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DESIGN, INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM


1. INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT
A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure,
consisting of a water supply system, providing adequate pressure and
flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire
sprinklers are connected. Although historically only used in factories
and large commercial buildings, home and small building systems are
now available at a cost-effective price.
Major A Stewart Harrison of the First Engineer Volunteers of
London invented the first sprinkler in 1864. However it was until 1874
when Henry S Parmelee of Connecticut of USA produced the first
widely used automatic sprinkler with heat sensitive device, that
sprinklers became widely used for fire protection. Throughout this 135
years, many rules, codes, regulations and standards have been
produced for automatic sprinkler installations, firstly started by the fire
insurance associations and later by national authorities.
The fire insurance company offers an annual premium reduction
to the building owner for a properly installed with an automatic
sprinkler system. This premium reduction could be as high as 45%,
provided that other fire safety features such as compartmentation,
portable fire extinguishing equipment etc. as required by the insurance
company, are also installed. This annual premium reduction, together
with the much less anticipated loss in case of fire, help encourage the
building owner to spend an initial amount of money to install sprinkler
systems. A sprinkler system is usually about 1% to 1.5% of the total
building cost, or 3% to 5% of the total electrical and mechanical
services installation cost.

Over the years, fire sprinklers have become mandatory safety


equipment in certain occupancies, including, but not limited to newly
constructed hospitals, schools, hotels and other public buildings,
subject to the local building codes and enforcement. However, outside
138 of the US and Canada, sprinklers are rarely mandated by building
codes for normal hazard occupancies which do not have large numbers
of occupants (e.g. factories, process lines, retail outlets, petrol stations
etc).

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT


The aim of this engineering report is to aid my fellow mechanical
engineers to learn an approach on the design, installation, operation
and maintenance of fire sprinkler system for a dormitory.

3. IMPORTANCE OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT


The report will explain procedures in designing the fire sprinkler
pipe sizing and pump size based on NFPA 13 design criteria.
Hotel and motel fire sprinkler system installations open up options to
designers not always available for other type of occupancies. They are
also capable of providing additional challenges not seen in typical
office buildings, warehouses and mercantile occupancies. If you can
take advantage of the additional design options while keeping the cost
of tackling the unique challenges to a minimum, most of the basics
remain the same as for any other fire protection system design.
Sprinkler systems for all hotels and motels can be designed
under NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. All
hotels and motels up to four stories in height can be designed per
NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height

4. LIMITATION OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT


The sprinkler systems are designed to deal mainly with solid-fuel
fires, but can serve also to hold a flammable-liquid fire in check and to
extinguish some oil fires (e.g. transformer oil fires) by deluge
sprinklers, by purely using water. With suitable foam concentrate
added to the water, its fire fighting capability on oil fires can be greatly
enhanced.
Each system is designed for its particular function, and its
features may vary widely according to the purpose. In general, a
system will consist of the following items:
1. A water storage capacity or adequate running supply, to feed the
system.
2. An adequate method of pumping water from the supply to the system.
3. Distribution pipework capable of conveying all the water required to
feed losses.
4. A sprinkler installation valve connected to a hydraulic motor alarm
gong to give an audible mechanical water motor alarm when the valve
opens to allow water to flow to the sprinklers discharging water.
5. A series of distributor heads (i.e. sprinklers - close / open type; open jet
nozzles) capable of passing the design flow rates of water and distributing
the water as a spray, over the area to be protected.
6. A detector, or detector system, capable of actuating the fire fighting /
protection system. The detector can be the sprinkler itself or other
detection device / system.
7. Other features include flow detectors, pressure switches for starting
pumps, and control / signal monitoring alarm panels etc.

5. ENGINEERING DESIGN PROPER


5.1

Design Definitions
Automatic Sprinkler. A fire suppression or control device that
operates automatically when its heat-activated element is heated
to its thermal rating or above, allowing water to discharge over a
specified area.

Bathroom. Within a dwelling unit, any room or compartment


containing a lavatory dedicated to personal hygiene, or a water
closet, or bathing capability such as a shower or tub, or any
combination of facilities thereof.

Ceiling Height. The distance between the floor and the underside
of the ceiling above (or roof deck) within the area.

Flat Ceiling. A continuous ceiling in a single plane.

Horizontal Ceiling. A ceiling with a slope not exceeding 2 in 12.

Sloped Ceiling. A ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12.

Smooth Ceiling. A continuous ceiling free from significant


irregularities, lumps, or indentations.

Compartment. A space completely enclosed by walls and a


ceiling. The compartment enclosure is permitted to have openings
to an adjoining space if the openings have a minimum lintel depth
of 8 in. (203 mm) from the ceiling.

Drop-Out Ceiling. A suspended ceiling system, which is installed


below the sprinklers, with listed translucent or opaque panels that
are heat sensitive and fall from their setting when exposed to heat.

Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms arranged for the use of one or
more individuals living together, as in a single housekeeping unit
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normally having cooking, living, sanitary, and sleeping facilities. For


purposes of this standard, dwelling unit includes hotel rooms,
dormitory rooms, apartments, condominiums, sleeping rooms in
nursing homes, and similar living units.

Fire Control. Limiting the size of a fire by distribution of water so


as to decrease the heat release rate and pre-wet adjacent
combustibles, while controlling ceiling gas temperatures to avoid
structural damage.

Fire Suppression. Sharply reducing the heat release rate of a fire


and preventing its regrowth by means of direct and sufficient
application of water through the fire plume to the burning fuel

surface.
Hydraulically Designed System. A calculated sprinkler system
in which pipe sizes are selected on a pressure loss basis to provide
a prescribed water density, in gallons per minute per square foot
(mm/min), or a prescribed minimum discharge pressure or flow per
sprinkler, distributed with a reasonable degree of uniformity over a
specified area.

Pipe Schedule System. A sprinkler system in which the pipe


sizing is selected from a schedule that is determined by the
occupancy classification and in which a given number of sprinklers
are allowed to be supplied from specific sizes of pipe.

Small Rooms. A room of light hazard occupancy classification


having unobstructed construction and floor areas not exceeding
800 ft2 (74.3 m2) that are enclosed by walls and a ceiling.
Openings to the adjoining space are permitted if the minimum
lintel depth is 8 in. (203 mm) from the ceiling.

Sprinkler System. For fire protection purposes, an integrated


system

of

underground

and

overhead

piping

designed
5

in

accordance

with

fire

protection

engineering

standards.

