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Single-phase half-bridge inverter

ECE 442 Power Electronics

Operational Details

3-wire DC source

Consists of 2 choppers, 3-wire DC source


Transistors switched on and off alternately
Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 (upper device)
Each provides opposite polarity of Vs/2 across the load
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Q1 on, Q2 off, vo = Vs/2

Peak Reverse Voltage of Q2 = Vs


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Q1 off, Q2 on, vo = -Vs/2

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Waveforms with resistive load

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Look at the output voltage

rms value of the output voltage, Vo

2
Vo
To

1
2

V
Vs
0 4 dt 2

To
2

2
s

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Fourier Series of the instantaneous output


voltage
ao
vo an cos(nt ) bn sin(nt )
2 n 1
ao , an 0
0

Vs
1 Vs
bn
sin(nt )d (t ) sin(nt )d (t )
2
2
0

2Vs
bn
n 1,3,5,...
n

2Vs
vo
sin(nt )
n 1,3,5,.. n
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rms value of the fundamental component

2Vs
vo
sin nt
n 1,3,5,.. n
1 2Vs
Vo1
2
Vo1 0.45Vs

ECE 442 Power Electronics

When the load is highly inductive

ECE 442 Power Electronics

Turn off Q1 at t = To/2


Current falls to 0 via D2, L, Vs/2 lower

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-

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Turn off Q2 at t = To
Current falls to 0 via D1, L, Vs/2 upper

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-

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Load Current for a highly inductive load

Transistors are only switched on for a quarter-cycle, or 90


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Fourier Series of the output current for an


RL load

vo
vo
2Vs
io

sin(nt n )
Z R jn L n 1,3,5,... n R 2 (n L)2

n L
n tan (
)
R
1

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Fundamental Output Power


In most cases, the useful power

Po1 Vo1 I o1 cos 1 I R


2
o1

2Vs
Po1
2
2
2 R ( L)

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DC Supply Current
If the inverter is lossless, average power
absorbed by the load equals the average
power supplied by the dc source.
T

v (t )i (t )dt v (t )i (t )dt
s

For an inductive load, the current is


approximately sinusoidal and the fundamental
component of the output voltage supplies the
power to the load. Also, the dc supply voltage
remains essentially at Vs.
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DC Supply Current (continued)

1
0 is (t )dt Vs

2Vo1 sin(t ) 2 I o sin(t 1 )dt I s

Vo1
Is
I o cos(1 )
Vs

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Performance Parameters
Harmonic factor of the nth harmonic (HFn)

Von
HFn
Vo1

for n>1

Von = rms value of the nth harmonic component


V01 = rms value of the fundamental component

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Performance Parameters (continued)


Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Measures the closeness in shape between a
waveform and its fundamental component

1
2
THD
( Von )
Vo1 n 2,3,...

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1
2

18

Performance Parameters (continued)


Distortion Factor (DF)
Indicates the amount of HD that remains in a
particular waveform after the harmonics have
been subjected to second-order attenuation.
2

1
Von
DF
2
Vo1 n2,3,... n
Von
DFn
2
for n>1
Vo1n
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1
2

19

Performance Parameters (continued)


Lowest order harmonic (LOH)
The harmonic component whose
frequency is closest to the fundamental,
and its amplitude is greater than or equal
to 3% of the amplitude of the fundamental
component.

ECE 442 Power Electronics

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Single-phase full-bridge inverter

ECE 442 Power Electronics

21

Operational Details

Consists of 4 choppers and a 3-wire DC source


Q1-Q2 and Q3-Q4 switched on and off alternately
Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 and Q3 (upper)
Each pair provide opposite polarity of Vsacross the load
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Q1-Q2 on, Q3-Q4 off, vo = Vs

+ Vs -

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Q3-Q4 on, Q1-Q2 off, vo = -Vs

- Vs +

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When the load is highly inductive


Turn Q1-Q2 off Q3-Q4 off

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Turn Q3-Q4 off Q1-Q2 off

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Load current for a highly inductive load

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INVERTERS
In SEE 4433, regardless of the control method, the circuit topology of singlephase inverter are of two types: Full-bridge and half-bridge
A.

