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# RATIO AND PROPORTION

Ratio : The ratio of two qualities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we
write it as
a:b.
In the ratio a:b, A is known as the antecedent and b is known as the consequent.
Ex: The ratio 5:9 represents 5/9 with antecedent=5 , consequent=9

Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. If a:b=c:d, we write a:b::c:d
and we say that a,b,c and d are in proportion. Here a and b are called extremes, while b
and c are called mean terms.
Product of means=product of extremes
Thus, a:b::c:d or (𝑏𝑏 × 𝑐𝑐) = (𝑎𝑎 × 𝑑𝑑)

Compounded Ratio
Ratios are compounded by multiplying together the antecedents for a new antecedent,
and the consequents for a new consequent.

## Ex- Find the compounded ratio of the following ratios-

3:4, 2:3, 4:5 and 3:8
Sol:
3×2×4×3 3
The required ratio = = .
4×3×5×8 20

Important terms:
1. Fourth proportional: If a:b::c:d, then d is called the fourth proportional to a,b and c.
2. Third proportional: If a:b::b:c, then c is called third proportional to a and b.
3. Mean proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is SQRT(a*b).
4. Compounded ratio: The compounded ratio of the ratios (a:b), (c:d),(e:f) is (ace:bdf).
5. Duplicate Ratio: If the given ratio is (a:b) then its duplicate ratio is (𝑎𝑎2 : 𝑏𝑏 2 ).
6. Sub-duplicate ratio of (a:b) is �√𝑎𝑎: √𝑏𝑏�.
7. Triplicate ratio of (a:b) is (𝑎𝑎3 : 𝑏𝑏 3 )
3 3
8. Sub-triplicate ratio of (a:b) is � √𝑎𝑎: √𝑏𝑏�.
9. Reciprocal ratio of a : b is b : a
10. Inverse Ratio of a:b is b:a.

Important Properties:
1. Invertendo. If a : b :: c : d then b : a :: d : c
2. Alternendo. If a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d
3. Componendo. If a : b :: c : d then (a +b) : b :: (c +d) : d
4. Dividendo. If a : b :: c : d then (a -b) : b :: (c -d) : d
5. Componendo and Dividendo.
If a : b :: c : d then (a +b) : (a -b) :: (c +d) : (c -d)
i.e., a/b = c/d => (a +b)/(a - b) = (c +d)/(c +d)
6. If a/b = c/d = e/f = ..., then each ratio = (a +c +e +...)/(b +d +f +...)
Which is same as ( pa + qc + re +. . . )/( pb + qd + rf + . . . )
i.e
a/b = c/d = e/f
=(a +c +e +...)/(b +d +f +...)
= ( pa + qc + re +. . . )/( pb + qd + rf + . . . )
= ( pna + qnc + rne +. . . )1/n/( pnb + qnd + rnf + . . . )1/n

where p, q, r, etc. are constants such that all of them are simultaneously not equal to
zero.

## Some important terms used:

1. Ratio of equality : If the antecedent is equal to the consequent in a ratio then the ratio is
known as the ratio of equality. Eg – 6:6
2. Ratio of greater inequality : If the antecedent is greater than the consequent in a ratio
then the ratio is known as the ratio of greater inequality. Eg – 11:6
3. Ratio of less inequality : If the antecedent is less than the consequent in a ratio then the
ratio is known as the ratio of less inequality. Eg – 6:11

Proportional Division
The process by which a quantity may be divided into parts which bear a given ratio to one
another, is called proportional division and the parts are known as proportional parts.
For Example : Divide the quantity ‘a’ in the ratio x:y:z then
𝑥𝑥
First Part = × 𝑎𝑎
𝑥𝑥+𝑦𝑦+𝑧𝑧

𝑦𝑦
Second Part = × 𝑎𝑎
𝑥𝑥+𝑦𝑦+𝑧𝑧

𝑧𝑧
Third Part = × 𝑎𝑎
𝑥𝑥+𝑦𝑦+𝑧𝑧

VARIATION:
1. We say that x is directly proportional to y, if x=ky for some constant k and we write
𝑥𝑥 𝑦𝑦
2. We say that x is inversely proportional to y, if xy=k for some constant and we write
1
𝑥𝑥
𝑦𝑦

Solved examples:

