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SANSKRIT PRIMER:
BASED ON THE

LEITFADEN

FUR DEN ELEMENTAR-CURSUS DES SANSKRIT


PROFESSOR GEORG BUHLER
OF VIENNA

BY

EDWARD DELAVAN PERRY,


OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW-YORK.

BOSTON:
GINN AND COMPANY
1885.

C(Hp.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885,

By

E. D.

perry,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Composition

53re0S&3orft

Iig

SCHONEBERGER StRASSE,
Berlin, SW.

ig

JOHN WILSON AND SON,

GEBRiJDER UNGER.
17

university press.

Cambridge, Mass.

Preface.

In the preface to the work* of which the following

is

a revision,

Prof. BiiHLER writes as follows:

"The following

Leitfaden

was written

and, printed in manuscript form,


quite a large

number of

Haug's and

mj own

was used

scholars.

method of Sanskrit

practical

last winter [1881

It

in the

82],

instruction of

based upon the purely

is

which was introduced

instruction,

at

instance into the Indian secondary schools,

and has become established there by means of R. G. Bhandarkar's


text-books.
versities

is

The attempt

is

method

first difficulties

that learners take the

language.

most

lively

fiir

fact that

ex-

have found that

own
at

part

is

in the

given them

once into the living

Moreover, the question of economy of time

Leitfaden

stiicken

i?iy

and continued interest

and they are introduced

more weighty by the


*

European uni-

of Sanskrit very rapidly, and

study, if opportunity for activity on their


first,

For

to be gained thereby.

beginners master the

from the very

to

by the practical success which, as

justified

perience shows,

to transfer this

is

made

the

the elements of Sanskrit form an

den Elementarcursus des Sanskrit; mitUebungsVon Geoug Buiiler. Wien, 1883.

und zwei Glossaren.

have translated above a

little freely.

important aid to students of Classical and Germanic Philology, yet


to a large

number of such are

accessible only

On

can be mastered in a short time.

when

the subject

the other hand, the disad-

vantages necessarily entailed by the purely practical method

may

readily be removed later by a short methodical exposition of the

The

grammar

the

verses in

exercises are taken chiefly

from Boehtlingk's Indischen Spriichen; the sentences are

in part

derived from various Sanskrit works, or modelled after passages

To

contained in them.

the last lessons no Sanskrit exercises have

been appended, since the reading of the Nala or of some other


easy Sanskrit work

may

very well be begun as soon as the form-

ation of the perfect has been learned."

some time

After using the Leitfaden for

class,

was convinced

of

its

in the instruction of

great merits as a practical intro-

duction to the language; while on the other hand

unfortunate that

which,

since

America
stances

it

the

at least

it

held throughout to the native system of grammar,

book has been

have learned to

distrust.

Under

to attempt a combination of

really rewritten.

An

in.

these circum-

with Whitney's theory; and to

giving a general view


cises

we

appearance of Prof. Whitney's work,

seemed advisable

practical exercises

seemed very

it

Buhler's

this

end the

introduction has been added,

of the structure of the language; the exer-

have been pruned here and there, chiefly to remove forms

which seemed too unusual or doubtful


the beginner's

memory; and

duced from forty-eight to


needlessly

full for

the

have a just claim on

number of lessons has been

forty-five,

beginners,

to

re-

by condensing the description,

of the aorist, precative, and second-

ary conjugations.

I have endeavored to retain nothing but

would supply the

real

wants of those for

whom

the

book

what
is

de-

who may

signed; yet here and there, having in mind those

up

without a teacher, I have added explanations which

this study

I should otherwise have left for oral communication

by the

instructor.

detailed explanation of the changes in the grammatical part

of the book would require too

much space

to be given here.

They

be summarized in the statement that I have striven to remove

may
all

take

forms

present "non

at

In the explication of the

quotable".

rules I have sought to be brief, but never to the sacrifice of clear-

In

ness.

very

many

cases not only the substance but also the

words of Prof. Whitney's

rules have been incorporated into those

of the Primer, which was done with his sanction.


needless to designate

all

seemed quite

such borrowings by quotation-marks.


are due to those

Many acknowledgments

possible the appearance of the work.


rosity in

It

whose

aid has

made

Prof. Bijhler's ready gene-

consenting to the rendering of his book into a very

different

form from that which he gave

mention.

To

Prof.

Whitney

owe deep

it

deserves most grateful

gratitude for

many

valu-

able suggestions; he was kind enough to look over the work in

manuscript, and,

later, to

put at

my

disposal the advance sheets of

his invaluable collection of verb -forms.

equally indebted; as well for


task of looking over

me

not a

(Tii.

Grimm) of

of the

Lanman

am

proof-sheets, which he imposed on himself

little in

acknowledgments are

Prof.

useful hints as for the arduous

many

with characteristic readiness.


assisted

To

My

pupil,

Mr. A. V.

W.

Jackson,

the compilation of the Glossaries.

also

due

to

the

Berlin, for the careful

printers,

manner

in

My

Gebr. Unger

which

their part

work has been done.

From V.

S.

Apte's "Guide

derived occasional examples.

to Sanskrit

Composition"

have

The appearance

of the book has been delayed considerably

beyond the date originally planned for


in

November

last,

was

but

it.

interrupted

sulting stay of considerable length in the


I

notify

by

my

West

printing

was begun

illness,

and a re-

Indies.

any who may use

book

will

of misprints or inaccuracies of any sort which they

may

shall esteem

me

The

it

a favor

if

this

remark.

Berlin,

August

1885.

E. D. P.

Table of Contents,
in systematic
The

I.

grammatical arrangement.

figures ia

heavy type refer

2147.

20.

Classification of Sounds,

Light and Heavy Syllables, 48.

and Pronunciation,

Accent, 56.

Guna and Vrddhi.

Changes of Sounds.

II.

paragraphs.

p. xi.

Introductory suggestions,
Alphabet and Sounds.
Characters,

to

4954.
Kules of Euphonic Combination.
Rules of Vowel Combination, 105, 106, 156161, 164.
General
Laws concerning Finals, 239 242.
Deaspiration, 242.

III.

Transferral of Aspiration, 244, 249, 428


Assimilation,
s

and

r,

191, 192,

266,

148,

147,

95, 117123, 129.

342, 352.

Surd and^Sonant
Combinations of Final

267.

Conversion of

Conversion of n to

n, p.

to

,%

p. 27 (note**),

32 (note**), 166.

Conve4sion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals, 149, 150,


Combinations of n, p. 29 (note), 138140,
184.
Combinations
Change of ch to cck, p. 27 (note*), 165.

p. 99 (note), 342.

of m, p. 29 (note).
Final t, 148151.

Final n [and n] 184.

Final

k,

f,

p, 266.

IV. Declension.

Gender, Number, Case, 8389.


Pada-end'mgs,
V. Snbstantiyes

Case-endings, 90,

91.

91, 241.

and Adjectives.
Vowel-stems:

Stems

in a,

m.

n.,

103,

III.

Stems

in

z,

m.,

113,

115; n., 114, 115.

Vlll

Stems

in

185187.
in

I,

In

a, 162;

w,

Stems

189, 212, 214;

Stems

in

in

128;

ni.,

z,

136,

n.,

in a,

t,

in

In

and

w,

a, 212,

Stems

in r,

f.,

213;

(b) Derivative Stems,

in w, 197, 212, 214.

201205, 208.

f.

go, 209; ndu, 211; rai, 277.

Consonant-stems

General, 237242.
(b) Derivative Stems.

256264.

Stems

u: (a) Root- words.

183; in u, 198.

Diphthongs:

van), 265.

137.

(a)

In

Root-stems, 243, 244, 246250.


252 254. In an (an, man,

as, is, us,

In in

Perfect Participles in vans, 268.

(in,

min, vin), 251.

In ant (ant, mant, vant)

Comparatives

in yas, 255.

Nouns: 269284.
Comparison, 337345.

Irregular

Formation of Feminine-stems,

187, 251,

255,

262264, 268.

VI. Numerals.

328336.
VII. Prononns.

223236, 285288,

413.

Vni. Conjugation.
Voice,

Tense, Mode, Number, Person, 57

jectives and Nouns, 6668.


Mode and Tense-stems, 71.

IX. Present-System.
Conjugation Classes, 72

65.

Verbal Ad-

Secondary Conjugation, 69

70.

80.

First Conjugation.

General, 383387.
I.

Root-class (Hindu second or

G<i-class),

404412, 414

429.
II.

III.

IV.

Reduplicating Class (H. third or ^w-class), 430440.


Nasal Class (H. seventh or rwc?A-class), 441446.

Nu

and w-CIasses TH.

classes),

fifth

and eighth, or su and tan-

388395.

V. iVa-Class (H. ninth or

A;n-class),

399-

403.

IX

Second, or ^-Conjugation.

VI. -Class

first pr 6/m-class), 9294, 97102, 134,


(H.
152154, 178t62, 188, 193196, 199, 200, 206,

135,

207, 210, 222, 260.

VII. Accented a-Class (Hindu sixth or tud-da,ss), 107

152154

152

(H.

155

110,

(as for -class).

etc.

VIII. 2/-Class

or div-class),

fourth

etc. (as

124127, 131134,

for a-class).

IX. Accented yd-Class or Passive

Conjugation, 168

176,

188, 199, 200, 210, 222.

H. tenth
[Causative and Denominative Conjugation (partly
or cwr-class), 141
154 etc. (as for a-class);
146, 152

also 215-221.]

X. Perfect-System.

447471, 474.
Periphrastic Perfect, 472, 473.

XI. Aorist-System.

General,

486.

488.

Reduplicated Aorist,

s-aorist, 491;

Simple Aorist: Root-aorist,


492;

?5-aorist,

490.

489,

487;

Sibilant

fl-aorist,

Aorist:

s/s-aorist, 493; so-aorist, 494.

Aorist Passive, 495, 496.

XII. Future-System.

General, 475.

Simple Future, 476481.

Conditional,

482.

Periphrastic Future, 483485.

XIII. Verbal Adjectives and Substantives : Participles, Inflnitive,


(xerund.

Passive Participle in ta or na, 289 301.


Past Active Parin
tavant
or navant^ 302, 303.
Gerunds: Absolutives,
ticiple

304313.

Infinitive,

314322.

Future Passive Participles:

Gerundives, 323327.

XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugations.


General,
Intensive,
tive,

497.

Passive,

499502.

498.

Desiderative,

Causative,

503506.

509, 510.

XV. Periphrastic Conjugation.


Perfect, 472, 473.

Future, 483-485.

507,

508.

Denomina-

XVI. Verbal Prefixes: Adverbs and Prepositions.


81, 82, 167, 190, 395397.
XVII. Formation of Compound Stems.
353.
Classification, 346
Copulative Compounds, 354357.
Determinative Compounds, 358; Dependent, 359 361; De-

362 365.
Secondary Adjective Compounds, 366
370; Possessive, 371377; with Governed Final Member, 378.

scriptive,

Compounds

Adjective

as

Nouns and Adverbs,

350, 379381.

[Dvandva-comiponnds^ p. 136 (note); Tatpurusa-compounds, p. 137


(note);

Karmadhdraya-comTpounds,

p.

137

(note);

Dvigu-com-

pounds, 380; Bahuvrihi-com'^onnds,^^. 142 (note); Avyayibhava-

compounds,

381.]

XVIII. Syntactical Rules.

Position of Modifiers, p. 35 (note).


Repetition of Words, p. 67
of
Force of Cases,
Adjectives, 245.
Agreement
(note*).

112.

with Cases,

82,

Prepositions
104,
Instrumental (and Genitive), p. 89 (note).

Comparatives, 345.

236.

130.

kirn

with

Construction with

Pronouns, 225, 234


Numerals, 333.
Force of Tenses: Present, 96;

p. 47 (note).

iti^

Imperfect, 182; Perfect, 474; Aorist, 486.

Force of Modes:

Causative, 221.
Imperative, 194196; Optative, 207.
Past Passive Participle, 290. Past Active
Passive, 177.

Participle, 303.

320322.

Modern Hindu Accentuation

of

Gerund, 311313.

Infinitive,

Future Passive Participle, 327.


Appendix.

Hindu Names
Sanskrit.

of Letters.

Suggestions for using the Primer.

The Primer can be

finished

by earnest students

in sixteen or

seventeen weeks, reckoning three lessons per week, with here and
there an hour for review.
After that Lanman's Sanslcrit Reader,

an introduction to which
be taken

this

Students are

up.

work

themselves with Whitney's Sanskrit


It

seemed advisable

to

partly intended to be, should


recommended to provide

is

strongly

Grammar

at the outset.

leave the Introduction undivided into

lessons, as different teachers

may prefer to impart the alphabet,


scholars at different rates of speed.
Some of tfae
exercises for translation may be found rather too long to be comto their

etc.,

pleted in one lesson.

In such cases

it

will probably be better,

after requiring the translation of only so

pupil

may

many

reasonably be expected to master

sentences as the

in the preparation of

one day's lesson, to proceed directly to the next

1*^:^011

in th^

following hour, leaving the untranslated Sf^-rt^^ices for a review.


The vocabularies prefixed to each exercise are not exhaustive,
since

words which have been treated of immediately before are


The glossaries at the end of the

sometimes omitted from them.

book
the

will,

it

from

hoped, be found complete for the exercises; but


compound words must in most cases be learned

and proper names have often been omitted,


forms being discernible from the transliteration.

their elements;

their Sanskrit

The
is

is

meaning of

table

designed

of contents in systematic grammatical arrangement


any desired article; it may

to facilitate the finding of

also be found useful as an outline for a rapid grammatical review.

Arraugomeut of Vocabularies.

The

vocabularies arc arranged

Xll

in

strict

alphabetic order (see below).

All nouns, whether sub-

stantives or adjectives, are given in the stem-form.

AH

verb-forms

are placed under the root; prepositional compounds of verbs likeOf


wise, and not in the alphabetic place of the preposition.
vt

and nouns, some important ones have been given


meaning of most of them must

rbal adjectives

their alphabetic places, but the

ill

be learned from their respective roots.


form of the nominative.

Pronouns are given generally

in the

Alphabetic Order.
bi;t

The

alphabetic order

is

that given in

I,

the following points are to be noticed here:

The

visarga stands next after the vowels

but a visarga reit has

giiided as equivalent to a sibilant and exchangeable with


the alphabetic place of that sibilant.

The

sign w, representing "the anusvara of more independent


its place before all the mutes etc.; thus dang and
has
origin",
danstrd stand before daksa.

The

sign

tw,

representing an assimilated m,

to its phonetic value.


7W

to a

semivowel,

anusvara^ then

its

1.

If m, resulting

sibilant,

place

punya and sarhgaya before

assimilated to

place

is

or

is like

hy

is placed according
from the assimilation of

represent a nasal semivowel or


Thus^wms comes before

that of n.

sakrt.

2.

But

a mute, representing

n,

that of the nasal so represented.

be the product of
n, n, 72, or m, then its
if

Introduction.

Alphabet.
\.

Sanskrit

is

commonly

The

Devandgarl alphabet.

written

in

what

called

is

characters of this, and the

the

European

characters which will be used in transliterating them, are as follows:

Vowels.
short

^
labial

^
^

lingual

dental

"^

palatal

simple

palatal

diphthongs
labial
labi
{pals

Visarga

Anusvara

h,

n or

Mutes

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

tw.

long

a
i

lie

^0

di

au

iDtroductioij,

-^^

dental

Sibilants: palatal 1[ p;

Aspiration
2.

by

^ v,^
dental ^

labial

15I

s.

lingual Xf s;

h.

The above order

is

that in

native grammarians; and

which the sounds are catalogued

European scholars have adopted

The

as the alphabetic order, for dictionaries, etc.

from

lingual -^ r

.iiiivoweis

it

writing runs

left to right.

3.

The theory

and consonantal.

of the devanagan

That

is, it

mode of writing

simple sound, but the syllable; and further,


stantial part of the syllable the

ceding the vowel

this

syllabic

it

regards as the sub-

consonant (or the consonants) prebeing merely implied, as

latter

except when

case with short "^ a,

is

regards as the written unit, not the

initial,

or,

if

written,

is

the

being

written by a subordinate sign attached to the consonant.


4.

Hence follow

these

two

principles:

A. The forms of the vowel- characters given above are used


only

when

the vowel forms a syllable

with a preceding consonant: that

by another vowel.

is,

by

itself,

when

or

is

not combined

it is initial,

or preceded

In combination with a consonant, other

modes

of representation are used.


B.

with

it

If

more than one consonant precede a vowel, forming

a single syllable, their characters must be

combined into

a single character.
5.

syllable

According to the Hindu mode of dividing syllables, each

must end

the end of the


the

in

a vowel, or visarga, or anusvdra, except at

word; and as ordinary Hindu usage does not divide

words of a sentence

in writing,

into one syllable with the initial

a final consonant

is

combined

vowel or consonant of the following

word, so that a syllable ends in a consonant only at the end of


the sentence.

Introduction.

Thus

the sentence ksetresu siktdbhir

prarudham
fields the

'

tall'

grain grows

pra ru dham.

meghdndm adhhir dhdnyam

by the water which drops from the clouds upon the

the syllables kse tre -w

Each of

si

would

be considered as consisting of

ktd bhi rme ghd nd

ma

of

vision

the

would be indicated by a

these syllables

always

words composing the sentence; and

In Sanskrit works printed

words so

to separate the

the syllables

this:

%%gftrWTfH^^^T^flr>5T52ilT^^i^
6.

to the di-

with more or less closeness of

written independently,

approach; either like

is

dbhi rdhd nyarh

group of signs, without any reference whatever

single

are

common

Europe, the

in

far as this can be

alteration of the written form.

or thus %^J-

Thus, f[cj^iq

practice

done without any

I'^Tt

indrdya

namah;

but cT(^^crt^^5TT(^ tat savitur varenyam, because the final c^

are not written with their

have been printed,

in which,

with

the

all

is

and

But some few works

words are separated.

In translite-

no good reason for printing otherwise than

words separated.

Vowels combined with preceding consonants

Under A,

7.

forms.

by a free use of a sign called virdma

(see below, 8), the individual

rated texts there

full

are written as follows:


1.

a:

Short a has no written sign at

itself

implies a following

attached to

unless

(or else the virdma

it

all;

the consonant-sign

some other vowel-sign

see below, 8).

is

Thus

the consonant-signs given above are really the signs for ka,

kha^ ca, cha, etc. (as far as


2.

a:

3.

m\
and

kd.
I:

The hook

^T
f^

c.

ki.

VT
fll

dhd

pi

ha).

etc.

f<l dki.

kl.

ifV in.

above, turning to the left or to the right,

is

dhi.

histori-

cally the essential part of the character, having been originally

Introduction.

whole of

the

way down

as to reach all the

later prolonged,

so

Observe

beside the consonant.

and the w-hooks, respectively above and

that the i-hooks

below the

hooks were only

the

it:

are analogous in turning to the left for the

line,

short vowel and to the right for the long.


4.

^ ku. ^

u and u:

cu.

hu.

^ cu. ^

gj ku.

to the necessities of combination, consonant

are sometimes disguised; thus,


or
5.

:p*

r and f

tf

hook

In some
the .1^ or

.^i.

e:

7^

/;

T\

Z:f .

With

tf.

hJio.

^ rw;

du:

the ^-sign

middle

c^

kdu.

di: cR kdl.

ye.

thus,

'^ dhdi.

""^ rdu.

printed texts the signs for o

and du are separated,

being placed over the consonant-sign, and not over the

consonant-sign

%T
may

ko, cRj kdu,

be

made

to

signify the sound of

that consonant alone, without an added vowel,


it

\ ru,

^kl.

'^ pe.

ke.

perpendicular stroke; thus,


8.

usually attached to the


6.

Diphthongs,

pr,

is

hr.

o: eR^ ko.

"^ du;

c?w,

Owing

hit.

oR kr.

vowel

the

7.

hu^

Ihu.

and vowel-sign

by writing beneath

a stroke called the virdma (*rest', 'stop'); thus,

'?R A:,

h,

^ d.

Strictly,

the virdma should be used only at the end of a sentence;

but

often used

it is

by

or sentence, to avoid
f^fsgf^: lidhhih,
9.

not

difficult.

to almost all;

method

t%Z^

Under B.

is

scribes, or in print, in the middle of a

word

awkward

thus,

or

The combinations

if

pursued.

combinations;

litsu.

The perpendicular and


and

difficult

two or more are

The

of consonants are in general

horizontal lines are


to

common

be combined, the following

characteristic part of a consonant-sign

that is to be added to another is taken

(to the exclusion of the

horizontal framing -line, or of both), and


perpendicular or of the
to convenience, either side by side,
they are put together according

Introduction.

or one above the other: in some combinations either arrangement


is

The consonant

allowed.

be pronounced

to

and above

the one arrangement,

first

in the other arrangement.

the consonant at the right of a horizontal group,

top of a perpendicular group, are written in

Examples

m
"^

gga,

is set first in

Only

and that at the

full.

of the horizontal arrangement are:

jja,

TZf

pija,

nma,

^ bhya,

<r ttha,

ska,

sua.

Examples of
IP kva,

^ nja,

^ tna.

J{ pta,

In some combinations there

10.

^ cca,

the perpendicular arrangement are: |R kka,

is

more or

less abbreviation or

disguise of the independent form of a consonant-sign.

Thus, of

of c^
of

cR

of ?^

Mn
m

IT
of

and "^

^kya,

thus,

^'y^>

^',

y,

dda^

"S t^i
12.

^ ddha^ ^

dhha

^ kma, ^ nma^ ^ dma, ^

thy a,

etc.;

etc.

dya^ "^hma,

5T dhya;

which generally becomes "^ when followed by

a consonant; thus,

^ pea,

The same change

is

"Wf

usual
pw,

^na, '^ gla,

^^ gya.

when a vowel- sign

'^ha; and the compounds of

In a case or two,

is

sign of r);

as

^ hna^ ^

letters is

"^ r,

in

making combinations with other

treated in a wholly peculiar manner, analogous with

that of the vowels.

written with a

^,

no trace of the constituent

^ nna^

hna.

km, "^ jna.

The semivowel

consonants,

is

"sj pr.

Other combinations, of not quite obvious value, are

recognizable; thus,
13.

^ %^

when following other consonants:

added below; thus,


3J
11.

^l^" ^V^^i

t( tta;

in sf dga,

c?

and in

in y^ kta;

1.

As

the

first

hook above, opening

thus,

rka, "^ rpta.

of a group of consonants

it is

to the right (like the subjoined

When, a compound consonant

Introduction.

thus containing r as

its

vowels

du,

2,

e,

e,

o,

ai,

first

member

followed by one of the

is

with or without a nasal symbol, the r-

sign must stand at the extreme right; thus, ^rke.,

f^

'^

rki,

If

2.

rki,

rkaih, oRff% rkdnsi,

ifi

pronounced

after another

^f

%f

^ sra, ^

consonant or consonants, r

And, with modifications of

sign like those noted above, "^ tra,

3.

When

is

written in

full,

the consonant in subordination to

Combinations of

14.

iq

ttva,

Bif sthya;

its

rr,

sirya, r^RSf

to the

who

is

grya^

srva.

r, it is

character,

fif^ffT

and

nirrti.

psva,

same

<^

rules; thus,

tsya,

-^ gcya,

tsmya; f^t rtsnya.


differ

considerably

management of consonant-combinations, but a


enable one

TTEf

initial

thus,

^ drya, x^

Both MSS. and type-fonts

15.

thus,

made according

gf dvya,

nksva,

it;

pra,

three, four, or even five consonants (this

latter excessively rare) are

^ ddhya,

with

TJ

In the middle of a

combined with a following

to be

X^ r is

Hgra,

is

the preceding consonant-

^ pra.

group, r has the same sign as at the end

the vowel which

^rkau^

rhhim.

indicated by a slanting stroke below, to the left; thus,


dra.

rko,

little

their

in

practice will

thoroughly familiar with the simple signs and

with the principles of combination to decipher, as well as to

make

for himself, all such groups.

16.

sign

printed texts to

below,

119,

(>J)

called the avagraha,

mark

158): thus

<S^^^

is also

17.

in the

te

'bruvan.

India, dispense with

In our transliteration this

comma, as

is

used in

the elision of initial a after final e or o (see

especially those printed in

inverted

or 'separator',

sign

example

will be

just given.

But some

texts,

this sign.

represented

In the

by the

MSS.

the 4

used as a hyphen, and sometimes as a mark of hiatus.

The

sign

o is used to

mark an omission

of something easily

understood (whether from the context, or from previous knowledge),

Introduction.

and thus becomes a mark of abbreviation; thus, ^cf^ ^rf?^


gatas -tarn -tena,

e.

i.

gatam gatena

The only signs of punctuation


The numeral figures are

18.
19.

c)

1,

2,

;^

3, Ji 4,

0,

%^

etc.

are

6,

and

i|.

7, r: 8, Q. 9,

0.

In combination, to express larger numbers, they are used precisely


as are

European

system

by

thus,

digits;

^cq

\'^ 24,

of notation originated in India,

the Arabs,

who

call it the

485,

^^0

This

7620.

and was brought to Europe

Indian system, as

we

style

it

the

Arabic.
20.

In writing Sanskrit the Hindus generally begin at the left

make

of the letter, and

Ij

^j

^5 "^j

Ij

the horizontal

^-

**5

top-stroke last; thus,

But often the horizontal stroke

7, *l,

made

is

and the perpendicular stroke added without raising the pen

first,

from the paper; thus,

^; 1, ^.

System of Sounds: Pronunciation.


21.

The

Sanskrit

used in India to this day very

is

much

as

common

Latin was used in Europe in the previous century:

it is

medium of communication between

be their native

tongues what they may, and

whatever.
skrit

Hence

it is

it is

the learned,

not the vernacular of any district

not strange that the pronunciation of San-

words varies greatly among scholars from

different parts of

India; and probably no one system represents the true

mode

of utterance with

much

I.

22.