The

installation includes one or more automatic water supplies. The


portion of the sprinkler system aboveground is a network of
specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a
building, structure, or area, generally overhead, and to which
sprinklers are attached in a systematic pattern. The valve
controlling each system riser is located in the system riser or its
supply piping. Each sprinkler system riser includes a device for
actuating an alarm when the system is in operation. The system is
usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the

fire area.
System Working Pressure. The maximum anticipated static (nonflowing)

or

flowing

pressure

applied

to

sprinkler

system

components exclusive of surge pressures.


5.2

Types of Sprinkler Systems

Antifreeze Sprinkler System.


A wet pipe sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that
are attached to a piping system that contains an antifreeze solution
and that are connected to a water supply. The antifreeze solution is
discharged, followed by water, immediately upon operation of
sprinklers opened by heat from a fire.
Circulating Closed-Loop Sprinkler System.
A wet pipe sprinkler system having nonfire protection connections
to automatic sprinkler systems in a closed-loop piping arrangement
for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct water for
heating or cooling, where water is not removed or used from the
system but only circulated through the piping system.
Combined Dry Pipe-Preaction Sprinkler System.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a
piping system containing air under pressure with a supplemental
6

detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers.


Operation of the detection system actuates tripping devices that
open dry pipe valves simultaneously and without loss of air
pressure in the system. Operation of the detection system also
opens listed air exhaust valves at the end of the feed main, which
usually precedes the opening of sprinklers. The detection system
also serves as an automatic fire alarm system.

Deluge Sprinkler System.


A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers that are attached to
a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a
valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system
installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve
opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all
sprinklers attached thereto.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are
attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under
pressure, the release of which (as from the opening of a sprinkler)
permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe
valve, and the water then flows into the piping system and out the
opened sprinklers.
Gridded Sprinkler System.
A sprinkler system in which parallel cross mains are connected by
multiple branch lines. An operating sprinkler will receive water from
both ends of its branch line while other branch lines help transfer
water between cross mains.

Looped Sprinkler System.


A sprinkler system in which multiple cross mains are tied together
so as to provide more than one path for water to flow to an
operating sprinkler and branch lines are not tied together.

Preaction Sprinkler System.


A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are
attached to a piping system that contains air that might or might
not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system
installed in the same areas as the sprinklers.

Wet Pipe Sprinkler System.


A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a
piping system containing water and connected to a water supply so
that water discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat
from a fire.

5.3

Definition of System Components

Branch Lines. The pipes in which the sprinklers are placed, either

directly or through risers.


Cross Mains. The pipes supplying the branch lines, either directly

or through risers.
Feed Mains. The pipes supplying cross mains, either directly or
through risers.

Flexible Listed Pipe Coupling. A listed coupling or fitting that


allows axial displacement, rotation, and at least 1 degree of
angular movement of the pipe without inducing harm on the
pipe. For pipe diameters of 8 in. (203.2 mm) and larger, the
angular movement shall be permitted to be less than 1 degree
but not less than 0.5 degree.

Risers. The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system.


Sprig-up. A line that rises vertically and supplies a single

sprinkler.
Supervisory Device. A device arranged to supervise the

operative condition of automatic sprinkler systems.


System Riser. The aboveground horizontal or vertical pipe
between the water supply and the mains (cross or feed) that
contains a control valve (either directly or within its supply pipe)
and a waterflow alarm device.

5.4

Types of Sprinkler

According to design and performance characteristics.


Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinkler. A type of
fast-response sprinkler that meets the criteria of 3.6.1(a)(1) and is
listed for its capability to provide fire suppression of specific highchallenge fire hazards.
Extended Coverage Sprinkler. A type of spray sprinkler with
maximum coverage areas as specified in Sections 8.8 and 8.9
NFPA 13.
Large Drop Sprinkler. A type of specific application control mode
sprinkler that is capable of producing characteristic large water
droplets and that is listed for its capability to provide fire control of
specific high-challenge fire hazards.
Nozzles. A device for use in applications requiring special water
discharge patterns, directional spray, or other unusual discharge
characteristics.

10

Old-Style/Conventional Sprinkler. A sprinkler that directs from


40 percent to 60 percent of the total water initially in a downward
direction and that is designed to be installed with the deflector
either upright or pendent.
Open Sprinkler. A sprinkler that does not have actuators or heatresponsive elements.
Quick-Response Early Suppression (QRES) Sprinkler.
A type of quick response sprinkler that meets the criteria of
3.6.1(a)(1) and is listed for its capability to provide fire suppression
of specific fire hazards.
Quick-Response Extended Coverage Sprinkler. A type of quickresponse sprinkler that meets the criteria of 3.6.1(a)(1) and
complies with the extended protection areas defined in Chapter 8,
NFPA 13.
Quick-Response (QR) Sprinkler. A type of spray sprinkler that
meets the criteria of 3.6.1(a)(1) and is listed as a quick-response
sprinkler for its intended use.
Residential Sprinkler. A type of fast-response sprinkler that meets
the criteria of 3.6.1(a)(1) that has been specifically investigated
for its ability to enhance survivability in the room of fire origin and
is listed for use in the protection of dwelling units.

Special Sprinkler. A sprinkler that has been tested and listed as


prescribed in 8.4.9.

Specific Application Control Mode Sprinkler (for Storage


Use). A type of spray sprinkler listed at a minimum operating
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pressure with a specific number of operating sprinklers for a given


protection scheme.

Spray Sprinkler. A type of sprinkler listed for its capability to


provide fire control for a wide range of fire hazards.

Standard Spray Sprinkler. A spray sprinkler with maximum


coverage areas as specified in Sections 8.6 and 8.7 of NFPA 13.

12

According to orientation.

Concealed Sprinkler. A recessed sprinkler with cover plates.

Flush Sprinkler. A sprinkler in which all or part of the body,


including the shank thread, is mounted above the lower plane of the
ceiling.

Pendent Sprinkler. A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a


way that the water stream is directed downward against the
deflector.

Recessed Sprinkler. A sprinkler in which all or part of the body,


other than the shank thread, is mounted within a recessed housing.

Sidewall Sprinkler. A sprinkler having special deflectors that are


designed to discharge most of the water away from the nearby wall
in a pattern resembling one-quarter of a sphere, with a small portion
of the discharge directed at the wall behind the sprinkler.

Upright Sprinkler. A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a


way that the water spray is directed upwards against the deflector.
According to special application or environment.

Corrosion-Resistant

Sprinkler.

sprinkler

fabricated

with

corrosion-resistant material, or with special coatings or platings, to


be used in an atmosphere that would normally corrode sprinklers.

13

Dry Sprinkler. A sprinkler secured in an extension nipple that has a


seal at the inlet end to prevent water from entering the nipple until
the sprinkler operates.

