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Networks and Networking


Networks and Networking

Sr. no.

Transmission media
Client-server Architecture
Proposed Network Solution
Feasibility Study
Proposed Network Diagram
Distribution of computer and IP
Cost Analysis
Network Devices used
Network Security

Page no.

The CEO of an organization that has just been upgraded to a medium-sized establishment
designed to increase the productivity of their employees, which amounts to 80, personal
computers in 75 of 'its employees in a network. It is help file sharing and quick
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correspondence both inside the organization and even outside. Being in the supply of engine
parts for several cars, the CEO has also identified the need to monitor and protect the orders
made by the manufacturers and the information given so sensitive in their correspondence
through e-mail in particular by the sales staff. In addition, the security and confidentiality of
information relating to the organization's products, accounting and even human resources are
essential because there are plans to increase the number of products sold and employees.
This is a report for the installment of the network, where the division of 75 computers in the
network is occupying the 6th and the 9th floor of the ten storey building.
Departments allocated:
6th floor:
Sales, Accounts and Human resources
9th floor:
CEOs room, research and Development and product design
Here in this report detailed analysis of the feasibility, devices specifications, cost estimation
and the topology used in the network are reported. Also the security issues are also been
discuss with all recommendations for the security and the maintenance of the network,
without being failures are attacks of the intruders.

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Networks and Networking


Network refers to the collection of two or more nodes i.e. computer systems, printers,
scanner, hardware, software etc connected together communication channel. Networking
refers to connection of nodes through common communication channel for sharing and
transfer of data, resources and information among interconnected devices.


Types of Network:1) LAN LAN stands for Local area network. It is a network that connects computers
and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory.
Mainly LAN network uses wired network based on Ethernet technology.
2) WAN WAN stands for Wide area network. It is a computer network that covers a
large geographic area such as a city, country. Mainly WAN uses a communications
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channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air
3) MAN MAN stands for Metropolitan area network. It is a large computer network
that usually spans a city or a large campus.

Advantages of Network:1) Speed Sharing and transferring files within Networks are very rapid.

Cost Individually licensed copies of many popular software programs

and installing of hardware on individual system can be much more costly.


Security Sensitive files and programs on a network are passwords

protected or designated as copy inhibit so that illegal authority cant use,
copy or tamper file.


Centralized Software Management Software can be loaded on one

computer and can be used by other computers eliminating the need to spend
time and energy installing on independent computers.


Resource Sharing Resources such as, printers, fax machines and

modems can be shared.


Electronic Mail E-mail serves as personal and professional

communication. Electronic mail on a LAN can enable staff to communicate
within the building eliminating the need to leave their desk.


Flexible Access Access their files from computers throughout the firm.

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Transmission medium
Transmission medium describes the type of physical system used to carry a communication
signal from one system to another. It is most important part in establishing the network. There
are mainly two types of medium used in transferring data from system to another which are:1) Wired Technology Wired Network is usually accomplished by using cables and
other hardware to physically connect one computer to another. Different cables used
to establish Wired network are:a)

Twisted pair cable: - A type of cable that consists of two independently insulated
wires twisted around one another. The use of two wires twisted together helps to
reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. It is the least expensive and most
widely used medium for telecommunication. The transmission speed ranges from
2 million bits per second to 100 million bits per second. Two types of Twisted pair
wire used are:

Unshielded twisted pair cable,

Shielded twisted pair cable.


Coaxial cable: - A type of wire that consists of a center copper or aluminum wire
surrounded by insulation of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant and
then a grounded shield of braided wire which is a conductive layer. The shield

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minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. It is widely used for cable
television systems, office buildings, and other worksites for local area networks.
Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per


Optical fiber cable: - A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass (or plastic)
threads (fibers), each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto
light waves, which are wrapped in protective layers. It is not affected by
electromagnetic radiation. Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per
second. The transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for
coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a twisted-pair wire.

2) Wireless Technology Wireless network is used to describe interconnection of
nodes without using any physical connection or wired, but rather the network is
connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. This type
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of connection is generally used in some type of remote information transmission

system. Different technology used to establish Wireless network are:a) Terrestrial microwave: - Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and
receiver. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range, which restrictions all
communications to line-of-sight. Path between dispatch stations spaced approx, 30
miles apart.
b) Communications satellites: - The satellites use microwave radio as their
telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere.
The satellites are stationed in space, typically 22,000 miles above the equator.
c) Cellular and PCS systems: - Use several radio communications technologies.
The systems are divided to different geographic areas. Each area has a low-power
transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next
d) Wireless LANs: - Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio
technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology.
Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication
between multiple devices in a limited area.
e) Infrared communication: - It transmits signals between devices within small
distances not more than 10 meters peer to peer without any interruption in the line
of transmitting.


