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Anatomy 5.

Endocrine System
OUTLINE
I. Endocrine System
II. Major Glands
a. Pituitary Gland
b. Thyroid Gland
c. Parathyroid Gland
d. Adrenal Gland
e. Pineal Gland
III. Other endocrine glands

December 13, 2011


Dr. Rivera

o Contains several nuclei (group of cell bodies)

*This trans is taken from the lecture powerpoint, audio recording, past transes and
Junquiera (11th & 12th ed.). There are no corresponding font changes for the different
sources (masyadong marami at papalit-palit. Gugulo ang trans. :P)

Objectives:
Name the component organs of the system.
Describe the anatomy of each organ as to the following:
embryonic origin
location
morphology
hormones secreted
Review the blood and nerve supply and venous and lymphatic drainages.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Made of ductless glands which can be found anywhere in the body
Abundant and richly vascularised
Responsible for synthesis and secretion of chemical messengers
which cause reactions known as hormones
Release hormones through networks of capillaries or blood vessels
(circulatory system) rather than ducts system (exocrine)
Target: Whole body
Major Glands
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal
Pineal

Minor Glands
Corpus Luteum
Placenta
Decidua
Testis
Thymus

Organs associated
with Endocrine
function
Pancreas
Heart
Kidney
GIT
Hypothalamus
Paraganglia

MAJOR GLANDS
I. PITUITARY GLAND/HYPOPHYSIS
A. GROSS ANATOMY
Location: depression of sphenoid bone (base of skull) in sella
turcica
Weight: Male 0.5g; Female 1.5g
Controlled by the Hypothalamus (master control center)
Parts of the Pituitary Gland
o Anterior (Adenohypophysis): formal hypophyseal pouch (oral
ectoderm)
Pars distalis - largest
Pars intermedia
Pars tuberalis hugging the stalk
o Posterior (Neurohypophysis): retains features of CNS tissue
Pars nervosa main mass
Infundibulum/Neural stalk
Median eminence
Infundibular stem
Hypothalamus
o Has endocrine functions
Hello I-A! | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

B. BLOOD SUPPLY LYMPHATICS AND INNERVATION


From internal carotid a.
Adenohypophysis
o R & L Superior Hypophyseal a. (pars tuberalis and ant. lobe
directly)
Union of Internal Carotid a. & post. communicating a. of
Circle of Willis
Supply the median eminence and the neural stalk
o Primary capillary plexus stem of pars tuberalis
Hypophyseal portal vein drains to secondary capillary plexus
pars distalis Efferent hypopyseal vein Cavernus sinus
Neurohypophysis
o R & L Inferior hypophyseal a.
Main blood supply to the neurohypophysis
Supplies pars nervosa
Small supply to stalk
HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM
Nerve fibers (axons) + blood vessels
Carries neuropeptides from median eminence to anterior
pituitary to stimulate or inhibit hormone release by endocrine
cells there
Three sites of hormone production:
o Nuclei of secretory neurons in the hypothalamus: Supraoptic
and paraventricular nuclei
Produces peptides
Hormones are transported along axons and accumulate at
the end of these axons (situated inside the
neurohypophysis)
Released by exocytosis, enter capillaries and distributed by
the blood
o Neurons of dorsal medial, ventral medial, and infundibular
nuclei of the hypothalamus
Produces peptides
Hormones are carried along axons that end in the median
eminence where the hormones are stored
After release, hormones enter blood capillaries of median
eminence and transported to the adenohypophysis
through the first stretch of the hypophyseal portal system

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o Cells of the pars distalis


Hormones consisting of proteins and glycoproteins
Liberated into blood capillaries of the second stretch of the
hypophyseal portal system
Capillaries surroud secretory cells and distribute hormones
to the general circulation

When neural and oral components meet (hypophyseal pouch +


neurohypophyseal bud), a constriction at the base of the pouch
detaches it from the roof of the mouth and hugs the bud
o 2nd month of gestation
o Anterior wall of hypophyseal pouch thickens; lumen of
Rathkes pouch is reduced to a small fissure

HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL TRACT
Refers purely to nerve fibers (axon bundles) traversing the stalk
Way by which secretions are transported from anterior to
posterior pituitary.
Only applicable to posterior pituitary gland

3rd month: pituitary gland!