Full-bridge inverter
Q1

D1

Vdc

vo

Q3

D3

Q2

D2

io
Q4

D4

Upper and lower switches cannot


be ON simultaneously
Depending on the switches
positions, there can be 3 possible
output voltage:
(Vdc), (-Vdc) and 0

INVERTERS
In SEE 4433, regardless of the control method, the circuit topology of singlephase inverter are of two types: Full-bridge and half-bridge
B.

half-bridge inverter

C1
Vdc
C2

+
Vdc/2

+
Vdc/2

Q1
+

vo

D1

Q2

D2

The capacitors equally devide the


voltage Vdc
Depending on the switches
positions, the output voltage can
be either (Vdc/2) or (Vdc/2)

INVERTERS
Square-wave inverter (with full-bridge)
S1, S2

S3, S4

S1, S2

It can be shown that:

Can also be implemented using


half-bridge inverters

INVERTERS
Square-wave inverter (with full-bridge)
Current path for inductive load:

Q1

D1

Vdc

vo

Q3

D3

Q2

D2

io
Q4

D4

SEE EXAMPLE 8-2

INVERTERS
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
THD is used to measure the quality of the AC voltage or current

The closer the waveform to sinusoidal, the smaller is the THD


Can be applied to voltage or current

SEE EXAMPLE 8-3

INVERTERS
Quasi-square wave inverter Amplitude and harmonic control

Duration of ZERO output voltage is introduced and it can be shown that:

Amplitude of the fundamental component can be


controlled (by controlling )
Certain harmonic contents can be eliminated (also by
controlling !)
Amplitude and harmonics cannot be controlled independently
Cannot be implemented using the half-bridge inverter.

INVERTERS
Quasi-square wave inverter Amplitude and harmonic control

Fourier series of the output voltage is given by:

vo (t) =

V sin ( nw t )
n

n,odd

where

Vn =

4Vdc
cos ( na )
np

INVERTERS
Quasi-square wave inverter Amplitude and harmonic control
Amplitude control
Amplitude of fundamental component:

V1 =

4Vdc
cos (a )
p

By changing the amplitude of the fundamental will change


Harmonic control
The nth harmanic can be eliminated if its amplitude made zero
For example, the amplitude of the third harmonic (n=3) is zero when
= 30o

V3 =

4Vdc
cos ( 3(30 o )) = 0
3p

INVERTERS
Quasi-square wave inverter Amplitude and harmonic control
Simultaneous control of amplitude and harmonic
In order to be able to control amplitude and harmonic simultaneously, variable
Vdc has to be added

Vn =

4Vdc
cos ( na )
np

Controlled via DC link

Fixed DC voltage

DC-DC Variable
DC
converter

Inverter

Load

INVERTERS
Quasi-square wave inverter Amplitude and harmonic control
Switching signals (full-bridge inverter)

S1

S1

S2

S2

S3

S3

S4

S4

INVERTERS
Pulse Width Modulation
Is a method used to control the output voltage (amplitude and frequency)
of an inverter by modulating the width of the pulses of the output
waveform
Main advantages of PWM control:
Filter requirement is reduced
Amplitude and frequency can be control independently
Significant reduction in THD of load current (inductive load)
Disadvantages of PWM control:
More complex control circuit
Higher switching losses
In SEE4433, two switching scheme for single-phase inverter will be
discussed:
Bipolar switching scheme
Unipolar switching scheme

INVERTERS
Pulse Width Modulation
Bipolar switching scheme

(vsine > vtri) : Q1 and Q2 ON; vo=Vdc


(vsine < vtri) : Q3 and Q4 ON; vo=-Vdc

INVERTERS
Pulse Width Modulation
Bipolar switching scheme
fsine

Frequency modulation index

ftri
Vm,sine

mf =
Vm,tri

ftri
fsin

Amplitude modulation index

ma =

Vm,sin
Vm,tri

The amplitude of the


fundamental component of
vo is proportional to ma:
V1=maVdc

INVERTERS
Harmonics in PWM single-phase inverter

INVERTERS
Harmonics in PWM single-phase inverter : Bipolar switching scheme
If mf is chosen as odd integer with the triangular wave synchronize
with the modulating signal, then the PWM output is an odd quarter
wave symmetry.
an = 0 and bn exist only for odd vo (t ) Vn sin(no t )

n 1

Graphically, this can be represented using


frequency spectrum diagram :

