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# PHYSICS PROJECT REPORT ON "LOGIC GATES"

## A Gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows some

logical relationship between the input and output voltages. It is a
digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through as stop,
it is called a gate.
The

Logic

Gates

are

building

blocks

at

digital

## electronics. They are used in digital electronics to change on

voltage level (input voltage) into another (output voltage)
according to some logical statement relating them.
A logic gate may have one or more inputs, but it has only
one output. The relationship between the possible values of input
and output voltage is expressed in the form of a table called truth
table or table of combinations.
Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all the input
and output possibilities for the logic gate.

## George Boole in 1980 invented a different kind of algebra based

on binary nature at the logic, this algebra of logic called BOOLEAN
ALGEBRA. A logical statement can have only two values, such as
HIGH/LOW,

ON/OFF,

CLOSED/OPEN,

CONDUCTING/NON-CONDUCTING etc.

YES/NO,

TRUE/FALSE,

## statements one denoted by the binary number 1 and 0. The

binary number 1 is used to denote the HIGH value. The logical
statements that logic gates follow are called Boolean expressions.
TYPES OF GATES
There are three types of basic logic gates which follows
Boolean expression.
i)

OR gate

ii)

AND gate

iii)

NOT gate

THE OR GATE
The OR gate is a two inputs and one output logic gate.

It

## combing the input A and B with the output Y following the

Boolean expression.
Y=A+B
The Boolean algebra, the addition symbol (+) is called OR (i.e.
OR operation OR operator).
The various possible combinations of the input and output of
the OR gate can be easily understand with the help of the
electrical circuit. In this electric circuit, a parallel combination of
two switches A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L.

## The following interference can be easily drawn from the working

of electrical circuit is :
a)

b)

c)

d)

## As we see truth table we found same as it is observation.

THE AND GATE
The AND gate is also a two inputs and one output logic gate. It
combines the input A and B with the output Y following the
Boolean expression.
Y=A.B
The Boolean algebra, the multiplication symbol (. dot or x Gross)
is taken to mean AND.
Y = A . B have Y is equal to A AND B.
The various possible combination of the input and outputs of the
AND gate can be easily found with the help of the electrical
circuit.

## The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of

electrical circuit :
a)

If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0) then lamp will

## not glow. (y=0)

b)

If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then Lamp will not

glow. (y=0)
c)

If switch A open & B closed (A=0, B=1) then Lamp will not

glow. (y=0)
d)

## If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then Lamp will

glow. (y=1)
As we see truth table we found same as it is observed
experimentally.
THE NOT GATE
The NOT gate is a one inputs and one output logic gate. It
combines the input A with the output following the Boolean
expression.
Y=A
i.e. Y not equal A. The way, the NOT gate gives the output it is
also called inverter. It is represented by the symbol.
The Boolean algebra, the negative sign (-) is called NOT. The
equation Y= A called Boolean expression.

## The possible input and output combination of a NOT gate can

be easily discussed with the help of electrical circuit. Here, the
switch is connected in parallel to the lump of the battery. The
following conclusion can be easily drawn from the working of the
electrical circuit.
a)

If switch A is open (i.e. A=0), the lump will glow (i.e. Y=1)

b)

## If Switch A is closed (i.e. A=1), the lump will not glow

(Y=0).
It follows that in the given electrical circuit, the lump glows (or
output is obtained), when the switch A is not closed. Far this
reason, the electrical circuit is called not gate. The two possible
input-output combinations can be written in the form of the table.
It is called truth table of NOT gate.