Intermediate

Level

Sprinkler/Rack

Storage

Sprinkler.

sprinkler equipped with integral shields to protect its operating


elements from the discharge of sprinklers installed at higher
elevations.

Ornamental/Decorative Sprinkler. A sprinkler that has been


painted or plated by the manufacturer.

5.5

Classification of Occupants

5.5.1 LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES.


Light hazard occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or
portions of other occupancies where the quantity and/or combustibility
of contents is low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release are
expected.
Churches

Clubs
Eaves and overhangs, if of combustible construction with no

combustibles beneath
Educational
Hospitals
Institutional
Libraries, except large stack rooms
Museums
Nursing or convalescent homes
Offices, including data processing
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Residential
Restaurant seating areas
Theatres and auditoriums, excluding stages and prosceniums
Unused attics

5.5.2 ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES.


Ordinary

Hazard

(Group

1).

Ordinary

hazard

(Group

1)

occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other


occupancies where combustibility is low, quantity of combustibles is
moderate, stockpiles of combustibles do not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m),
and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected.

Automobile parking and showrooms


Bakeries
Beverage manufacturing
Canneries
Dairy products manufacturing and processing
Electronic plants
Glass and glass products manufacturing
Laundries
Restaurant service areas

Ordinary

Hazard

(Group

2).

Ordinary

hazard

(Group

2)

occupancies shall be defined as occupancies or portions of other


occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of contents are
moderate to high, stockpiles do not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m), and fires
with moderate to high rates of heat release are expected.

Cereal mills
Chemical plants ordinary
Confectionery products
Distilleries
Dry cleaners
15

Feed mills
Horse stables
Leather goods manufacturing
Libraries large stack room areas
Machine shops
Metal working
Mercantile
Paper and pulp mills
Paper process plants
Piers and wharves
Post offices
Printing and publishing
Repair garages
Resin application area
Stages
Textile manufacturing
Tire manufacturing
Tobacco products manufacturing
Wood machining
Wood product assembly

5.5.3 EXTRA HAZARD OCCUPANCIES.


Extra Hazard (Group 1). Extra hazard (Group 1) occupancies shall
be defined as occupancies or portions of other occupancies where
the quantity and combustibility of contents are very high and dust,
lint, or other materials are present, introducing the probability of
rapidly developing fires with high rates of heat release but with little
or no combustible or flammable liquids.

Aircraft hangers (except as governed by NFPA 409, Standard

on Aircraft Hangars)
Combustible hydraulic fluid use areas
Die Casting
Metal extruding
Plywood and particle board manufacturing
Printing [using inks having flash points below 100 F (38 C)]
Rubber reclaiming, compounding, drying, milling, vulcanizing
16

Saw mills
Textile picking, opening, blending, garneting, or carding,

combining of cotton, synthetics, wool shoddy, or burlap


Upholstering with plastic foams

Extra Hazard (Group 2). Extra hazard (Group 2) occupancies shall


be defined as occupancies or portions of other occupancies with
moderate to substantial amounts of flammable or combustible
liquids or occupancies where shielding of combustibles is extensive.

Asphalt saturating
Flammable liquids spraying
Flow coating
Manufactured home or modular building assemblies (where

finished enclosure is present and has combustible interiors)


Open oil quenching
Plastics processing
Solvent cleaning
Varnish and paint dipping

17

5.6 Sprinkler
5.6.1 SPRINKLER DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS

5.6.2 TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS

18

5.7 Design Requirements

System requirements and pipe sizes shall be determined using


hydraulic calculations prepared in accordance with NFPA Standards 13
and 13 R.
NFPA 13 - Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems and
NFPA 13R - Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems.
Total demand including hose streams to be calculated with 90%
of the available water supply pressure (i.e.; 10% of the pressure
reserved as a safety factor).
5.8

Design Methodology
1. Determine the hazard classification.
2. Water Demand Requirements Hydraulic Calculation Methods.
3. Water demand requirements
4. Pipe sizing / Schedule
5. Hydraulic Calculation

5.9

Building Fire Hazard Classification


Guest Rooms

Light

Corridors

Light

Meeting Rooms

Light

Toilet Room

Light

Restaurant Seating

Light

Kitchen

Ordinary Group 1

Parking Garage

Ordinary Group 1

Mechanical Rooms

Ordinary Group 1

Electrical Rooms

Ordinary Group 1

Storage Rooms

Ordinary Group 2

Ballroom

Ordinary Group 2
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The ballroom in the hotel is classified as an ordinary group 2 hazard,


ratherthan a light hazard, because occasionally the ballroom will be used as
an exhibition space. If the sprinkler system protecting the ballroom were
designed for a light hazard occupancy, then the hotel would not legally be
permitted to use the ballroom as an exhibition space. While grasping the
concept of sprinkler system hazard classification is difficult because of the
imprecise manner in which the various hazard classifications are defined,
once you become comfortable with the concept, determining hazard
classification is normally an easy task NFPA 13 Hazard classification.
5.10

Water Demand Requirement Hydraulic Calculation Methods


The minimum water supply requirements for a hydraulically designed
occupancy hazard fire control sprinkler system shall be determined by
adding the hose stream demand from Table 11.2.3.1.1 to the water
supply for sprinklers determined in 11.2.3.1.5.
5.10.1

HOSE STREAM DEMAND

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5.10.2

DENSITY/AREA CURVES

The water supply for sprinklers only shall be determined either from
the density/area curves of Figure 11.2.3.1.5 in accordance with the
method of 11.2.3.2 or be based upon the room design method in
accordance with 11.2.3.3, at the discretion of the designer. NFPA 13
Standard.

5.10.3

SYSTEMS WITH MULTIPLE HAZARD CLASSIFICATIONS

For systems with multiple hazard classifications, the hose stream


demand shall be in accordance with one of the following:
(1)Add the hose demand for the highest hazard classification
within the system, or
(2)Add the hose demand for each individual hazard classification
to the calculations for the design area for that hazard, or
(3)For systems with multiple hazard classifications where the
higher classification only lies within single rooms less than or
equal to 400 ft2 in area with no such rooms adjacent, add the

21

hose demand for the principal occupancy for the remainder of


the system.
5.10.4

RESTRICTIONS
Regardless of which of the two methods is used, the

following restrictions shall apply:


(1)For areas of sprinkler operation less than 1500 ft 2 (139 m2)
used for light and ordinary hazard occupancies, the density
for 1500 ft2 (139 m2) shall be used.
(2)For areas of sprinkler operation less than 2500 ft 2 (232 m2) for
extra hazard occupancies, the density for 2500 ft 2 (232 m2)
shall be used.