D. HISTOLOGY

C. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
2 Embryonic origins:
o Ectoderm anterior; from roof of primitive mouth
Oral component grows cranially forming the
hypophyseal pouch or Rathkes Pouch
Thick anterior wall = future pars distalis
Posterior wall = pars intermedia
Lateral wall = pars tuberalis
Forms during third week of development
o Neural ectoderm posterior; down growth of floor of 3rd
ventricle/diencephalon
Neural component grows caudally as a stalk without
detaching itself from the brain as neurohypophyseal bud

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

Adenohypophysis: darker staining


o Pars Distalis
Largest; 75%
Covered by thin fibrous capsule
Expanded anterior portion
Glandular cells (cords of hormone-secreting cells) arranged
and supported by reticular fibers (produced by fibroblasts)
to a rich network of fenestrated capillaries and sinusoids
Cell types:
1. Chromophils secretory cells in which hormone is
stored in cytoplasmic granules
a. Basophils
Stain blue (PAS), orange (geimsa)
Rare; lies in periphery
i. Corticotropic (15-20%) Proopromelanocortin
(POMC) is cleaved into:
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
o Stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex
hormones
- -melanocyte stimulating hormone (-MSH)
o darkening of skin
o inhibition of appetite in hypothalamus
ii. Gonadotropic (10%)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
o Stimulates ovarian follicle development
and estrogen secretion in females;
spermatogenesis in males
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
o Promotes ovarian follicle maturation and
progesterone secretion in women
o Development of Corpus Luteum
o Leydig cell stimulation and androgen
secretion in men

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iii. Thyrotropic (5%)


- Thyrotropin/Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
(TSH)
o Stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis,
storage and liberation
b. Acidophils
Stains pink
More numerous
i. Somatotropic (50%)
- Growth Hormone (GH)
o Stimulates growth of epiphyseal plates of
long bones via somatomedins
- Somatotropin
o Increases blood glucose, lipolysis
o Suppressed by somatostatin
ii. Lactotropic/Mammotropic (15-20%)
- Prolactin
o Mammary gland development and lactation
2. Chromophobes stain lightly; no color due to few or no
secondary granules
- Stem/undifferentiated/supporting cells which is
bound to mature into any of 5 hormones when
needed (but still has no definite function)
- Chromophils that have exhausted their granules

Pars distalis: Acidophils(A), Basophils(B), Chromophobes(C), Sinusoids(S)

o Pars Intermedia
Thinnest layer, posterior to remnant of Rathkes pouch
and adjacent to pars nervosa
Basophilic cells between the pars distalis and pars nervosa
or neurohypophysis
Develops from dorsal wall of hypophyseal pouch
May see remnant or cystic structure of Rathkes pouch
lined with cuboidal cells with colloid center, violet in color
This structure will be your clue to determine if what
you are looking at is pars intermedia of pituitary gland
Uncertain physiological significance, especially in adults
During fetal life, parenchymal cells in this region produce
POMC which will be cleaved to produce MSH

Pars intermedia (PI): Pars distalis (PD), Pars nervosa (PN), Basophils (B)

o Pars Tuberalis
Surrounds neural stalk
Funnel shape around infundibulum
Contains hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
Most cells are basophilic gonadotropic cells which secrete
FSH and LH
Neurohypophysis
o Infundibular Stalk
o Pars Nervosa
Does not contain secretory cells
Unmyelinated axons of secretory neurons in supraoptic and
paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus
Supraoptic nuclei = Vasopressin/ADH secretion
Paraventricular nuclei = Oxytocin secretion
Function: storage of hormones only (hormone synthesis
occurs in the hypothalamus)
Has neurophysin: carrier protein for hormones
Neurophysin I: Oxytocin
Neurophsin II: Vasopressin
Cell types:
1. Pituicytes
Highly branched glial cells; resemble astrocytes
Supporting cells (25% of posterior lobe)
Most abundant cell in posterior pituitary gland
2. Fibroblasts
3. Herring bodies/Neurosecretory bodies
Faintly eosinophilic structures along nerve fibers
Axonal dilations for accumulation of neurosecretion
granules from supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