1. Divide 121 into 3 parts such that the ratio of the three numbers is 2:4:5.

2
Sol: Ist part = × 121 = 22
2+4+5

4
IInd part = × 121 = 44
2+4+5

5
IIIrd part = × 121 = 55
2+4+5

b:c = 3:7

## Now, we will equalize the value of b in both the ratios

Thus, we get
a : b = (4 : 5) x 3
b:c = (3 : 7) x 5

Thus we get,
a : b = 12 : 15
b:c = 15 : 35

## Thus by definition we get -

3 : 5 :: 6 : x

On solving –
𝟑𝟑 𝟔𝟔 𝟔𝟔×𝟓𝟓
= 𝒐𝒐𝒐𝒐 𝒙𝒙 = 𝒐𝒐𝒐𝒐 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏
𝟓𝟓 𝒙𝒙 𝟑𝟑

## Then, according to the definition we get,

4 16 16 ×16
4 ∶ 16 ∶ : 16 ∶ 𝑥𝑥 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = = 64.
16 𝑥𝑥 4

## Hence, the third proportion to 4, 16 is 64.

5. Find three numbers in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3, so that the sum of their squares is equal to
350.

Ist part = x = 5

## 6. Find mean proportion between 9 and 36.

Sol: Let the mean proportion be x. Then according to the question we get –

9 𝑥𝑥
9 ∶ 𝑥𝑥 ∶ : 𝑥𝑥 ∶ 36 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 2 = 9 × 36 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = (18) 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 (−18)
𝑥𝑥 36

## Sol: Let 3A=4B=5C=k then we get

𝑘𝑘 𝑘𝑘 𝑘𝑘
𝐴𝐴 = , 𝐵𝐵 = , 𝐶𝐶 =
3 4 5

𝑘𝑘 𝑘𝑘 𝑘𝑘
𝐴𝐴: 𝐵𝐵: 𝐶𝐶 = : : = 20: 15: 12
3 4 5

## 8. If 0.75 : x :: 5 : 8, then x is equal to:

0.75 5 6
Sol: = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 0.75 × 8 = 5𝑥𝑥 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 1.20
𝑥𝑥 8 5

9. The salaries A, B, C are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5. If the increments of 15%, 10% and 20% are
allowed respectively in their salaries, then what will be new ratio of their salaries?

## Sol: Let A = 2k, B = 3k and C = 5k.

115 23𝑘𝑘
A's new salary = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 2𝑘𝑘 =
100 10

110 33𝑘𝑘
B's new salary = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 3𝑘𝑘 =
100 10

120
C's new salary = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 5𝑘𝑘 = 6𝑘𝑘
100

23𝑘𝑘 33𝑘𝑘
Therefore, � : : 6𝑘𝑘� = 23: 33: 60
10 10

1 2 3
10. If Rs. 782 be divided into three parts, proportional to ∶ ∶ , then the first part is:
2 3 4

1 2 3 1 2 3 12 24 36
Sol: We are given the proportion as ∶ ∶ = 12 � ∶ ∶ �= ∶ ∶ =6∶8∶9
2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

6 6
Now according to the question the first part will be = × 782 = × 782
6+8+9 23

= 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 204

11. Two number are in the ratio 3 : 5. If 9 is subtracted from each, the new numbers are in
the ratio 12 : 23. The smaller number is?

## Sol: Let the numbers be 3x and 5x.

3𝑥𝑥−9 12
Then, = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 23(3𝑥𝑥 − 9) = 12(5𝑥𝑥 − 9 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 9𝑥𝑥 = 99 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 11
5𝑥𝑥−9 23
The smaller number = (3 × 11) = 33

12. In a bag, there are coins of 25 p, 10 p and 5 p in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. If there is Rs. 30 in all,
how many 5 p coins are there?

## 25𝑥𝑥 10×2𝑥𝑥 5×3𝑥𝑥 60

Then, sum of their values = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. � + + � = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 𝑥𝑥
100 100 100 100

60𝑥𝑥 30 ×100
Now, according to the question- = 30 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = = 50
100 60

## Hence, the number of 5 p coins = (3 x 50) = 150.

13. In a partnership, two men invest \$2000 and \$3000. If the net profit of \$13500 at the end
of the year is divided in accordance with the amount each partner invested, then the man
who invested more gets?

2000 2
Sol: The ratio in which each of them invested is = .
3000 3

## Now the second man invests more.

3 3
The amount of profit who invested more = × 13500 = × 13500 = \$8100
2+3 5

14. 24-carat gold is pure gold. 18-carat gold is 3/4 gold and 20-carat gold is 5/6 gold. The ratio
of pure gold in 20-carat gold to pure gold in 18-carat gold is?
Sol: The amount of pure gold in 20 carat gold is 5/6 gold.