OR using a normalized Fourier coefficients table:

INVERTERS
Pulse Width Modulation
Unipolar switching scheme

(vsine > vtri) : Q1 ON, Q4 OFF; va= Vdc


(vsine < vtri) : Q1 OFF, Q4 ON; va= 0
(-vsine > vtri) : Q3 ON, Q2 OFF; vb= Vdc
(-vsine < vtri) : Q3 OFF, Q2 ON; vb= 0

Vab = va - vb

INVERTERS
Harmonics in PWM single-phase inverter : Unipolar switching scheme
The frequency of the output voltage is doubled.
If mf is chosen as even integer then the first cluster of harmonics
appear around 2mf (the harmonic at 2mf itself is zero)
Graphically, this can be represented using
frequency spectrum diagram :

Or using a normalized Fourier coefficients table:

INVERTERS
Harmonics in PWM single-phase inverter :
Comparison between square wave and PWM
SQUARE-WAVE
Contains harmonics at relatively low frequency: 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, etc.
In order to improve the THDV , a low pass filter can be employed filter
will be bulky since cutoff frequency is low difficult to remove
harmonics since at the same time must ensure fundamental component is
not attenuated.
PWM
Harmonics appear around mf which is further away from fundamental.
To improve THDV, filter with higher cutoff can be used smaller in size
easier to filter out harmonics.
PWM
mf = 21

Square wave

11

13

1
25

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

INVERTERS
Three-phase inverters
Six-step inverter
S1

S3

S1

S2
S3

Vdc

S4

S5

S5

S6

S4
Vdc

vAo

S2

THDV of line-line and line-n are both 31%


THDI of line current depends on load,
however it will be smaller than the single
phase

vBo
vCo

vAB

vAn

S6

2
Vdc
3

1
Vdc
3

INVERTERS
Three-phase inverters
PWM inverter

mf is chosen to be multiple of 3 so that


the harmonic at multiple of 3, including
mf (and its multiple) are suppressed (or
canceled out) in the line-line voltage

Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverters


Applications:
ac motor drives
Uninterruptible ac power supplies
Where a sinusoidal ac output is required whose
magnitude and frequency both have to be controlled

Terminal voltage is adjustable


in its magnitude and frequency

8-1

Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Bi-directional power flow

8-2

Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Basic concepts

Inverters with single- and three-phase


ac outputs will be discussed
Input is dc voltage source
Such inverters are called voltage-source
inverters (VSI)
The other type of inverter is a currentsource inverter (CSI) where the input is
a dc current source
Discussion will be limited to VSI
Four-quadrant operation
Rectifier mode: quadrants 2 and 4
Inverter mode: quadrants 1 and 3

8-3

Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Basic concepts (contd)

vo can be assumed to be sinusoidal


io will lag vo since the inverter will drive an
inductive load such as a motor
In interval 1, both vo and io are positive and
interval 3, both vo and io are negative
Therefore during intervals, 1 and 3, po=voio will
be positive, and power will flow from the dc to ac
side which is the inverter mode of operation
During the intervals 2 and 4, vo and io will be
opposite signs, and power will flow from the ac
side to the dc side which is the rectifier mode of
operation
Thus, switch-mode inverters are capable of
operating in all four quadrants

8-4

Synthesis of a Sinusoidal Output by PWM

One-leg inverter

Inverter output to be sinusoidal with


voltage and frequency controllable
Vd/2
Inverter switching frequency is
determined by
- Sinusoidal control signal which is
used to modulate the switch duty ratio and
-Vd/2
has a frequency f1.
- Triangular waveform
Output voltage magnitude fluctuates
between Vd /2 and Vd /2
Output voltage frequency is determined
by the control signal frequency

Frequency modulation ratio, mf=fs/f1


8-5

Single Phase Half-Bridge Inverter

Two equal capacitors are connected in series across the dc input


Vd /2 is the voltage across each capacitor
Items of importance:
- peak amplitude of the fundamental frequency component Vo1 is
ma (=Vcontrol /Vtri) times Vd /2
- harmonics in the inverter output voltage waveforms

8-6

Single Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (contd)

The switches T+ and T- are controlled based on the comparison of vcontrol and vtri
When vcontrol > vtri , T+ is on and vAo=Vd /2
When vcontrol < vtri , T- is on and vAo=-Vd /2
Since the two switches are never off simultaneously, the output voltage vAo fluctuates
between Vd /2 and -Vd /2.
8-7

Harmonic Spectrum of VAo

The normalized harmonic voltages


with significant amplitudes are
plotted
This plot shows three items of
importance:
The peak value of the fundamental
frequency component is ma times
Vd/2.
Harmonics appear as side bands,
cantered around the switching
frequency
The harmonic mf should be an odd
integer.