Pars nervosa (PN): Pituicytes (P), Neurosecretory/Herring bodies (NB),


Capillaries (C)

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

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II. THYROID GLAND


A. GROSS ANATOMY
Cervical region ant. to larynx
Butterfly shape
Consists of 2 lobes unit ed by an isthmus which occupies 2-4
tracheal rings
Stores most excretions extracellularly

B. BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPHATICS AND INNERVATION


Blood Supply
o Superior thyroid a. 1st branch of external carotid a.
o Inferior thyroid a. branch from thyrocervical branch of 1st
part of subclavian a.
Venous drainage
o Superior thyroid v.
o Middle thyroid v.
o Inferior thyroid v.
Lymphatic drainage
o Superior and inferior deep cervical lymph nodes
o Paratracheal nodes
Innervation
o Superior and inferior laryngeal n.
o Cardiac n.

C. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
From endoderm of initial portion of primitive gut
4th week
o Develops as diverticulum from the lining of the foregut,
growing caudally
o Thickening of floor of primitive pharynx; endodermal
thickening
o Descends through tissue in neck (thyroglossal duct regresses
at fetal maturity)
o Ends in front of trachea
o Divides into 2 lobes
7th week
o From lining epithelium of 4th branchial/pharyngeal arch,
cells migrate to thyroid gland and incorporate themselves with
thyroid parenchyma = ultimobranchial bodies
o Matures into parafollicular cells
9th week
o Definitive thyroid follicles
o Lined by follicular cells
14th week
o Glands develop
o Production of colloids or thyroid follicles structural and
functional unit of the thyroid gland

D. HISTOLOGY
Thyroid follicle
o Structural and functional unit of thyroid gland
o Lined by follicular cells (simple cuboidal epithelium)
o Only endocrine gland whose product is stored in great quantity
There is sufficient hormone within follicles to supply for up to
3 months
o The gelatinous substance found within the follicle: colloid
Composed of glycoprotein called thyroglobulin inactive
storage form of thyroid hormone
Substance between or inside a follicle
Accumulation of secretion occurs in the extracellular colloid
Sometimes basophilic, sometimes acidophilic
Outside the cell but within the follicle
o Follicular cells/Principal cell
Simple epithelium (range from squamous to columnar)
Covered by loose CT that sends septa into parenchyma
Active glands have low columnar epithelium with more
follicles
Hypoactive glands have mostly squamous follicular cells
Located in any area in the gland
Secretes T3 (Triiodothyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine)
Growth, cell differentiation, control of oxygen
consumption and BMR
Affect metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbs
Rich in RER basally and Golgi apparatus and secretory
granules with colloidal materials apically
o Parafollicular cells/C cells
Part of follicular epithelium or isolated clusters between
follicles
Larger with clear cytoplasm
Synthesizes and secretes calcitonin
Lowers blood Ca levels by inhibiting bone resorption
Derived from neural crest cells

Parafollicular cell (C), Follicular cell (F), Lumen (L) of each follicle

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

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III. PARATHYROID GLAND


A. GROSS ANATOMY

Behind thyroid gland, at each end of the 2 poles (upper & lower)
Shares the capsule covering lobes of thyroid
Four small glands (2 superior and 2 inferior); yellowish
Can also be found in the mediastinum, lying beside the thymus
(originates from the same pharyngeal pouches)

B. BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPHATICS AND INNERVATION


*same as thyroid gland

C. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
Develop from pharyngeal pouches
o 3rd phar. Pouch = inferior parathyroid glands
o 4th phar. Pouch = superior parathyroid glands
D. HISTOLOGY
Contained within connective tissue capsule
Has own capsule of loose CT sending septa into parenchyma
merge with reticular fibers
Adipocytes replace secretory cells of the gland in older people
Chief Cells (Principal cells)
o Small; most numerous; polygonal cells with glycogen
o Secretes Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Regulates serum calcium and phosphate levels
Oxyphils
o Singly or in clusters
o More commonly present in older individuals
o Acidophilic cytoplasm filled with abnormally shaped
mitochondria
o Larger than chief cells; unknown function
o Suggested to be transitional derivatives from chief cells (low
level of PTH synthesis