## The amount of pure gold in 18 carat gold is 3/4 gold.

Now the ratio of pure gold in 20 carat gold and 18 carat gold is

5
5×4 20 10
=6= = =
3 6×3 18 9
4

15. The ratio of Science and Arts students in a college is 4:3.If 14 Science students shift to Arts
then the ratio becomes 1:1.Find the total strength of Science and Arts students.
Sol: The ratio of Science and Arts students is 4:3. Now when 14 Science students shift to

## Arts then the ratio becomes-

4𝑥𝑥−14
=
3𝑥𝑥+14
Now according to the question:
4𝑥𝑥−14
= 1 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 4𝑥𝑥 − 14 = 3𝑥𝑥 + 14 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 28
3𝑥𝑥+14

Now, the total strength of Science and Arts students = 4𝑥𝑥 + 3𝑥𝑥 = 7𝑥𝑥 = 7 × 28 = 196

16. A certain amount of money is to be divided between A and B in the ratio 3:1.But because
of a miscalculation A received 1/14 of the total money additionally. Find the ratio in which
they divided the money.

## Sol: Let the money to be divided be Rs. 28.

Now, the original shares for A and B should be Rs. 21 and Rs. 7 respectively.

## Now, according to the question-

1
A received 1/14th of the total adiitionally. So he got 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. × 28 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 2 extra.
14

21+2 23
Now the changes ratio in which they divided the money for A:B = = .
7−2 5

17. The value of a diamond is proportional to the square of its weight. It is broken into three
pieces whose weights are in the ratio 3:2:5. Find the loss incurred due to breakage if the
value of the original diamond is Rs.20,000.

## Sol: Let the original weight of the diamond be 10x.

Now, when it is the three parts will have the weights 3x, 2x and 5x.
According to the question-
20000
𝑘𝑘(10𝑥𝑥)2 = 20000 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 100𝑥𝑥 2 𝑘𝑘 = 20000 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑘𝑘 = 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑘𝑘 = 200
100
Now when the diamond breaks-

The price will be = 𝑘𝑘(3𝑥𝑥)2 + 𝑘𝑘(2𝑥𝑥)2 + 𝑘𝑘(5𝑥𝑥)2 = 9𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 2 + 4𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 2 + 25𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 2 = 38𝑘𝑘𝑥𝑥 2

On putting value of kx2 from above we get the final price as = 38 × 200 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 7600

## Thus the loss incurred = Rs. (20000 – 7600) = Rs. 12400.

18. Two numbers are in the ratio 5:6.If 22 is added to the first number and 22 is subtracted
from the second number then the ratio of the two numbers becomes 6:5.Find the sum of
the two numbers.

## Sol: Let the numbers be 5x and 6x.

Now according to the question-

1st number becomes 5x+22 and the 2nd number becomes 6x-22.

5𝑥𝑥+22
Now the new ratio =
6𝑥𝑥−22

## According to the question –

5𝑥𝑥 + 22 6
= or 5(5𝑥𝑥 + 22) = 6(6𝑥𝑥 − 22) 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 25𝑥𝑥 + 110 = 36𝑥𝑥 − 132
6𝑥𝑥 − 22 5

## 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 11𝑥𝑥 = 110 + 132 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 11𝑥𝑥 = 242 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑥𝑥 = 22

Now the sum of the two numbers = 5𝑥𝑥 + 6𝑥𝑥 = 11𝑥𝑥 = 11 × 22 = 242.

19. The ratio of two numbers is 5:6.If a number is added to both the numbers the ratio
becomes 7:8.If the larger number exceeds the smaller number by 10, find the number

## Now according to the question –

6x-5x=10 or x=10.

Now when a number ‘n’ is added is added to both then the new ratio is given by –

5𝑥𝑥 + 𝑛𝑛 7
= 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 8(5𝑥𝑥 + 𝑛𝑛) = 7(6𝑥𝑥 + 𝑛𝑛) 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 40𝑥𝑥 + 8𝑛𝑛 = 42𝑥𝑥 + 7𝑛𝑛
6𝑥𝑥 + 𝑛𝑛 8

## 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 8𝑛𝑛 − 7𝑛𝑛 = 42𝑥𝑥 − 40𝑥𝑥 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑛𝑛 = 2𝑥𝑥 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑛𝑛 = 2 × 10 = 20

Thus, we get that the number added to both the numbers was 20.

