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IEC 61850 BASED SUBSTATION

AUTOMATION SYSTEM (SAS)


Presented By : Nikunj Patel (176233)

For The Thesis Topic : Communication Protocols


of SCADA and Protection relays, on the basis of
AREVA DCS system PACiS
Guided By: dr hab. in., prof. Waldemar Rebizant

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

INTRODUCTION
Substation Automation Systems (SASs) are widely used
for the purpose of control, protection, monitoring,
communication etc. in substations to improve the
reliability of the power system.
SASs adopting IT based solutions such as Ethernet LAN
have recently become more common.
Although hardwired control has been used in the past in
earlier versions of SAS utilizing simple communication
methods.
Moreover, the IEC61850 standard has been issued as the
new global communication standard for substations.
The standard consists of ten parts, the final part being
issued in 2005. Subsequently IEC61850 has been applied
widely in SASs around the world.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

WHAT IS IN THIS PRESENTATION


In this presentation, I will describe our
experience of an IEC61850 based SAS,
including system design and build
methods.
In addition, I will also cover concepts
for system build and detailed system
configuration.
The benefits of IEC61850.
Points
to
be
considered
for
implementation of IEC61850 and issues
that are experienced in practical
application of the standard together

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

OVERVIEW OF SUBSTATION AUTOMATION


SYSTEM (SAS)
Background to SAS application :
The SAS is a system that provides the automation functions for monitoring,
control and protection within a substation and utilizes recent improvements
in the fields of electronics, information and communication technologies.
Application of SASs to substations began in the 1980's, and systems applied
in accordance with international standard specifications such as Ethernet
and TCP/IP, etc. as well as systems that utilized proprietary methods from
different manufacturers have been applied from the early1990's.
IEC 61850, the international standard for communications within
substations was established between 2003 to 2005 and has become very
popular and its application has increased very rapidly in recent years.
A major break-through has been achieved with the application of the IEC
61850 standard. This is the realization of Interoperability which is one of
the key objectives of this standard.
The new standard continues to have a large impact on the design and
implementation of SASs.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

Basic functions of
SAS :

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

IEC61850 BASED SAS


System design and build
method :

When the system configuration


has been agreed it is necessary
to select the IEDs using the
Small distribution substation
following steps:
Medium-sized distribution substation
(a) Select an IEC61850 based IED in
Large distribution substation
accordance with the functional
Small transmission substation
specification..
Large transmission substation
Redundant architecture should be (b) If an IEC61850 based IED is
considered in the SAS build based onunavailable in correspondence with
the user philosophy and importance the specification, we have to select
of the substation.
an IED equipped with an international
communication
standard
(e.g.
IEC60870-5-103)
to
ensure

Types of
Substations :

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

When an IEC 61850 based SAS is applied to a substation, the


following two points should be considered:
(a) The avoidance of system unavailability due to a single point of failure.
(b) To provide an integration solution for non-IEC61850 devices/signals from other
equipment/substation.

SAS configuration consists of the system components shown in Fig.


which is the minimum configuration necessary to achieve all of the
SAS functions.

COMPONENTS OF IEC-61850
BASED SAS
IEC 61850 Based substation automation
system (SAS)

(a) Operator workstation:


This is an HMI (Human Machine Interface) device which is used to perform
control and monitoring operations for the entire substation. Engineering
tasks, such as database maintenance and relay setting can be equipped in
this HMI device.
(b) Station computer:
The station computer is a substation server device providing control and
monitoring functions, a remote control centre interface function, data
recording function, etc. Moreover, as it is one of the most important devices
in the system the hardware that is used is for industrial applications, with
the emphasis on dependability.
(c) BCU (Bay Control Unit):
This is a multifunction control and monitoring unit equipped with a control
and monitoring function at bay level for a single line.
BCUs are provided for each line and mounted in the LCP (Local Control Panel)
or control device.
The BCU executes control processing in response to commands from the
operator workstation or remote control centre under normal operational
conditions.
The BCU is also provided with an LCD having a system display function.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

(d) Station bus:


This shows an intra-substation LAN which is compliant with the IEC 61850 standard
for establishing connection with the various IEDs. The ring topology shown in Fig. 1
has the following features:
- Shorter total cable length
- Redundant communication path
- Prevention of data looping for broadcasting data using RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree
Protocol, IEEE802.1w)
Ring-type configured LAN with application of RSTP is more widely used.
RSTP is a protocol through which communication paths are logically formed in a star
configuration. It controls the transmission paths in such a way as to prevent a loop
of multi-address transmission data. In addition, in the event of a failure in one of the
transmission paths it also provides a function to reconfigure the paths at high
speed