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Network topology is the design model of interconnections of the different elements (i.e.
links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Network topologies may be physical or logical.
There are five main type of topology which is as follows:a)

Mesh topology: - In Mesh topology, each node is connected to other

nodes in the network which is also called fully connected network. It
is a type of networking wherein each node in the network may act as
an independent router and allows for continuous connections and
reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths.


Star topology: - In Star topology, all devices are connected to a

central hub. All traffic that passes through the network passes
through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater.
Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage.


Tree topology: - In Tree topology, a central node (top level) is

connected to one or more other nodes (second level) with a point-topoint link between two levels. Nodes at second level are also
connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the
hierarchy (third level) connected also with a point-to-point link.


Bus topology: - In Bus topology, each computer or server is

connected through some kind of connecter to a single cable called
Bus or backbone. A terminator is required at each end of the bus
cable to prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on the bus


Ring topology: - In Ring topology, every node in a network is

connected in a closed loop or ring and every node acts as a signal
boosters or repeaters. The signal passes through each node
connected to the ring in one direction. It utilizes a token passing
scheme to control access. By utilizing this scheme, only one node
can transmit signal on the network at a time.

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Client-Server Architecture
Server: A server is software or a series of computers that links other computers or electronic
device. They store the web pages or databases etc. in it so that user can gain access to them in
the form of user requests from the Client end.
There are almost the entire structures of internet based upon Client- Server model for

World Wide Web.

Domain Name System.
Online gaming.
Database Servers.

Client: A Client is an application or system that access to remote computers or the servers. A
client sends requests to the server to get results.
Three types of clients:
It is a type of client that performs the data processing operation itself and does
not rely on the server.
It is a type of client that uses the resources of the host (server). A thin clients
job is to just display graphically anything provided by the application server,
which performs all the data processing in the servers end.
It is a mixture of FAT and THIN client. Just like FAT client it does the local
processing where as relies on server for storage.

Thus, the Client server model is a


application structure that partitions tasks


between the provider of the resource or


servers and service requesters called


For example: Users accessing the data

from their client

computers application or browser to send

a request or store

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data in the database of the server. On request the server retrieves the data from the database
and displays it on the screen of the clients.
Further many business applications use the protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, Telnet and DNS.
Advantages of Client server architecture
1. Centralization access, resources, and data security are controlled through the server.
2. It gives greater ease of maintenance. It can be replace, repair, upgrade or even relocate
a server while its clients remain unaware and unaffected by the change
3. Scalability any element can be upgraded when needed
4. The data are stored in the database of the server, which gives greater security controls
even if the clients are not maintained. Also servers can control access and resources of
the clients with appropriate permissions may access and change data.
5. Flexibility new technology can be easily integrated into the system
6. Accessibility Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms.
7. New technologies are available to enhance the security, friendliness of the user
interface and ease of use.
Disadvantages of Client server architecture:
1. Dependability The whole system depends upon the server if the server goes down
then all the network based operation will come to a halt.
2. It causes network congestion. It may occur when the link is carrying much data that
its quality of the service decreases. Its effects may be queuing delay, packet loss or
blocking of new connections
3. Typically, the central server computer must be powerful enough to maintain and share
resources with the other computers on the network. This entails a substantial cost.

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Proposed Network Solution

After a detailed analysis on the situation given in the project we have came to such a
conclusion. As we have to configure whole network in a building so the type of network used
in the installation of the network is LAN (Local Area Network) using wired connection to
connect among the computers in the network of the company.
Advantages of using wired network:1. It cost very nominal charges in the installation and the devices used
such as switches, Ethernet cables etc. are less in cost.
2. It has more reliability.
3. Wired LANs have superior performance.
4. The security system is installed in every system.
Wire: For the connection of the clients and peripherals in the
network with the central node we are using UTP
(Unshielded twisted pair cables) of CAT-5(category 5). It
gives transmission up to 100 Maps as required and
segments up to 100 meters. And it is cost effective
technique to the proposed type of connection.
Using the wired LAN we have to choose a topology. After deep analysis we come to the point
to choose upon the Extended Star Topology.
Extended Star Topology: It is a type of network same as the star topology which has one or
more repeater in the extension of the network from the central node to the peripherals or the
clients. For physical extended star topology repeaters are replaced by with hubs or switches.