5.11 Hydraulic Calculation Procedures

5.11.1

GENERAL

A calculated system for a building, or a calculated addition to


a system in an existing sprinklered building, shall supersede the
rules in this standard governing pipe schedules, except that all
systems shall continue to be limited by area.
Pipe sizes shall be no less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) nominal for
ferrous piping and in. (19 mm) nominal for copper tubing or
nonmetallic piping listed for fire sprinkler service.
The size of pipe, number of sprinklers per branch line, and
number of branch lines per cross main shall otherwise be limited
only by the available water supply.
However, sprinkler spacing and all other rules covered in this
and other applicable standards shall be observed.
22

23

5.11. 2 FRICTION LOSS FORMULA


Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis of the
Hazen-Williams formula, as follows:

4.52Q1.85
C 1.85d 4.87

p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe


Q = flow in GPM
C = friction loss coefficient
d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches
For SI units, the following equation shall be used:
1.85
Qm
107
pm 6.05 1.85
4.87
C
d
m

Where:
pm = frictional resistance in kPa per meter of pipe
Qm = flow in L/min
C = friction loss coefficient
dm = actual internal diameter in mm
Velocity

Pressure

Formula.

Velocity

pressure

shall

determined on the basis of the following formula:


0.001123
Q2
pv
D4

Where:

24

be

pv = velocity pressure in psi (SI: 1 psi = 0.0689 bar = 6.89


kPa)
Q = flow in gpm (SI : 1 gal = 3.785 L)
D = inside diameter in inches (SI: 1 in. = 25.4 mm)
Normal Pressure Formula. Normal pressure (Pn) shall be
determined on the basis of the following formula:
pn pt pv

Where:
pn = normal pressure
pt = total pressure in psi (bar)
pv = velocity pressure in psi (bar)

5.11.3 HYDRAULIC JUNCTION POINTS


Pressures at hydraulic junction points shall balance within
0.5 psi (0.03 bar).
The highest pressure at the junction point, and the total
flows as adjusted, shall be carried into the calculations.
Pressure balancing shall be permitted through the use of a Kfactor developed for branch lines or portions of systems using
Kp Q p0.5

5.11.4

EQUIVALENT

PIPE

LENGTHS

OF

VALVES

FITTINGS

25

AND

Table 14.4.3.1.1 (NFPA 13, 2002) shall be used to


determine the equivalent length of pipe for fittings and devices
unless manufacturer's test data indicate that other factors are
appropriate.

Specific friction loss values or equivalent pipe lengths for alarm


valves, dry pipe valves, deluge valves, strainers, and other devices
shall be made available to the authority having jurisdiction.

5.11.5

C-Factors.

Table 14.4.3.1.1 shall be used with a Hazen-Williams C


factor of 120 only. For other values of C, the values in Table
14.4.3.1.1 shall be multiplied by the factors indicated in Table
14.4.3.2 (NFPA 13).

26

5.11.6 ROOM DESIGN METHOD


Where the design is based on the room design method, the
calculation shall be based on the room and communicating
space, if any, that is hydraulically the most demanding.

5.11.7 MAXIMUM PROTECTION AREA OF COVERAGE (LIGHT


AND ORDINARY HAZARD)

27

The maximum allowable protection area of coverage for a


sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the value indicated in
Table 8.6.2.2.1(a) through Table 8.6.2.2.1(d) NFPA 13, 2002.

28

5.11.8 MINIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE


Minimum operating pressure of any sprinkler shall be 7 psi (0.5
bar).

29

5.11.9

PIPE SCHEDULES

Schedule for Light Hazard Occupancies

Schedule for Ordinary Hazard Occupancies

30

5.11.10 Hydraulic Design Calculation

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

5.12

Water Tank Sizing

Use Light Hazard with 30 min duration.


Total Demand of Sprinkler System = 264.865 GPM 300 GPM
Size of Water Tank = (300 GPM)(30 min) = 9000 gal
38

5.13

Fire Pump Selection

Select pump using https://rcwapp.xyleminc.com/fp_select.asp :


Suction Pressure = 0 psi
Total demand including hose streams to be calculated with 90% of
available water pressure
Discharge pressure = 71.867/0.9 = 79.8522 psi, use 80 psi
Developed pressure = 80 0 = 80 psi

Electric Fire Pump

Use 4X4X9.5F Pump Model.

Jockey Pump Selection

Use 1% method in sizing Jockey Pump minimum.


Minimum = 2.5 gpm
Head = 80 x 144/62.4 = 185 ft
http://mthpumps.com/sizing.html

39

For 2.5 GPM, use E41 T41 B

Then
Water flow rate = 2.73 gpm
Head = 185 ft
Efficiency = 38.5%
Bhp = 0.33 hp
Motor hp = 0.33 hp / 0.385 = 0.8571 hp use 1.0 hp

40

6.

SPECIFICATION
6.1

Fire Pump
There are two types of standard fire pump used for the protection

service, the centrifugal and the vertical turbine type, either horizontal
or vertical mounted are permitted to obtain water on positive suction
head only. The vertical turbine type is practically suitable for fire pump
service when the water is located below ground where it would be
difficult to install any other type of pump below the minimum water
level.
Diesel engine drive when used to drive either centrifugal or vertical
turbine fire pump shall be specifically listed for fire pump service by
the testing laboratories. Engines shall be acceptable for horsepower
rating with listed controllers and standard accessories, such as angle
gear drive, governor, over speed shutdown devices, tachometer, oil
pressure gage, temperature gage, instrument panel, factory wiring,
electrical starter, two (2) sets of batteries with battery charger, engine
cooling exchanger system, fuel tank, exhaust muffler and others.
Pressure maintenance or jockey pump shall have rated capacities
not less than any normal leakage rate. They shall have discharge
pressure sufficient to maintain the desired fire protection system
pressure.

6.2

Sprinkler and Accessories

A. General:
1. Minimum sprinkler orifice size shall be 1/2 inch.
2. Sprinklers in non-public spaces such as mechanical/electrical
equipment, and storage rooms and sprinklers on exposed piping shall
have brass finish unless noted otherwise.