A. The

a,

and long, and are


in (or-)gan

i,

to

ancient

exactness.

Vowels.

and w-vowels.
be pronounced

These three occur both short


in the 'Italian'

and father, pin and fique^ pull and

manner

rule, respectively.

as

The

Introdaction.

a-

vowel stands

in

no relation of kindred with any of the classes

But

of consonantal sounds.

the

i-

vowel

is distinctly

and

palatal,

the w-vowel as distinctly labial.

The

B.

23.

r and /-vowels.

Both of these are plainly the

result of abbreviating syllables containing

another vowel: r
I

like

le

or

^^l along with

be sounded like the re in the 'English

fibre,

in able.

The diphthongs.

C.

24.

is to

\r

a,

The

1.

and

o,

which are always

long, should receive the long e and o-sounds of the English they

and

In their origin, both

bone, without true diphthongal character.

were doubtless

in the

main pure diphthongs

(e

=a+

i,

=a+

w);

but they lost this character at a very early period.

The

2.

in

di

and du are spoken like the

German Baum

(ou in English house)

They were

with long prior element.


guished from

and

o only

A. Mntes.

is,

aisle

and au

as pure diphthongs

originally, doubtless, distin-

element.

first

Consonants.

In each series of mutes there are two surd

members, two sonants, and one nasal


labial series, the

that

English

by the length of the

II.

25.

ai in

surds

p and

(also sonant)

e.

g.,

in

the

ph, the sonants b and bh, and the

sonant m.
26.

The

first

and third members of each

series are the ordinary

corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages; thus,

k and

g,

27.

What

nasal to

and

Nor
is to
its

rf,

is

p and

own

character

the

p and

b.

5,

or n

series of

of the nasal any more doubtful.

is to

mutes

and

d,

that is also each other

a sonant expulsion of breath into

and through the nose, while the mouth-organs are

in the

mute-

contact.

28.

The second and

fourth of each series are aspirates; thus,

Introduction.

we have

beside the surd mute k


kh,

and beside the sonant

usual

g,

the corresponding surd aspirate

the corresponding aspirate

This

as in madhouse.

a very closely

inaccurate so far as the sonants are con-

is

cerned; but the question of their original sound

and

difficulty,

The

29.

still

fol-

nearly as in boathouse, ph as in haphazard, dh

e. g., th

h*,

It is

scholars to pronounce both classes of aspi-

among European

rates as the corresponding non- aspirates with

lowing

gJi.

is

one of great

unsettled.

aspirates are not double letters.

The

several mute-series will

30.

1.

Gnttnrals: k,

kh,

now

be taken up in

These are the ordinary

n.

gh,

g,

detail.

English k and g ("hard")-sounds, with their corresponding aspirates

and nasal; the

Palatals:

2.

31.

being generated by

mute

and the

ng in

last, like

c, ch, j,

singing,

This whole series

jh, n.

the corruption of original gutturals.

is

derivative,

(The palatal

two successive stages

sibilant p often represent

of corruption of k; the corresponding degrees of corruption of g are

For

both represented by /)
of
c

the palatals is in

respects peculiar.

The

treatment

palatal mutes

and j are pronounced with the compound sounds of English

ch and j,
32.
to

many

reason the euphonic

this

as in church and judge.


3.

Lingnals:

into the

dome

th,

t,

be uttered with the

d,

See also 28.

The

dh, n.

r,

e.

g.

in very is

pronounced.

European Sanskritists make no attempt

33.

4.

is

pronounced like

Dentals:

t,

th,

d,

t,

dh,

equivalents of our so-called dentals

like d,

n.

t,

thus,

In

to distinguish

practice

them from

and so on.

These are practically the


d, n.*

But the Hindus generally use Unguals


dentals

drawn back

of the palate, somewhat as the English (or rather

American) smooth

the dentals

lingual mutes are said

tip of the tongue turned up and

^U^T landana = 'London.'

to represent the English

Introduction.

34.

Labials: ^, ph^

5.

valents of the English p,

These are exactly the equi-

m.

m.

b,

B. Semivowels:

35.

5, hh,

?/,

r,

I,

v.

1.

The

palatal semivowel y

stands in the closest relationship with the vowel


the

two exchange with one another

than our
36.

38.

the

in cases innumerable.

Very

y.

The

2.

3.

4.

The

The

clearly a lingual sound.

is

smooth

the English
37.

(short or long) :

y had everywhere more of an i-character

the Sanskrit

probably

is

and

r,

like this

It

thus resembles

seems to have been

a sound of dental position, quite as

in English.

pronounced as English or French v by

labial v is

modern Hindus

untrilled.

when preceded by a consonant

except

when

(except r) in the same syllable,

sounds like English w;

it

and European scholars follow the same practice (with or without


the

But

same exception).

vowel precisely as y

to

strictly the v

an i-vowel: that

stands related to an u-

is, it is

z(;-

sound in the

English sense, or perhaps more like the ou in French


rules of Sanskrit

euphony

sounds and
39.

dental,

The

and the name "semi-

affecting this sound,

vowel", have no application except to such a ^-sound

(German w)

oui.

a v- sound

no semivowel, but a spirant, like the English

is

th^

/.

C. Sibilants:

p,

s,

s.

1.

The

and exactly like the English

is

of plain character: a

(as in

lesson

never as

in ease).

40.

2.

The

It is, therefore,

as

s is

the sibilant

pronounced

in the lingual position.

a kind of sA-sound, and by Europeans

ordinary English

sh,

no attempt being made

is

pronounced

to give

it

its

proper lingual quality.


41.

3.

The

p is

It is the usual sh-

by

all

native authorities described as palatal.

sound of English, though the Hindus are said

Introduction.

to

somewhat

it

speak

variously

oftener as

42.

All three sibilants are always surd.

43.

D. Aspiration:

This

h.

is

than as

But

h.

its

that of a sonant.

sound of the language, but comes

sh.

true value in the

It is

not an original

most cases from an older

in

in some few cases from dh or bh.

It

c,

the other with that of k to


44.

h.

The

(in

the

E. Tisarga:

ing, a final A-

sound

45.

sense of A), uttered in the

European

The

The anusvdra^ h

its

utterance there

some degree of openness of

the

visarga

not

is

final s

or

r.

or w,

is

a nasal sound

lacking that closure of the organs which


nasal mute; in

p.

always a mere substitute for

F. Anusvara.

that of

h appears to be merely a surd breath-

articulating position of the preceding vowel.


original, but

gh,

appears to include in itself

two stages of corruption of gh: one corresponding with


to

it is

usually pronounced like the

is

ordinary European surd aspiration

euphony of the language

By Europeans

nowadays.

differently

perhaps
pronounced

11

required to

is

make

nasal resonance along with

is

mouth.

European scholars give

the anusvdra the value of the nasal in the French -an, -on^ -en, -in,
etc.,

which
46.

indicate

is

Two

a mere nasal coloring of the preceding vowel.


1. and

different signs,

^,

Most commonly

the anusvdra.

are used in the


J_

is

employed;

MSS.

to

will

not often be met with in printed texts, except to mark the change
of a nasal mute to anusvdra before a following semivowel, particularly
47.

milated

I;

thus, ffT^

It is

^^T^

tdTd lahdhdn.

convenient in transliteration

(in all cases)

more independent

by a

special sign

origin, represented

by

n.

Cf. 139.
to distinguish the assi-

wi,

from the anusvdra of

12

Introduction,

Light and Heavy Syllables.

For metrical purposes

48.

tinguished as 'heavy' and Might'.


is

long, or short

(not vowels) are dis-

syllable is

heavy

if its

The

vowel

and followed by more than one consonant ("long

Visarga and anusvdra are here counted as

by position ").
sonants.

syllables

full

con*

aspirated mutes, of course, do not count as double

letters.

Changes of Sounds.
49.

The changes

to

Guna and

Vrddhi.

which both the vowels and the consonants

of Sanskrit are subject are very numerous.

Among

the vowel-

changes, the most regular and frequent are the so-called guna and
vrddhi,
50.

which are of frequent occurrence

The following

Simple vowels

in derivation

table exhibits these changes:

and

inflection.

13

Introduction.

as

sometimes expressed, "^ o

it is

is its

own guna;

njn

a remains

unchanged for both guna and vrddhi.

The ^wwa- increment does

53.

take place in a heavy syllable (see 48) ending in a

instances,

consonant:

e.

g.,

t%c^

cz^

become

become

%nTN cent or wfJ^*N

54.

not, except in exceedingly rare

may become

but f^Tr cint or

ne;

t%^

nend or ^"^
^

%c^^

cet,

nind or

and

"ift'

may

^f^ jw may

not

jev.

Other changes of vowels and consonants occur very

fre-

quently, in the making-up of single words from roots, by means

of suffixes and endings, and in the formation of

by

the union of

two or more stems

greatest frequency in Sanskrit.

the language

is

compound words
of the very

a process

Furthermore, in the form

handed down to us by the

in

which

literature, the

words

composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted

to

and combined

with each other by nearly the same rules as those which govern the

making of compounds, so

that

it

is

impossible to take apart and

understand the simplest sentence in Sanskrit without understanding


those rules.

The most important

of the rules for such combination

will be given piecemeal in the lessons.

Roots and Stems.


55.

application

supposed.

knowledge on the student's part of the meaning and


of the terms root, stem, personal ending,

The formative processes by which both

forms and derivative stems are made,


to bases and roots, are

etc.,

is

pre-

inflectional

by the addition of endings

more regular and transparent

in Sanskrit

than in any other Indo-European language.*


In the present work, which aims preeminently to give the
considerable practical acquaintance with the language

student

within a brief compass of lessons, not every given form will be


explained by analysis. But wherever any explanation of forms is
given,

it

will of course be according to this method.

14

Introduction.

Accent.
56.

of

all

The phenomena

of accent are,

by the Hindu grammarians

ages alike, described and treated as depending on a variation

make

of tone or pitch; of any difference of stress involved, they

These accents are marked only

no account.

and employed only

in their recitation,

nowadays by Hindus

in

whereas the accents used

the pronunciation of Sanskrit (and left

undenoted in writing) are mainly ictus-accents,


stress.

The

Vedic texts,

in certain

principles of the latter system

appendix.

The

portance;

the latter none whatever;

i.

variations of

e.

will be given in

an

older system of accents has great etymological im-

will be referred to in the following.

and only the older system

Here

it

will be

enough to

state

that the primary tones or accent-pitches of the older system are

two: a higher, or acute; and a lower, or grave.


svarita,

of actual

third,

called

always of secondary origin, being ordinarily the result

is

combination of an acute vowel and a grave vowel into

one syllable.

It is

uniformly defined as compound in pitch, a union

of higher and lower tone within the limits of a single syllable.


is

thus identical in physical character with the

circumflex,

Whenever,
finition,

and

fully

entitled

to be

in the sequel, accent is

the acute accent

is to

called

It

Greek and Latin

by the same name.

mentioned, without further de-

be understood; and

it

will be de-

signated by the ordinary acute sign.


Conjugation of Verbs.
57.

The Sanskrit verb

exhibits the closest analogy with that

of Greek, being developed in tense-systems, as outgrowths of certain


tense-stems.

In the older stage of the language,

called Vedic period,

the

i.

e.

in

the so-

modal ramifications of each tense -stem

are as numerous as in Greek; but in the later stage, the Sanskrit

proper (also called the classical language),

these outgrowths have

Introduction.

been lopped

off to so very great

an extent,

that with one insigni-

ficant exception, the precative or aorist optative,


still

system

which we

call

only the present-

any modal variety whatever.

retains

There

58.

15

',

a simple or ordinary conjugation of verbal roots,

is

primary;

and there are certain more or

less fully

developed secondary or deriyative conjugations ( 69).


59. Yoices.

There are two

voices, active

and middle, which extend

For

throughout the whole system of conjugation.


system alone there

is

outside that system,

and sometimes even within

An

active

padam 'word

for one's

are liable to

it,

form

Hindu grammarians parasmdi padam *word

middle form, dtmane

present-

a special passive inflection; the middle forms

be used likewise in a passive sense.


the

the

is

by

for another'; a

Some

self.'

called

verbs

are

conjugated in both voices, others in one only; sometimes some of


the tenses are inflected only in one voice, others only in the other
voice, or in both

of a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic

forms of the other occur; and sometimes the voice


verb

compounded with

is

60.

differs as the

certain prepositions.

Persons and Numl)ers.

There are

three

persons:

first,

second, and third; and, as with substantives, adjectives, and pro-

nouns, three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. All these persons

and numbers
the

first

we

^^frj

mode

native grammarians denote as the

call the third;

the verb

tense and

except

^p)^o/>tot(,

and as we are wont

the verb awio,

etc.,

to

first

person what

speak of the verb X^7w,

so the Hindus use for instance

bhcivati (3rd sing.


pres. indie, of \/bhu) to signify

the

whole

system of verbal forms from that root, since H^tRT heads the
of forms in the native grammar, as "K^yw, or
in

that

persons of the imperative are really subjunctive forms.

The

61.

made from every

are

Greek or Latin.

Hpyjafxa.i^

The Hindus even make

list

or amo^ does

substantives out of

'

16

Introduction.

such catchword forms, and

inflect

them according

to the needs of

expression.
62. In

the following,

by

the root

thus, V(
s.

63.

forth

by

hhu (^T^fTf hhdvati),

Tenses and modes.


tlje

conjugation -class of verbs will be

the 3rd sing. pres. ind., placed in parenthesis after

indicated
;

the

The scheme

of tenses and modes put

Hindus holds good only for the

later language,

and

even there utterly confounds the ideas of mode and tense.

The only
Sanskrit is shown
64.

logical arrangement of the


in the following table

modes and tenses

in

(which includes only the

classical speech):
I.

Present -System:
d. Optative,

II.

III.

e.

a. Indicative,

b. Imperfect,

c Imperative.

Participle.

Perfect- System,

a. Indicative,

b. Participle.

Aorist Systems (of triple formation),


tative (sometimes

a. Indicative,

b.

Op-

= "Precative").

IV. Future Systems.

A. Sibilant Future,

a. Indicative, b.

Preterit(= "Conditional").

c. Participle.

B. Periphrastic Future, a. Indicative.


65.

The

tenses here distinguished as imperfect,

aorist receive those

names from

perfect,

their correspondence in

and

mode

of

formation with tenses so called in other languages of the family,


especially in Greek,

and not

designated by them.

at all

from any differences of time

In no period of the Sanskrit language

there any expression of imperfect or pluperfect


perfect time, except in the older language,
this value; in

time

nor

is

of

where the "aorist" has

the later speech, imperfect, perfect, and aorist (of

rare use) are so

many

undiscriminated past tenses or preterits.

17

Introduction.

Verbal Adjectives and Substantives.


66.

The

Participles.

participles belonging to the tense-systems

have been already indicated

in the table at

64. There

is,

a participle formed directly from the root of the verb,


prevailingly

Moreover,

and passive

of past

future passive

different formations,

(sometimes

participles,

or

is

meaning.

neuter)

gerundives,

besides,

which

of several

are made, but without connection with the

future-stems.
67.

really an

It is

The

Infinitive.

classical Sanskrit

has a single

infinitive.

accusative case of a verbal noun, having nothing

whatever to do with the tense-systems.


68.

Gerund.

frequent, and

is,

so-called gerund, or absolutive,

like the infinitive,

is

especially

a stereotyped case -form

strumental) of a derivative verbal noun.

Its

value

is

(in-

that of an

indeclinable active participle, with indeterminate, but oftenest past,

temporal force.

Secondary Conjugations.
69.
2.

The secondary

Intensive;

3.

conjugations are as follows:

Desiderative;

4.

Causative.

1.

Passive;

In these, not the

simple root, but a conjugation-stem, underlies the whole system

of inflections.

Yet

in

them

all is

plainly visible the character of

a present-system, expanded into a more or


tion

the passive

70.

Under

is

less

complete conjuga-

palpably a present-system. Compare 58

the

same general head belong:

6.

59.

DenominatiYe

conjugation, which results from the conversion of noun-stems, both


substantive and adjective, into conjugation-stems;

7.

Compound con-

jugation, resulting from the prefixion of prepositions to roots, or

from the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun-stems ; and

8.

Periphrastic

conjugation, from the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal

nouns and adjectives.


Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

18

Introduction.

The

71.

verb-form

of a

characteristic

is

its

proper

By

personal ending.

(i.

finite

e.

alone

this

or personal)

determined

is

its

character as regards person and number, and in part also as regards

mode

But the

and tense.

of

distinctions

mode and

tense are

mainly made by the formation of mode and tense-stems, to which,


instead of to the bare root, the personal endings are appended.

Conjugation -Classes.
72.

Of

whole conjugation, the present -system

the

portant and prominent part.

quent than those of

manner

the im-

forms are very much more fre-

Its

As

the other systems together.

all

also great variety in the

is

which

in

there

form their

different roots

present-stems, this, as being their most conspicuous difference,

made

the basis of their principal classification

and a verb

is

to be of this or that conjugation, or class, according to the


in

is

is

said

way

made.

which

its

present-stem

73.

Of

these conjugation- classes there are nine, including the

passive,

which

is

really

exhibit coincidences

jugation,

is

conjugation.

five

first

to justify their inclusion into one con-

enough

and the remaining four

The

The

a present-system only.

compose likewise a second

will

chief distinctions between the

two groups are

as follows:
74.

In the

first,

the classes have in

mental characteristic, a
personal ending,

now

goes a variation

this

fuller,

form

shift of accent:

the tone

as their fundais

now upon

upon the root or the class-sign.


in the

stem

form when the accent

rests

when

common,

the accent

is

itself,

upon

it,

the

Along with

which has a stronger, or


and a weaker, or

on the ending.

We

briefer,

distinguish

these

forms as the strong and the weak stem-forms respectively.


75.

In

the second conjugation,

on the contrary,

the accent

has a fixed place, remaining always upon the same syllable of the

19

Introduction,

stem, and never being shifted to the endings

strong and weak forms

is

unknown.

and the

Moreover,

distinction of

the present-stem

of every verb in the four classes of this conjugation ends in "^ a.

There are also other points of


76.

The

classification current

among

the

classes,

arranged according to

The

i.

is

the Hindu,

and hitherto

ten

no

conjugation-

intelligible

principle whatever.

no present-class

really

at all,

but a

a derivative conjugation, which extends beyond the

e.

limits of the present-system.


all

among

European, grammarians comprises

native "tenth class"

causative,

difference.

Probably the

fact that

by no means

conjugation- stems formed by the causative sign had really a

causative value induced the natives to adopt such a present- class.

The Hindu scheme


77.

The Hindu

also quite omits the passive.


first,

sixth, fourth,

and tenth classes form the so-

called first conjugation of their scheme, which corresponds, except as

regards the tenth class, with our second conjugation.

The remainder

of the classes form the natives' second conjugation, which agrees


in the

main with our

78.

The

first.

classes are then as follows:


.-J

First Conjugation.^
I.

The

root-class

present-stem

\h

'sacrifice';
III.

of the Hindus);

"^^

its

ad^ *eat';

class

(third

or

Aw-class);

the root

is

form the present- stem; thus,


from i/^ ^m,
^^^juhu
dada from Vda, *give\

^^

The

nasal class (seventh or rwc?A-class); a nasal, extended

to the syllable

na \nd\

consonant of the root;

T^^

ac?-class,

dvis, *hate'.

The reduplicating

reduplicated to

or

.-/ \

coincident with the root itself; thus,

is

'go'; fl[^
II.

(second

i^^

in

strong forms,

thus,

?5tl

is

inserted before the final

rundh (or "^Tini rut^adh) from

rudh, 'hinder'.

3*

20

Introduction.

IV.

added

The

a*

ww- class

^HT sunu from

to the root; thus,

b.

<?[^

n,

it is

from l^cT^

(^

This

present-stem.

is

*make'), add

kr^

VI. The a-classj

is

krt,

See note,

'buy'.

and the

class-sign is a simply;

The

a- class,

i/u^^ii-c

root,
if

which bears the


it

be capable of

thus, li{^ hhdva (through the inter-

ynbhu,

'be.'

or accented a- class (sixth or

cT^

and the unaccented root

tudd from
VIII.

The ya-

tud^

^wr?-

thus,

only,

having

systems;
in

though

it

differs

^^

ya

is

added to the

dtvya from }/^V^^ dlv (by

div)^ *play.'

IX. The passiye conjugation


a class-sign

which

is

also properly a present-system

is

not extended into the other

markedly from the remaining classes

having a specific meaning, and in being formable from

sitive verbs,

class);

has the

'

class (fourth or div-dass)

Hindus given as "fe^

it

not strengthened by guna; thus,

is

thrust.

which has the accent;

root,

the

^ Tf^

or &7m-class);

in the preceding class; but


th^ffdded class-sign is a, as

accent,

(or,

Jcrmd (or

"^R^TIfr

(first

strengthened by guna throughout,

mediate stage bho-a) from

nd

p. 32.

-Cd

or unaccented -class

taking guna (see 5253);

VII.

Hindu gram-

the syllable wfT

added to the root; thus,

nl) is

\^^

A:n- class);

Second Conjugation.

accent,

u alone to form the

tan^ 'stretch.'

forms,

the added

inflected

tanu
best ranked as a sub-class, the M-class; thus,
TTJ

knnt) from

sfl^iTl

the eighth or ^an- class of the

V. The na- class (ninth or

weak

is

]''^ su^ 'press.'

and also one very common and irregularly

root not so ending

in

nu

"if

very small number of roots (only half-a-dozen) ending

already in

marians;

or sm- class); the syllable

(fifth

but with endings of the middle voice only.

all tran-

It

forms

21

Introduction.

stem by adding an accented yd to the root; thus, from

its

^^

adijd; from j/^^^ rudh,

Roots are not wholly

79.

to

T^l^f

l/^^

acf,

rudhyd.

even in the later language,

limited,

one mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes

reckoned as belonging to two or more different conjugation-classes.


80.

The verbs

simplicity of formation

and

their

first;

be given before those of our

greater

and are far more frequent

inflection

and numerous than those of our


fore

show much

of our second conjugation

paradigms will there-

first.

Prepositions and Prepositional Prefixes.


81.

Prepositions, or,

more

strictly speaking, adverbial prefixes,

are used with verbs quite as frequently in Sanskrit as in Greek;

and more than one may be

prefixed.

Thus when ^^"^^

ludh-\-'^SI^

anu

is

given in the vocabulary, this signifies

^g

is

prefixed to the proper verbal form; and the 3rd sing. pres.

ind. act. of the verb

that the preposition

would then be ^T^\irf7T anubodhati: so dhd

^J*^-"^ (or ^^T) sam-d, 3rd sing. ^^TT^^iTrfiT samddadhdti.

rules prevailing in

Greek

The

for the prefixion of prepositions, etc., to

verbal forms will be found to hold good in Sanskrit.


82.

the

There

is

in Sanskrit

*i

no proper class of prepositions

modern sense of the term); no body of words having as

exclusive office the

"government" of nouns.

words are used with nouns


to the

more

fully

in

But many adverbial

way which approximates them

developed prepositions of other languages.

are used prcpositionally along with

all

the noun-cases,

dative (and of course the nominative and vocative).


their

office

is

directive

only,

(in

their

But

Words

except the
in general

determining more definitely,

strengthening, the proper case-use of the noun.

or

22

Introduction.

Declension.

The

83.

declension of substantives and that of adjectives cor-

respond so closely that the two classes of words must be treated

The pronouns and numerals, on

together.

here as in the kindred languages


84.
dual,

Numbers and Genders.

striking peculiarities.

There are three numbers, singular,

and plural; and the usual three genders, masculine, feminine,

The dual

and neuter.

Greek, where
85.

The
:

extensively

than

in

state.

cases are eight in number, given generally in the

nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative,

genitive, locative,
is

much more

used

is

appears in a moribund

it

Cases.

following order

ment

many

the other hand, exhibit

and vocative. The object sought

in the arrange-

simply to set next to one another those cases which are

to a greater or less extent, in

one number or another, identical

form; and, putting the nominative

first,

as leading case, there

in
is

no other order by which that object could be attained.

For

86.

be

the uses of the cases in detail see

The stems of

classified as follows:

III.

Stems

few others

r (or
87.

a, t^

^,

inflected like

^"^

ar),

I.

Stems

and

in

^u

in

"^

a.

II.

267305.
for convenience

may

Stems

in

\i

and

^ w.

namely, A. radical- stems, and a

them; B. derivative stems.

IV. Stems in

V. Stems in consonants.

Strong and weak cases.

and those

form

in

Wh.

substantives and adjectives

In stems ending in consonants,

r (or "^"^ ar), there is seen a distinction of stem-

in different cases.

Sometimes the stem-forms are two, when

they are called strong and

weak

strong, middle, and weakest.

As

is

respectively;

sometimes three:

the case with verbs, this variation

of stem-form often goes hand-in-hand with a shift of accent.


88.

In the masculine and feminine, the strong cases are the

nom. and ace, both

sing,

and

dual,

and the nom.

pi.

The

rest

23

Introduction.

are

weak

the

instr.,

and

the gen. pi. (all of which take endings beginning with a vowel),

or, if there

dat.,

abl.,

be the distinction of three stem-forms, then


gen.,

and

loc. sing.,

the gen.

and

loc. du.,

are weakest; and the instr., dat., and abl. du., the instr., dat., abl.,

and

loc. pi.

89.

(whose endings begin with consonants), are middle.

In the neuter,

ace. pi.;

if

and the same cases

Otherwise the cases are


90.

cases are the nom. and

there be the triple distinction, then the nom. and ace.

are middle,

sing,

the only strong

in

the dual are weakest.

classified as in the masculine.

The normal scheme

Case-endings.

of case -endings, as

recognized

by the native grammarians (and conveniently

assumed as

the basis of special descriptions),

is

this:

Dual
m.

It applies entire to

of

and w-stems;

f.