20. Salaries of Ravi and Sumit are in the ratio 2 : 3. If the salary of each is increased by Rs.
4000, the new ratio becomes 40 : 57. What is Sumit's present salary?

## Now according to the question –

2𝑥𝑥 + 4000 40
= 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 57(2𝑥𝑥 + 4000) = 40(3𝑥𝑥 + 4000)
3𝑥𝑥 + 4000 57

𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 114𝑥𝑥 + 228000 = 120𝑥𝑥 + 160000 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 6𝑥𝑥 = 68000 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 3𝑥𝑥 = 34000
Now, Sumit’s preseny salary = Rs. (3x+4000) = Rs. (34000 + 4000) = Rs. 38000

21. The sum of three numbers is 98. If the ratio of the first to second is 2 :3 and that of the
second to the third is 5 : 8, then the second number is:

## Sol: Let the three number be a, b and c.

Now, a : b = 2 : 3

b:c = 5:8
Now, a : b : c = 10 : 15 : 24 ( Refer to Q2. Above)

15 15
Now, the second number = × 98 = × 98 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 30
10+15+24 49

4 2
22. A and B together have Rs. 1210. If of A's amount is equal to of B's amount, how
15 5

## Now according to the question –

4 2
𝑥𝑥 = 𝑦𝑦 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦 = 1210
15 5

So we get,

3 3 5
𝑥𝑥 = 𝑦𝑦 and 𝑦𝑦 + 𝑦𝑦 = 1210 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑦𝑦 = 1210 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑦𝑦 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅. 484
2 2 2

23. Two numbers are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third number. The ratio of the
two numbers is:

## Sol: Let the third number be x.

120𝑥𝑥 6𝑥𝑥
Then, first number = 120% of x = =
100 5

150𝑥𝑥 3𝑥𝑥
Second number = 150% of x = =
100 2

6𝑥𝑥 3𝑥𝑥
Therefore, the ratio of first two numbers = � : � = 12𝑥𝑥: 15𝑥𝑥 = 4: 5
5 2
24. Seats for Mathematics, Physics and Biology in a school are in the ratio 5 : 7 : 8. There is a
proposal to increase these seats by 40%, 50% and 75% respectively. What will be the ratio
of increased seats?

Sol: Originally, let the number of seats for Mathematics, Physics and Biology be 5x, 7x and
8x respectively.

Number of increased seats are (140% of 5x), (150% of 7x) and (175% of 8x).

Therefore the required ratio = ( 140% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 5𝑥𝑥 ∶ 150% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 7𝑥𝑥 ∶ 175% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 8𝑥𝑥

## = 140 × 5 ∶ 150 × 7 ∶ 175 × 8

=2∶3∶4

25. The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a college is 7 : 8. If the percentage increase in
the number of boys and girls be 20% and 10% respectively, what will be the new ratio?

Sol: Originally, let the number of boys and girls in the college be 7x and 8x respectively.

## Their increased number is (120% of 7x) and (110% of 8x).

Therefore the required ratio = 120% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 7𝑥𝑥 ∶ 110% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 8𝑥𝑥
= 120 × 7: 110 × 8
= 21 ∶ 22

## 26. A sum of money is to be distributed among A, B, C, D in the proportion of 5 : 2 : 4 : 3. If C

gets Rs. 1000 more than D, what is B's share?

Sol: Let the shares of A, B, C and D be Rs. 5x, Rs. 2x, Rs. 4x and Rs. 3x respectively.
Then, 4x - 3x = 1000
Or x = 1000.

## B's share = Rs. 2x = Rs. (2 x 1000) = Rs. 2000.

27. If 40% of a number is equal to two-third of another number, what is the ratio of first
number to the second number?

2
Sol: 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 40% 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐴𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵
3

40 2
𝑇𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒, 𝐴𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵
100 3

2 2
𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐴𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐴𝐴 ∶ 𝐵𝐵 = 5 ∶ 3
5 3
28. In a mixture 60 litres, the ratio of milk and water 2 : 1. If the this ratio is to be 1 : 2, then
the quantity of water to be further added is:

2
Sol: Quantity of milk = 60 × litres = 40 litres
3

## Quantity of water in it = (60- 40) litres = 20 litres.

New ratio = 1 : 2

## Let quantity of water to be added further be x litres.

𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 40
Then, =
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 20+𝑥𝑥

40 1
Now, =
20+𝑥𝑥 2

Or 20 + x = 80 or x = 60

## Therefore, Quantity of water to be added = 60 litres.

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