41

3. Sprinklers and escutcheons in finished areas to have polished brass


or white finish or finish as noted on plans.
4. Style, size, and temperature rating to be type specifically approved
for such use.
5. Thermosensitive glass bulbs to be of all one color for a given
temperature classification.
6. For each sprinkler style, all sprinklers to be of same type (fusible link
or glass bulb).
B. Upright Sprinklers:
1. Thermosensitive glass-bulb or fusible solder/alloy standard response.
2. Thermosensitive glass-bulb quick response.
3. Fusible solder/alloy quick response.
4. Installation style:
a. Exposed: No escutcheon
C. Pendent Sprinklers:
1. Thermosensitive glass-bulb or fusible solder/alloy standard response.
2. Thermosensitive glass-bulb quick response.
3. Fusible solder/alloy quick response.
4. Installation style:
a. Exposed: No escutcheon.
D. Vertical Sidewall Sprinklers:
1. Thermosensitive glass-bulb or fusible solder/alloy standard response.
2. Thermosensitive glass-bulb quick response.
3. Fusible solder/alloy quick response.
4. Normal or extended coverage type is acceptable.
5. Installation style:
a. Exposed: No escutcheon.

42

E. Horizontal Sidewall Sprinklers:


1.

Thermo

sensitive

glass-bulb

or

fusible

solder/alloy

standard

response.
2. Thermo sensitive glass-bulb quick response.
3. Fusible solder/alloy quick response.
4. Normal or extended coverage type is acceptable.
5. Fixed or field adjustable type is acceptable.
6. Installation style:
a. Exposed: No escutcheon
F. Sprinkler Guards: Metal with red finish.
G. Spare Sprinkler Cabinet: Wall mounted. Storage capacity of not
less than minimum designated by NFPA 13.
H. Sprinkler Wrench: To match style and brand of sprinklers used
Sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. These shall be
local Fire officers approved, pendant glass bulb sprinklers rated for 79
degree C. for sprinklers mounted in non air conditioned areas and 68
degree C. for sprinklers mounted in air conditioned areas, and suitable
for maximum ambient temperature of 50 degree C. sprinklers shall
have k factor of 80 with 15 mm (1/2) MSPT male inlets.
Recessed type of sprinklers shall be installed in the false ceilings
in order to make the surroundings decorative. There shall be a 2-piece
design of the recessed enclosure and mounting plate allows installation
of the sprinklers prior to the installation of the false ceiling. Both
sprinklers and escutcheon plates shall have chrome finish. Toilet and
pantry areas (AHU Plant room) shall be provided with side wall type
sprinklers and shall have chrome finish.

7.

INSTALLATION OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

43

PREPARATION
Ensure concrete bases are provided for floor mounted equipment.
INSTALLATION
A. Install Fire Protection System in compliance with applicable NFPA
standards (as referenced by the authority having jurisdiction.
B. Pipe and Fittings:
1. Acceptable pipe connection methods:
Schedule 40: Cut grooves or threaded.
2. Acceptable pipe size reducers:
a. Reducing fittings.
b. Tapered reducers.
3. Companion flanges or reducing grooved couplings are
unacceptable.
4. Install piping as follows, unless noted otherwise:
a. Parallel to walls.
b. Above suspended ceilings.
c. Behind walls.
5. Galvanized pipe and fittings:
a. Use where exposed to corrosive atmospheres in the
following locations:
Exterior piping.
b. Field paint damaged galvanizing on pipe and fittings.
6. Label piping appropriately.
C. Pipe Supports:
Install hangers in compliance with Section 15140 and NFPA 13
(as referenced by the authority having jurisdiction). All pipe
hangers bolts, nuts, washers and other hardware to be hot
dipped galvanized construction for use at the cooling towers. All

44

outdoor piping to be hot dipped galvanized construction with all


threads coated to prevent corrosion from outdoor elements.
D. Pipe Sleeves and Seals:
Install sleeves and seals in compliance with Section 15140.
E. Drains:
Provide drainage facilities as follows:
a. In accordance with NFPA standards, and as indicated.
b. Drain entire system by gravity.
c. Drain size not less than 3/4 inch.
d. Provide nipple and cap or brass plug for systems or
partial systems of 5 gallons or less.
e. Provide valve and plug for systems or partial systems of
more than 5 gallons.

F. Control Valves:
1. Bolt position on lugged butterfly valves to allow removal of
downstream piping.
G. Sprinklers:
1. Unless noted otherwise, provide sprinkler types as indicated
on drawings.
2. Install sprinklers in fittings after piping is in place.
3. Install exposed sprinklers with frame parallel to branch line.
4. Install sprinkler guards where sprinklers are within 2.2 meters
of floor, or when subject to injury.
5. Line sprinklers up with themselves.
6. Prior to Date of Substantial Completion, deliver spare heads
and wrench and place in spare head cabinet(s).
45

8.

OPERATION OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM


A fire sprinkler system is a network of concealed pipes supplying water

to sprinkler heads located at strategic positions within the property, and its
associated alarm system. The design of the fire sprinklers allows the system
to respond automatically to a growing fire and control it before it can develop
to the point at which lives are endangered and serious damage is done to the
property.
How does the system work?

A fire sprinkler system comprises a number of sprinkler heads, set


either in the ceiling or high on the wall, and attached to pipe work usually
connected to the domestic mains water supply and an alarm system.
Sprinkler heads contains a mechanism which is sensitive to heat and which,
at a predetermined temperature (usually 68 C), releases a plug allowing
water to escape. The flow of water in the system triggers an audio-visual
alarm which can be heard both inside and out. The water is directed onto a
diffuser which is designed to not only break up the water into droplets of a
specific size, it also directs the spray to cover a specific floor and wall area.
Each sprinkler head is individually and directly activated by the heat from
the fire. In the majority of fires just one sprinkler head is triggered and that is
sufficient to deal with the fire. Residential fire sprinkler heads are rated as
quick response heads and it is this speed of reaction that gives the system
its ability to deal with fires when they are small and more easily controllable.
When compared to other fire detection equipment the advantage this speed
of reaction creates is multiplied by the fact that the sprinkler system is
actually starting to control the fire at about the same point in time as a call
would normally be made to the Fire Brigade. Time is a vital factor in dealing
with fires.

46

9.