Plural

m.

n.

n.

f.

du

as

du

as

hhydm

bhis

bhydm

hhyas

hhydm

hhyas

OS

dm

OS

su

consonant-stems, and to the radical division

und

to

variations and modifications.

other vowel-stems,

with

considerable

The endings which have almost or

quite unbroken range, through stems of all classes, are


08 of the dual,
91.

8u

i.

endings.

same

and

bhis,

Pada-endings.
e.

hhydm and

hhyas, dm, and su of the plural.

The

case-endings bhydm,

those of the middle cases

The treatment

to be

are called

of stem-finals before them

bhis,

hhyas,

and

pada ("word")is

generally the

as in the combinations of words with one another.

24

Lesson

I.

Lesson
number

of roots conjugated in this

Inasmuch as

"^

is its

own guna'\

form the present-stem;

The

lU of the stem

final

3.

vddami

'^^rf'T
'^^5[ftr

"^r^f?I

vddasi
vddati

The ending

93.

^^

94.

a root like

is

lengthened in the three

first

persons.

Plural.

"^^"^^ vdddvas

"J^^iT^ vdddmas

^^^^

vddathas

qf^^ vddatha

^^ff^

vddatas

cf^f^ vddanti

of the 3rd plur.

is

it

properly Iffsti anti;


its

^ ,

in verbs

suffers

whose stem

syllable ending in a consonant cannot be gunated,

Euphonic rule.

3rd sing, ^'^f?! jwati;

its

nindati, etc.

final position of

visarga

Dual.

^^ jw makes

makes f^^fTf

njf

a.

a,

As a heavy

95.

vad^ present-stem "^^ vdda.

g.,

abbreviation, however, by the loss of

ends in "^

have medial short

class

these roots merely add an

e.

Sing.

2.

Verbs. Present IndicatiyeactiTe. Unaccented a-class.

92.

to

I.

At

See

the end

of a

h; and generally also before oR

word, or as

initial

p,

^ ^

in

?,

the

s],

nind

53.

a sentence, or alone,

before sibilants [JJ

((rf

A:,

word standing

and

the

always become

^^, "^ ^j

T^T

in

'^

JP^?

and

whether these stand in the same

following word;

e.

g.

"^^cf^^ "^T^

vadatas punar becomes always ^^7T. ^TTt vadatah punah.


96.
1.

Force of the present.

Present time.

narration

2.

Immediate

("historical present").

The

present

futurity.

3.

indicative

signifies

Past time, in lively

Lesson

25

I.

Vocabulary

Yerbs to be conjugated like '^^ vad:

^^

,cc/tA^n^

car (intr.) go, wander, graze

(of cattle) ; (tr.) perform, commit.

vUj^^u.

wt^ pv

^^
"ifi:^

(intr.)

bow, bend one's

"^^

vad speak,

^^

vas dwell.

^^

vah

self; (tr.) honor, reverence.

r?

f-

-r

o/x

^yos

Ax

(tr.)

^^o

^:^co

f <<r7-u

^(^

gahs praise.

thence

hence

cTfTB!.

therefore

^^^^*

wherefore
{whence
thereupon

here

\^

iha

there

rf^ to^ra

hither

,,,,
f
TTSm ittnam)

in this

way
"^

so

Jm

thither

that

fT^

^a^/i(2

way

so

where?

whence?

whither?

'4iyir

nST^

adhuna now

ff^

eva just, exactly

tadd then

^4'i sarvatra everywhere

adya to-day

T^^?^ evam so, thus

Jm

where
yatra

whither
in

Jl^

yathd

which way

as

TT

<

uy a

-.

|[f7T

^ c

Yi

so, thus

(postpos.) -^we

a^

x^^i^r^-n^

carry, bear; (mixX'^-'-^MjLnu^

atas

^"^ atra

say.

Adverbs and Conjunctions.

^STTRC.

.t c

re c-c^

flow, blow, proceed.

Tj^ pac cook.

-7r<:-V<ruj>

-fLeXc

fly.

1^ raks protect.

dhdv run.
warn

'

instr. rei).

dah burn.

^TW

^&<^

2?^? fall

sacrifice fc. ace. pers. et


^Jlf^ 2/a;

live.

r^^o^cLL ^J^^ tyaj leave, abandon.


J^^/co

trc|[^

oh^^ katham how?


iR^X

A:ac?a

when?

ij^l yadd when,

^T^

if

sadd always

TT ^M but,

however

but
Jif^ 2;unar again,

uj-c^\

26

Lesson

I. II.

Exercise

15.

*Today^

We

burns.

We

18.

protect^.
20.

they

bend*?

19.

They two cook.

'21.

Now* we

27.

Now^

16.

two bow^ again^

sacrifice.

24.

abandon^

I.

25.

live^.

There* ^Aey fly^

Unaccented a-

Terbs.

97.

which end

"^m

t^jV and

"^ dro and


form %f(^
98.

^
cef

bho;

and

With

ava;

^^f?I

f^f^

c^^,

do ye

dwelP?

class, cont'd.

Roots of

^?(1C

Roots

^\J

^^ with

vowels

^^^^

^^

bodh;

this

class

forming their present-stems;

ne'; 'S^

^Jrs

c, a

a yields

^"51^

H^f?r bhdvati;

cetati; ^Xf^

forms "^^

final

"Q"

ar.

cit

ijrs,

bhu form

and

g^ budh

t?ar5.

of the gunated root

a becomes

Thus, f^ii, 3rd sing.

^ smr ^l^f?T

g\i(^ iwrfA,

dru and

see 159; so ^jft o with

in consonants:

^TTRt

in

^ smr forms ^rj^ smar; f^c^

the class- sign

j^y<^-tij

99.

Why^

26.

He

II.

form ^je and

unites to form "^"^ aya


'^Sm

ye

23.

a vowel, and consonant- roots not forming heavy

in

syllables (53), gunate their


e. g.,

Ye abandon.

22.

Where* do

Lesson

Always^ /

17.

go^

two praise.

Yie

28.

ye

Whither^ runnest^ thoul

smdrati.

3rd sing. "^tVfTT bodhati ;

^"qfTf vdrsati.

The superior figures indicate the position in the Sanskrit


sentence of equivalents for the words so designated. By this indication is avoided the necessity of applying euphonic rules which
have not yet been stated. The order of words in Sanskrit is very
F'rom the
free, and rarely influences the meaning of the sentence.
figures the number of words required in the Sanskrit sentence will
readily be seen.

Words

in Italics are not to

be translated.

Lesson

The

100.

roots ipp^

gdccha and

The

101.

The

i\^

root

gam and

^^ sad^

102.

Several roots in final

pa fq^fj{

pibati;

a.

Masculines:

^^

"5^1

^^

devas

^^^

devam

N.

T^;^(^^

sthd,

3rd sing. ff|y|r|

g^^d f^(^(f^ jighrati.


a.

Plural.

devdii

^^T^
^^I^

Voc. ^'^ deva

Ace.

sida.

present-stem by a

Dual.

^'^^

^^

deva, 'god'.

Singular.

devd$
devdn.

>>

Neuters: Tfi^ phala^

!)

"^J

thus,

Mascalines and Neuters in "^

103.

the present-stems

the present-stem

^^TH gi^hati.
"^ a form their

peculiar process of reduplication

Ace.

yam make

makes

*sit',

makes
IT^ guh, 'hide',

N.

"^Eji^

ydccha*.

root

tisthati*^; TfJ

27

II.

phalam

fruit'.

JJ^% phale^(a-\-i)

XS^[\f^ phaldni

Voc. XU^ j)hala


*

As

a rule, the grammarians do not allow


ch to stand in
but require it to be doubled, becoming

that form after a vowel,

"^

An

cch.

is

aspirate

doubled by prefixing the corresponding

non-aspirate. Cf. 165.


**

The

dental

sibilant

is changed
vowel
save
ira*mediately preceded by any
A;

c^^

or

unless the

fTf^^fff ti'8tha-ti

a process

to the lingual
i^

be

becomes f?T^f7f

final,

"^

or followed by

tisthati (the

a and

change

s,

if

a,

or by

r.

Thus,

"jj^

of yj th to

be explained below). So
and
becomes
'tT'TOT dhanus-d becomes
"^f^re
agnim;
^f^^ agni'Su
\4mi dhanusd.
"^

th

The

of assimilation

will

nasalization of the alterant vowel, or in other words,

being followed by anusvdra, does not prevent

its

altering effect

its

upon

And the alteration takes place


the sibilant; thus, ^4Tl*fi| havln^i.
in the initial of an ending after the final
s of a stem, whether

the latter be regarded as also changed to

viaarga; thus,

^f^'^

havi-^u or

havis-su.

/-

^^ig

.s

or as converted into

havihm

instead of

l^f^W

28

Lesson
Force of cases.

104.
2.

Tlie accusative

direct,

II.

The nominative

1.

casus subjechvus.

is

casus objectivuSy denoting chiefly the nearer or

is

sometimes however the more remote, object; sometimes also

the terminus

ad

and extent of time and space.

quern,

Euphonic combination of yowels.

105.

-^ or

1.

-^

+^

= IcttPt gaia

"gsror^+^iort;2 =

3.

"^ or

4.

"^ or

=
=

"^ +

It

TJ

^%^ gatdi

^ft

gatct

apt

TJe:

e.g,Jlr[\-\-xfi{iti=jf^gate'ti.

^ w = "^

"^ ar.

e.

e. g.

0.

iTfT rnaha

g.

+ ^f{

uta

+ ^ft:

ri^

^cTT

ai

or ^*^ aw

"^

or

= 'Jnftwf^t

will

ai.

e.

IJ^ eva

g.

^rfT

g.

1\^ + liWf^:

'va.

^+^

osadhih
106.

6. g. ^JHTT

iT^ftl maharsih.

"^ or

6.

or

"^ w

W+^

"^ or

5.

'^.

'pi.

2.

"^ +

^=

or

be

the

gatdu

au.

e.

^sadhify.

practice

in

everywhere

this

work

to

separate independent words in transliteration, but not in the deva-

ndgarl text;

and

coalesced with

if

by an apostrophe
double

if

it

an

initial

vowel of a following word has

of the preceding,

final

single if the initial

this ^{oil

vowel be the shorter,

be the longer, of the two different

initials

To

every case of combination yield the same result.


ginner,

a point

will

be indicated

sometimes be placed,

in

the

which

in

aid the be-

devandgart,

under a long vowel formed by two coalescing vowels; thus, ^ftfTTO*!!!^ (^gnind 'rmdm.

Vocabulary
Terbs, a- class :
'vto

v-co-ut-cr

im^ gam

(gdcchati) go.

JTi g^fa (jighrati) smell.

II.

f^ji

(tr.

and intr.) conquer, win. ^o

dru run.
ni lead, guide.

^(-dpu^<

Lesson

tn"

pa

p^ nara

(pihati) drink.

^ ^ hhu become,
J3S^

yam

"^

vrs

be, exist.

TXf

rain;

give

^T

sthd (tisthati)

Subst.

stand

(intr.).

^T^

%
Exercise

Two

17.

think^ on
village*.

cook^

(^)

Final

1^

18.

25.

is

/^^^^/.J

gift,

nagara

present.

city,

16.

Ae O, ho.
II.

The

The god^

king^ leads^ the elephant^

gives'-^

20.

water*.

The

19.

reverences^ the gods*.

The gods^

give* rain

commonly

Ye

both

wins^ the

king^

elephants* smell^ the perfume^.

The man^

23.

elephants* live^.

ddna

two gods* (accus.).

the

The two

21.

fruits*.

drinks^ milk^.

houses* falP.

['z?LAtc<uJ.>-*/v*

Interj. :

village.

The man*

^xt^r'^^v^

milk.

ksiira

nij'?[^

^pef gandha odor, perfume.

15.

^[^ jala water.

Masc:

grama

^^-^^p ,>u^x^

son.

^T^ ^r^a house.

11^ gaja elephant.

TH^

and homo),

nrpa king.

^V^

smr remember, think on.

(vir

Neut. :

(fig.)

shower down; overwhelm.

man

J^ ;?w<ra

(ydcchati) furnish, give.


rain,

29

II.

22.

24.

They
The two

(^^).

written as

anusvdra

if

the fol-

lowing word begins with a consonant; but the Hindus pronounce


it as
w in such cases. At the end of a sentence anusvdra should

^ m, though this a habit common in the MSS.


^ m, in internal combination, assimilated to a
becomes the nasal
following mute or spirant. In the former case
of the same class with the mute; in the latter
becomes anusvdra.

not be written for

is

Final radical

is

it

it

Final radical
fore

i^^

sibilant.

w,

in internal combination,

becomes anusvdra be-

30

Lesson

III.

Lesson
107.

Accented

Verbs.

present-stem by adding an accented

The

gunated.

III.
Roots of

class.

tf

a to the root, which

of these stems

inflection

form

this class

is

their

is

like that

precisely

not
of

stems belonging to the preceding class, except as to the position


of the accent

f^Xf

thus,

ksipdsi, f^X|f?f ksipdti, etc.

f%"mft" ksipdmi, f^Xjf^


108.

with

The

^^

"^

Several roots in

^r

in

and

For

109.

Likewise,

makes

sometimes given as
HO.

its

xr^

number of

in the present

The

nasal

III.

is

"Sf

^^frT

before labials

always
w

f^

ksi,

regarded as a

is

icchdti

T^^chdti

( 100, note).

and

Tfl^ prach,

prcchdti,

thus,

are strengthened

f^ra

present ind.

sic,

assimilated in class to the

and _L n before

Masculines and Neuters in

sibilants

n before

^^

and

'^ h.

a, cont'd,

Masculines:

a.

Dual.

Singular.

^%*r

ich

thus,

used before palatals,

is

"^

dhuvdti.

roots following this class

following consonant; thus

^[^

makes XC^^7{

strew', f^RT7f?f kirdti.

V^f?r

^^f?T

by a penultimate nasal;

f^T^fTf sincdti.

dentals,

thus,

present

prch

dhuj

'desire',

is,

written^^'

u change those vowels into

'^ su, ^icrf?f suvdti;

the root ^|[^

substitute in the present-stem;

L>-

u and

'

and "^W uv, respectively, before the class-sign

f^'^f^ kmjdti;

I-

^ kr^

e. g.,

,,,^'

Hindus

of this class (by the

f ) form stems in ^[X[ ^r^;

roots
iy

present-stem f^TT ksipd, pres. ind.

ksip,

devena

^TT^

^^P^TR^ devdbhydm

devdya

Ab. ^c^lfl^ devdt

G.

^^'^

L.

%"'% deve

devasya

Plural.

^^^t^

devayos

^%H^

devdis

^^^^

devebhyas

^cf jWf \p^ devdndm

%^^

devesu

b. Neuters follow exactly the declension of masculines in the

above cases

thus, T|j%^ phalena,

Xfi^^

phaldya,

etc.

Lesson
Force of cases.

112.

The

1.

31

III.

instrumental answers the questions

wherewith? and whereby? and expresses accompaniment, agent,


or means.

2.

The

dative denotes the remoter object, and direction.

also used as dativus commodi; very frequently also to denote

It is

end or purpose.

Sometimes (and

predicative, in the sense of

it is

ablative answers the question


cause.

The

4.

belonging

'makes

gen. subjectivus,

(e. g.

objectivus, parlitivus).

as the ablative

is

5.

The

lo-

used in Latin and the genitive

Greek.

Vocabulary

\^

is (iccJidti)

cfiXT

krs (krsdti) plough.

f^

ksip

hurl,

sic

(sincdti)

^^flf

cast,

go;

create.

(sprgdti) touch; (in

certain

srj

^5r^

^vigdti) enter.

Snbst.

c|jnT

let

(srjdti)

'^^}V^prach('prcchdti) ask, ask about. Jl^guh (gUhati,

'Sfi'Z

/<^>

"C

u>

a- class:

out.
</cvu^i7'f>^ dig (digdti) show, point

i;/p

drop;

connections) wash,

throw.

js,ao=*^f^T^

drip,

moisten.

wish, desire.

(ksipdti)

III.

fW^

Terl()|xv2-elassi
'i

The

used absolutely, in agreement with a participle expressed

or understood,
in

3.

when, an action occurs.

cative denotes the place where, or the time


It is often

tends toward'.

for,

whence? and very frequently denotes

casus adjectivus, denoting all kinds of

is

genitive

oftenest with copula omitted)

kaia mat.

fT^ bdla child, boy.

7ltZ\^^^(jha

IJX! P'' arrow.

101)

hide, conceal.
,

mjlcLlAjl. , AxX^

101) sit,

hand.

Nent.:

kunta spear.

cloud.

(sidati,

^^ Jiasta

Masc:

hit} mdrga road, way,

sad

street.

%^

ki^etra field.

\;jf

dhana money, riches.

Wr^S^

langala plough.

f^ visa
^|T^

poison.

tM>a-M-<'

sukha fortune, luck, happiness.

32

Lesson

IV.

III.

Exercise

III.

^it ^fr
w^nf^ wr^: ^^f^
W[^ T^fTf ^^ ^TT'f^rfH ^: ^^
<^i

II

The boy*

15.

of the clouds^.

hands^ with water^.


23.

18.

The man's^ sons^

19.

give^ the water^

(to).

<^^

^t:

sit*

21.

The two boys^

17.

The

16.

The

The two men^ go*

king* gives^ the two

on mats^.

We

Both men^ lead*

22.

3^^

II

fields^ (loc).

by two roads^ (instr.) into the city^.

men^ money^.

asks^ the men^ about the road^ (ace).

drop* water^ on the

clouds^

f^^Ti:

20.

The gods*

wash^ (use 'WTt) both


their

sons^ (dual) home^

point out* the road^ to the city^ (gen.).

Lesson IV.
113.

Mascnlines in

"^rf^ agnif *fire'.

Dual.

Singular.

Plural.

N. "^^fH^agnis
A.

"^rf^PR^

-^fqi^fC agnayas

agnim

I.

'^f^tT agnina

D.

"^TCT^ agnaye

A.

"^^

^^Srfq^Tf^ agnibhyam

^rRTT^

^q^

**

agnibhyas

agne^ /<

^^5^^
L.

^rRrf*!^ agnibUs

'*iMl1IH ^g^'^nam

a^rn^/os

^^^3

agnau

See note to

agnim*

102.

The

dental nasal ^ w, when immediately followed by a vowel,


or by i^ w or ;i^
or 'CT ^ or '^ v^ is turned into the lingual
w if preceded in the same word by the lingual sibilant or semi-

U^^

vowel or vowels

i.

e.

by

"5(^

s, "J" r,

f,

or

"^

f ; and this, not

Lesson IV.
Neuters in

114.

"^ifT ^^^h 'water'.

i.

"^^

Dual.

Singular.

N. Trfr
A.

"^frWr

vdrind*

^'

^rf^W

Ab.

vdrinas
^rft"''!!^

G.

cj

tX^

115.

vdribhydm

Trfl^^

vdribhis

vdribhyas

^lO^I*i vdnndm

'vcirini

vdrisu

qif^M

vdre or "^Tf^

Masculine and neuter adjectives

the substantives above.

But neuter

in the dat.,

and

may,

c||f\f^^

vdrinos

^Tf\^fi

"^"R^ftr

V.

^Tfr^T^

'^ctrine

?5

L.

Plural.

^'^^*

I-

33

abl., gen.,

in

are declined like

"^^

adjectives (never substantives)

loc.

and the gen. and

sing.,

Iqc.

dual, substitute the corresponding forms of masculines.


116.

Euphonic changes of

and

These two sounds

l^ r.

stand to each other in the practical relation, in external combination,


of corresponding surd and sonant: in countless cases
"?[

r in situations requiring or favoring the occurrence

and, less often, '^ r becomes


internal combination the
is

extremely
117.

A. Final

nant (except

unless,

only
at

if

common

s.

it

where a surd

two are

1.

below),

s is

be preceded by

the r not

In

The

common.

changed to the sonant

<2

or

Tr

d; thus, ^Sfft^

the altering letter stands immediately before the ..nasal, but


latter

deed, there interv ene a E.al^tal (except

it

may

be found:

puiil>dni.

See preceding note.


Sanskrit Primer.

unjesSj^

in-

y), a lingual, or a dental.

Thus, vR^TIf nagarei^a, ^n^nif mdrgena, g'BinfW

Perry,

required.

Before a sonant, either vowel or conso-

whatever distance before the

is

becomes

of a sonant;

far less interchangeable.

as an etymological final,

^
see

indeed,

^s

34

Lesson IV.

isr^ agnis atra

becomes ^ft'^-sC

dahati becomes

"^rf^^^f?f agnir dahati.

^ a,

short

initial

dropped
jayati;

^i|^

W^TRT

"^p^ nrpas a^ra

which denotes

the sign

yj,

inverted

comma,

120.

its

:^

''^TPO'

icchati

flfl'

and the

"^ a

initial

becomes T^t ^"^fTT

is

f^Tpo

^"^ rirpo '^m.

our system of transliteration to render

this

dropping of an

initial

initial

"^

by an

a,

vowel other than short "^

becoming simple

s,

fRT^

nrp^^s jayati

T^f^

occasioned remains; thus, T'T^

^^f?T

rough breathin^Wf printed Greek texts.

like the

Before any

3.

as loses

to

changed

It is the practice in

119.

^^

is

thus, T^T^

cignis

See also 95.

Final ^Sf^ as, before any sonant consonant or before

2.

118.

"^(m^ ^^ft

atra;

5'"''

^<^ch*l,

tatas

final

a,

a; and the hiatus thus

iirpas icchati

udakam =

rlcT

becomes T^
^3^^Ji^

tata

udakam.
Final '^SH^ ^s before any sonant, whether vowel or

4.

121.

consonant, loses

its

thus occasioned remains; thus, ixn^

nrpa icchanti;

^C'^^f'fr

^X

becoming simply

s,

<^^t^

"^m^ ^RTf%

<^;

and the hiatus

nrpds icchanti

nrpas jayanti=w[T^

fqT

W^f^

nrpd jayanii.
B. Final X^

122.

form which

s
ig^^

jmnar standing

^T

9^^^

punar

9^^'

itself

Final '^ r in general shows the same

1.

would exhibit under

trTl^

maintains

r.

punar

2.

occur, either

double

"^ r,

after

;m7?a/^;

a or "^J

tpf^

nowhere admitted:

if

such would

by retention of an original "^r or by conversion of

T ^,

is

made long by compensation;

first

"^ r

is

a,

jayati,

r is

to

the

final

original

tlT;

before vowels and sonant consonants; thus,

atra, V^^[^U(f^

123.

same conditions: thus

end of a sentence becomes

at the

^^^

the

omitted, and the preceding vowel,


thus,

v\^\

\m\

if

short,

punar ramali

3^T TTT! puna ramah; "^f^^ Tt^ ag'^is rocate = -^^


agm rocate; ^^^ Tt^'^ dhenus rocate = ^"5T 'O^'^ dhenu

Tt^
rocate.

Lesson IV.

IV.

Vocabulary

^1^ ruh (rohati) grow.

Verbs:

ht

'^^'J^^^^lWl

(krntdti) cut, cut

muc [muncdti)

W^

35

off,

deliver,

free,

?w/;

^pq^

release.

(limpdti) smear.

lip

f^fx^;^

(lumpdti) break to pieces,

./:,x,<^'vw/a^2--

devastate, plunder.

Siibst.:
i-^^-ui^

^^STf^

(as proper

fire;

ni.,

ag't^i')

name) Agni, the god of

-^T^^

^f^

n, m., enemy.

inn^^iA^

^'Rr

s?*,

m., sword.

^fxf

m,

m., seer.

^"cS^I^Rf^ ^'<
f'lfT
yf^Vt/s,^A-*u^ gfi|

ra-'

5'^^^ "^'j

ji7i(3r^

duhkha,

TJ^ rama^

poet.

((^^

'-^^'^

2?r.,

name

f ^n

vrksa, m., tree,

t^^

of

pi?;,

m.,

h.>jo-vi> ih

mm.

pr,

name

mis-

misery,

^f^

Aon, m.,

no7n.

pr.^

name of

a god.

Exercise

IV.

^# -Ptt: (a^i)
^Nf^ M ^n^fr ^PTT^
g'^rf^ ^
xmfTT ^ imf^'^w f^nq^ ^ f^T f^Tt ftff^ Q. ^^^:
I

^
^wt

^ff^

^9

fT^

15.

m'f

f?frT:

123)
I

-^^

ftr

^o

^T^

20.

18.

Fire^

17.

^f^t

fft:

^et^ct:

q^

II

I8

^r^^

^T^rf^

^^

16.

Both enemies^ hurl*

touches* his two sons^ with

trees^.

19.

Seers^ speak^ the

Through righteousness^ happiness^ arises*

Modifiers generally precede the

II

Rama^

burns^ the

^rf^ftTin ^irfti ^^n

9iva^ dwells^ in the mountains^.

hands^.

truth^.

^^rfir

spears^ at the king^ (dat.)


his

of

T^'^satya, n., truth, righteousness.

(pi.) people.

fortune.

ffr

a god.

inountain.

n.,

m., Tiom.

a hero.

g^

man;

m.^

XJTtfjpop^, n., sin.

fire.

word

whicli

is

(W) for manmodified.

3*

V reos

m^

Lesson IV. V.

36
kind^ (^iT,

Fruits^ are^ {use

22.

Hari^.

on

^j)

two

seer's*

the trees^.

hands^
23.

hurls* the sword^ from

Rama*

24.

The

21.

pL).

^'ew.

water^

touch*

remember^

People*

Ms hand^

(abl).

Lesson V.
their present-stem

WW

from

^0^

is

with

form

made

the present-stem

Tfl ndhya;

stems of this class follows the model of

inflection of

Certain

and

^i

'|[^

"^

ai or

-roots, because of their peculiar exchanges

2-forms, especially in the formation of the present-

are given

stem,

by the Hindu grammarians as ending

(cf.

132), and

Thus ^iTT <^^>

-class-

the root

or

^^l

^ gd (Hindu

11 gai)

system another root


128.