B. BLOOD SUPPLY
Blood supply
o Cortical a. subcapsular plexus long cortical a. medullary
a. suprarenal v. or central v. of adrenal glands
o From abdominal aorta
Superior suprarenal a. (branch of inferior phrenic a.)
Middle suprarenal a. (direct branch of abdominal aorta)
o From L. Renal a.
Inferior suprarenal a.
o Enter at the periphery and form three groups:
Supply the capsule
Cortical arterioles form capillaries and sinusoids that
irrigate all cells of the cortex; eventually join medullary
capillaries
Medullary arterioles pass directly through the cortex (from
subcapsular plexus) and forming extensive capillary network
in medulla
*cells in medulla receive both arterial blood from medullary a.
and venous blood from capillaries of the cortex
Venous drainage
o Adrenal/Suprarenal v.
Formed by capillaries of both cortex and medulla
o R suprarenal v. directly into IVC
o L suprarenal v. to L renal v.

C. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
Cortex: from coelomic epithelium of mesoderm
Medulla: from neural crest cells
Fetal/Provisional Cortex
o Additional layer; thickest (80% of the total gland)
o Between thin cortex and underdeveloped medulla
o Involutes during birth
o Secretes sulfated DHEA converted in placenta (see below)
Fetoplacental Unit = provisional cortex (most impt.) + placenta
o Functions hand in hand with placenta (conjugation of androgens
to be converted to active androgen and estrogen because the
placenta cannot produce estrogen in first trimester)
o Paraganglia same composition and secretion as medulla;
center of medulla

D. HISTOLOGY
Typical of an endocrine gland: cells of both cortex and medulla are
grouped in cords along capillaries

Principal/Chief cells (P), Oxyphil cells (O), Connective tissue septa (S)

IV. ADRENAL/SUPRARENAL GLAND


A. GROSS ANATOMY
Right is pyramidal; left is crescent
Lie near the superior poles of kidneys, embedded in adipose tissue
Two concentric layers:
o Distinct origins, functions, and morphological characteristics
that became united during embryonic development
o Adrenal cortex: yellow peripheral layer
o Adrenal medulla: reddish-brown central layer
Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

Adrenal Cortex no storage; synthesize and secrete steroid


hormones upon demand; central nuclei, acidophilic cytoplasm rich
in lipid droplets
o Zona glomerulosa (15%)
Columnar or pyramidal in shape
Closely packed, rounded/arched cords
surrounded by capillaries
Mineralocorticoid secretion: Aldosterone (target organ:
kidney; stimulated by angiotensin II, increase in plasma K)
affect uptake of Na, K, and water
o Zona fasciculata (65-80%)
Polyhedral-shaped cells
Arragned in columns or bundles or in straight cords
One to two cells thick
Light staining and spongocyte appearance (due to presence of
lipid droplets from cytoplasm)
Glucocorticoid secretion: Cortisol (target organ: liver)

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o Zona reticularis (10%)


Small, polygonal cells arranged in anastomosing networks of
cells
More heavily stained than other zones (few lipid droplets)
Sex hormones secretion (stimulated by ACTCH):
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) converted to testosterone
in other tissues; Andorgens, Estrogens, Progesterone, Cortisol
Adrenal Medulla
o Chromogranins: granular storage complex with 49 kDa proteins
o Chromaffin cells
Also called medullary cells
Arise from neural crest cells (ectoderm)
Polyhedral cells arranged in cords or clumps
Supported by reticular fiber network
Modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons that have lost
their axons and dendrites during embryonic development and
have become secretory cells
Secretes catecholamines:
Epinephrine (80%)
- Increase HR and force of contraction
- Facilitates blood flow to smooth muscles
- Conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver
- adrenaline
Norepinephrine
- Noradrenalin

Zona reticularis

Adrenal medulla

V. PINEAL GLAND
Also called epiphysis cerebri/pineal body
Circadian rhythm (melatonin secretion)
influences seasonal sexual activities in animal
acts as neuroendocrine transducer converting nerve input
regarding light and darkness into variations