8-8

Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo


The peak amplitude of the fundamental-frequency component (VAo)1 is
ma times Vd/2. This can be explained by first considering a constant
vcontrol as shown in the following figure.

The average output voltage (or more specifically, the output voltage
averaged over one switching time period Ts = 1/fs) VAo depends on the
ratio of Vcontrol to Vtri for a given Vd
V Ao

V
Vd
control

2
V tri

Vcontrol V tri
8-9

Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo (Contd)


Let us assume that Vcontrol varies very little during a switching time
period, that is, mf is large.
Therefore, assuming Vcontrol to be constant over a switching time
period, following figure indicates how the "instantaneous average"
value of vAo (averaged over one switching time period Ts) varies from
one switching time period to the next. This "instantaneous average" is
the same as the fundamental-frequency component of vAo.

8-10

Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo (Contd)


The average output voltage (or more specifically, the output voltage
averaged over one switching time period Ts = 1/fs) VAo depends on the
ratio of Vcontrol to Vtri for a given Vd
v control Vcontrol sin 1t

Vcontrol V tri

Vcontrol sin 1t Vd
v Ao 1
Vcontrol V tri

2
V tri
V
m a sin 1t d
for m a 1.0
2
Therefore,
V
V Ao 1 ma d
2

which shows that in a sinusoidal PWM, the amplitude of the


fundamental-frequency component of the output voltage varies linearly
with ma. Therefore, the range of ma from 0 to 1 is the linear range.
8-11

Harmonics in the Inverter Output Voltage VAo


The harmonics in the inverter output voltage waveform appear as sidebands,
centered around the switching frequency and its multiples, that is, around
harmonics mf, 2mf, 3mf, and so on. This general pattern holds true for all
values of ma in the range 0-1.
the harmonic amplitudes are almost independent of mf, though mf defines the
frequencies at which they occur. Theoretically, the frequencies at which
voltage harmonics occur can be indicated as
fh = (jmf k)f1
that is, the harmonic order h corresponds to the kth sideband of j times the
frequecy modulation ratio mf.
h = j(mf) k
where the fundamental frequency corresponds to h = 1. For odd values of j,
the harmonics exist only for even values of k. For even values of j, the
harmonics exist only for odd values of k.

8-12

Harmonics in the Inverter Output Voltage VAo

8-13

Single-Phase Full-Bridge Inverter

Consists of two one-leg inverters


Preferred over other arrangements in higher power ratings
With the same dc input voltage, output voltage is twice that of the half-bridge inverter

8-14

PWM to Synthesize Sinusoidal Output

When TA+ is ON, vAo=Vd/2


When TB- is ON, vBo= - Vd/2
vBo(t)= - vAo(t)
vo(t)= vAo(t) - vBo(t) = 2 vAo(t)

Peak of the fundamental frequency


component:
V o1 ma Vd

where the amplitude modulation ratio


ma

Vcontrol
1.0
Vtri

Output voltage switches between Vd


and - Vd

8-15

Example 1: Switch-mode inverter (one phase-leg, half bridge)


A general analysis of the switch-mode inverter (shown in the figure below) is to be
done. The switching frequency fs, which is also the frequency of the triangular signal
is 1450 Hz. The DC voltage, Vd, is 600 V. Output voltage is sinusoidal voltage with a
frequency equal to 50 Hz. The load is connected between the inverter leg A and the dc
voltage midpoint o.
+

Vd

+
Vd /
2+
Vd /
2-

TA+

DA+
A

io

TA-

+
DA-

vA
N-

Find the frequency modulation ratio, mf.