Jiva

by them assigned

(Hindu

^
^

^wRf

ghyati.

*suck'

(Hindu

makes

For the root

127.

XT^

Masculines in

I-

^T!MT bhdnund

D.

Hpf%

bhdnave

Ab.^n^^
;,

bhdnos

L. )iin bhdndu

to the VI

!][

or

hh% or

dhe)^ forms V[^fl[ dhdyati;

hve) forms

makes

PP, which

^^tRT

hvdyati;

X?^rf?f pdgyati.

*sun'.
'HT'5 bhanu,

u.

Dual.

Singular.

N. ^HT^^ bhdnus
A. WTTFC. ^^^wm

in

is substituted in the present"^TT drg^ *see',

G.

class

vad.
126.

"if^

nah

this

ya to the root, which bears the

^^ lubhya,

lubh,

The

125.

by adding

Thus from

accent.

Roots of

Unaccented ya- class*

Terbs.

124.

Plural.

^T^T^^ bhdnavas

^fTT hhdnu
n

^^^^

\\\^^\H^ bhdnubhydm

W^^^IRC b^anvos
j)

bhdnun

^T"5fH^

bhdnubhis

t:(\9[}/^^bhdnubhyas

Ml'^^m^ bhdnundm
^"^^H ^^^^^^^

Lesson V.

Masculine adjectives in

Euphonic Changes of :^

129.

sibilant,

37

w are similarly declined.


cont'd.

s,

whether original or representing

surd mutes ['^

c,

is

If ch],

1.

Final

final J^ r,

s,

becoming palatal

assimilated,

the dental

before the palatal

p.

f"^^ ^"^frr naras carati becomes wTTi^TfiT narag carati;

naras chalena becomes

1^%^

a lingual surd mute


lingual If

s,

surd mutes
it

them,

[^ U

n^l^if

'S t^]i

in like

narag chalena.

manner,

but the case almost never occurs.

[c[^ t,

"^

th],

since

it

2.

Thus

n^
Before

would become

it

Before the dental

3.

already of the same class with

is

of course remains unchanged; thus, <^|444^ "RT^ft rdmas

tisthati.

130.

(much

The

preposition

less often

to',

is

sometimes used with the ablative

with the accusative), in the sense of 'hither from',

way from'; but


until'.
As a prefix

'all the
*

"^
far

more usually

"^

to verbs,

to signify 'all the

a means

way

'to', 'unto', 'at'.

Vocabulary V.

^^
Terbs:
^Xta-rcc^-i-)

^^
gjT^^

^J^^

kup {kupyati

w. gen. or

be angry.

krudh

{krudhyati

"J^l.\ ^
'yJ^''-^U^\

A^^*^

gam + ^pf a

<r (tdrati)

w. gen.

'nn^

"^(^9

(dgdcchati) come.

cross over.

spring up, y'u^ci<^,/^'

^TT ^ (drohati) climb, mount,


ascend.

f^f?^

or dat.) be angry.
J[J{^

rise,

grow.

as (dsyati) throw, hurl.

dat.)

ruh (rohati)

^iSf^ pw,s (^usyati)

fT^^

dry up.

snih (snihyati

w.

gen. or

loc.) feel inclined to, love.

hu or

57

l^^x^Lo^^-

w. dat. Qx>if.7\'ir^'o/^^

loc.) desire, covet.

(ndgyati) perish.

xnCT P^^g (pdpjati) see.

likh (likhdti) scratch; write.

^r*I lubh (lubhyati

hvd (hvdyati)

call.

38

Lesson V.

.^.^2^cA(^^^e*..),

jj^

n.,

fljTj/ja^

food, fodder. Cv^^^

"^spg pi;a, m., horse.


Cc<^t:ite^l

A^>^cty^

udadhi, m., ocean.

^^ftr
^re

5'M?'w,

q^ pattra,
trr^ paJa,

ni-)

m.,

heap.
windlcuL,A.t/vc.-M>'-

?;%M, m., wow.

p7',

name

of

quarter; "^"^ ^atrUj m., enemy.

ray, beam.

fir^T

Rj^

"^T^ bdhu, m., arm.

fq^

v<22/M,

a god.

foot;

m.,

ratna, n., jewel.

f^XljJ'

prpM, m., axe.

^^^

1^
"^g

n., leaf, letter.

.-fo^,

'JtRT wiam, m., jewel.

ITrftr ^P^

m., teacher.

V) u<.

</

^TT bhdnu, m., sun.

Snbst.

P^^^<3!, m.,

P%5

ni.,

summit.

pupil,

Vedic
^ff^ suJcta, n.,

bindu, m., drop.

scholar.

hymn.

Exercise V.

5T^: ftrwnrf

19.

Now*

f%wf^

^^

^^nirf ^sr^Tt ^ftprr

the sun's^ rays^ climb^ the mountains^

^f^f^

20.

^^

drop^

O^ men^,

we

see*

love^ poets^ (gen. or loc).

23.

The

wind^ blows* (^^) from the summits^ of the mountains^

24.

The

of water^ falls* down from


the

city^.

Both kings^

22.

king^ hurls* spears*^ at

b6ws^
sons^

before his
(instr.).

27.

The two

we

cloud^

21.

enemies^ {dot, or loc). 25.

teacher^ (ace).

or loc). 28. O^ seer,^


*

his

the

26.

The

Two men^ come^

scholar^

with their

kings^ desire* the poet's^ jewels^ (dat.

sacrifice* to

Orthodox Hindus maintain

revealed to their reputed authors,

Visnu^ {ace).

that the Vedic

who

29.

hymns,

thus *saw' them.

The two
etc.,

were

Lesson V. VI.
cook^ food^ with fire^
31.

In the

30.

The

39

seers^ praise"* Visnu^ with hymns^.

enemies^

city^ the king^ calls^ his

Lesson VI.
Verbs.

131.

in '^S[^^

am

The

2/^-class, cont'd.

lengthen their '^ in

roots of this class which end

forming their present-stem; thus,

ffT^

tam^ 'c[X^^:(f^tdmyati\ i^J^ bhram, '^Jf^'ffl bhrdmyati

last

makes some forms with short

the

"551

a.

The

root

but

this

Tf^ mad has

same lengthening: ^T^rf^ madyati.

by the

132. Certain a-roots (five

make

Hindus written with

present-stems with an accented yd; thus,

The

133.

present-system

The

134.

root
:

^fV vyadh

da,

^f?f

dydti.

abbreviated to f^\J vidh in the

f^Ti2rf?f vidhyati.

root

IfiT^

kram,

by the natives

said

to this class, really

present-stem according
to the a-class,

is

final o)

and the root-vowel

but not in the middle;

thus,

forms

it

to

form

its

only according

lengthened

in the active voice,

5fjT^f?f krCimati,

but middle sfTR^

is

krdmaie.

The

135.

root

^?^ cam, used only

forms "^T^THfTT dcamati.


136.

'Jf^

a,

madhu, 'honey'.

Dual.

^"U madhu

"^

IVeuters iu "^ u.

Singular.

N.

with the preposition

M"^*[\

Plural.

madhuni

^T^irf^

madhuni

A
I.

D.
Ab.

G.

^^TT madhund
TT^i!

madhune

^^PEC.

madhunas

L.

^^f^

V.

?rg or

madhuni
?{\jt

^reptSn'^

madhuhhydm

'R^^^

madhunos

IT^trfiT^

madhuhhis

Tf^J^JT^ madhubhyas

7TVv||^ madhundm

'^M^ madhum

40

Lesson VI.

Neuter adjectives (but not substantives)

137.

in

w may take

the forms proper to the masculine in the


dat., abl.-gen., loc. sing.,

and gen. -loc. dual.


Changes of
n becomes

"^r

1138.
(^

n\

final

Before

^ n.

thus,

g; thus,

n'y

Z,

^oh|^

140.

inserted

p,

rfT-

tan gatrun.

In

initial

^*^ X'V ^^^ chatrun.


n,

which

thus cIT^

eft

cf

Final i^

nasalized

or

= TU'^HT^^^

however, ifcAis almost always substituted for the

.last case,

and "^

^n[, ^^^ jandn becomes

frrl.

"''^^1^ tan jandn; 7(J^ ^"l^l. ^^^ gatrun

IT[(^ 139.

initial

before an initial
is

written

^cRj^

tan lokdn

fil,

I,

is

assimilated and becomes

or (what

becomes

cIT'^

the

is

same

^cfiTi^^

thing)

tml lokdn

tan lokdn.

Before the surd palatal, lingual, and dental mutes there


after

final

|^

a sibilant of each of those classes

is

re-

spectively, before which i^ n becomes anusvdra; thus for cffi^ t^

tan ca

we

find

<Tt^ tdhg ca; for ffp^

TfTgrT

tdn taihd,

tans

fffW^T

tathd.*

Vocabulary

^^^ cam +

Verbs:

"^r (rcchdti 109) go

'^<^)

to; fall

to one's lot, fall upon.

kra7n

^iTC,

stride

up

+ "^

a (dkrdmati)

to, attack.

VI.

a (dcdmati)

<T?^ tarn (tdmyati)


'f[^

tus

(tusijati)

pleasure in (w.

;^H

be sad.

o^

rejoice,

take

instr.).

div (dlvyati) play.


^.yfC^nifi<iuu>

sip,

drink, rinse the mouth.

This rule really involves an historic survival, the large maof


cases of final i^ n in the language being for original ns.
jority
c and
since
Practically, the rule applies only to i^^ n before
c^^ t,

cases involving the other initials are excessively rare.

I
^^l^ bhram {hhrdmyati

131)

^nn[

wander about.

^^

vyadh (vidhyati)

xA^v

become

(grhmyati)

^r (kdrati) take away,

steal,

X*^"'/^

-Ax^l.4.^

^>

plunder^ .^^

hit, pierce.

pam (^hmyati) become

IJl^

praw

weary.

drunk.
jux^J.i^-nxcUi^^jf^mad {mhdyati) get

,.

41

Lesson VI.

quiet,

be extinguished, go out.

^f^^ Tcmtriyaj

Subst.:

akm^ m.,
cl^i^vUk

^f.

^v|^

m.,

injustice,

^pj

a/^,

<3!prw,

k^^i^r^)

n., tear.

^-nzj
eye. [^o-^^^
<-#!/

honey.

n.,

?T? mukha, n., mouth, face.

TTcH mrtyu, m., death.

^opa, m., anger.

c^TIf

n.,

?TV madhUf

m., bee.

(i'^Kro^cLA^^t^^^i^ rksa, m., bear.


\i

'^^f?! nrpati, m., king.

%^ netra^

wrong.

^ff^

man

of the second caste.

die, dice.

adharma,

m., warrior,

cf^ vasw,

n.,

wealth, money.

Exercise VI.

T^'l" ^^rr^rr:

^f^

<18

16.

n^ ^:
i

ftr^^ trrmTiijf?T ^^ i^t 'hit '^^ g^nT trt: iM

The

II

warriors^ play^ for money^

honey^.
21.

enemy^

20.

with the spear^.

The water^ of

There^ bees^ are

flitting

ing^ honey^ and* fruits^.

then^

the

19.

his tears^

scholars^ rejoiced

When^
24.

17.
18.

The

moistens* (f^T^)
22.

king's)^.

The warrior^

Bees^ are fond of^

about^ (^^)-

23.

II

(instr.).

horse? become weary^ on the road* to-day^.


pierces* his

TV^T ftT^

Two men^

(gxf^ )

his feet^.

are cook-

the teacher's^ anger^ ceases*,

Tears' stand* in the warriors'*

^^

42

Lesson VI. VII.

25.

eyes'^.

26.

The enemies^ overwhelm* ('^^)

quarter^ of the injustice^ falls upon*

the king^ with arrows^


the king^ (ace).

(^)

Lesson VII.
Causative Verbs

141.

(native "cwr-class").

The Hindu gram-

marians describe a certain present-system which they assign to a

This

so-called "cwr-class".

however, in fact no present-class

is,

at all, but a causative or secondary conjugation,

Hindus
stems

chiefly these that are

it is

in their cwr- class,

not con-

grouped by the

which also includes some denominative-

For

with causative accent.

in dya,

is

But many formations of this sort have

fined to the present-system.

no causative value; and

which

practical purpos'es

it is

well enough to consider these verbs here.


142.

The causative-stem

root,

which

is in

the

usually strengthened; and the strengthening process

is

main as follows:

143.

Medial or

1.

if

strengthening,

f^^

144.

2.

capable of

bhu,

final

3.

it;

but

^w, and

',

thus,

TJ^

^^

ptd,

^r

cur^

have the guna^ c^:^->

"n<*lRf cordyati;

XJ^^fcT

Before '^Haya^

^T\ dv respectively;

VJ'^^f^

145.

thus,

^di and "^ du become


bhl,

^T^T^fiT hhdydyati;

initial

'^^

ksal,

cans.

^a

in

a metrically light syllable

"^T^T^fcT ksdldyati; but '^^^jan,

,hf

thus,

caus. -^ifTSltTT,
|

146.

The

147.

Rules of euphonic combination.

initial

(^

is

jandyati.

an

ci,

'^ ^(^c ^

sometimes lengthened, and sometimes remains unchanged;


u-^kJ-

thus,

bhdvdyati.

Medial or

k'S,'^'^-

ptddyaii.

vowel has the tTc^c^Af-strengthening;

"^ifTT^rRT dhdrdyati.

'^TRI ay and

initial

vid, %^"5grf7T veddyati;

V dhr,

formed by adding ^pij dya to the

is

inflection is the usual

one of a-stems.
In external combination

sonant of whatever class (even a vowel or semivowel or

nasal) requires the conversion of a preceding final surd to a sonant.

rr

43

Lesson VII.

Final ?^

148.

1.

r.

Final <^

becomes

sonant, except the palatals, the nasals, and

meghat atra becomes

^M |<^r^

meghdd atra;

raksati or ^jfT^fiT bhrdmijati or

'^^f^pdpdd

^'M

raksati or tntrra"T'?rfiT

Z:

thus, ^^TTc^ "^'^

l||l(|c(^

T^ft

pdpdt

gopdyati becomes XcrqT-

i\ f?f

before any initial

c?,

pdpdd bhrdmyati or

tJTXTT'^XIT-

^fff pdpdd gopdyati.


149.

2.

Final

^ is

assimilated to an initial

ci[^

or

the next

in

Ip cA, If j before

becomes

7,

jalam;

^^T^^TF^ meghdj

before

Z: e. g.,

palatal, lingual,

before

Tr^c[^

^^Wl meghdt jalam becomes

Before

initial TfTp,

final

c^

Before

n^f?f grhdt nayati


into

^d

becomes

c,

and the

gatruh becomes

nrpdc chairuh.

4.

151.

becomes

g then becomes "^cA; thus, "im?^ li'^^nrp^i

HMI^^t

and

^ meghdt ca

^RTfC. pdpdt lokdt

WU^i^

^c

lokdt,

^TRWtcRTci; vapdl
3.

and

becomes

it

meghdc ca; ^^TTc^^

ij'bll^

150.

word; thus

IS

nasals c^

initial

becomes ^tc;

becomes ^^TW^fiT gT^dn

also permitted,

nayati.

thus,

'J^f^

But the change

though hardly used; thus, Jl^l^^fTT

grlidd nayati.

Vocabulary
fT^

Verbs;
/a>^Xv.(AJR^RI kathaya (denom.
kathdyati) relate,

^^

kml

qa^Jc (v.^ 4^1 (jj 4|

stem

tell.

(Jcsdldyati)

wash.

ganaya (denom. gandyati)

number, count.

^5^ cur

VII.

(cordyati) steal.

beat.
7\'^ta4 (tdidyati) strike,

tul (toldyati)

weigh.

rfU^'^ dandaya (denom

(Ja- ^-^^}UeL(''Ufrl)

nddyati) punish.

^ + ^T
1}^
Tjif
T^ipj"

pJ4

nt

-{-

d (dndyati) bring.

(picjdijati)

torment, vex.

puj (pujdyati) honor.


(p&rdyati) overcome i prevail. "^V

*A^

f<<

r
PO

44

Lesson VII. VIII.

1^^ rUpaka,

Snbst.:

^^

ra., father.

^(w\^ janaka,

f'U^ danda,m., stick ; punishment.

VJ^ pumja,

n.,

Tl^^ phala, n., fruit; reward.

'<l^l^W rdmdyana,

(sing,

n.,

^Tfl

\^

mouths^,

reward'* of sin^.

17.

Ye

16.

The

pi.).

n.,

VII.

The

father^ tells^ his

sons^ {dat.) the

honor^

reverence* their

scholars^

both bring^

The two boys^

15.

and**"

your hands^ and^ count*

18.

them.

Merit^ protects^ from misfortune^ (abl.).

ioteers^ strike*

gold.(^Y^^*^^^y^'=^'^^

stena, ra., thief.

teacher^
19.

people

m., driver, charioteer.

Thieves^ steal* the people's^ money^.


their

world,

iva as, like (postpos.).

Exercise

14.

gold-piece.

sddhu, m., holy man, saint.

sw^fl!,

%^
Adverb

and

^^TlJ suvarna,

a noted

poem.

wash^

loka,

"m^

merit.

n.,

m.

fruits^

in

the horses^ with sticks^.

21. In

20.

The

char-

anger^ (abl.) the

king2 pierces^ the thief^ with a spear*.

Lesson Vlll.
152.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

present indicative middle of verbs


as follows:

Present ludicative Middle,

whose stems end

in

The

is inflected

45

Lesson VIII.
Dual.

Singular.
1.

'^^ vdde

"^%

3.

"^^^ vddate

rzfi

for "^firT

stem-final
154.

middle

is

of the 3rd

With verbs

properly
X[ e

"^rf ete

^r%

ante

f^

(cf.

of the 1st sing, the

are hard to explain.

inflected in both voices, the chief force of the

that the action

is

performed for the benefit of the

'^^f^ ydjati *he

'he sacrifices

ydjate

pi. is

and

ethe

Jl^

dropped.

vddante

"^^%

before the

in the act.);

actor himself; thus,

"^^^

'^T^^ vddadhve

^^^
"^^ vddete

(^nti

is this,

^^i^J{^^vddamahe

vddethe

The ending

153.

vddavaJie

c|<^N*^

vddase

2.

Plural.

sacrifices' (for

But

himself.

for

some one

many

else);

are

verbs

conjugated only in the middle, like the Latin and Greek deponents.
155.

The

makes fj^^^ mriydte

verb IT mr, 'die',

in the pres-

ent; and '^(^jan, 'give birth', substitutes as present mid.

<3||i|'ri

jdyate^ 'be born'.


156.

Combination of

and

final

initial

vowels.

Two

simple

vowels, either or both of them short or long, coalesce and form


the corresponding long vowel.

Thus
iti

1.

'^

or

I"

or f^

becomes ^^<ftf?f gacchati

= ^_wj

e.

^ETT^

g.

For
2

the a-vowels, see above, 105.


e. g.

^_v,

Hi,

2.

3|T^f?I ^[f?f gacchati

"^wor^w+^wor^w

sddhu uktam becomes

"^W^

sddhu

^TTV^^

''ktam*.
157.

The

t-vowels, the w- vowels, and "^r, before a dissimilar

vowel or diphthong, are regularly converted each into


corresponding semivowel,
ti.^ihati

"?!

?/

or

v or

\r.

Thus,

its

"fil^fTT "^"^

atra becomes f^yirei^ ththaty atra (four syllables);


Toft

nadi atra becomes T^"^ nady atra;

THcT^ madhv atra;

And

offrT

theoretically

no occurrence.

^
3.

kartf iha

^ra

nSf"^

madhu

'W^

atra becomes

becomes ofif^^ kartr

^T-\-'^T ^'^V-,

own

iha.

^ut probably this has

46

Lesson VIII.
Final

158.

and

TJ e

remain unchanged

short "^ a, but the "^ a disappears.

comes

^^

hhano Hra.

far the

By

represents final

The

159.

"^^

final

semivowel

diphthong, except

when

becomes

and

'^ST^

W\sf

ay,
<^^'

final

or '^
'^^y

the rule of 158

\ ai, ^J^

v^

iti

would apply.

^o

ay,

"^ff^rfTT
iti

more
161.

fore

^-"^Rf bhau-aya

vanay

'^<ff

iti)

^ift

frequent.

iti).

r(f<

Such are

any following vowel.

iti

is in

gen-

^% ff^

Thus,

becomes ^ff^

^ff^T

case of final TT e

1.

\^t,

atra', XJi% "^"^ f)hale atra.

only, vowel of an interjection; thus,

arthaya (denom.

two

arthdaccus.).

c*^t)l'(j^''i]^^Siks (iksate) see, behold.

^c-n-

av,

^-'^Si^ ndi-aya yields

w,

is

bhdna

by far

(kdmpate) tremble.

^l^ jan (jay ate) be born,

arise,

be-

and 1^6 as dual

endings, both of declension and of conjugation; thus,

^R^ kamp

T^ e

and

Certain final vowels maintain themselves unchanged

yate) ask for (w.

ic^

Thus,

becomes "^f^

164.

Terl)S (deponents):

Yr

changed

yields VTT"^^ bhdv-aya.

The

2.

f^'^ ^[^ girl


The final, or

^ ^^ he indra, \ ^^

Vocabulary

-)

it

(through the intermediate stage

iti

^f^f bhdno

See also

^"^ sddhu
iha, ^^TTV
s
;

^f^f vana

(through ^nff^fTT bhdnav

the

is

In external combination, the resulting semivowel

becomes

where

o is

before any vowel or

dropped; and the resulting hiatus remains.

vane

^^^

Thus, in internal combination, ^-"^ ne-a becomes

TT^r^ nay-ayay and

eral

"^

of a diphthong

^f^naya; '^{-'^ bho-a becomes *T^ bhava; so

160.

atra be-

118).

^ w-element

or

^f^ vane

initial

^"^ hhano atra becomes *TT^

commonest case of

as (see

to its corresponding

^" du,

^H^

vane Hra;

^^

Thus,

before an

he ague.

VIII.

spring up (mother in loc.)^kit ^r\^\


7f{}^^bhds (bhdsate) speak. ry^ i
JT wzr (mriydte) die. *e/*f**y,
"^Jfc^

^V

f*/*/rvt;

**-<vi-i>i

yat{ydtate) strive for (w. dat.).

yudh

instr.

(yudhyate)

fight

of accompaniment).

(w.
'i^^A'''''?

1^

Lesson Vlll.

^W

rahh

^ (drdbhate) take

-{ iSliJ

47
greet, honor,

'^^vand (vdndate)

hold on, begin.

giks {giksate) learn.

f|f^

cu^<fp

/r-v^^-^^

^f"^^ (^^-,^a)
-

'^^rwc(rocafe) please

ZaM

^nr^

^f

(dat., gen.),

(Idbhate) receive, take.

Subst.:

^^1 udyoga,

n.,

advantage

ijL^,iMu^

TTg

forest.

woods,

n.,

v^

>vt

m., Aryan,(P^t,^c^-^Ty^-^' 3r^ gudra^ m.,

dvijdti^ m.,

man

f^

virtue.

1.^

f^Wt:

wt t^

^T^:

irr^ ^t^t:
^l*^

%^

^^^
II

17.

<^^

not.

<\o

^^

i8

^^

.^% ^ft
TiR^ tr3n^^R^

%^^ m^
I

itrft^tw 8

t:i%

(abl.)
I

Vlll.

Tnf^Wt^^^ ^^^

^fiTT

^^rg^ fir^T^f Tf^

^^

f r?,

strength, might.

Exercise

^ HT^

^^f^g ^^W

w^T^

^^^

^%f^f^T

^^^

xr%

1:

in^ ( 161)
m^^:^ ^T^^ M

^^

^i

<^M

^T ^:

irr^f^^fT:
I

^f^^T

<^^

^^[f^

II

The two houses* yonder*

tremble^ by the power''

(instr)

"tfiTj 'thus', is very commonly used as a particle of quotation,


following the words quoted.

,v^>

i^

^^^^

(-^^^^

advantage. v-e^^'c-ctAUa.,^^'^-^

hita, n.,

Adverlb:

i?pw, m., beast.


n.,

c'crz^-i^]

of the fourth

dhdirya, n., steadfastness.

<f^ 5aZ,

caste.

Aryan.
;

->

wave.

'^'5^pas^r,n., science; text-book.

\iP^ dharma, m., right ; law


-A;'v.-vwcc<,?tM

Ki-5 sacrifice.

"^^tf^ ^^<^^ ^'f

ff^ ^arw, m., tree.

f^^lftf

(homo).

fcjwfif vinaya, m., obedience:

salvation.

c?f?ya,

man

manusya^ m.,

vawa,

'^f

a^^

sev (sevate) serve, honor.

^^ y^J^^i

m., diligence.

^^rniT kulydna,

f^[^

%"^^

^ffwf^

anartha, m., misfortune.

^fV!|

sah {^sdhate) endure. ^c^V-s^a-

48

Lesson VIII. IX.

of the ocean's^ waves^.

"We

19.

(^Cf^)

speak^ the

teachers^.

In

21.

(accus.).

fighting^ with bears*.

father^ beholds* his son's^ face.^

of

the advantage^

strive^ after

food^

for

The

18.

22.

The

20.

the

25.

Now*

the

forest^

yonder^ elephants^ are

The two Qudras^

two

thus*

scholarsV

children^ ask* their father^

here^. 23. Fruits^ please^ the children^. 24.

money^?

the

two Aryans^

serve* the

Whence* do ye

receive^

seers^ begin* the sacrifice^.

Lesson IX.
Feminines

162.

in

"^

dj

declined like %TT send, 'army.'

Dual.

Singular.

N.

%^ send

A.

%*fT^ sendm

I.

%iT^T senayd

%%

sene (a

Plural.
I)

^n^

sends

^^fff*?^ senabhis

%fT^'R^ sendbJiydm

D. %TT% sendydi

^TT*?!^ senabhyas

f)

r>

Ab. ^*iriH^se7ia?/as

G.