A. GROSS ANATOMY
flattened, pine cone organ
rd
posterior wall of the 3 ventricle; roof of diencephalon

B. INNERVATION
nerve fibers lose their myelin sheath when they penetrate the
pineal gland
unmyelinated axons end among pinealocytes (some synapse)
o endings have small vesicles containing norepinephrine
serotonin is present in pinealocytes and sympathetic nerve
terminals

C. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
develops with brain from neuroectoderm in the roof of
diencephalon
attached to brain by a short stalk
Zona glomerulosa

D. HISTOLOGY
covered by pia mater
o cords and follicles: connective tissue septa containing blood
vessels and unmyelinated nerve fibers from pia mater

Zona fasciculate

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

Pinealocytes
o slightly basic cytoplasm with large irregular or lobated nuclei and
sharply defined nucleoli
o Prominent and abundant secretory cells
o Melatonin
Circadian rhythm of the body
Suppressive effect on gonadotropin reaction
Receptor cell/organ: eyes

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Allows pineal gland to act as a neuroendocrine transducer


converts nerve input regarding light and darkness into
hormonal functions
Intersitial glial cells/astrocytes (5% of cells in gland)
o Elongated nuclei that stain more heavily than parenchymal cells
o Found in between cords of pinealocytes and perivascular areas
o Have long cytoplasmic processes that contain a large number of
intermediate filaments
Brain sands / Corpora aranacea
o Characteristic feature of pineal gland
o Precipitation around extracellular protein deposits
o Calcified concretions from precipitation of calcium phosphates
and calcium carbonates
o Used as midline markers in MRI/CT scan

Pancreatic islet of Langerhans: Capillaries (C)

C. BLOOD SUPPLY, INNERVATION & LYMPHATICS

Pineal gland: Corpus arenaceum (CA), Septa (S), Venules (V), Capillaries (arrows)

OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS


I. PANCREAS (ISLETS OF LANGERHANS)
A. EMBRYONIC ORIGIN
Same as pancreatic acinar tissue
Masses of cells in epithelial outgrowths from endoderm (intestinal
lining) near the common bile duct

B. HISTOLOGY
Compact spherical/ovoid masses of endocrine tissue embedded
within acinar exocrine tissue of pancreas
>1M islets in pancreas; most numerous in tail
Each islet is is surrounded by a very thin capsule of reticular fibers,
separating it from acinar tissue
Each islet consists of polygonal/rounded cells (smaller and lighter
stained than surrounding acinar cells)
Active polypeptide secreting cells and secretory granules; major
hormone-producing islet cells:
o A (alpha) cells located near periphery of islets (secretes
glucagon)
o B (beta) cells centrally located, most numerous (insulin)
o D (delta) cells scattered, less abundant (somatostatin)
o F or PP cells common in islets located within head of pancreas
(pancreatic polypeptide)

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

Blood Supply
o Pancreaticoduodenal a. (inferior and superior branches)
o Splenic a. (from celiac trunk)
Venous Drainage
o Pancreatic veins Tributaries of the splenic and superior
mesenteric parts of the portal vein but most empty into the
splenic veins
Innervation
o Autonomic nerve fibers in contact with some endocrine cells and
blood vessels
o Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings are closely
associated with 10% of a, b and d cells
Lymphatic drainage
o Pyloric nodes
o Pancreaticoduodenal nodes
o Superior mesenteric nodes
o Splenic nodes (specific for tail)

II. CORPUS LUTEUM


Temporary endocrine organ formed by the reorganization of the
granulose cells and the cells of the theca interna of the ovulated
follicle
Embedded in the cortical region
Depends on the hormonal cycle; may disappear
Remnant of the Graffian follicle in ovary
Tan yellow in color

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Cell types:
o Granulosa lutein cells (80%)
Large, pale staining (contains glycogen)
Abundant ER and mitochondria
Several golgi apparatus
Produce progesterone; converts androgens estrogens
o Theca Lutein cells (20%)
Peripheral
Dark staining, smaller (less cytoplasm)
Produce progesterone, estrogen and androgens