MAINTENANCE AND TESTING OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

Introduction
When properly installed and maintained, automatic fire sprinkler
systems have proven to be the most effective means for protecting life and
property against fire. In recognition of their excellent track record in
controlling the spread of fire, both state codes and national standards offer
fire sprinklers as a cost-effective alternative to meeting many of their base
code requirements.
A lot is riding, therefore, on a sprinkler systems ability to operate and
function properly. So much so, in fact, that state law prohibits the occupancy
of any portion of a building until the required suppression system has been
tested and approved. Further, it requires that such systems be maintained in
an operative condition at all times and be repaired or replaced when
defective.
In order to meet both certification requirements and licensure
requirements, automatic fire sprinkler systems are required to be inspected,
tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the
Inspection,

Testing,

and

Maintenance

of

Water-Based

Fire

Protection

Systems..
While the provisions in this edition of the standard applicable to fire
sprinkler systems are very similar to those found in the 1998 edition, youll
find that the 2002 edition contains more restrictive testing requirements for
dry sprinklers and sprinklers subjected to harsh environments.
Application
It must be noted that this document is intended to serve as a quickreference guide only and is not intended to be all-inclusive. It covers most,
but not all, of the inspection, testing and maintenance requirements
47

applicable to fire sprinkler systems. Some facilities may have additional


equipment not covered in this guide. It is important, therefore, that the user
have access to, and become familiar with all the requirements found in, NFPA
25.
System types
The requirements contained in NFPA 25 are based on the type of
sprinkler system installed.
The two types most commonly found in healthcare occupancies are
wet pipe and dry pipe sprinkler systems. Some buildings contain both types
of systems a wet pipe system in heated areas and a dry-pipe system in
unheated areas. Simply put, a wet pipe sprinkler system is a piping system
containing water so arranged that water discharges immediately from
sprinklers activated by heat from a fire. A dry pipe sprinkler system is a
piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure so arranged that
upon activation of a sprinkler, the water pressure opens a valve allowing
water to flow into the pipe and out the opened sprinkler.
Definitions
In order to follow the requirements of the standard, its important to
have a good understanding of whats meant by inspection, testing and
maintenance. Those terms are defined in NFPA 25(98), Sec. 1-5 as follows
[see also NFPA 25(02), Sec. 3.3]:
Inspection. A visual examination of a system or portion thereof to verify
that it appears to be in operating condition and is free of physical damage.
Testing. A procedure used to determine the status of a system as
intended by conducting periodic physical checks such as water flow tests,
fire pump tests, alarm tests, and trip tests of dry-pipe valves. These tests

48

follow up on the original acceptance test at intervals specified in the


appropriate chapter of NFPA 25.
Maintenance. Work performed to keep equipment operable or to make
repairs.
Personnel qualifications
It is the facilitys responsibility to ensure that only properly trained and
competent persons perform inspections, testing and maintenance on its fire
sprinkler system. NFPA 25 simply states, These tasks shall be performed by
personnel

who

have

developed

competenceVthrough

training

and

experience. [see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 1-4.2 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 4.1.2.3].
System history
A number of requirements applied to a healthcare facilitys fire
protection systems are based on the age and date of installation of those
systems. Without an accurate written history of the fire protection system(s)
in your facility, it can be difficult to prove to a state or federal life safety
surveyor that those systems are being maintained in accordance with
applicable state and federal standards. This can result in fire/life safety
deficiencies being cited. Turnover of administrative and/or maintenance
personnel only serve to compound the problem. One of the best ways to deal
with this is to create and maintain an historical log on your system(s).
As with just about anything, the hardest part of creating an historical
log is getting started after that, its a matter of keeping it up-to-date. Basic
questions that need to be answered include:

When was the system initially installed? Who installed it?


Were any additions, modifications or repairs made to the
system? When? Who did the work?

49

Its important to note that certain changes made to your building could
necessitate modifications to your fire protection system. Things to watch for
include: construction or removal of walls and installation of such things as
drop-in ceilings, new suspended light fixtures, tracks for lift systems and new
cubicle curtains.

Applicable standards
1. Specific requirements relating to the inspection, testing and maintenance
of fire sprinkler systems can be found in:
Chapters 2 and 9 of the 1998 edition of NFPA 25
Chapters 5 and 12 of the 2002 edition of NFPA 25
2. Specific requirements relating to the inspection, testing and maintenance
of fire pumps can be found in:
Chapter 5 of the 1998 edition of NFPA 25
Chapter 8 of the 2002 edition of NFPA 25
Specific Requirements
The inspection, testing and maintenance requirements that apply to
your buildings fire sprinkler system start from the date of initial installation
and continue on at specific intervals throughout the life of the system. What
follows is a brief synopsis of some of the major requirements you need to be
aware of.
New installations
In order to meet both federal certification requirements and state
licensure requirements, automatic fire sprinkler systems are required to be
installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of
Sprinkler Systems.
All newly installed fire sprinkler systems are required to meet specific
acceptance requirements, such as flushing of fire service mains and testing
50

of both underground and aboveground piping [see NFPA13(99]. These


services must be provided by licensed contractors.
Monthly
The following monthly inspections can be performed by facility staff:
1. Visually inspect control valves to ensure that they are:

In the normal open position


Accessible
Properly sealed
Locked and/or supervised
Free from leaks
Provided with appropriate

signage

identifying

the

portion of the system they control


2. Visually inspect gauges on wet pipe systems to verify that they are
in good condition and that normal water pressure is being maintained.
3. Visually inspect gauges on dry pipe systems to verify that they are
in good condition and that normal air and water pressure are being
maintained.
Note: Where air pressure is not supervised at a constantly attended location,
these gauges need to be inspected on a weekly basis.

51

Quarterly
1. The following quarterly inspections are in addition to those required
monthly and can be performed by facility staff:
a. For hydraulically designed sprinkler systems, inspect the hydraulic
nameplate to verify that its securely attached to the sprinkler riser and
is legible.
Note: Most newly installed fire sprinkler systems are now hydraulically
designed.
b. Inspect alarm devices to verify that they are free of physical
damage.
c. Inspect fire department connections to verify that:
They are visible and accessible
Couplings or swivels are not damaged and rotate

smoothly
Plugs or caps are in place and not damaged
Gaskets are in place and in good condition
Identification signs are in place
The check valve is not leaking
The automatic drain valve is in place and operating
properly

2. With proper training the following quarterly tests can be performed by


facility staff:
a. Test the waterflow alarm on wet pipe sprinkler systems by opening
the inspectors test connection. This simulates the opening of a
sprinkler head.
Note: Where freezing weather conditions or other circumstances
prohibit the use of the inspectors test connection, the bypass
connection is allowed to be used.

52

b. Test the waterflow alarm on dry pipe sprinkler systems by using the
bypass connection.
Caution: Opening the inspectors test connection can cause the system
to trip accidentally, allowing the pipes to fill with water and creating a
potential for a serious freeze problem.
Annually
In addition to the monthly and quarterly inspections and tests, NFPA 25
has very detailed and specific inspection, testing and maintenance services
that need to be performed on an annual basis. Because of their complexity,
and to comply with Minnesota state law, these services must be performed
by a licensed sprinkler contractor and would include such things as:
An inspection of the facilitys supply of spare sprinkler
heads to ensure that there are a minimum of two
sprinklers of each type and temperature rating and that

there is a sprinkler wrench for each type of sprinkler.