^RfnBC senayos

1)

L.

%il^I^ sendydm

V.

%%

^TT'T'ni^

sendndm

%rT^ sendsu

sene

iAdjectives in "^ a are declined in the masc. like

163.

the fem. like %irr,

stem ends
164.

in

Final

z,

in

and

di

and

declined like

"^

"if^

in

But often the fem.

the neuter like X|J^.


is

^^,

(in Less. XI),

du, according 159,

become

^T^

dy

and "^cf dv respectively before any following vowel or diphthong.

The

^ or "^ may then be dropped,

in fact

always dropped, but the

medium

becomes, through

the

^^ ^^

^^^'^.

165.

becomes
Initial

"i^,

leaving a hiatus.

not often.

of

^TT^TT^

Thus,
^T^j

The

is

%*n% ^R

%TRJT

after short vowels., the preposition

^,

^"^j

and the

49

Lesson IX.

becomes "^i

prohibitive particle^,

An

166.

initial

of a root generally becomes

(^

verbal prefix containing


'

^^^

as

between

'after, along,
'

^3TI

to,

"^^

"q-?:!, etc.

',

Thus, TRU^f?!, f^TW^cT.

are often used before verbs

f^ down

'

'

'

in,

'

into

fif^

out, forth

a distance, away'; Xjf^ 'round about, around';

(avagdcchati)

under-

stand,
rf

+ ^r^

ft

^"^ (iipandyati)

intioduee,

xijf^ 4-

TflJ

to

'forward, forth';

(pardjdyate)

'^TTT

quered

(rarely

w.

be

act.

con- fiC^.^iUu^,^
sense:

JJ^

IT

{prapddyate)

flee for re-

fuge {ace.) to {ace. of person).

f^'^ {hhikmte) beg, get by begging.

Tif^(parindyati) lead about;

J^[^ (denom.

mrgdyate)

0Lum<l

-^^

^W + ^^

(utpatati) fly up.

(avarohati) descend.

3c^

{vdrtate)

exist,

subsist,

Tn^^^C*-^**^

be,

v-^^i^iji

{gdhhate) be brilliant, shine;

o^u^

be eminent.

^R^ + ^R^ (samgdcchate) come


together, meet.

Sobst.

Y^

e(jt/T f-,

^^^

^*^

arrow.
daughter, maidIon.

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

li^^ganga

^^^

f.,

n.pr..,

the Ganges,

m., householder,

family.

(^

hunt

become.

^J^
Deponents:

ni.,

fV^y

for, seek.

marry.
Trfr'-ro^^t.

'
;

conquer.).
(avatdrati) descend.

consecrate, /iJ-ce^fX

IT

'

IX.

f^ +

Active Terbs:

TFC + "^^

^^T

with, completely.'

Vocabulary

6>'vco

such

^;

toward'; ^"^ 'down, off'; ^3^ 'up, up forth or out';

toward

;^^ 'along

after a

1^1

either original or representing

f^^,
The following prefixes

167.

^"^ l^T^ becomes '^^

thus,

head of

i/^i

50

Lesson IX.

l^T^
H^jpf

trl*

i^^-^-ff^sUc} }

nom.

m.,

pr.,

Prayaga

(a

^^

n., fear.

^fntt

^",

^frm

f-)

wife,

woman.

f^^f

f.,

|i111

f'?

n.ipr.^

Yamuna

T^B(\

street.

f.,

f^^

(a river,

f^^^
^JTO

^'5 hunter^

f.

"inTfT,

^^

m., bird.

bad, wicked.

o"^,

much, abundant;

many.

AdT.:

knowledge, learning.

f.,

-^-/^

heart.

^,

f.

pi.

n., battle.

**-*n.(^**^^

o-^T, black.

f.

^^,
Hm,

^^^ m.,

(U''

m., heaven.

Adj.:

speech, language.

alms.

n.u.'ku'^

\^^^ci

twilight.

f-?

l^n.,

the Jumna).
u-

^nzn

A'

protection,

"^"^Tlf n.,

Allahabad).

city,

^T^

shade.

f-5

together with (postpos.

w.

insir.y

^^Wt

suddenly, quickly.

p-'-*^'-*-^)

Exercise IX.

f^TTTf^

^(jf

1^^ ^^nsTSfr ^^[^Rj:

^: ^f^ Tw:

Trf^c-

cg^ ^s.^TT!f irq^ % t^r^^ TT^^ fli^^ ^% ^


'^^ ^^ 'i^T^ t^^ cT^ ^iif ^w^ ^ ^^'rr^ (i64)
I

f^^rnft^ ^nrf "^r^

^Tf%f^
15.

<^^

the householders^

Yamunal

17.

scholars^ beg^
16.

II

^8

II

much^ alms^ from the wives^ of

At Prayaga^

the Ganges^ unites* with the

Bad^ men^ do not* reach^

(^Rj heavenl

Visnu^, to-day^ Qiva^ marries^ Ganga^, Hari's* daughter^.


battle^ the kings^ fight*

Tr^^^f^ M^ I fti^ ^it^ Twrg

^f^^n^T ^'RT^ft'^T?^RTf^

The two

with arrows^ and^ conquer^

"Birds of a feather flock together".

19.

18.

In the

their enemies^.

Lesson IX. X.

20.

Here^

horses^
22.

From

23.

At

two kings^ dismount^ from

in the street^ the

The

21.

seer's^

51

two sons^ are eminent*

twilight^

the seers^ (

(loc. du.)

13, 3)

24. In the street^ of the village^ the teacher^


25.

We

fice^ for

two

two

of the wicked^ hunters^ {abl.)

fear^

sacrifice^ to the

their black*

in learning^ (instr.).

birds* fly up^.

reverence* the gods^

and^ the scholar* meet^

gods^ /or ourselves)

we do

not* sacri-

Hari^

Lesson X.
168.
steni,

Terbs.

inflected

meaning, and
to

make

Passiye Inflection.

with middle endings,


is

formed from

all

a passive conjugation.

to the root, without

is

is

occasion

^ yd added

an accented

to the classes according to

The

the active and middle forms are made.


like that of other -stems.

used only with a passive

roots for which there

Its sign is

any reference

form of present-

certain

which

inflection is precisely

Thus, cf^ tamje, c!^% tanydse^

fI?T^

tanydte, etc.
169.

Outside the present-system middle forms

a passive sense; but there

is

may

be used in

a special form for the aor. pass, in

the 3rd. sing.


170.
is

The form

usually a

weak

of root to which tn^ passive sign


one.

certain abbreviations

or in

perfect,

Thus a penultimate nasal

which are made

in the

is

is

appended

?'

dropped; and

weak forms

of the

the past passive participle are found also in the

passive present-system.

E.

g.

from

^^,

pass. "^^^T^;

from ^i^f,

/^j

In the roots

171.

becomes
102),

If^

gU{^.

^^, "^,

in the pres.;

Similarly,

thus,

^,

^^, T^^ and ^l(^, the ^f


^-^d, "^arcjj^, ^3^^ (see note

?J^ makes ^[^^, and

^^

va
to

and "q^ make

and T5a^?^;
^TT^ makes fij^^.
4*

Lesson X.

52
Final

Final

172.

173.

bat

if

The

and "^ of roots are generally lengthened; thus,

is

general changed to f^; thus, ^,

in

preceded by two consonants

which

roots in "variable r",

change

to
'

<ft;%; gi,

T[\,

or,

"^

of roots

^^; VTj Vt^-

other roots in "^.


175.

The

their 'passive

stem after

Ms

H,

thus,

thus,

^,

But >2n niakes T^ji^d; and so some

ff^^

and ^i(^ usually form

But

by adding

from

and Ttq^ occur.

and denominatives

inflection,

to

(T?J%

their passives

the causative or

has been dropped: thus, ^^i^

The personal

in the instrumental,

and not
transitive
is

f,

'is

in "^T^,

denominative
stolen';

^p^ft

counted'.
177.

(^.-cjC^U-j

^"^

"^

f^^*<^,fi^

roots

Verbs of causative

176.

^y;

usually changed to f^;

parallel roots in "^Jj thus, rTRT^-

form

^^fn9r%-

TO%.

XT,

is

^,

the natives write with

a labial letter precede, to

if

strew', cfhf%; but

Final

174.

<{\i|d;

%^,

takes guna; thus,

it

t?|i'5El%;

less

is

passive construction, with the logical subject


particularly

common

with transitive verbs;

so the impersonal passive construction,

and intransitive verbs.

reached by the man';

Thus,

^|J|^%

sleeps'j TSC^i^ 'it is hea^'^'',

i.

e.

f^TJT

^TT ^W%

'

Heaven

'one comes hither'; <TOf% 'one

'they say'.

instrumental subject of such a construction


strumental; thus, "^^Tirf^TJrT

both with

Wt^% 'Rama

The
is

predicate to the

of course also in-

lives as a seer'.

Vocabulary X.
Verbs, with passives :
cR (p. krhjdte)

make, do, perform.

T^n[(khdnati; p. khaydte,khanydte)
dig.

{ghyati; p. giydte) sing.

^W (P

^^
2^

iJT^y^^^) t^^ ^: receive, seize.

(ddgati; p. dagydte) bite.


{dydti; p. dlydte) cut

^^^

(dwyati; p. dlvydte) play.

1\J[J (p.

dlnydte) put, place.

Lesson X.

^f,Xv,-jfzfAA.

2\C[ (dhdyaii; p. dhnjdte) suck.


"^^n"

(dhyayati; p. dhydydte) think,

ponder.
^-K^L^fcrujTw
>^a,7^cc,-;L/e^

(p.

vm^'^) <i""k.

m (Hindu

T?; p.

purydte)

fill.

^-^J{^.badhydte) bind; entangle;


catch.
^t-rpv

'^'^^^^^

53

54

Lesson X. XI.
{Use passive constructions throughout.)

Grain^

20.

ned^ {use

25.

scattered^ for the birds^.

^iy) by

by Rama^.
antly^

is

23.

the maidens^.

{loc).

The

26.

31.
32.

the

in

The

30.

fields^.

king's^

The mau^

their

praised*

24. 'Pleas-

so* say^ the people*'.

on his child^

father^ sets* hopes^

command^

text-book^ {nom.).

28.

The

Grain^

29.

is

play^ with dice^ {impers. pass.).

They

commands^ are

is

his hand^.

scholar^ neglects* the teacher's^

two scholars^ think^ about


sown^

The

Garlands^ are twi-

Again^ Hari^

the shade^';

in

seers^ sacrificed

27.

21.

Visnu^ drinks* water^ from

(^%f) one sleeps^

Both

22.

received^ by the obedient^ servants*.

digs^ in the fieldl

Lesson XI.
The

Imperfect Active, a -conjugation.

Verbs.

178.

imperfect

is

formed from the present-stem by prefixing the augment ^, and adding


a set of secondary endings.
If the

179.

with

to

it

or i; or
180.

TJ

present-stem begin with a vowel, the augment unites

form always the W^^dhi^Q^^^lf not the guna: thus^ + ^


='^;

If

^+^

or

a preposition be prefixed, the augment comes between

preposition and verb, as

'^^n'f^j
181.

i.

e. "^gtf

The

in

2.

f^-'ift,

thus,

from

impf.-stem

^T:i-"if^,

impf.-stem ^?I^.

inflection in the active is as follows:

Dual.

dvadam
^c(rf*(^

''^^^^

Greek;

^ + ^^;

Sing.
,1.

^ = ^^; ^+ ^ = ^IT.

^"^"^"^

dvadas

dvadaoa

Plural.

"^"^^^T dvaddma

'^'^^7\^^ dvadatam

"W^^?!

^^RTcIT?^ dvadatam

^'^'^^^^

dvadata

'

3.

"^^^c(^
182.

dvadat

The

imperfect

is

the tense of narration

it

dvadan

expresses past

time simply, without any further implication.


183.

Polysyllabic Femiuines in \l, declined like

if^,

river.'

'^

Lesson XI.
Dual.

Sing.

N.

f^

A.

f^

nadi

f^^

55
Plural.

nadyau

f^^

nadyas

nadim

I.

f<5n nadijd

D.

T% nadyai

Ab.

f^TT^ nadyds

T^^^^THR^

nadibhydm

G.

T^f*T^

nadtbhis

T^[^^

nadihhyat

i^^fX'l.

L.

T^T^ nadydm

^l^^

nadlndm

nadlsu

V.

The

Final nasals.

184.

after a short vowel, are

f^^"^

^^

nasals

^,

+ "^^

and

^^,

occurring as finals

vowel: thus, '^-

initial

becomes ^fir^W'^-

XI.

fmj^ +

Verbs:
"SRc^

doubled before any

Vocabulary

e^xAytu^

TJT

(avahntdti) cut off or

IT {pravigdti) enter,

^If seat oneself.

% +"^ (dhdrati,

down.

v^

-te) fetch,

bring.

X^'/'

-Li^,-^a^

read.
Xy^ (pdthati) recite,

Xfj^

Snbst. :

vr

'^n}in., purpose;

^[^

meaning; wealth. xrft

m., nom. pr.,

^5^ run"

^">

^ow.

tlio

j)r.,

trf^^

poem.

TT^

literary

!,

\(.

book (manuscript).

n.,

the goddess xn^ m., flood, high water.

Indrani.
cliTcjj n.,

daughter.

f-j

god Indra. "'J^Ri

'TloTYt-'*^

wife, consort.

f.,

f.,

earth

ground.

^T^TJf m., priest,

Brahman.

?T^

m.,

mother.

"^TJ^

f.,

female slave, servant.

^^T

f-j

council, meeting.

%in'

f.,

army.

"^nf

n.,

work, book.

fish.

<<^/-v>.(?YcTv^'

^'yv\ry\MjC^)

^H^
^ItTl

^^

f-j

f.,

^jpft
ITT^

f-j

goddess, queen.

f-

f.,

city.

woman,

wife.

cistern.

vv<^ C^ ^^c^^Ux^

song of praise.

^'

*^-j' f**^

^"^

56

XL

Lesson

XI I.

Exercise XI.

^Tii

<^^ a

II

When^ ye besought*

14.

then' ye were^

and*

Yamuna^

in misfortune^.

(WT)
it is^

the king^ for protection^ (ace),

(HT^'^)

15.

(^c!^) high-water^.

Rama^

a song of praise^ about

In the two rivers^ Ganga^*


16.

(S'^^O-

The two women* sang*

^^

l*^*

both sacrifice^ to the goddesses* with melted butter^?

women -servants^
anger*

(abl.)

20.

The two

21.

Ye

brought^ jewels^ and^ precious

the

teacher^ struck* the

wood^ from the

18.

ye

The queen's*

stones*.

scholar^ with

servants* brought^ water* from the

cut off* (imp/.)

why^ do

seers^,

his

19.

fC

In

hand^

cistern^ in pots^.

trees^ with the axe*.

22.

The

seer* praised^ Indiaiii*, Indra's^ consort^ with hymns'\

Lesson XII.
185.

Feminine Substantives

the paradigms on the next page.

in

and

The two

complete parallelism: where the one shows

shows respectively

w,

v,

o,

or av;

cf.

series of
i,

50,

-yam; dhenvdi,
186.

forms exhibit

y, e,

or ay, the other

51.

In the D., Ab.-

G., and L. sing., these stems sometimes follow


-yds,

*v

u are declined as in

^T^;

thus maiydi,

-vds, -vdm.

Feminines in

and

^w:

Tffici

'opinion';

^T 'cow\

'

58

Lesson XII.

Siibst.

^f^T

i|J^^ m., quarrel.

-U<^)

cRTpET n.,

poem.

^f|r

cJVf^

f.,

glory.

"^^f^Tf m., ray; rein.

^ifYxi

m.,

WrffT

cowherd,

^fTf

f-,

f.,

'3[Tf'!T

of character;

decision

(^*c^^)

trrf^"^ m., prince.

^^

^Ja-7/f

^^

f?

prudence, intelligence.

f-,

^rf^

devotion, honor.

f.,

^jf?T

i;%<I/vuua

repose.

hearing

holy writ.

tradition; law- book.

m., sleep; dream, vtivo^, i<^.^^i^,i4.^.


f.,

jaw.

f.,

prosperity, blessing.

f.,

earth, ground, land.

^^^

^^^,

f.

^1^,

f.

m.,

o^,

low.

^T? principal,
f.,

n.,

or

f.

first.

yn-^t (T^^Uoi;

o^fj", light,
^^jg^^"^^

Exercise XII.

f^:

5%^ ^fw ^TH^

^^"Wfi:

^^fw?:% ^UNRM^Mfrr: T^

^\m ^rrr!^ ^tt tw^

^j^HTi wiwwT^^rpr^CTTf^:

t^
^

w i8
15.

city^

^^

17.

ground*.

q.

fl[wnfW

wrfTrg

"^r^ ^^tpwt^t7-

II

Visnu^ rejoices* at the devotion^

and^ gives^ deliverance^

The
18.

birds*

By

the

Adj.:

^TtT -5 part, piece.


^f?r

f.,

(rvt^

wound.

f.,

^2rf?f f.,

<Jlf?f

night, ^''vA^ v^A^*-^ caav^)

f.,

m.,

"^Tlf

birth; caste; kind.

stick, staff.

f.,

ljf%

shepherd;

courage.

i..^'

gnat.

fly,

salvation, deliverance.

f.,

^fffi

guardian, c^o-^o.)

-6<j

f.,

16.

see^

Men^
the

power^ of

of

(instr.)

many^

hunter^,

castes^ dwelt^ in the

and^

intelligence*

of the pious^ (P^0

fly

up^

from the

we overcame*

advprs-

59

Lesson XII. XIII.

19.

ity^.

The cowherd^
and^

intelh'gence^

poem^

cows^

in

diligence^

before^ (five? (ace).

to the horse's^

the

wood^

ye acquire^ much* glory^

tends'^ to the poet's^ glory^ (two datives).

we bow
(^y)

guards'^ the

23.

jaws^ (loc).

The
24.

22.

For

By

20.

21.

The

prosperity^

reins* are being fastened*

In the night*

we

both read^

The

imperfect

(impf.) holy writ^.

Lesson XIII.
188.

Imperfect Middle.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

middle of verbs in a

as follows:

is

Dual.

Sing.

Plural.

^I^nr dlahhe (a

^T^f^

dlabhavahi

2.

"^r^W^TBI. dlahhathas

o^^j^

dlahhetham

3.

^^raWfff dlahhata

^HffT'^ dlahhetam

i)

With Tjr^?^ and

XTrfr'^ of the dual,

HTTf^ dlabhdmahi
^f'B^j]^

^^
cf.

dlahhadhvam

dlahhanta

TJ^ and TJ^ of the

pres. ind. mid.


189.

Root -words in

%" I

are declined as follows:

Dual.

Sing.

N. V.

\i^

A.

t\|i{^ dhiyam

f^T^

dhis

I.

f^JRH' dhiya

D.

f^3^ dhiye

Abl.

f^^I^

^'

r,

L.

Plural.

dhiydu

\i^ni^ dhtbhydm

\itfi^

dhlhhis

vY*2|^ dhtbhyas

dhiyas

fV^ft^

r>

dhiyos

In the D., Ab.-Gen., and L. sing., and G.

sometimes follow

t\4<4l*l.

dhiyam

\(\^ dhtsu

f^jrf^ dhiyi

185.

f%I^J^ dhiyas

if^;

thus,

dhiydi^

pi.,

these stems

dhiyds^ dhiydm, dhln&m.

Cf.

Observe that -where the case- ending begins with a vowel

the stem- final

I is
split

into 1y.

Lesson XIII.

60
190.

^^

The following

back

to, against, in

Both

191.

return

in verbal

'

f^

'

apart,

forms and

'down,

interposed

f^R^fir;

WT + ^ftr,

192.

of

The

fore initial

final

^,

^,

T^, X^; thus,

+ "^fff (^atikrdmati,

'-krdmate)

pass beyond or by, transgress.

^i^ + ^1^

+
,(^a^^.)
TTU^i

>'u>c-aaj>~-

"^

TT^

(ujjdyate)

from

T[ arise,

-I-

^fg

+ f%
+

come

into existence.

{vmd<;yat%)

disappear,

^;i^

+ f'T^

arise

of a root to which

thus,

from

impf.

^^

^^ + f^,

pass. ^?n2T-

becomes

"Bf

be-

XI^+ fif^, f^T^^^.


XIII.

from

{w. ace. of pers.).

^+11

arise; rule.

f^^y^fl^{pratisedati)\io\di back;
forbid.

cover, keep

shut.

%^

-\-f^ (nisevate) dwell; devote

oneself to; attend.

(samndhyati)

gird;

^7 +

"^f^ mount, stand above

or over; rule, govern.

equip,

^T^

(a literary work).

(abl.).

(nispddyate)

grow; ^^ + I?f?f hinder;

injure; offend.

(all.).

Sometimes, with the verbs ^f^ and VT? abbreviated to ftf;


but in classical Skt. most commonly used as a conjunction: 'also',
'

too

'.

''.'i

^oojy-

or

be born, "^^ (racdyati) arrange, compose

perish.
"if^

^"^ + 3rf?T (pratibhdsate) answer

Verbs:

arise

of prefixes in ^[;^ and

from

into, in'; irfTf

remains even after an

^f^^^%,

Vocabulary

sffT[^

"q"

augment or reduplication;
pres. pass.

^/-'

the final

in derivatives,

prefixed; and, in a few cases, the

is

'to, unto',

away, out '.

of a prefix ordinarily lingualizes the initial


it

^f^

'over, above, on'; "^frj 'unto, close upon'*;

'against' (often with implied violence); fif


'

used with verbs:

additional prefixes are

V c^

%^^
^^ m.,

Subst.:

^T^J
t'^T

god; lord.

ra.,

'^^

^^
y^xQf/U-.ac)

"M^

V-y^

tRf

"^

understanding, insight.

man

m.,

;RfTTTW

Wf^

(homo).

m., great king.

>J^i;;^,

%ff,

Exercise

^(4i*44c!i*i

^ftHff

^zrr^

18

II

<i8

cot^j-^*^

f.

o^rr? steadfast, brave.

f.

-/^

o"^, white.

XIII.

Q.

^
M

^1

xiTnN^rr^

f>^ ^%^

m^t^fTf^:

f^:^

no

5-

II

*The goddess of fortune was born from

As

'

0"?^

did ye hold your ears shut? (pass, constr.)

beautiful.

f.

1^ "N"^ &^^) ^^f^:

ftpj ^?rT^^T w^i^T

whole.

o^,

vK 3^^ f%r^: ^T fi!%^^

M^chiR f^T'^f^

15.

^771^

modesty, bashfulness.

f.

^(^,
^J^,

m., sage; ascetic. ^'^t^

^TsnrT

(J^^^^^^^^^-^r^

Adj.:

m., n., lotus.

l|<^(4

as

creation.

f.,

f.,

destruction.

fHI' ].,

f^jstad^'

luck, fortune, riches

f.,

Wfg

n., net.

f.,

I^o-t ^

dwelling.

anger.

in-?

^^<>^^(^*yyftV

f.,

nom. pr.^ goddess of fortune.

reason, cause.

"-5

wagon.

m., desire, avarice.

"^^rf?f

V/ta**wC^foM:)eRTTr m., love, desire.

^TM

infatuation.

T[Tf m.,

dove.

eRiJ m., ear.

girdle.

f.,

permission.

f.,

cRTftff m.,

61

Lesson XIIT.

17.

the principal euphonic rules have

the ocean.

16.

Why

"The ^^dras spoke

now

been stated and

^c^v-

cl^

Lesson XIII. XIV.

62
the language of the

Aryans": thus answered

Brahmans.

its

net.

19.

18.

The

By

the

cleverness

dove was freed from the

teacher girded both boys with the girdle.

Whence
was

(^W

did ye get

the white

ruled by the great king.

23.

took refuge with the king (U-XT^).

24.

earth

posed by Visnu.

25.

The milk of

cows

The whole

22.

For prosperity

Two

we

(dat.)

law-books were com-

cow

the black

When

20.

was offended against.

the scholar's modesty disappeared, then the law


21.

pass.) the

(impers.

is

drunk by both

children.

Lesson XIV.
193.

Verbs, a- conjugation.

inflection of this

mode

is

''^^rf^

2.

"^

3.

Dual.

194.

vdddni

^d\^

vdda

c|^rt

The

'^^T^ vdddma

vdddva

c|(^rf7^

vddatu

Plural.

^f^r{\H^

vddatam

c(Jr(

vddatam

196.

action.

third persons of the imperative express

command; sometimes a wish

negative used with the imv.

is

or future action.

The

is 'W[-

rare imv. form, either 2nd or 3rd pers. sing, (or plur.),

made with

the ending

fITr[^;

thus, H'^cTRl-

Its

a posterior or future imv. (like the Latin forms in


197.

vddantu

three first persons are properly subjunctive forms,

The second and

oftenest a

vddata

^^'J

and accordingly often express a wish or future


195.

The

as follows:

Sing.
!

Present Imperative Active.

Root-words in

u, inflected like

f.,

value
to

is

and

earth

that of
tote).

'.

exemplified in the exercises, no further indication need be made,


except in special instances, of the position of the words in the
Sanskrit.

Lesson XIY.
Dual.

Sing.

NV.

bhus

^:^

A.

^^P^ bhuvam

I.

'^^J

D.

'M^ bhuve

Ab.

63

bhuvd

Plural.

^^ hhuvau

^^^

^^^jpTH bhubhydm

^fir^

bhubhis

W2J^

bhubhyas

bhuvas

^^^

bhuvas

G.

hhuvos

lif(^y^^

J)

^c(l*{^

bhuvdm

L.

In the D., Ab.-G., and L.


times follow

thus,

bhuvas,

bhuvdi,

pi.,

these stems some-

bhuvdm,

bhundm.

inflected

like

Cf.

185, 189.
198.

T^;

and G.

sing.,

woman

Polysyllabic Feminines in

u,

^^

f.,

'.