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

In the next step, the Logical Nodes (LNs) and communication services
will be selected in accordance with user requirements.
If appropriate LNs or signals for the required functions are not defined in
IEC61850, the use of generic LNs such as GGIO or extension of LNs will
be required. In this case, the application of GGIO or extension of LNs
must be kept to a minimum and with great care in order to achieve
interoperability between IEDs.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

Introduction of Logical nodes


Communication relations in a Substation Automation
System

Information is exchanged between alldevices (IED)which comprise the


system.
More precisely, data are exchanged between the functions andsub-functions
residing in the devices.
The smallest part of the function that exchanges data is calledLogical Node
(LN)in IEC 61850.
The LN performs some operations for the overall function.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND


FUNCTIONS
(a)

To adopt a redundant configuration for the station computer and operator


workstation, the common devices at station level, in order to prevent the loss of
the total system due to one failure.

(b) To ensure communication reliability by adopting a redundant configuration of


Ethernet switches at the station level connecting the station bus with the station
computer and operator workstation which are redundant as mentioned in above
discussion.
(c) To ensure redundant paths by adopting a ring topology with a redundant feature for
the station bus. Furthermore separating the ring configuration into several rings can
also improve the dependability.
(d) Ethernet switches on the IED side are common to several IEDs. Failure of the power
supply will have the greatest impact as it will result in the total loss of function of
the switch itself. Therefore it would be preferable that the power supply for each
switch was redundant to increase reliability.
(e) We also have to consider how to integrate information from non-digital devices or
non-IEC 61850 devices in the substation or in protection relay panels .To integrate
this information into the system, an IFU (Interface Unit) can be used which has

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)
The Fig. below shows the actual system configuration that adopts
the concept and solutions described above.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

GOOSE (GENERIC OBJECT ORIENTED


SUBSTATION EVENT.)
The general functions for protection and control are equipped within
this SAS together with distributed functions using GOOSE messages.
The GOOSE is one of the particularly important features of
IEC61850.
GOOSE is a high speed peer-to-peer communication protocol used
between IEDs
And by using GOOSE messaging it is possible to greatly reduce the
number of control cables and contacts between IEDs.
Examples of GOOSE messages are listed for the following
application functions:
- Autoreclosing (between relay and BCU/CB)
- Intertripping (between relay and relay)
- Blocking (between relay and relay/BCU)
- Interlocking (between BCU and BCU)

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

CONFORMANCE AND PERFORMANCE


TEST
The communication conformance test procedures
are defined in IEC61850-10 and the
communication performance is specified in
IEC61850-5. Conformance tests have been carried
out at an independent test laboratory (e.g. KEMA).
However, the communication performance test is
out of the scope of an independent test laboratory
at the moment, hence this test must be
considered in the product type test and/or routine
test by the product supplier.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

BENEFITS AND ISSUES TO BE IMPROVED IN


IEC-61850
Benefits :

We have shown that it is possible to realize the following benefits using


standard information models (LNs) and communication services specified in
the standard:
-

Multi-vender interoperability
High speed communication between IEDs
Lower installation, extension and engineering costs
Easier extension of functions and implementation of new functions

ISSUES :

- In some parts of the standard, descriptions are not clear and interpretation
is difficult. Hence, it is possible that different users may reach a different
understanding of a particular description.
- All functions and signals required in substations are not defined as LNs.
Hence, generic LNs (GGIO) are often used or extended LNs are defined and
applied. But, these cause difficulty for interoperability.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

The standard LNs contain many optional settings/signals and extension of


LNs is allowed to cover various kinds of applications. However,
interoperability, which is the purpose of IEC61850, can only be reliazed in
the case of identical communication services, LN data structure and
definition for each set of data exchanged between IEDs.

For the above mentioned issues, the following measures


are also necessary in order to achieve interoperability:
- The improvement and revision to updating the standard is needed and this
is ongoing under IEC/TC57/WG10 and he second edition of the standard
will be issued within the next few years.
- Users should consider having their own document covering communications
requirements including standard LNs, communication services and
definitions for each data/signal for the LNs corresponding to their specified
functions.

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

QUESTIONS ???

IEC 61850 Based substation automation


system (SAS)

THANKS FOR YOUR


ATTENTION