A check of all sprinklers, hangers, pipe and fittings
Testing of the main drain
Testing of any antifreeze solution used
Testing and maintenance of valves

Dry pipe sprinkler systems require some additional testing and


maintenance. Priming water level, low pressure alarms and quick-opening
devices must be tested. An annual trip test is also required.
Long term
1. A full flow trip test is required for dry pipe sprinkler systems every 3 years
[see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 9-4.4.2.2.1 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 12.4.4.2.2.2].
2. Sprinkler system gauges typically have a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years.
As a result, these gauges must be replaced every 5 years or tested every 5
years by comparison to a calibrated gauge. Gauges not accurate to within 3
53

percent of the full scale must be recalibrated or replaced [see NFPA 25(98),
Sec. 2-3.2 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 5.3.2].
3. System check valves must be inspected internally every 5 years to verify
that all components operate properly, move freely and are in good condition
[see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 9-4.2.1 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 12.4.2.1].
4. The 1998 edition of NFPA 25 has specific requirements dealing with testing
of
sprinkler heads that have been in service for an extended period of time [see
NFPA 25(98), Sec. 2-3.1]. These requirements, which emphasize the
importance of knowing the history of your facilitys fire sprinkler system,
would include:
a. Sprinklers manufactured prior to 1920 must be replaced.
b. Representative samples of solder-type, extra-high temperature
sprinklers (i.e. 325-375 F) that are exposed to semi-continuous or
continuous maximum allowable ambient temperature conditions are
required to be tested at 5 year intervals. These would be sprinklers you
might find, for example, in your boiler room and would have redcolored frame arms.
c. Sprinklers manufactured using fast response elements that have
been in service for 20 years are required to be tested. Retesting is
required at 10-year intervals.
Note: The first residential sprinkler was listed for service in 1981
and the first quick response sprinkler was listed for service in
1983.
d. Sprinklers that have been in service for 50 years must be replaced.
An alternative is to submit representative samples from one or more
sample areas to a recognized testing laboratory. Such tests are
required to be repeated at 10-year intervals.
e. Sprinklers in service for 75 years are required to be replaced or
representative samples submitted for testing. Retesting is then
required at 5-year intervals.
54

5. The 2002 edition of NFPA 25 has the following additional testing


requirements [see NFPA 25(02), Sec. 5.3.1]:
a. Dry sprinklers that have been in service for 10 years must be tested
or replaced. They must be retested at 10-year intervals.
b. Where sprinklers are subjected to harsh environments, including
corrosive atmospheres and corrosive water supplies, the sprinklers
must be replaced or representative samples tested every 5 years.
Note: Harsh environments have been interpreted to include
areas exposed to outside weather (e.g. sprinklers installed under
exterior canopies) and cold storage areas (e.g. coolers and
freezers).
Fire pumps
1. Fire pumps, where present, are also subject to very specific inspection,
testing and maintenance requirements to help ensure that they will function
properly when needed. Some of the basics include:
a. Fire pumps must be inspected weekly to verify that the pump
assembly
appears to be in operating condition and is free from physical damage
[see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 5-2 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 8.2 for specific
conditions
that must be checked].
b. Fire pump assemblies must be tested weekly [see NFPA 25(98), Sec.
5-3.2

or

NFPA 25(02),

Sec. 8.3

for specific

observations

and

adjustments that need to be made while the pump is running].


c. An annual test of the fire pump assembly is required. This test must
be conducted under minimum, rated and peak flows of the pump [see
NFPA

55

25(98), Sec. 5-3.3 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 8.3.3 for specific visual
observations, measurements and adjustments that need to be made
while the pump is running and flowing water under the specified output
condition].
2. NFPA 25 requires that a preventive maintenance program be established
on all components of the pump assembly in accordance with manufacturers
recommendations [see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 5-5 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 8.5].
Note: NFPA 25 provides a helpful table to use in the absence of
manufacturers recommendations for preventive maintenance [see
NFPA 25(98), Table 5-5.1 or NFPA 25(02), Table 8.5.3].
Documentation Requirements
Just as important as conducting required inspections, testing and
maintenance is documenting the fact that they occurred. Both NFPA 13 and
NFPA 25 require that these services be properly recorded. What follows is a
brief synopsis of some of the major documentation requirements you need to
be aware of.
Initial installation records
As mentioned earlier makes it unlawful to occupy any portion of a
building until the required suppression system has been tested and
approved. A proof that all underground and above ground piping related to
the fire sprinkler system has been properly tested, including flushing of
underground piping and hydrostatic testing of aboveground piping [see NFPA
13(99), Sec. 10-2]. Proper documentation serves as evidence that this has
occurred.
1. Initial records must, at a minimum, include:
a. Name of installation contractor

56

b. Contractors Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground


Piping [see NFPA 13(99), Figure 10-1(a)]
c. Contractors Material and Test Certificate for Underground
Piping [see NFPA 13(99), Figure 10-1(b)]
2. In addition, the installing contractor is required to provide you with
the following [see NFPA 13(99), Sec. 10-4]:
a. All literature and instructions provided by the manufacturer
describing proper operation and maintenance of all equipment
and devices installed, and
b. A copy of NFPA 25 (Be aware that you very likely will not
receive a copy of the 1998 edition of NFPA 25, but rather the
latest edition of the standard adopted by NFPA).
3. The installing contractor is required to identify hydraulically
designed systems with a permanently marked weatherproof sign
properly

secured

near

the

valve

controlling

the

corresponding

hydraulically designed area [see NFPA 13(99), Sec. 10-5]. This sign
must include the following information:
a. Location of the design area(s)
b. Discharge densities over the design area(s)
c. Required flow and residual pressure demand at the base of the
riser
d. Occupancy classification or commodity classification and
maximum permitted storage height and configuration
e. Hose stream demand included in addition to the sprinkler
demand
Note: A sample information sign can be found in Appendix
A to NFPA 13 [see Figure A-10-5].
Monthly, quarterly, annual and long term records
Sample forms for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire sprinkler
systems can be found in Appendix B of the 1998 edition of NFPA 25 or in
57

Annex B of the 2002 edition of NFPA 25. These forms should be available
through your local fire sprinkler contractor.
Sample reports are also available for dry pipe sprinkler systems and
fire pumps as follows (again, these reports should be available through your
local fire sprinkler contractor):
Inspection,

testing

and

maintenance

of

dry

pipe

sprinkler systems [see NFPA 25(98), Appendix B, Figure


B-5 or NFPA 25(02), Annex B.
Inspection, testing and maintenance of fire pumps [see
NFPA 25(98), Appendix B, Figure B-11 or NFPA 25(02),
Annex B.
Dry pipe system trip tests
1. A tag or card showing the following must be attached to dry pipe system
valves [see NFPA 25(98), Sec. 9-4.4.2.5 or NFPA 25(02), Sec. 12.4.4.2.5]:
Date dry pipe valve last tripped
Name of person and organization conducting the test
2. Separate records of initial air and water pressure, tripping air pressure and
dry pipe valve operating condition must be maintained on the premises for
comparison with previous test results.
Its important that at least two people in your facility know where your
records are kept to increase the likelihood that they can be readily provided
if requested during an inspection.
It is required that these records be maintained on the premises for at
least three years and must be copied for the fire code official on request.