Dual.

Sing.

^^^

N.

"^V^

A.

cjV4^ vadhum

I.

^"^3(1

D.

'Sf^ vadhvdi

Ab.

cflcfT^ vadhvds

G.

vadhus

vadhvd

L.

^Vc|(J^

vadhvas

"^^:Wn;^ vadhubhydm "^\jf^^ vadhubhis

^T^^

vadhvdm

-TO^^

t)

e|Vc||4{^

Plural.

vadhvdu

vadhvos

vadhubhyas
n

'^fV^T^ vadhundm

^f^^ vadhusu

V.

Vocabulary XIV.
look.
"^7^ inpass. (drgydte) seem,

Verbs:
^!r^

"^Srf*!

{abhydsyati) repeat,

t(/|(U<ru>;

study, learn.^^-'^*'^'''"^'^''-'^^

+ H (prdsyati) throw forward

or

into.
flprt^ +

^^+ f^(nivdsati) inhabit;


y^ + ^ (pravdrtate)
break

"^^
(ddifdti)

command,

get a-going,

out, arise.

(fdcati)

^^ + f'f

dwell.

sorrow, grieve. (^.)-tu/v**

(nifdati) seat oneself.

iUcsO*

'//*-

-*-Mfc-

Lesson XIV.

64

^ff?T

8iil)st.:

^fTff^

<3^a

^^

command,

spoon,

f.,

prescription.

ITWr

f-j

^^TOTf^ under, underneath (^en.).

f^l^
^^1^

creature; subject.

W^f., earth, ground.

%f^
>-^^>u.*C^

eyebrow.

Tg^

f.,

f.,

far, afar.

Latin

/>t>f,

woman, wife.C^fc^il^^

f.,

long (of time).

in prohibitive particle,

ornament.

^T^fUf n.,

^V

t, beautiful.

f.

Adv.:

m., lecture, lesson.

f.,

o"^, crooked, bent, y^^^c^i^r^'

f.

^^?:,

spoon.
^^^^^^

f.

XT^,

^"^,
sacrificial

esp.

^5 lower; other.
o^, highest; other.

f-

^ITQTi

n., seat, chair.

^TRfif

tx^^-^^^^

Adj.:

"'^n^IT^ m., study; recitation.

'^T^'5[ m.,

daughter-in-law.

f.,

i^tjl

^"iffT n., untruth.

A</>iXi

guest.

ra.,

Vst^

song of praise; praise.

f.,

Greek

ne.

"^T (postpos.) or.

near by.

^^i^

altar.

like

mother-in-law.

Exercise XIV.

%if

rT^ f^T^^f!^

^^ ^5rra%
TH^^ff

fM^'j
I

f^

5^

^^tT^^rrt^
15.

constr.y.

^"RIT

^^

The women
16.

f^^

*rf^ ftr^T:

^fTrftf

^mi^xIct: ^"^

M^ t

fe^^O

^% 1%% 3
^f "S^i ^^:

^^

^^rrf^:

I ^fwr: f^Tf'^xm^Wff ^TT^lT^^'^^mfiT

^fr^TTfiTftT^n^cT

^t:

II

f^g tt^ y^ ^^^ Tf^ ^

^^^TTR^

^8

^ t^:
I

f^iTtfftf:

^^

^^f

o.

nT^^rr^rT-

^ff f?ff?r

S^

II

sing the praises (singular) of ludrani (pass,

"Study ye holy writ and

the sciences,

speak the

c^/:<

Lesson XIV. XV.


honor your teachers": thus^

the truth,

text-books^ for scholars^


jects

and punish the wicked: thus

O women,

18.

coachman

is

is

the prescription^ of the

Let kings protect

17.

{9^'>^-)'

65

the law not offended (^pass.).

reverence your mothers-in-law.

strike or torment the

horses.

20.

us with two spoons drop water on the altar.


dice
23.

for

money"

"To-day

Brahman.

24.

(instr.):

me

let

Let not the


the jewels":

the queen.

22.

my

(imv.)

Let the men dig a

Let

21.

"Let us play with

spoke the two warriors

thus

initiate

19.

"Bring

two maid-servants were commanded by

thus the

sub-

their

(pass.).

two sons": thus says the

cistern.

Lesson XV.
Present Imperative Middle.

Yerbs, a- conjugation.

199.

present imperative middle

is inflected

Idbhai

1.

^f^

2.

^W^

3.

<j|*idl*i

The

200.
flection

labhatam
first

'5I*nT% Idbhamahdi

^fi^^fi^ Idbhethdm

^f^'^^T^ Idbhadhvam

t^TtdlH ^<^^^^i^^

^Hrl|^ Idbhantdm

persons are really subjunctive forms.

of the passive imv.

Nouns in "^

201.

Plural.

Idbhavahai

"^(^m^

Idbhasva

thus:

Dual.

Sing.

is

The

in-

precisely similar: thus f?R^, fsfT'T^?

These stems,

f.

consonant-declension,

The

exhibit

in

like

their

belonging to the

many

inflection

a difference of

stem-form: strong, middle, and weak.

(For the cases called strong,

weak

cases (except loc. sing.) the

etc., see Introd.,

stem-final
to

"^r.

fall

is

87).
r,

which

In the
in the

weakest cases

is

changed naturally

But as regards the strong cases, the stems of

into

two

comprising
vriddhied,

classes: in

all the

nomina

becoming

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

^"^

the

one

agentis,
ctr;

which

is

this declension

much

and a few others

the larger,

the

is

while in the other class, containing


5

66

Lesson XV.

most nouns of relationship, the


In both classes, the
is

gen.sing.

has

loc. sing,

in

r, like

N.

'^rIt fcarta

A.

efTcfy^ kartdram

I.

cR^

D.

^''^ kartre

Ab.
G.

dropped

V.

eR(|^ kartar

Two

'grandson',

^^^

Plural.
eft5?T<fl^

kartrbhis

ir'^^ kartrbhyas

irif^ kartros

ofi^UTT^ kartfndm

kartdras

^^"l. kartfn

R^^TR1 -trhhydm cRl^f^T^

oRl^ft; kartari

^RWJ

kartrsu

nouns of relationship, ^^f., "sister", and

follow this declension;

but

^^

makes

f'Jf

m.,

the ace. pi.

svasf-s.

204.

The nouns of agency are sometimes used

or with adjective value.


in

is

abl.-

m., 'doer'.

kartdrdu

kartur (or -us)

L.

203.

cft<f|<^

kartrd

"^g^

^^

Dual.

Sing.

uA^^

The

ar as stem-final.

of peculiar formation; and the final 7^ r

Nomina agentis

202.

^ ^ L^U^\

"^T^

nominative singular.

in the

Z<^

gunated, becoming ^PC ^^*

is

^2, and declined


205.

like

participially,

The corresponding feminine-stem


T^;

The grammarians

is

made

thus, Ifi"^ kartri.

prescribe a complete neuter declension

also for bases in H, precisely analogous with that of cJlTl^ or ;Fr^,

but such forms are rare.

Vocabulary XV.

^^+ f% (vivddate) dispute, argue.

Verbs:
'^^^

+ "^g

(anugdcchati) follow.

,^oXr*^ ^'^+^n^-"^(sa7nac<ir^i)commit,

perform, do.

f^ +

'Wl (dgrdyate) go for pro-

tection

(ace).

to,

take refuge

with

Lesson XV.

q^

Snbst.:
OXJULO. C-^

"^Srr^'pJ ^'i teacher. liuoi.^vvv.^^


ejjff

author; as

m., doer, maker,

adj. J doing,

^TfT m-, giver; s

VcUf

VTfT
/,<^3

ac?;'.,

generous.

J^')

^^
^^

author (of Vedic


"^^ m., seer,

books); as

^H

m., supporter, preserver ; lord

^^fTT

m., scamp, rogue.

^^f

I?T"^rf^Tr n., penance, expiation.

^2^^^"^^^^''^*'*-^
^'^ <^"al' law-suit./^

^f^*^

m., creator.

AHH^

n.,

honor, glory (o/^en as

creator.

Adj.!

^tt^,

%(T m., leader.

^,
man

^'t learned

pandit.

f.

f.

/^tS (^'^

'^, poor.

o^,

best,

most excellent;

better {w. folVg abl.), 'cM^y^-^^"

Exercise XV.

wf ^f^ ^irT%^ 1^^ ^^

II

^^^ ^^ ^ ^g^t
^^^dl*i \^\'^ Tf^^** 1^^ ^HTT ^^rf^ 8 ^'tr^ ^^.ii^HN^i ^?r^ ^^
Tf<T

^^J^ (t/?.) t^-?:: ^: eRT^T ^^^^m %^rfrm:


iT^T^ Tf^cnft ^i^^t ^ ^T^OTft ^nn^ ^
I

tr:

ii

Q.

^^^

^t:!?^:

in^^

^^ ^^t ^T^^ ^%^ 'mt

II

Words are often repeated, to give an intensive, a distributive,


or a repetitional meaning. So here: "at every step". The position of
is
very unusual; it would naturally follow <R^^.
**
Loc. absol.
supply "being".

j/^t^v-^

indecL, w. folVg dat.).

adj., seeing.

TTTftr^^ ^m:

^
,

m., punisher, governor.

f^T^'?^ m., decision; certainly.

"^f^ cT

Ow^^^/l/''

"^f^fT m., protector.

graciousness, pity.

f.,

n., step.

husband; master.

making.

ohIH m., time.


f
,/X;^ ..v^^c^irqi

C7

^^^ fUu^

Lesson XV. XVI.

68

Let the wife love her husband.

10.

their leaders

meet

is to

and

ascetics.

two

his

the creator.

sisters (instr.).

to

masters (ace).

16.

the river the

The world was

For

17.

graciousness of the creator.


theel

20.

given to

is

the author
to

(%^

protection* (ace.) betake yourselves^

19.

The man

boy

created by

Let servants always be useful

gods^ the protectors^ of the

the

before

13.

At

12.

{pi.).

King Bhoja was (^"^^c!) generous toward

(loc.) of the eulogies.

their

with the enemy

In the houses of pious givers alms

14.

15.

fight

Let the warriors follow

11.

leads

18.

pious^.

Men

live

by the

generous one, the poor bend


his

sisters

the city (pass,

to

constr.).

Lesson XVI.
206.

present optative

1^

3rd

ran).

pi. act.

"^^

after

which are used secondary endmid. "^

ws, in 1st sing.

After an a-stem, this mode-sign, in

unaccented, which blends with the

unchanged before a vowel-ending

a to

final

according to the accent of the a):

not,

("^T^^,

is

in 3rd-pl. mid.

a,
all

and the

voices, is
e

"I"

(accented,

^,

or

maintained

TJ is

^^, "^T^n^)

means of an interposed euphonic ^^y. The


voice

The

formed from the general present-stem by the

is

addition of a mode-sign,
ings (in

Present Optative Active,

Verbs, a-conjugation.

^TffT'^) by

inflection in the active

as follows:

Dual.

Sing.
1.

"^^^n^ vddeyam

2.

"^^^

3.

"^^c^

vddes

vddet

Similarly,

cordyeyam^

etc.

cf^^ vddeva

"^^T vddema

"^^fl^ vddetam

"^^cT

^^(TTfC
fc(?}"i|*i;

Plural.

vigeyam,

'^'^^^^'^

vddeta

^^^^

f^^H^ ndhyeyam,

vddeyus

''^IXJ^C^J;^^

Lesson XVI.
207.

entreaty;

The
3.

optative expresses:

what

can or could be.

The

wish or desire;

is

desirable or proper;

It

is

4.

is

optative are very


208.

f.,

na.

request or

what may or might,

The

negative used

Both the prescriptive and the prohibitive

common.

The nouns

see 203) gunate

J{\(^

2.

also largely used in conditional sentences.

subject is often indefinite and unexpressed.

with the opt.

of relationship in
in

"^

the strong cases:

(except

^^

thus, fcfff

and

hi-,

ftfcTT^ *irfI<H

Dual.

iffT

'father',

'mother', declined as follows:


Sing.

^.

1.

69

Plural.

70

Lesson XVI.
meal and

Sabst.:
if\

m.,

f.,

cow

bull, steer,

f.,

Adj.:

ox-nature; stupidity.

n.,

^^ m.,

Xf^

f.,

fodder, hay.

as

daughter.

pi.,

ni.,

user, arranger.

^TfT

m.j brother.

^HcT

f.j

f.,

sc.

V^>
f-

^TSrrg^,

TT^lf,

%,

"^'^^ ^''^^^

the fabulous

Won-

"^, badly arranged

month.

n.,

o^T, arranged, used.

^,

best.

f.,

she,

it.

Adv. and Conj.:

n., pair.

'^^IJf n

f.

f-

Pron. :

mother.

^T'rer na-5

^^

or used.

^-1 wise man, sage.

TJJ^

greater,

der-cow.

manes.

^V

more,

cRT'T^, f-"^, granting wishes;

fqrT m., father; du., parents;


a.

TC^^'W

o^,

greatest.

mud, bog.

n.,

f.

"35rf^^,

son-in-law.
^niTT^ ^'j

^ff g

Brah-

mans.

speech.

4\\^

the

to

gifts

%ci:if.
^

r^mn^

protection.

an oblation to the manes,

accomplanied

by a

sacrificial

^f^

always, daily.

::^;,:'^2^ 7^'

if.

^TZfcfi well, properly.

Exercise XVI.

^n^:

^^f^f ^w^ Ti^wT

^^it Hg^ f^r{t ^fit ^

* Predicate.

^rq^ f^:

"^ ^Tf^^ ^?i%c!: n ^ t%^-

Play upon words throughout the

verse.

Lesson XVI. XVII.

^ ftfP^
im

^^

II

^^t

Wfffr ^T^: 5^T^ T%^:

Rsabhadatta, son-in-law of Nahapana,

and much money were given

villages

coachman bring (^T-^) fodder

ment the horses.

16.

Of

wood and water


18.

the milk

two

22.

21.

The

17.

20.

19.

Hari aud^iva marry two

sisters, the

toris to

com-

father's

Let both

The wagon

over the pair

seer rejoices

Let

15.

him not

"Children, bring

was the

in the forest.

of the black cow.

(instr.)

steers.

steers.

into the house daily"; thus

Thou

14.

imv.).

let

and

cattle

a greater part

the father's property

Let the cows graze

and

for the horses

be given (imv.) to the eldest of the brothers.

mand.

many

Brahmans.

the

to

shalt give the mother's jewels to the sisters (opt.

the

1^1^

II

By

13.

T^fTf

71

is

live

on

drawn by

(instr.)

of white

daughters of Rama.

Lesson XVII.
'*

Yerbs, - conjugation.

210.

Present Optatiye Middle.

The

formed as shown

in the

optative middle (and passive) of -stems

preceding lesson,

is inflected

Dual.

Sing.
1.

^W^

Idhheya

^fii^^

3.

^RTff Idhheta
Similarly

ular,

Thus:

^i^^

Declension.

^^i^^f^ Idhhemahi

HH<=tl% Idbhevahi

'^^^mi^XH^ Idbheydtdm
cori/eya,

^T^"^

The stem

f.,

taking throughout the normal

^^,

^^^,

Plural.

Idbhethds ^44i(|VS||f(^ Idbheydthdm ^f^T:^7^ Idhhedhvam

2.

211.

as follows:

etc.

IHH,,

^^T,

etc;

^WTI.

Idbheran

saingaccheya^ etc.
'ship, boat',

endings,

TR^,

is

entirely reg-

as given

^ftWHR;,

etc.;

in

90.

ITT^^,

72

Lesson XVII.
212.

The stems ending

two well-marked

classes

long vowels

in

A. root-stems

(^,

^)

f^,

fall into

mostly monosyllabic

and their compounds, with a comparatively small number of others


them; B. derivative feminine stems

inflected like

with a few in
of class

^,

like ^VSfJ,

inflected

of the gen.

^Tf^

few exceptions fem.

the simple

words

sing., fem.,

as adjectives (rare),

and with i^ inserted

The simple words

pi.

"^

of a
1.

and

When any

^T

in

root in

^X or

f^

or

is

The

Thus, ft'^-Tn m-,

f.,

'all-

ftj^MIH -P^^

I.

ft'^TT vigvap-a f^^ift^ vigvap-os

vowel-endings, into

^"g"

and

sr\^,

^^.

ace.

^^Ml^,

and

and ^,

if

f^^^T^

-pas

change their

f^'^trrf^^^
final

etc.

vowel,

Thus, "^I^-sR^ m.,

before

but one consonant precede the

two or more consonants precede, the change

T^^n^T^.

in

like the nominative.

f^Tn^TT^R:

^^f^^I^;

ace.

is

f^-gift 'Pau

Roots in

follows:

Plural.

A.

-P^s

member

final

treated as

Dual.

ft^tn^

if

189, 197);

before vowel-endings, except

N.V.

vowel; but

declension of

protecting':

Sing.

2.

(in

com-

make up a whole

found as

these root -finals are

lose that vowel

the strong cases and in the ace. pL, which

214.

in adjective

has been given

not possible to

it is

are as nouns with

in actual use.

compound word,

Roots

and

in

are rare that

scheme of forms
213.

4^,

The stems

and ^\J.

pounds, they coincide in masc. and fem. forms.

those in

and

take the normal endings throughout, with optional ex-

ceptions in dat., abl.-gen., and loe.


before

T^

^J

in

f.,

^T^f-^ m.,

f.j

'

is

final

into

nom.-voc.

1^"

'street-sweeper'; nom.

sing.

corn-buying

Lesson XVII.

73

Vocabulary XVII.

1^

Terbs:

t^ + ITRT

{abhindndati

cease.

poet.

greet with joy

rejoice in,

'tej

+ ^{virdmati^ce&sefrom (abl.)\

(jpratiksate) expect.

Uft

f"^^

(rdmate) amuse oneself.

^T + "^5 {anutisthati)

follow out,

accomplish.

(ace).

f "a, C^'O*^

f^"=f n., friend,

Subst.:

TST^ n., battle.

^/CA4

?f^

^Vf^rf

t^^l[

^ifW^

agriculture.

^-5

MV

n., life.

command.

inj

f.

o^T, good, pleasant, dear;

as n. subst., fortune.

lain.

^I'^W

father-in-law.

Adj.:

XJ'^f^TTm., domestic priest, chap- *r^,

^rty.

rule; fate.(.6.i^i^W^^<r^

ra.,

^^^ m.,

n., cattle- raising.

XTPjtlf^

trade.

"?

"-J

eating.

^f^J^,

1I\T^ m., servant.

o"^,

f.

doubtful;

un-

steady.

^"^TJf n., death.

Exercise XVII.

^^%^

f^^ ^cf^ ^^T*

ITcft^fT

^^51^ ^vt^: ^^T'l: ^

^T^
%^

fT^

^f^T^T

g^T"g ftfT-^ %%T'i

rrm,

e ^T^
I

Rule

for

and passions.

^-^^t^^ct:

an

ascetic,

^l^TfTT^

il

T^^ ^TfTftr

^f?

<\o

who

m^^^m
is to

ftr-

^^JTF^T: ^^^ff cfT^

mwt^T^l^^

t^T: fwr Trfxir^^ tn^tiT^^ ^T

^^ ^rr^ffi;

^^ ^ift^

II

^^'fi

^ ^^^^

T^^^TW[^^

put aside

all

ii

^<^

ii

earthly desires

''^'-^

74

Lesson XVII. XVIII.


Let fodder be brought

12.

(IBfT-^)

for the horses of the all-protecting king.

fortune

(jpl.)',

may ye

acquire (^R^)

may meet

18.

imv.)

with their brothers.

by the house

22.

my

You may amuse

{abl. of

we two

20. If

king.

brave warriors: thus

May we

is

reward of

receive the

Ye

19.

-priest.

should be punished by the

with

16.

H^^)

tbe fruits

two sons be consecrated

the king's

let

To-day

your parents.

imv.)

The king with

14.

Mayest thou be saved by the all-protecl.or from thy

17.

misfortune.
{oft.^

ye see good

May

Tell (op^., imv.) where

15.

yourselves in the garden, but cease eating


igen.).

13.

glory.

his warriors crossed the sea in a ship.

our friends

imv.) by the brother

(opt,^

both shall greet {opU,

should speak untruth, then

conquer the enemies

May

21.

the

we

king's wish (use ^Xf

pass.).

virtue.

Lesson XVIII.
215.

The

Causative.

chief points to be noticed in the form-

ation of causative- stems have been given already (in Less. VII);

some

additional ones follow.

216.

sign

Most roots

^J

in

thus, ^TX|'?rffT

from

and

^ add

before the conjugation-

X(^

l^T; ^Xj^Tftf;

^nTtl^rfTT;

^4^f?T from

^. ^1 makes ^xr?|f?I "^and ^Jj sometimes ^Ttl'^f?!,


;

times "^tnrfjf, etc.

q^).

few roots

irregularities
217.

ened,
c|i^,

'drink',

and

initial

^ in a

from

(as

i(^,

though from
with

various

commonly

Thus,

But most roots

in

tjf^,

length-

tJXcT^rffTj

^i^, and

with other rarer ones, generally keep the


^TOr^,

thus, iTfi, ^^T^fTT.

some-

"^f\I-"3;.

light syllable is

sometimes remains unchanged.

^RT^r^; ^^, ^^nrf?!.

c^, U^,

makes mi|i||7f

f^ take the same

thus, "^rWT'^^rfiT

Medial or

but

IXIT?

in

etc.,

^^,

short:

75

Lesson XVIII.

218.

Final vowels take vrddhi before "^T^; thus,

219.

Some

IJ,

HN'^HT;

verbs of causative meaning are by formation de-

nominatives; thus tn^f^f^, 'protect', called causative to


TJn?f?T, to ift; ^fl^nsrfrr, to

For

220.
^

221.

The

H^; ^cT^fiT,

2i:iT;

ift"

to fw|^.

the passive of causatives, see Less.

X.

The

causatives of intransitive verbs are transitive.

causatives of transitive verbs are construed sometimes (a) with

two

accusatives, sometimes (b) with an ace. of the object and an in-

strumental of the agent. Thus, "he causes the birds to eat the
cakes " may be rendered either {a) : f^^^^ ft'^^T'^.
^T^^TRT?
or {h)
^

f^^%: fqo ^jo.

222.

(weak form

"^c^)

for the active,

tense -stem

after

The general

Participles.

in

two ^'s being

^,

of the

lost;

participial

and '^T'T

mdna,
Less.

etc.

^^rT

For

for

the middle.

the active suffix is virtually

and the middle

cept ^(t sometimes in causative forms).


rt^wrT^ tuddnt,

endings are

suffix is

^ff

But

nT, one

1{\^ (ex-

Thus, ^^tT^ bhdvant,

dwyant, Tf^4^^Tf^ cordyant; "^-^^j^ bhdva-

the declension of the participles in ^wfT see below,

XXIIL

223.
exhibits

Pronoun of the First Person, The pronominal declension

some

striking peculiarities which are not easily explained.

The pronoun of

the

first

person

is

declined thus:

Lesson XVII I.

76
224.

The forms

^?

?rr

'ft?

RC ^^

or before the particles ^,

used at the beginning of a sentence,

225.

In pronouns of the

often used for the singular.

show

first

and second persons the plural

in

form with the

predicate rather than with the subject to which they

Terbs, with causatives:


cans,

(agdyati)

^+

caus. (-

dhydpdyati) teach.

make;

in

"^T

caus. {ajn&pdyati)

command.

1^

make

^R

lead

caus.

clothe \n(two ace).

away

The
is

latter

grow;

(dat.).

caus.

('^^-/3?.ob-7T,

make grow; bring up.

e. recite,

proclaim {ace.

in

caus. (sthdpdyati)

put, place; appoint; stop.

IT

(pratisthate) start off; in

caus. (prasthdpdyati) send.

priest

who performs sacrifice for the benefit of another


"make that person sacrifice", as though the

said to

(who

himself.

i.

"^n" stand;

in caus. (jprathdyati) spread,

person

(vdrdhate)

inform

of pers.).

(caus. apa-

proclaim.
*

in caus.

hear,

dhapdyati)

naydyati).

K^

(dat.).

+ fif

in-

^^ in caus. (vyathdyati) torment.


g hear; in caus. {gravdyati) make

+ VfKi in
make put on,

V ^Txhis^jiijz^)

dhaydti, -te)

^'(^see in caus. (dar^dyati) show.


l^^T

caus. (ahhivadayati)

form

"JV

give; caus. (ddpdyati)

give or pay.

ft

for (ace.*).

f^"^ know; caus. (veddyati)

in caus. (Jandyati) beget.

^T +

(yajdyati)

greet.

ordain, appoint.

H^

caus.

to sacrifice; offer sacrifice

^^+ ^rfn in

caus. (kalpdyati,-te)

^:|[^in

sacrifice;

make

study, read

^5rftl

die; caus. (mardyati) kill.

make ^ir

eat; give to eat.

refer.

XVIII.

Vocabulary

'^'^ eat;

is

Pronouns (and other words as well)

a curious tendency to agree

in Sanskrit

and are never

enclitic,

is

called

i(^441t)

were celebrating the

sacrifice

for

Lesson XVIII.

1^J^ m., slave, groom.o;

Subst.:

^^TfT

nectar.

n.,

^jT

trunk

hand;

J^-?

(oi

nom.

ni'j

THZf^*^

a noted

^^

nom.

m..

%^ m.,

Brahman

(the deity).

science,

knowledge;

esp.

sacred knowledge, holy writ.

quality; excellent quality,

excellence.

Adj.:

nom.

m.,

^IIT^

j<^')

the city of "^cR m., wolf.

pr.,

Benares.
^jTJJ'm.,

(J

-^^^^-"^^^^

garment.

n.,

f^f^
f.,

pr.

(Rama's iTTt^,

^,

father).

f.

f.

**^T,

new.

own, one's own.

^,

Exercise XVIII.

^^^nT^rPrr

<^o

trfcT TTTf^ttr:^^
fcT

n^^
14.