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Feasibility Study
We have done Feasibility Study to judge the feasibility of a new project
. It is actually a preliminary analysis of a project that lets the people whether proceeding with
a project is worthful or not. Feasibility study is very important for a project which makes an
analysis of all the aspects of a project, external and internal factors influencing it, all the costs
associated with it. It also makes an estimate of how much sales are to be expected and what
profits would the project make. The result of the feasibility study tells weather it is logical to
proceed with it or not.
We have done Feasibility study on four basis:1. Technical Feasibility: - This analysis tells us about the technology we are using to
configure the network of the organization is practically possible, suited to the
organization and weather the technology is up to date or not. As we have use nested star
(tree) topology, wired media for network and Twisted pair cable for wiring which is
practically a good configuration as we have to configure the whole network in a building,
topology suits the design of departments as given and transfer rate and security within a
department. Wired media helps in maintaining a good strength of signal and transfer rate.
By using two servers we ensure back up of data in second server in case of failure of first
2. Schedule feasibility: - This analysis tells us about the time period given to complete to
complete the project is sufficient or not. Typically this means estimating how long the
system will take to develop, and if it can be completed in a given time period. Schedule
feasibility is a measure of how reasonable the project timetable is. As we have been
given six week to design the network of the organization which is sufficient for our
3. Operational Feasibility: - This analysis tells us about the degree to which a proposed
network diagram solves organization problems or takes advantage of organization
opportunities. It also refers to a system that users will accept and use effectively to
support organization objectives. As we have use nested star (tree) topology and using
different switch for every department, we ensure security and high transfer rate of data
within a department.
4. Economic feasibility: - This analysis tells us about the weather estimated cost of the
project is suitable to organization and under its budget and also anticipated value of the
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benefits greater than projected costs of development of network. As we have calculated

the estimated cost in configuring the network this is Rs 2, 39,300 which is under
organization budget and profit would be greater than it after implementing.

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Proposed Network Diagram

Sixth floor Diagram

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Ninth floor Diagram-

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Overall Diagram

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Distribution of Computer and IP

Total number of computer
: 75 computers
Total number of departments : 7 departments
IP and

Sales department
Accounts Department
Human Resource Department
CEOs Room
Research and Development
Product design Department
Network client/server Room

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No. of computer

IP to to to to to to to

Networks and Networking


Cost Analysis of network

The following cost estimation has been done for the required proposed network system in the
organization. Since there are Sales, Accounts and Human Resource Department on sixth floor
and CEOs room, Research and development, Product design department and Network
server/client room on the ninth floor. The sixth and ninth floor has to be connected together
and on doing the required research work following equipment will be required to complete
the networking of all the departments above mentioned in a particular topology is given.

Twisted pair unshielded cable
Copper cross over wire
RJ connecter
Kaspersky Antivirus 2011

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500 meters
180 pieces

Rs 25,000
Rs 4,500
Rs 75,000
Rs 20/meter
Rs 10/piece

Rs 50,000
Rs 45,000
Rs 75,000
Rs 10,000
Rs 37,500
Rs 1,800
Rs 20,000
Rs 2,39,300

Networks and Networking


Network Devices used

1) Server:
It is system or computer that provides services to other computer in the network to access
information or application or data. It needs a very high configuration in comparison to
normal computers. For a reliable and secure server with features like redundant power,
HDDs and predictive failure analysis can help
run a business confidently
For example: Server configuration of IBM
System x3400 M3 Express
2 Way Tower Server, Intel Xeon Quad




4MB Cache, 800MHz, 2GB Memory

DDR3, 250GB SATA 3.5 Simple Swap HDD, up to 4bays,Raid 01 in built
2) CAT 5e cable: As for the LAN connection we are using cable line. For best option on
regards to the feasibility we are using CAT 5e cable. It is a class from unshielded
twisted pair cables designed for high signal integrity. It gives the required frequencies
up to 100 MHz It has 4 twisted pair in the single cable jacket. The connector used is
the RJ-45 connector.
Some characteristics
Wire size

0.205 mm2

Temperature operating

-55 to +60

Pair colors

Green, blue, orange, brown

3) Router: It is an electronic device that interconnects

two or more computer networks and selectively
interchanges packets of data between them. Each data
packet contains address information that a router can
use to determine if the source and destination are on
the same network, or if the data packet must be
transferred from one network to another. A router is a networking device whose
software and hardware are customized to the tasks of routing and forwarding
information. Works on Network layer.
4) Switch:
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A network switch is a device used to connect

network segments. It is a small hardware device
that joins multiple computers together in a LAN. It
functions on the basis of the IP of each computer.
It stores the IP of each computer and forwards the
data or information to the exact destination. It helps in reducing traffic congestion in
the network. It works on OSI layer 2(Data link layer)

IKS-6324 Series by MOXA Rackmount Ethernet switch.

