene Lees eae oe iach. reuse Reverse Hono BGOKS 4 CHARTS See Sire on tr at ee Pe Ba Lead Gor eck. 8 Tape aa Ga — em a tatte Reeser on Shows complete cx7aL0G AVAILABLE | MEL BAY PUBLICATIONS, INC. #4 Industrial Drive, Pacific, MO 63069-0066 1-800-8-MEL BAY (1-800-863-5229) 7 96279-02351 1 ISBN .0-78bb-0324-3 > $17.95