18.

17. I

have

food.

20.

21.

^f

16.

TTTr'T

^fW ^ ^>5^-

f^^^fir ttr: ^rrwt ft^-

my

field

They had

made

(cans.

pass.).

ii

q?

15.

sent envoys

and wolves

boy taken
to

sacrifice

(ordained) the taxes in his kingdom.

ploughed by slaves.
the

ii

Show me

Let Brahmans teach us both and offer

The king determined

(gen.) cows,

The

cause a mat to be

The kings
*

n<^

^^t^ ^jtitrt^^:

^^ ^"Pft T^^ g^^ TT^Tir %^^i?i:

(dat.) the books.

for us.

^^"efr

-^a.^^^

poet.

cRTlJ^

C^'^

Vic^acq-c?) Jtt/V'

nom. pr., the city

n.,

^{ilT^ ^"> wish'

pr.,

VoLzu

of Patna.

ele-

phant); ray; toll, tax.

^Tf^<f

^-o^

m., messenger, envoy.

"S"?!

'^'q|^{ n., initiation, investiture.


Y^/i^

77

19.

(led)

Pataliputra.

killed our* flocks.

expression of possession,

etc.,

Give

me

water and

away from me
22.
23.

(all.).

Thieves stole our

The king made

the

on the part of pronouns

Lesson XVIII. XIX.

78

poet recite (use ch|V!|^f?f) a eulogy of Visnu.


hearts with wishes.

24.

We

torment our

Both scholars greet the teacher.

25.

Lesson XIX.
226.

Pronoun of the Second Person. This pronoun

the natives

assume 1^^ and ijtH^ as bases)

which

declined thus:

is

Dual.

Singular.

(for

Plural.

N.

A.
I.

D.
Ab.

G.

^^^frtc,

Tm:

L.
227.

same

The forms

rules as ?|T,

228.

l^J,

^,

^, "^T^, "^^ are

etc. (

enclitics, subject to the

224).

The Prononn of the Third Person

assume rf^ as base


the base
(note nom. sing., m. and f.):

is

really

(for

is
cT)

which the natives

declined as follows

Lesson XIX.

79

Neuter :
Dual.

Plural.

<TWr^

%^

Sing.

%?T

I.

The nom.

229.

their final

sing.

the mascnliiie.

etc., as in

masc. ^J^, and

compound

its

before any consonant; before vowels, and at the end

of a sentence, they follow the usual euphonic rules.

The

230.

lose

il^t(<^,

third personal

pronoun

Thus,

weak

used oftenest as a

is

^-

or indefinite demonstrative, especially as antecedent to a relative;

and often

like the English "definite article."

Like

231.

cf

are declined: {a) Tpf, 'this', formed by prefixing

forms of

T^ to the

throughout; thus, nora. sing. m. TJ^l^,

"ff,

the relative

D.

j^ifie;

(c)

comparatives and

(ft)

pronoun (and

pronominal

as ^flT^ which (of the two)?' and ejTcW 'which

So

^f|4^ and ijri4{;

comparative ^ttirt^; and ^ffi^

'different'.

so inflected, but with "^J^ instead of


neut.

f%^,

as, ^f^,

(only sing,

and

The

232.

all

'

'
;

TJcR

one ',

^|^

Yet

nom.-acc.-voc. sing,

in

in pi.

233.

'

some

'

^?r^,

f.

^"^

pi.), 'both'.

interrogative pronoun

sing. neut. f^fi?^;

its

other words are

"eR

(for which the

Hindus give

the base as f^J^) follows precisely the declension of

nom. -ace.

such

roots,

(of the many)?'

'one of many'; ^t?J 'other', with

'l[cfirf4^

'

TjqT,

^, 'which, who';

adj.)

superlatives from

f.

nom.

sing.

m. qj^,

f.

ff,

except

^.

number of words follow the pronominal declension

some of

their significations, or optionally

without

known

rule,

in

but in other senses, or

lapse into the adjective inflection.

Such are

comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems, as


'lower', ^r^HR 'lowest'; Xf^ 'chief*, IT^ 'earlier',

^tTT

^[VT

'uppcr',

Lesson XIX.

80

'northern', ^f^TIf 'southern',

Occasional forms of the pro-

etc.

nominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives, and from
having somewhat of a numeral character,

other words

'few',

as

^^

etc.

'half,

The

Peculiarities in the use of relative pronouns, etc.

234.

Sanskrit often puts the relative clause before the antecedent clause,

and inserts the substantive to which the relative

same

clause with the relative, instead of leaving

clause.

In translating into

placed

either

but

not

English.

before

inserted

or

Sanskrit either:

or:

XJ^cft^Srft^

^ ^^ Wt

235.

thus,

The

etc.,

^T'^HirT'T,

relative

f^cf "^f^^irt

as

clause,

be

clause;

done

is

is

yesterday

in

very

"SfZf

according to the English idiom.

word may stand anywhere

to

is

^ XT^cT
fjt 4M^H ^
^
g^ ift ^TT^TlFr; but not ^

in

ifft^ g^:,

clause

antecedent

Thus, "the mountain which we saw

high" would be

"^cft

whole

the

antecedent

the

into

a relative

Sanskrit,
after

it

refers into the

in the antecedent

\W[* "the gods whose

in its clause;

chief

is

Qiva".

Sometimes relative or demonstrative adverbs are used as equivalents


of certain case-forms of relative or demonstrative pronouns; thus,

236.

The

repetition of the relative gives

'whosoever, whatever'.

The same

result is

an

indefinite

meaning:

much more commonly

attained by adding to the relative the interrogative pronoun, with


(or, less usually,
"^T'

in

without) one of the particles

Sometimes the interrogative alone

a similar sense.

relates''; "^t

be".;

Thus;

^^ HT^ ^

'^^^^
let,

^^T, f^f^? "^fti

used with these particles

oR^^f?f ''whatever

this

woman

"whatever any one's disposition may

"^T^ cfi^ f%^"^n! "he gives

^nfWW ^WW

is

'^j

to

some one or other";

"he takes from no one whatever".

i^i^lc*^-

Lesson XIX.

81

Vocabulary XIX.

Verbs:

^T^

sit; in

caus. (dsdyati) place.

caus.

in

drink;

ixrr

(pdydyati)

caus. (pdldyati)

in

Sin protect;

rejoice;

in caus.

n. pr.,

ehuy m.,

f-,

umbrella.

"^J^

n.,

milk.

TliZ^\

^,

f%^

n. pr.,

have

m., companion, helper.

all

(Vedic),

Indecl. :

f%^

'.

Exercise XIX.

Sanskrit Primer.

without (w.

often postpos.).

has the meaning 'famous', 'ho-

I'erry,

in caus. Qivdydyati)

Krsna's mother. ^rfxf also, even.

as prefix to proper names,

norable

^^ all.
^|d sweet.

earth.

f.,

call

^TfTT other.

n., foot, leg.

n.,

f.,

^Jf other.

n. pr.

1^"^

caus. (ghdtdyati) have

Adj.:

a god.

gait; refuge.

^TTJI' m.,

kill;

^r^'^

Subst.:
o|)|^ n., business, concern.

^^cfi^

(sidhyati) succeed; in caus.

f^^

called.

yate) terrify, frighten.

^rrfTT f.,

read.

killed.

in caus. (bhisdyate, bhdyd-

^^RIT

(a written leaf)

{sdhate) endure.

(prmdyati) ^i^

rejoice, please,

^fear;

e.

i.

in caus.

(sddhdyati) perform, acquire.

protect.

make

speak,

name;

make

(vdcdyati)

^^

give to drink, water.

ift"

say, speak;

"^^

insir,

or ace;

82

Lesson XIX.

tir^

^Rf^: ^Rlt^i^iy^cC

The husband^

15.

(loc.fem.)

Rama^ was

^8

II

II

of that^ (gen,) Kausalya^ (loc), of

born*, is called^ Da^aratha^.

rejoices^ at thy^ diligence^ (all.).

so?

Others than

18.

we

17.

who^

pos.) the law^

trees are sweet.

father

The

whom^

teacher*

(efJ^Tc^) speakest thou


19.

The

the law-books.

20.

May

all^

protect^ their subjects'"" according to^ (j^Sf^^post-

be victorious^.

(ace.)
22.

May

husbands, increase (imv.).


terrifies

Why

16.

could not endure this suffering.

teacher teaches** us holy- writ and


those^ kings^

XX.

the wicked. 24.

had gold given

23.

The

fruits

of all these

women, who honor

their

In this kingdom the king's punishment

Which of
to

21.

the glory of all

the

two

fruits

do ye wish ?

25.

My

me, cows to thee, to the other brother

nothing.

Lesson XX,
237.

Declension of Stems in Consonants.

consonants

may

well be classed together,

shown by some concern only


endings.

"Makes

in

final

and not the


are inflected

and neuters are peculiar (as usually in fhe other

"Other than thou". With


ablative is used.
**

noun -stems

the stems themselves,

Masculines and feminines of the same

precisely alike;

All

since the peculiarities

^JHf, as with comparatives,

us read" (^rf^-T?

<^^^^')'

the

Lesson

XX.

83

majority of consonantal stems form a special feminine

adding

(never

"1;^

^)

very general in consonantal stems

normal ones

The

239.

The endings

2.

^;

general law concerning final consonants

sporadic are "^,

Of

3.

both sonants

is

are

is

dropped

and again

in a very

first in

i;^,

c^,

is

allow-

the

last,

each series, the

the others surd

regularly converted into this

final palatal,

asp.,

and

wherever they

occur.

or ^, becomes either

few cases (where

it

^,

or*(less often) "^;

V)

represents original

be-

f|[.

240.
is

1^,

two or more would etymo-

allowed as final;

would etymologically

f.,

the last

if

the non-nasal mutes, only the

non-aspirate surd,

comes

'^j

finals.

one remains.

until but

^,

as follows:

is

In general, only one consonant, of whatever kind,

logically occur there

but

finals are

HT as

ed to stand at the end of a word

4.

are throughout the

(Introd., 90).

The more usual etymological

"^j

by

and weak stems,

either of strong

or of strong, middle, and weakest.

stem

weak form of the masculine.

to the

Variations, as between stronger and weaker forms, are

238.

1.

But the

of all numbers.

declensions) only in the nom.-acc.-voc.

Accordmg

to 239. 2,

the

of the nom. sing., m. and

always lost; and irregularities of treatment of the stem-final,

in this case, are not infrequent.

Before the 2?ac?a-endings, ^JTH^?

241.

final is treated as in external

242.

An

aspirate mute

f^^? ^^T^ and ^,

combination.

is

changed to

aspirate before another non- nasal

its

mute or a

corresponding nonsibilant;

unaltered only before a vowel or semivowel or nasal.

a mute

is

243.

a stem-

doubled by prefixing

its

own

it

stands

Hence such

corresponding non-aspirate.

Consonant-stems of one form in

c^,

and
H^.
J, >J

Be-

84

XX.

Lesson

W,

fore suffixal

both H" and

\ij

Stem -final becomes

^. Examples:

'misfortune';

n.,

^^R^

as

m., 'wind'; "^"R^

f-

TP^

*the world'.

Plural.

Sing.

A.

Tf^fTR:

I.

^n^fH

D.

iT^

Ab.

iT^cra:

G.

^IM<H

^rr^

'wt^%

^Rci;

^^ictt

^^

^^TRf^

II

r,

^T^T^

^^(^ '^ViW

II

ii

M\d\K

^'itTT

r>

^^mrf^ ^'ifw^
^JT^^^ ^^rnrsr^ ^^rw^

^r^fw^

ii

II

^TcRcii

in^

L.

"^^^

become ^;

as stem-finals

^^l^K

^STO^

II

II

Dual.

For

N.A.V.

TT^cfi-

i.D.Ab.

?T^wm: ^TTWTii: w^wt^r;

G.L.

iT^^ ^TR^

^m{\

^^fft

II

ii

W'Tcft^

the i^ inserted in nora.-acc. pi. neuter,

II

cf.

phaldni, ma-

dhuni, etc.

when a

244. In a few roots,


also ^, representing "g

final

sonant aspirate

H) becomes

242, the initial sonant consonant (It, W, or


thus,

^^,

245.

nom.-voc. sing,
^c^;

Agreement of

^?W^5

adjectives.

two or more substantives,


if

VI

it

same

will be used in their

but in a combination of masc. or

the adjective will be neuter.

aspirate;

*i(^-

If the

adjective qualify

combined number;

the substantives are masculine and feminine,

masc.

("CT

loses its aspiration according to 239. 3,

the adj. will be

fern, subjects

with neuter,

Lesson XX.

85

Vocabulary XX.
t5fM

Verbs:

"^

caus. (rohdyati or ro^

grow;

make

pdyati)

rise

or

in caus. (lamhhdyati*)

make

receive or take; give.

grow;

plant.

Subst.

^ff

name of certain Vedic ^'?^^

"^xrfir^f.,
writings.

^^^^ n-j
U

m., friend.

Adj.:

stone.

o^,

f.

fif^fTf f., contentment, happiness.

f%^f^

m.,

supporter, maintainer.

'^^Yf,

f.,

iTtMcli m.,

^^(^

m., king; mountain.

iH^cl^ ra.,

wind;

as

pi.,

Hi->

W^

HW?

f.,

skilled, learned.
n.,

threefold, triple.

^T bard

to find

or

difficult.

^>

Indecl.

wind.

f^'^^T^ m.)

f.

reach;

n. pr.,

the Storm-gods.

^T(T

year.

river.

OT[^,

'^m^

fagot.

f.,

^^rftTi; U

M^^:

lightning.

autumn

f.,

:^rfiT^

sacred cord (worn by

the three higher castes).


frf%ci;

a hundred.

n.,

devoted, true.

^ffq also; even.

trust, confidence.

"^"^Tc^

behind (w.

gen.).

m., n. pr., a demon, Vrtra.

Exercise XX.

If a nasal

is

ever taken in any of the strong forms of a

root, it usually appears in the causal.


**
See 225 ; ^nr = Tif^^ ; see 235, end.

Lesson XX. XXI.

86

^^:

^ft:

^ ^^

^JEfWl":

14.

^TT^:

ircTR;

^^n^^

^ Wcr:
i

tt^^ cif^^fWcT

so

hwt:

Indra, with the Maruts as his companions, killed Vrtra.

15.

Without a companion no one can perform a

16.

One

difficult business.

(express in pi.) should plant trees on all the roads, for the

sake of the shade.

Those

17.

friends

are hard to find in the three worlds.

cord of Aryans are to be

(^T

^^-

(gen.) fijTit

this

caws.)

made

stone behind the

who
18.

are true in misfortune

The

girdle

and the sacred

threefold (neut. dual).


fire.

20.

The ocean

is

19.

Put

called

by

the poets the husband of rivers. 21. All subjects must be protected
(imv.)

by

their kings.

22.

Some

of these

Brahmans are learned

in

the Upanisads, others in the law-books.

Lesson XXI.
246. Declension of Consonant-stems,
tals, etc.

when

it

is

Final

comes

becoming

1.

cR

of a stem

to stand as word-final,

when

final,

treated in the

3.

In the roots

same way.

4.

The

In classical Sanskrit not

Stems in pala-

and before the pac?a-ending8,

and before ^, and

oftenest treated exactly like


'^

ment, see below.

cont'd.

reverts to the original guttural

If^

many

W^.

2.

Final

for cases of other treat-

f^T^^? '^Tl

of

before

and

"^^iT

becomes

If

the

is
"^f^

after gj

root-stems are used as inde-

frequently employed, with


or
adjective
(present) participial value, as final element of a com-

pendent substantives;

pound word.

but they

are

Lesson XXI.

Tf^

E.g.

thus, o^.

f-

direction, point of the

87
*

'speech, word'; ^IT^

TT^

A.

-^T^

I.

^T^J

L.

^Tf^

^^T

1^

f.>

Plural.

f^^

'^Ji;

f|[^

compass':

Sing.

N.V.

illness';

f.,

TT^

II

f^^TR;

f^T

II

f^

^^TO:

f^^T^

^Tfr^^

TT^

^ft^^

^^ f^^
I

II

f^H^

II

II

Dual.

^T^l^^lf^^ll
<^N^i*i

^rfr^
247.

(^

1.

Final

'sacrifice',

of roots

fq^

2.

3.

and

^wt^

f^^

II

II

of a stem regularly becomes the lingual mute

The

final

of the root-stems

^^

with others; and

^^,

above.

are treated like "^

f^in^

^^ and ^, and when word-final.

or ^) before

see 246,

7^^

^t^-hr:

m. pL, 'people', the

3.

For

TJ^

exceptions,

Thus,

f^^

Vai^ya- caste';

f%^

'

T^,

'rule',

the final IT of a

number

m., 'enemy';
m.,

f.,

(adj.)

licking'.

Plural.

Sing.

N.V. fl[Z
A.

f%Z

f^5R:

I.

fw^

L-

Ttf^

f|[^

II

f^Tf^

f^
f^

f^I[^

f^Tf^

II

f^Tff^^

II

t^5

f%^^

f^^g

II

t^f*ra:

f^^

II

II

'

Dual.

f^ f^

II

f^[Wr?l

t^^^
248. But

"^fc^

f^^"Rl

f^rft^

II

II

m., 'priest', though containing the root ^1(^

Lesson XXI.

88

makes ^BfW5 etc.; and ^f^^


|/^^ makes ^cR etc.

though containing

'garland',

f.,

249.

Nouns having

1.

the roots

"^^ 'be hostile', with others, as

(name of a

certain

final element,

change the

metre),

'burn', and

^^,

final

'

f.,

eRT^T^^
loc.

pi.

words with

In

2.

represents original
sandal,'

'shoe,

',

nom.-voc. sing.

fiT'^1' 'friend-betraying,'

**^'^;

etc.

JJoR

granting wishes

the

^fcijr^

into

Thus, oRX^^^, 'wood -burning', makes nom.-voc.

becomes

^T^T^^,

nom.-voc. sing.

and If-

ace.

^fI^,

nora.-voc.-sing.

and
cj;^

ace.

^3TrrTf[,)

f.

sing. "^T^\i(c^;

thus,

"pT"^-

where

"if^, 'bind,' as final element,

*milk',

^^,

and also

^tjjwf^

rf3F^,

instr.

^
f.,

du.

loc. pi.
oiT(^.

*^TWT^,

Vocabulary XXI.

^^

Verbs:
caus.

in

^?^

{damdyati)

tame;

let

^"(ff (utsrjdti)

loose or

out; raise (the voice).

^M +trfT(P^'*^V^4/^^0 embrace.

compel,

"^f

{druhyati) be hostile; offend.

in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear.

^ (bhdrati,

-te)

bear, support

^+

Tf

strike

(prahdrati)

out;

smite.
( lit.

and Jig.),

Subst.:

^i^

m.

"^^

pi.,

n. pr.,

a people

in

India.

"^^

f.,

verse of the Rigveda

in

pL, the Rigveda.


n.,

c|^^^

m., nom. pr.

^^ and

throughout

look, glance; eye.

t^U

m.,

^t^

m., tears.

enemy.

bee.
Il^f^l' m.,

^"ra^

medicine.

^i^^V

f.,

"^5T

f.,

^^T^

n.,

sweetness.

sickness, disease.
ni.,

great king, emperor.

a few other roots, whose nasal

their inflection, lose

it

is

not constant

in the present-system.

Lesson XXI.

;^Tnfr m., vassal.


^TrToR m., one

(i. e.

-ift^

who

has taken a

certain ceremonial bath.

^TWr^

89

^-j private recitation (of

sacred texts).

fif^-'^^f^)

m.

f.

n.,

healthy, well.
xnSEf, f.

^,

^t%^,

f-

^,

o-^

f.

wholesome

{gen.),

strongest.

(pass. part, of

^^),

besieged, surrounded; suffused.

Adj.:

o"^

f.

"^rT^UT-rf,

WR + ^RT),

part,

(pass.

of

attacked, smitten.

f^
^,

+ f^),

f.

m.

f.

n.,

granting wishes

of

hated, detested.
old.

^),

^'^T, sick,

^,

f.

^f^ff,

Wonder-cow.

as /. subst., the

f.

part,

(pass.

o^-T (part, of

^Tf^^TT,
cJiT?T^^

o"^

f.

f^t|[lgr,

ill.

provided with.

Adv. :

southern.
^f^T!i',f.o'^T?right hand;

^(^Nf, ^BR^^ct;, ^^TfTT,

ever.

Exercise XXI.

^^T^ f^T^

^T^:

f|[^^^rr^?T

?^

^R^T^TPST^ffT

^^^

rr^

(abl.)

^t^

^ ^^%T^

^^T^

^iP^^t^ ^rtv^ ^<I^

^*rf f^l

^ f^^^, ^%t

^ffirT

f^

f^f^H:

Q.

^^nT ^
I

^
i

TJ^lf
i

^r^

^rfr^TfT^

^fr^^T^wf ^^m:

^HTTWT^^ ^ITt ^^ ftRT% n<^i


^^T^Rrt f^ |wt s^mi ^min^h^ ^^ ^f^^T^ TT-

fWr

^0

^^liTcT
14.

In

II

^^
the

II

private

recitation

of

the

Veda an

ascetic

must

t^R?^ (interrog.), with some other words expressing use or


need, takes with it an instrumental of what is used or needed, and

a genitive of the user.


medicines"?

So here: "of what use

to a well

man

are

Lesson XXI. XXII.

90

raise (opt. or imv.) his voice.

who

called hoir,

recites the

That one among the

15.

16.

Rigveda.

shoes and a garland, and carry an umbrella.


friends

Rama

vassals in check

his

emperor keep

caus.) the people in all the earth.

Usnih.

pass.) the

Vibhisana.
veda.

The

22.

father's

Let an

18.

and protect (in

cans.),

In the Rigveda occurs ("^Tf


fell

glance

named

is

me

(loc).

(^TI!!'^

pass.)

upon

seer praises Indrani with verses of the Big-

The emperor smote

23.

(^?^

19.

betrayers -of- friends

the

Among

21.

The

20.

"Among my

17.

thus spoke Ravana.

the strongest":

is

priests is

sndtaka must wear

enemies

his

(ace,

Krsna was

dat.,

or

with the sword.

24. In

emies.

our enemies be tormented by diseases":

"May

25.

spoke the Brahman

in

the battle

killed

by

loc.)

his en-

thus

anger (abL).

Lesson XXII.
250.

Declension of Stems in

The stems

'?;.

lengthen the vowel before consonant- endings,

and the

of the nom.

becomes

then

as final (see 95,

^'^5

f^T^l

I-

fTTT

L.

Wt
251.

and

Thus,

116).

fn'j:

thus, ^sTf^rft.*

finfr

II

5TT
jfT

f.,

'voice';

J^ f.,

final

"^

'city'.

Dual.

5Tl

Stems in

neut. only;

^^

(or visarga) under conditions requiring a surd

A.

^"^ and

in nom.-sing.,

In the nom.-sing. the

is lost.

Singular.

N.V.

in

and

jft

y,

^^-R:

II

f^fr^
[and

f^T^ 5T^

II

r>

II

"?[i^

Plural.

in

^^

Sft^

f^\

They

^f

and ^^1^.
is

r>

'ftM^l^t^

II

II

the corresponding feminine

II

II

^g^

These are masc.

made by adding

f^;

lose their final i^ before consonant -endings;

Almost any noun

in

^ may

form a possesive derivative with

Lesson XXII.
and also in the nom.
compensation.

Thus,

sing.,

Vf^^

Masculine,
Singular.

where the masc. lengthens the


m.,

n., 'rich'.

Neuter,

in

92

Lesson XXII.
254. Adjective

member

are very

compounds having nouns of

common.

Thus, '^4Ji^ 'favorably-minded.'


Dual,

Singular.

m.

A.

m.

n.

f.

^*iH^H

^^rg^

^^T^prr

Plural,

m.

n.

f.

n.

f.

'long-lived':

Dual.

Singular.

I.

this class as final

etc.

I^Ht^^^T^

Plural.

^T^^^

etc.

etc.

Vocabulary XXII.
for sajydte)

Verb:
'^^(.sdjati;

but often pass. sajjdte


:

Snbst. :

^^T^
\3c|3|\

f.,

f.,

pipe, conduit.'

an Apsaras, Ur- H'^J^

n-?

milk.

voice; song.

n.,

^'> ^- P^'t Purtiravas.

irrftrt ^-^

HT<1^^

eye.

).

city.

3^^^^^

f^t?rTT m., king.

^^

f.,

loc.

bow.

n.,
f-5

5^

f.,

w.

tl^^n

heavenly nymph.

va9i.

f^T^

on (as thoughts

\i|g^

n. pr.,

hang on, be fastened

(li^'i^g) creature.

^'t

^M

P^'i India.

x|5^*i^ m., moon.

^T^

>^TT n^M spy.

4{fp|W^ m., minister (of state).

Sin"

sacrificial formula, text.


^51^;^ n.,

f-?

bowstring.

gq^tf?!^

n-5 ligbt; star^^

heavenly

^IJ^

glory, fame.

n.,

"^fW^^ ^'i merchant.

body.

cTTT^ m., pond.

^^T^

^TT

5fflfif^

f.,

mind.

w.,

door, gate.

n.,

age.

f.,

flower.

Lesson XXII.

^^

m., sun.

^H

n-j

spot,

place,

Tf^m,
m., possessor, lord,

f.

f.

first.

(part, of ^),

^T

dead,

fallen.

f^cT,

^,

f.

^cT,

Adj.:

^1^^,

subst., ascetic.

%^f^i^^ courageous.

locality;

n., oblation.

^f^^

asm.

asceticism;

stead.

^if'T^

93

OT +^T),

(part, of

o^

f.

of

(part,

^T),

standing.

drawn, bent (as a bow).

IndecL:

acts of
fjXjf^i^^ suffering, doing

to be sure, in sooth.

Exercise XXII.