Meets UL 60950-1, NEMA TS2, EN50155/EN50121-4, and DNV/ GL certifications

Universal power supply range, 12/24/48 VDC or 110/220 VDC/VAC

redundant dual 12/24/48 VDC power inputs

-40 to 75C operating temperature range

a. RJ- 45 ports 10/100BASET(X)
b. Full/half duplex mode.
Connection10-pin terminal block
5) RJ connecter: - A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized physical network interface
both jack construction and wiring pattern for connecting telecommunications or
data equipment to a service provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance
carrier. The standard designs for these connectors and their wiring are named RJ11,
RJ14, RJ21, RJ48, etc.
6) Crossover cable: - A crossover cable connects two devices of the same type, for
example - switches DTEDTE or DCE-DCE, usually connected asymmetrically.
7) Gateway: It is a device in the network node which works as an interface with the
other network that uses different protocols. It works on the OSI layer Transport layer,
Session layer, Presentation layer, Application layer.
8) Network Interface Card: It is a hardware device that works as an interface between
the network and the computer i.e. allows network capable device to access the
network. The NIC exists in the data link layer (OSI layer 2).

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9) Repeater: It is a device that receives the signal and regenerates an amplified signal to
retransmit the signal.

10) Line Driver: a device to increase transmission

distance by amplifying the signal. Base-band networks only.

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Network Security
This section focuses the on the security of the network. The first security step starts from the
authenticating the user (i.e. username and password). After being authenticated the second
step is to install a firewall in the server that enforces access policies like the services are only
allowed to the people of the organization or the company. This prevents unauthorized access
to the network. Although it may fail computer worms or Trojans being transmitted over the
network, for that an antivirus software or an IS (internet security software) can be used.
Controlling end user access:
By Creating an account and assigning a password are only small parts of giving someone
access to the network. A network administrator also has to determine other account
parameters such as when an end user can access the network, what groups the user is
associated with, what files he or she can access, and limitations on network and server
resources. User should not be given concurrent login privileges (i.e. single sign-on).
A firewall is program or software or network that is designed to block unauthorized access
while permitting authorized communication. It is set of device that is configured to permit or
deny network access based upon a set of rules (protocol) and other criteria.
Types of firewall to be installed are

Network layer firewall: for the low level TCP/IP

protocol stack. It does not allow passing through the
firewall unless they match the established protocols

set in the firewall.

Application layer firewall: It works at the application
level of the TCP/IP stack. It also intercepts all packets
travelling to or forms an application. It inspects all the packets for improper contents,
and restricts or prevents spreading of the impostor from spreading over the network.

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Antivirus is a software used to prevent, detect and remove malware, viruses, worms and
Trojan horses. It also prevents and removes adware and spyware. For a network it is
recommended to install an antivirus program in every system including server to prevent
spreading and entering of impostors.

To secure the information and databases of the company or the organization keeping backups
is also an important. Calamities, natural disaster, server breakdown or the building can get
fire or explosions. So, there is need of recent backup at the alternate locate for the survival of
the company.

Encryption technology:
Further specified to cryptography, it can be used as a tool to provide privacy, to authenticate
the identities of communication parties and to ensure message integrity. Encryption is the
process of scrambling the contents of a file or message to make it unintelligible to anyone not
in possession of the key required to unscramble it.

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The report on the installation of a network in the company has given us an opportunity to
learn a great deal of new concepts of networking. The network is to be installed keeping in
concern of all the feasibilities and estimation of the cost and variable reliability, so the
network designed proposed is a very suitable network for the company. After much analysis
of the network installation specification the use of wired LAN connection, extended star
topology and the specified device will give much enhancement to the network.
We have implemented the various technologies in the installment of the network. Like the
client-server architecture of the network. The type of connection for the network which we
are using wired LAN as it is easy to install and reliable by cost too. As there are different
departments in different storey of the building we have use a feasible topology for the
network and that in the extended star topology. And each computer will be connected with a
specific IP address for the transmission of the data or information.
Also with concern of the security, we are installing an antivirus program in the server side as
well as the client side so that the impostors may not get spread over the network
Lastly the network installation cost estimation is being tried to keep minimal.

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BOOK REFERENCE:1) Stalling ,William (1998). Data and Computer Communication . 7th ed. New Delhi:
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. 169-174.
2) Breyer, R., Riley, S (2000). Switched, Fast, and Gigabit Ethernet. 3rd ed. NEW DELHI:
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