Corpus luteum (CL)

III. PLACENTA
Composed of chorionic villi, fenestrated by blood vessels; lined by
trophoblasts

Types of Trophoblast
o Syncytiotrophoblast
Outermost layer
Secretes:
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) [6th day of
gestation]
- Used to detect pregnancy; maintains corpus luteum up
to 3 months
- Stimulates maternal thyroid gland to secret T4
- Assess embryonic development
Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS)
- Regulates overall growth of fetus
- Regulates glucose metabolism
- Stimulates mammary duct proliferation
Leptin [last month of gestation]
- Regulates maternal nutrient storage for the nutrient
requirement of the fetus
- Transports nutrients across placental barrier
o Cytotrophoblast
Inner layer
Secretes Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-mediated Growth
Factor (IGF-1&2)
Endothelial Growth Factor
- Stimulates proliferation and differentiation of the
trophoblast cells

Corpus luteum: Granulosa lutein cells (GL), Theca lutein cells (TL)

Corpus Luteum of pregnancy


o Large, 5cm; stays for 2-3 months
o Maintained by HCG (from placenta)
o Placenta does not produce enough progesterone to maintain
pregnancy during the first trimester
o Regresses when placenta can maintain itself and produce
enough progesterone

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

IV. DECIDUA
Sheets of polygonal cells with abundant pink cytoplasm w/ round
nucleus
In interface of uterus and placenta
Modified endometrium of uterus during pregnancy
Secrete relaxin
o Softens the cervix and pelvic ligaments for labor
Also produces prolactin and prostaglandin

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V. TESTIS
Composed of seminiferous tubules lined by spermatogenic cells in
different stages of maturation
Cell types:
o Sertoli/Sustentacular cells
Provides nourishment for growing spermatids, found at the
apex of the cells
Within the seminiferous tubules
Tall columnar cells
Rests on basement membrane, tips directed towards lumen
Antimullerian hormone
- Suppresses formation of Mullerian duct (precursor of
females vagina), otherwise, fetus will become female
Inhibin
- Inhibits release of FSH
o Interstitial cells of Leydig
Found outside seminiferous tubules, within interstitium
Polygonal, eosinophilic cells
Produces testosterone
- Development of secondary male characteristics

o Mostly act in paracrine manner


Regulate motility and secretions of all types within the digestive
system
Enterochromaffin cells: stained by solution of chromium salt
Argentaffin cells: stain with silver nitrate
Amine Precursor Uptake & Decarboxylation (APUD) cells: DNES

cells secreting serotonin or other amine derivatives


o A glucagon
o B insulin
o C pepsinogen
o D somatostatin/VIP
o EC serotonin
o ECL Gastrin, somatostatin
o G - gastrin
o I Cholecystokinin
o K gastric inhibitory peptide
o L glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)
o Mo Motilin
o PP Pancreatic Polypeptide
o S - Serotonin

VIII. THYMUS

Thymopoeitin
Thymodulin
Thymulin
Thymic Humoral Factor

IX. HEART
Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)
o Decreases ADH secretion
o Enhance NaCl and water secretion

X. PARAGANGLIA
VI. KIDNEY
Erythropoeitin
o Regulates RBC formation
o Manufactured in peritubular capillary network w/in kidney
Renin
o Secreted by juxtaglomerular cells
o Not a hormone
o Enzyme that converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I

Collections of ganglion cells located along the abdominal aorta


Produce catecholamines (like adrenal medulla)

VII. DNES
*Diffuse Neuroendocrine System
= enterochromaffin cells scattered in both islets and small ducts of
the pancreas + similar cells in respiratory mucosa
Also called gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine cells
Derived from endodermal cells of the embryonic gut
Produce same polypeptides and neurotransmitter-like molecules

(eg. Serotonin) released by neurosecretory cells in CNS

Happy Studying! :] | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

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Anatomy 5.1

Endocrine System

December 13, 2011


Dr. Rivera

Summary of Pituitary Gland secretions and target organs

Hello I-A! | Diane, MC, Genesis, Pauline

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