10.

ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ANALYSIS

10.1

Cost Estimates

EQUIPMENT, MATERIAL AND INSTALLATION COST


58

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

AMOUNT,

QR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

11.

EVALUATION,

Galvanized steel pipes and fittings


Fire sprinklers
Piping ancillaries
Hose reel unit and extinguishers
Fire Pumps
Sundries
Builders work

230,000.00
110,000.00
13,500.00
175,320.00
130,000.00
21,000.00
5,700.00

SUB TOTAL

685520.00

12 PERCENT MARK UP

82262.40

TOTAL PROJECT COST

767782.40

OBSERVATION,

CONCLUSION

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

EVALUATION AND OBSERVATION


The following are my evaluation and observation:
1. The fire pumps are tested annually for proper operation according to
NFPA
1911.Iits operation cost is very small.
2. The fire sprinkler are separately piped and hydraulically design only for
that
piping up to a discharge pressure than is desired to the remote area
design.
3. NFPA is the major reference in this report.

CONCLUSION
In the design of fire sprinkler system, only the most remote area is
considered. Getting the required water demand and pressure develop.
59

Sizing fire pump is from the sum of sprinkler water demand and hose
demand. Fire pump package includes on-duty fire pump which is electric
driven, standby fire pump which is diesel engine driven and a jockey pump
to maintain the system pressure which is also electric driven. This for
hotel which is a multilevel residential building, the main parts of the
design that need further consideration the calculation of the required
pressure at the most remote sprinkler.

RECOMMENDATION
Standard procedure based on NFPA 13, 13R and other related standard
shall be consulted first before proceeding the design.

60

12.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bromann, Mark. The Design and Layout of Fire Sprinkler Systems, 2nd Ed. CRC
Press 2001.
Cheung, K.P. Fire Services Installations in Hong Kong
www.arch.hku.hk/~kpcheung/fire/fire23.html
Gummerhaul, M.L. and Pennel G.T. Hotel and Motel Fire Sprinkler Systems
Article in www.pmengineer.com, Nov. 1, 2008.
Fire Sprinkler System Maintenance and Inspection
www.firesystems.net/inspections/sprinkler_systems.htm
How to Size a Pump and Tank
www.thedsystem.com/hf_pages/dsys_c.html
Maintenance and Testing of Fire Sprinkler System
www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fpc/Firesprinklers2.pdf
NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Fire Sprinkler Systems, 2002 Ed.
NFPA 13R Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential
Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height. 2002 Ed.
NFPA 20 - Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection.
2003 Ed.
Qatar Construction Specification, Section 23

61

APPENDICES

62

APPENDIX A - FIRE PUMPS


MODEL BROCHURE

63

APPENDIX B - SPRINKLER
MODEL BROCHURE

64

APPENDIX C - SPRINKLER
SYSTEM PIPING LAYOUT
(MECHANICAL PLANS SIZE
A3)
(Floor Plans, Riser Diagram,
General Notes and
Specifications, Standard
Details, Equipment Schedule)

65

APPENDIX D QUICK
REPORTS

66

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT................................................................................1

2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT.........................................................2

3.

IMPORTANCE OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT........................................................2

4.

LIMITATION OF THE ENGINEERING REPORT..........................................................2

5. ENGINEERING DESIGN PROPER..............................................................................3


5.1 Design Definitions........................................................................................... 3
5.2 Types of Sprinkler Systems.............................................................................. 6
5.3 Definition of System Components...................................................................8
5.4

Types of Sprinkler........................................................................................... 9

5.5

Classification of Occupants..........................................................................12

5.5.1

LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES...............................................................12

5.5.2

ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES........................................................13

5.5.3

EXTRA HAZARD OCCUPANCIES..............................................................14

5.6 Sprinkler......................................................................................................... 16
5.6.1

SPRINKLER DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS...........................................16

5.6.2

TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS.........................................................16

5.7 Design Requirements...................................................................................... 17


5.8 Design Methodology...................................................................................... 17
5.9 Building Fire Hazard Classification.................................................................17
5.10 Water Demand Requirement Hydraulic Calculation Methods....................18
5.10.1 HOSE STREAM DEMAND........................................................................18
5.10.2

DENSITY/AREA CURVES.........................................................................19

5.10.3

SYSTEMS WITH MULTIPLE HAZARD CLASSIFICATIONS...........................19

5.10.4

RESTRICTIONS...................................................................................... 20

5.11 Hydraulic Calculation Procedures.................................................................20


5.11.1 GENERAL................................................................................................ 20
5.11. 2 FRICTION LOSS FORMULA......................................................................21
5.11.3 HYDRAULIC JUNCTION POINTS.................................................................22
5.11.4 EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS............................22
5.11.5 C-Factors................................................................................................ 23
67

5.11.6 ROOM DESIGN METHOD..........................................................................24


5.11.7 MAXIMUM PROTECTION AREA OF COVERAGE (LIGHT AND ORDINARY
HAZARD)............................................................................................................ 24
5.11.8 MINIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE.............................................................26
5.11.9 PIPE SCHEDULES....................................................................................27
5.11.10 Hydraulic Design Calculation................................................................28
5.13 Fire Pump Selection..................................................................................... 36
6.

SPECIFICATION................................................................................................ 38
6.1 Fire Pump...................................................................................................... 38
6.2 Sprinkler and Accessories.............................................................................. 38

7.

INSTALLATION OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM....................................................40

8.

OPERATION OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM........................................................42

9.

MAINTENANCE AND TESTING OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM.............................43

10. ENGINEERING ECONOMICS ANALYSIS............................................................54


10.1 Cost Estimates............................................................................................ 54
11. EVALUATION, OBSERVATION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............54
12. BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................. 56
APPENDICES............................................................................................................. 57
APPENDIX A - FIRE PUMPS MODEL BROCHURE.........................................................58
APPENDIX B - SPRINKLER MODEL BROCHURE..........................................................59
APPENDIX C - SPRINKLER SYSTEM PIPING LAYOUT (MECHANICAL PLANS SIZE A3)...60
APPENDIX D QUICK REPORTS.................................................................................61

68