Calculate the output voltage (rms value of 1. harmonic), when the amplitude
modulation ratio, ma, is equal to 0.8?
Prove that (Vo1)peak = ma (Vd / 2 ).
Compute the rms value of the 5 most dominant harmonics of vAo (at ma=0,8), by
using Table 8-1, page 207. Also indicate the frequencies at which these
harmonics appear.
8-16

Example 2: Bipolar single phase half bridge inverter

8-17

Single-Phase Push-Pull Inverters

requires a transformer with a center-tapped


primary
T1 is ON (and T2 is OFF):
vo=Vd/n, where n is the transformer
turns ratio.
T2 is ON (and T1 is OFF):
vo= - Vd/n
The peak value of the fundamental
component of the output voltage:
Vo1= ma (Vd/n)

8-18

No more than one switch in series conducts at any instant of time


Less switching voltage drops
Thus, this results in a significant improvement in energy efficiency

8-19

Three-Phase Inverter

Used to supply three-phase loads


Three single-phase inverters could be used, however, 12 switches are
necessary, as a result, less efficient
Consists of three legs, one for each phase
One of the two switches in a leg is always ON at any instant
Output of each leg depends on Vd and the switching status
8-20

8-21

Summary
dc-to-ac converters are known as inverters
The function of an inverter is to change the dc input voltage to an ac output
voltage of desired magnitude and frequency
The output voltage waveforms of ideal inverters should be sinusoidal
However, the output of practical inverters contains harmonics
For high power applications, low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required
Harmonic contents could be minimized by the use of high-speed
semiconductor switching techniques
Inverters are widely used in industrial applications
- motor drives, UPS, induction heating, standby power supplies, etc.
- input may be a battery, fuel cell, solar cell, or there dc source
dc-to-ac inverters can make smooth transition into the rectification mode,
where the flow of power reverses from the ac side to the dc side
Two types of inverters: single-phase inverters and three-phase inverters

8-22

Voltage Control of Single-Phase Inverters

Commonly-used Techniques
Single-Pulse-Width-Modulation
Multiple-Pulse-Width-Modulation
Sinusoidal-Pulse-Width-Modulation
Modified-Sinusoidal-Pulse-Width-Modulation
Phase-Displacement Control

ECE 442 Power Electronics

Single-Pulse-Width-Modulation

ECE 442 Power Electronics

One Pulse per Half-Cycle


Pulse Width Controls the Output Voltage

ECE 442 Power Electronics

Carrier and Reference Signals

Gate Pulse
Gate Pulse

Compare the Reference Signal with the Carrier


Frequency of the Reference Signal determines
the frequency of the Output Voltage
Modulation Index = M = Ar/Ac
ECE 442 Power Electronics

Gate Signals and Output

ECE 442 Power Electronics

rms value of the Output Voltage

2
Vo
2

2
V
d
(

t
)
s

1
2

Vo Vs

0 180
0 Vo Vs
ECE 442 Power Electronics

Fourier Series for the Output Voltage

4Vs
n
vo (t )
sin sin nt
2
n 1,3,5,... n

ECE 442 Power Electronics

Times and angles of the intersections

TS
1
t1
(1 M )

2
TS
2
t2
(1 M )

2
Pulse width d (or pulse angle )

d t2 t1 MTS

ECE 442 Power Electronics

TS = T/2

Harmonic Profile

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Multiple-Pulse-Width-Modulation

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Multiple Pulses per Half-Cycle


of Output Voltage

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Gate Signal Generation

Compare the Reference Signal with the Carrier


Frequency of the Reference Signal determines the
Output Voltage Frequency
Frequency of the Carrier determines the number of
pulses per half-cycle
Modulation Index controls the Output Voltage
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Gate Signals and Output Voltage

Number of pulses per half cycle = p = fc/2fo = mf /2


where mf = frequency modulation ratio
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rms Value of the Output Voltage


( p ) / 2

2p

2
Vo
V
d
(

t
)
s

( ) / 2

1
2

Vo Vs

0 M 1
T
0
2p
0

p
0 Vo Vs
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Fourier Series of the Output Voltage

vo (t )

n 1,3,5,...

Bn sin nt

4Vs
n
Bn
sin
4
m 1 n
2p

sin n( m 4 ) sin n( m 4
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The times and angles of the intersections


m
Ts
tm
(m M )

2
tm

m
T
(m 1 M ) S

The pulse width d (or pulse angle )

TS = T/2p

d tm1 tm MTS

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Harmonic Profile

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