^ ^^

^^T^m

^T^ f^iT^rf^f^

11.

cities
13.

praise of Pururavas

The minds

sing.).

TTTftpTT

rich

gave orders (^T-"^ cavs.)


15.

16.

to

merchants and

^Tlrf^

the

In the

The king

have his minister called (use

or. recta).

moon

not living creatures.

18.
19.

Tf^

on riches

(^,

loc.

17.

One

flowers, fruits,

and

(^^)

gives light to

(rf.

warriors fallen in battle.

12.

14.

of ascetics must not dwell

At night

iTTWf

^^^r^:

courageous warriors.

was sung by Kalidasa.

should sacrifice to the gods


milk,

wr%

TRff% Wtft%

Raise ye the voice in praise (dat.) of Hari.

of India dwell

The

v^ ^-rh:

WR^

in Voc.

all creatures.

I)

The Apsarases
In age

(instr.),

lead into

not

in

Heaven

knowledge,

94

Lesson XXII. XXIII.

the eldest

is

Qiva

by the

oblation.

among

21.

his

brothers (loc, gen.).

20.

The gods

live

merchant wishes wealth (^), a warrior

fame, an ascetie deliverance.

The woman's eyes are

22.

suffused

with tears.

Lesson XXIII.
Declension.

255.

jectives of

culine

Comparatiye Adjectives.

and a weaker
of middle

distinction

ends in

^^.

stem-form.

in

in

^^ (usually l^f^),

"^^

(usually

The feminine-stem

Thus,

The

and weakest cases.

%^^,

is

made with

Dual.

Sing.

A.

^THK
^T^J^

N.v. ^zre:

^^tro^

^Mm

%q1rm: ^^t'?^

L.

^ftr

wt^ %^,

V.

%^^
Stems in ^rT (or
the suffix

participles, present

"?5rff

Dual.

Plural.

%wt

^^nftr

^^^^ *^ masculine.

^:^

Fem. stem. %^ir^: declined

made with

from the weak

Sing.

I.

256.

voc. sing. masc.

Neuter.

%^^e^

no

being

'better':

Plural.

^t^

in the strong

there

5^i|^),

Masculine.

N.

ad-

primary formation have a double form of stem for mas-

and neuter: a stronger

cases,

Comparative

'^c^)

like

wf^.

fall into

two divisions: A. those

(^R^)? being, with few exceptions, active

and future; and B. those made with the pos-

sessive suffixes ^ifr (or J{f0 and


^irf^ (or ^^cQ.

They

are masc.

and neuter only, the fem. being formed with %.


257.
'

living.

A. Participles in

^IfnT^

(or ^R?^. E. g.

wt^^^

m.,

n.,

Lesson XXIII.

95
Neuter.

Masculine.
Sing.

N.y.^^i^
A.

Dual.

Plural.

Sing.

Dual.

Plural.

^c|rft

^i^^irr^

Wt^

^^nft

Wt'^f^

^^nf^
Wt^fTT

I.

strong form of these participles


off the

by cutting

chanically,

fut.) ind. act.

as in masculine.

Wt^^f^

Wt^^TJi:

The

258.

^^t^fT^

thus

final

me-

obtained,

from the 3rd

RTf^ff gives strong

is

(or

pres.

pi.

form of pres.

act. part.

weak ^-q?^; fcTBfnT, t^^nT^ and "Rl^cl^; ^Tlrf^, ^flprT


f^firT^,
and
and ^Ip^;;
^Tf%^t^
^T^^c^;;
^^n^^fnl, ^XJl^TnT
and
(fut.), "jqt%^^^
^^W^-

But those verbs which

259.

the usual firf (as

e.

in the 3rd. pi. act. lose the i^

the verbs following the reduplicating class

g.

in the present -system),

lose

it

pi. pres. ind. act.

voc.
Pl-

^5^^
260.

2/a-class,

Thus, from ]/^,

H^f?T, part, (only stem -form) H^c^: nom.-

masc. ^^c^, ace.


^j^ffT(

sing.

nom. -voc.-acc.

sing. neut.

nom

^^,

du.

-voc.-acc.

du.

^^ift,

and causatives, invariably insert ^

in

nom. -voc.-acc.

du.

when

the

neut. Present participles of the -class, of the root-class

"^, and

all future

reject it; thus, neut. -sing,


(fut.), du. ^fift^fft or

du. ^|ff\ or illnO'.

f^"^?

eRf^irf^

may

participles,
du.

f^cft

^Tfi; (pres.

Participles of

all

part, from

other verbs, and

'eat', root-class), du.


261.

The

adj.

^^n^,

take or

either

or f^i^-rO;

stems in ^Sp^, leave out the i^ in the du. neut.

^^rpf,

^^ttT*

pi.

- class, the

participles of verbs of the

Only the present

root ends in

and

also in the present participle,

have no distinction of strong and weak stem.


3rd

of

thus

chf^J^ct

^,

'go'),

all

other

^^<^

(^!l^

rf^.

*great', takes in strong cases the stem-

The grammarians, however, allow


H^ in the nom.-voc.-acc. pi.

these verbs to insert the

neuter of the present participle.

96

Lesson XXIII.

form iT^T'tT
voc.
is

^i;;

nom.-sing. masc. 44^|i^ (see 239,

du. neut. 4^^ (ft, pi.

^TfTf^-

2), ace. 17^|r1#i,

Otherwise the inflection

like that of participles.

262.

feminine of participles and adjectives in ^ff

always made with

is

'^70

The

'^,

and the form

is

(or

always identical

with the nom. dual neuter.

Vocabulary XXIll.

^ + ^ni (apasdrati)

Verbs ;

f^^

go away

caus. (apasdrdyati) drive

(nindati) blame.

in

away.

TJ^(J'^jcl'te) shine; rule.

Nouns (snbst. and

^7f^

^(^

adj.):

m., sun.

^"^t^ better, best

?r^\^TX^ (comp.) very honorable.

^^

(pr. part, of

^)

^ffT^ (neut.

giving.

of

W);

;^)

being, existing;

man;

as

fern. (^rcft)> faithful wife.*

o"^; become

part,

as neut. subst,

as masc. subst., good

(act.) illuminating.
f.

salvation.

IT^Tlir^, f-^, bright, glistening;

^ff,

m., calf.

Adv.:

(past. pass.

as neut

^^

subst.,

being, creature.

f^

to-morrow.

surely, indeed.

Exercise XXIll.

^nfr

if^^ra:
*

rfxi**

(ace. pi.)

Especially a

^fr^HT ^t:

s^

vf^nr^xrf^^

widow who immolates


whence Anglo-Indian

"Even though
Uf

xn^^

^% ^%i[

pile of her husband


**

***

ff

>?^ ^^ct:

herself on the funeralsuttee,

they exist".

in composition often conveys the idea of imitation.

Lesson XXIII.

iT3ir^T-

'^X^.

g^m:

ftrnfl"

is

good

16.

praised.

driver

who

band
child

^xqt

strikes (part.) the horses.

The warrior who conquers

Among

17.

15.

<^o

The

lives (part.)

In the

18.

to-day

maiden, making

(^ET^

shall punish a wife


(gen.)

was

(part.) in

is

field

saw

dead to-morrow.
21.

birds flying.

who

Dwell among good men.

steals (pari.) his

afraid (use subst.

The word

20.

garlands, sits on a stone.

battle

the heavenly bodies the sun and

of the good must be followed (done).


22.

^^

^^Tf^ ^flf^

are the two great ones.

He who

19.

?:t^ -miwi ^ft-

du.)

(gen.

punishes (part.) the bad and gives (part.) food to the

attains great fan>e.

moon

^t^

97

^^TTT^ ^^^'f^ ^TfTRt ^ ^"^g:

We blame the

who

king

Tl%r ^ftpTT

ft^cr^^cfr'lTfrT:

14.

XXIV.

23.

property.

hus-

24.

The

no copula) of the bees

(abl.)

flying about ('^3[^) in the house.

Lesson XXIV.
*

263.

Declension.

T^ (TcT)

and ^r?^ (^c().

are possessives.
inflection

They are

nom.

;Rrft.

In

sing. masc.

the

B. Steins in

Adjectives formed with these suffixes


declined precisely alike*; and differ in

The two

The feminine

dual neut. i^ is

'rich', 'celebrated:

"^ifT,

co^^t'd*

^
^-

from the participles in "^51^ only by lengthening the

in the

Stems in "^(^ (or 'WO'

made

never inserted

in

^;

thus,

Thus, ^^rfT,

'

adjectives

f^i^r(^,

*80 great', *so many', and f^r

*how great?' *how many?' are

Perry, Sftuskrlt Primer.

is

similarly declined.
7

98

Lesson

XXIV.

Mascniine.

Neuter.

Dual.

Singular.

Plural.

^\wm^ ^Hnft

^^^fR^

N.
A.

^ITnTB:

^t^frm

^^^TTC

L.

^^rfrr

^Tcft^ ^^ro

> 264.

pres. part. act. of

W)

fl

as in the masculine.

^5ftiTf^

stem ^^nT^*

be carefully distinguished from

(to

strued with the verb in the third person.

voc. ^l"^^, is a

there!"; and

is

^P^, and

^?ri[^,

and

common

and

"^w^,

"^Sf^.

The stem has a

i^^

genders.

it

is

con-

its

is

older

These are made by the

In the neuter,

suffixes

triple form.
is

In the strong cases

lengthened to ^T, in the

general dropped; in the middle cases the

in

dropped, and

is

is

sing. masc.

are, with one or two exceptions, masc.

of the masc. the vowel of the suffix

weakest cases

It

often doubled.**

neut. only.

final

nom.

exclamation of address: *'you, sirl", "ho,

Deriyative stems in

265.

Its

and ^ft^ the contracted form of

^T^cft);

(fern.

^T^pt^;,

frequently used in respectful address as

is

a substitute for the pronoun of the second person.

^c||(^

Plural.

NV. ^J{cl '^^'^ ^^rf^

^^cTlEC

I.

Dual.

Singular.

it

is

also lost in

nom.

the

sing,

of all

the nom.-acc. pi., as being strong cases,

lengthen the vowel of the suffix; the same cases in the dual (as

weakest cases) lose "^


or
the

of
is

J{^ and

'^fi^,

but this only optionally.

when

*name';
*

**

After the 1^

by a consonant,

retained in all the weakest cases, to avoid too great an

accumulation of consonants.
n.,

these are preceded

^|(4J1

Examples:

m., 'soul, self;

^STT

WW^

.,

m., 'king'; iiii^

'devotion'.

Probably contracted from ^ij^nT 'blessed'.


before all vowels and
^ft^ loses its final

sonants; thus,

^^

^'%.

all

sonant con-

Lesson XXIV.

99
Neuter.

Mascnline.

Dual.

Singular.

Plural.

Dual.

Singular.

^"n^

or

A.

TT^TRIi:

L.

TT^fif
or

V.

V.

TT^^

TRf^

TT^f

TTtfr^

Ijf^

or rrf'^

TT^^

^1^^

^?rT(3T^

WW^

266.

Plural.

Final

Euphonic rnles.

and

'Z

^,

W[^

Tnit^
iTR

or

or

"q[^

WW
remain unaltered be-

fore initial surd consonants; before sonants, whether vowel or con-

become respectively

sonant, they

be

may

still

'T

becomes mi\M or

the

Before

^ may

^^,

Before nasals they

further assimilated, becoming the nasals

Thus, "qf^WTZ

^ 267.

becomes
4J4^x^:.

initial

either

either

The
a

"qf^^WT^

latter

final

or

method

mute

is

^,

TJT,

?^.

xrfT^T^; WR^f^

is

much more

usual.

made sonant; and

then

remain unchanged, or be converted into the so-

nant aspirate corresponding to the preceding letter; thus, either


^fTRTIf^: or

^4^JM^ :;

practice the latter

When
latal

either

method

is

r{^\^^

V^Cm^

^^

di^l^^K-

In

almost invariably followed.

a dental mute comes in contact with a lingual or pa-

mute or

sibilant,

the dental

lingual or palatal respectively.

is

usually assimilated, becoming

Thus,

ti{haii

from

ti-stha-ti;

instead of rajnd.

rajnd

100

Lesson

XXIV.

Vocabulary XXIV.
Tcrbs:

tW^ + '^^

cut

off.

poHsh.

self; often as

^1^^ m., soul,

^5p^

n., birth.

ceremony;

t^^^

f^

f.,

n,

^cjch'^

skin; leather.

name

^ff m., slayer, killer.

^T^TWfT

so great, so

how

flfi"?TifT^

of a metre.

long-lived (often used

in respectful
address).

l[^fr^

fnmr,

f.

great?

much

(263).

how much?

^rr, poor; niggardly.

so much, so many.
fHqn^

day.
n.,

border, boundary; out-

^">

Adj.:
fate.

bank, shore.

n.,

(udvejdyati)

skirts.

his, etc.; one's own.

ofj^i^ n., deed;

cfV^

sim-

in geni-

ple reflexive pronoun;

n., hide,

in caus.

f%^+^^

4il*ii^

^l|^

varndyati) de-

terrify.

Subst.:

tive,

scribe, portray.

in caus. (mdrjdyati) rub, rub


wgf^
off,

(denom.

"^TSf^

temple.

o^,

f.

f|[rft^,

second.

I^cfi m., hell.

flT^EIcinR^ kind.

xrf^^ m., bird.

"ftqqixj^ saying pleasant things,

irr^

n., pot, vessel.

9|^t^

(brahman)

sociable.

n.,

sacred v^rord (of

devotion;

God)

sacred

knowledge; the world-spirit.


"51

^"t^ (brahman

^^^^^

strong, mighty.

^^[^ffr^,f."qff^, honorable; blessed.

;j^T^if shining, brilliant.

a personifi- ?rf?W?T shrewd, prudent.

cation of the preceding) m., the "?n"^?I

bow much,

supreme All-Soul, the

o^Tj harsh, rough.

^^i^

n.,

creator.

ashes.

^rfrr m., ascetic.

<Nn.

in.5

^?T^
^^ n.,

n., hair.

king.

year.

tii|m m., meeting, encounter.

f.

"^I^,

f^,

f.

o'i^,

as many.

pervading,

far-

reaching; omnipresent; mighty.


fff,

f.

(pass. part, of

killed.

AdT.:

MI^UI commonly.

fiQ

Lesson

XXIV.

101

Exercise XXIV.

^Tf% frf^ tnfr^^frjT ^^f^ ft^^ cTRf^ ^^iTftF f^rr


^nT ^^

f|[%

m ^^^
^^^Rf^

outskirts

14.

))

their

coming
your

the

or.

(iise

("TSrnJT^

spirit is

shoes

which

is

234).

earth.

were

22.

by

It is

(f^^

18.

said
20.

by the enemy.

the ascetic Mitr&tithi.

let

15.

Let him

The

servants

river.
16.

The

children (c?m.), tell

me

described

is

world-spirit

by the seers that the world-

That part of the


is

world-spirit,

called the soul of

the mighty emperor

/;as8.) also the Tristubh.

Qudra;

17.

All the mighty warriors

birth a

of leather

two celebrated poets were

the body,

Candragupta was

killed in battle

occurs

X^).

(use or. recta).

encompassed by
21.

(use oR caws.)

bank of the

the

^^w* du.) names.

omnipresent

made

with ashes (pL).

that

king

19.

temple of blessed Visnu stands in the

recta with

many Upanisads.

^TP^fwt ^r^^ t^f^ ^^Tf?^-

of this village, on the

to

off the vessels diligently

announced

^fTT^^t

or wood.

(instr.)

is

Brahmans have

13.

in

^ t^^nft ^wt^^p^t^^^^
f^^rr^ft
^fN: ^rr^^rf^ m
^ft^^^cft (gen.) % J^l ^ ^f^ ^crf^

fl[wn!^: Tg^^'g

^^T "^^ ^^%

^Tff:

rub

f^%

who
23.

man

(cf.

of the whole

fought in Krsna's army


In the Rigveda

24.

The king

him not marry the

(^B^ pi)

of Pataliputra

beautiful daughter of

102

Lesson

XXV.

Lesson
268.

Declension.

XXV.

Perfect Active Participles in

The

^j^.

active participles of the perfect tense-systen] are quite peculiar as

regards

the

suffix is

Tf^5 which hecomes '^^

modifications of the stem.

is

shortened to ^i^ in the voc. sing.

is

contracted into

^^. A

and

^^;

union-vowel ^,

disappears before

by one consonant, become


than one consonant,

comes

;g^

^^^

weakest.

Radical

before ^"Cf, but

formed with

from

the

masc, and

it is

^ and
if

^,

weakest

changed to

and middle cases,


if

t^,

preceded

preceded by more

whereas radical

and radical

sing,

In the weakest cases the suffix

always be-

Thus, f^nft^t^, f^T-

'^.

^^t^, ^^\; ^^T^, ^^^-

nom.

the middle cases

become XTl

before ^Xf

the

in

present in the strong

if

in the

^"Bf

in

In the strong cases the

The feminine stem

stem -form;

thus,

is

"pT^^.

Examples:
!

f%^t^

'knowing':
Neuter.

Masculine.
Singular.

N.

ft^^

A.

f^^^

Dual.

Singular. Dual.

Plural.

f^T^ f^^^

N.v.

ft^M^

Plural.

f%^ f^f^
i>

ft^ftr

as in the masculine.

2.

^flH^t^

'having gone'*:

Another form of

strong and middle stems


is as above, ^T?TO
.

perf.

part, of this verb (^R^)

^^^t^

^^^

^^^^;

makes

the

the weakest form

XXY.

Lesson

103
Neuter.

Masculine.

Dual.

Singular.

Plural.

Singular.

^w^

A.

^fr^rrNm;

wi^^

I.

^^TT

^WRl

**^f^^

^R^f^

^^^

^fr^^c^

L.

Stems

269.

m.,

^J^<i[^

n.,

^gT;,

^^^,.

y,

as in

The stems

masculine

tlie

ra.,

"^ff^

the strong and middle cases they follow X;T^I^;

^^^ft or

'dog',

and

voc.

"^i|^,

^T^.

cf^.

The stem ^^c|(^

270.

^f7?r^fftr

have as weakest stems "^^ and


^[W; in

'young',

Fern, -sq^ and

Plural.

^fr^^ ^^t

N. ^ftTT^Tn. ^rfT^T^T^t

Dual.

m., 'generous' (in the later language

almost exclusively a name of Indra), has as strong stem ^^^T*[.?


mid. o"q, weakest

The stem '^^^^

271.

Nom.

^T^^.

n.,

^^T^Tj voc. o"^.

sing.

used only in the strong and

is

'day',

weakest cases, the middle, with the nom.


or

^n^-

Thus

N.A.V.

^fT

L.

-^^f^ or

from

^f^ or

(^)

^fj

of them have only

weak

^fW

or

>^^^

The

^T^.

or

^f I^

adjectives formed

in
and a
^ll^
from
the
middle
a
while others distinguish
in
^5Jt^
^?J^;

weakest stem

(^

in

or

^,

two stem-forms: a strong

before which the

(h

into %" or

^.

is

this sort are as

follows

contracted with a pre-

The fem.

from the weakest (or weak) stem; thus,


stems of

^irf^

^g^

with prepositions and other words are quite irregular.

in

1[

^^^

Plural.

^r^t^

Some

ceding

coming from

Dual.

Compounds with

this root

sing.,

Singular.

272.

Fem.

fqu^.

made with

is

The

principal

104

Lesson

XXV.
Middle.

Strong.
*

Tf7^

forward', 'eastward'

^^X^
*

^T^^

(weakest).

HTW

'downward'

^TT^

northward'

>^<^^

q^j^'backward'/westward'
low'
tT^

Weak

TT^W

'

^;^^

'following'

f?I^W 'going

horizontally'

fc!^^

Vocabulary XXV.

Verbs;

TR[ +

'^^I'l, (astamgdcchati)

set (lit'ly

down,

"go home"

^^

(udgdcchati) rise.

go i^T^ (sprhdyati) desire

(dat.).

used of the heavenly bodies).

^^ m.,

Subst.:

^1^1^

n.,

weight; dignity.

that
^inif^ n.,

which

lives,

rl^'ftr^f., n. pr., a city (Taxila)

"ftif m., lion.

"^T^T

Adj.:

71,

pr., a god, Tvastar.

n.,

Baroch (a holy place

in India).

^^i|; m.,

n.,

young;

"f^XJloR m., ripening;

f^^^H,
f.

as n,

stood;

immovable.

three-headed.

^T>

(part, of

^^)

bitten.

'^RT'ftl'^^ forest-dwelling.
f.

^^fH'

f%^[T^ knowing, wise, learned.

recompense.

inserted, irregularly, in

'

irregular

^'^Tj learned, studied.

flf^^T^ having

^j

m., Indra.

4<V{c|t^

f-,

subst, the

assembly.

f'5

mp;^

bathing, bath.

m., gazelle.

^IV^,

animal.
f^f^j^ m., n.,

MIXM^

n.,

ffx:T!r

in India.

t^T^ m.,

pains, trouble.

(fWT^+^T^).

weakest forms only.

XXV. XXVI.

Lesson

105

Exercise XXV.

f%^5P5rr

^w% ^^ f%^ ^^

^^"^ V^ ^f^^T^^TTR

^^^Fl
12.

^^

II

13.

dispute.

15.

17.

Great
In

^^

ii

fl[^Tf?T:

^T^^T-

II

Vrtra was killed (^^, cans, pass.) by Maghavan and the

Maruts.

16.

^% in?

Young women sang a


Sarama

called in

is

song.

14.

Two

learned Brahmans

theRigveda the dog

(/.)

of the gods.

forests are found in the west (expr. as pred., nom. pi.),

the

the

let

assembly

best

among

the

learned

teach

(^TT-f^^) the law. 18. Those who have committed evil deeds
must stand by day (ace.) and sit by night. 19. Glory was attained
by the young warrior.

Turned toward

20.

one reverence the gods; the east (Hlxfl)


the gods.

21.

23.

the quarter
of
(f^pTT)

is

Day by day one must worship

gazelle has been killed by dogs.

the east (nom. sing.) let

The

(tf^

the sun.

22.

The

lion is king of forest-

dwelling animals.

Lesson XXVl.
Some
273.

274.

msfj
1.

f.,

^f^

Irregular Substantives.

mother
*

m.,

'
:

voc. sing. '^JSf.

friend': sing.

^^r^rr* tlat. ^rir, abl.-gen.

nom.

^^,

^1^, loc. ^R^ft,

voc.

ace. f|<^l^l{^, inst.

^;

du. tl<5Hfl,

106

XXVI.

Lesson

^f^^l^, ^^"\^;
^f^.

the rest like

'husband',

2. X|f7T

ace.

^^<^,

instr.

irfefH^;

declined regularly (like ^rf^)

is

m.,

and when meaning

in composition,
it

nom. ^^T^ra;,

pi.

master'; when meaning

*lord,

follows ^rfe in the following forms: inst. sing, xraix,

loc. "qisft.
dat. "q^, abl.-gen.
XJcg^,

The neuter stems "^T^^^ eye',

275.

bone'

'

'^I^VJ^'I^

;5[^'q^ 'thigh', form only the weakest cases; thus,


^^r^yfif or ^f^!^,

etc.

the rest of the inflection

responding stems in ^; thus, nom. sing, "^rf^


276.

^T^

1.

is

^V^

curds

',

-^l^rTSfT, q[^^7
made from cor-

etc.

'goddess of fortune', makes nom. sing. ^T^^t^-

f')

"5^f., 'woman', follows a mixed declension; thus, nom. sing,

2.

fm^K o^ ^^ instr. f^^, dat.f^, abl.-gen. f^^^TP^,


f^^rm:; du. 1w^, ^Vit^, t^^ft^; pi- nom- f^^^,

1^,

ace.

loc.

^^,

f^RJ^

or

277.

1S(\

ace.

1.

^^^'

^f^,

gen. "^XTT^, loc.

^^,

etc.

'water', only pL;

f.,

thus, nom. "^"R^,

V;

fore

instr.

ace.

W^'

"^T^,
2.

gen. ^TJTT'l.

its final is

f^^

changed

to

f.,*

be-

dat.-abl.

instr.

"^f^^,
'sky', makes nom.

^^^; the endings are the


normal ones, but the root becomes ^ before consonant-endings:
thus, ace. sing. f^^T^, nom.-acc. pl. f^^, instr. ^rf^T^- Not

sing.

du.

all the eases are

?IT^,

pl-

(sometimes)

found in use.

3.

IJ^^^, x:T^etc.;

sing. -^J^,

TT"^^ (nom, and ace), Tjfif^


278.

1.

"^R^f

or

"^JR^f

Stem

sing.

makes

all

"^R^"R^,

voc.

f.),

'wealth':

TJ^T^, TT^ft^J

pl-

etc.

m., (from

"^T^[,.

m. (rarely

du. "^T^^,

^R^ + ^^

i.e.) 'ox': strong stem '^^ri^Tf, mid.

nom.

X^

2.

'

cart-drawing',

"^R^^, weakest "^SR^^;

The stem

xr81^^

the strong cases, with irregular nom. sing.

m., 'road',

M^l^; the

corresponding middle eases are made from Xjf^, and the weakest

from

T?^;

thus,

ace.

sing.

XJ^TS^i^, dat.

T^%,

In the older language oftener masculine.

ace.

pl.

XJ^^,

Lesson XXVI.
[The stems

dat. "C?f%n^^.

^)!|t^

107

m., 'stirring-stick', and

^w^i^

m., an epithet of Indra, are said to follow XJ^i^.]

The stem

279.

stem

is

g^^rr,

is

The

very irregular.

strong

XjTft^, mid. g?^, weakest tq^. Thus, sing. XWTl,, "^TT^n^,


voc.

etc.,

g?^, gf^^

"^^

and, in

*age',

instr.

pi-

jtI^to:,

'foot',

^T;^

substituted in the

f.;

or

^"^T

thus,

nom.-voc.-acc. of any

being supplied from

becomes

TH^

in

^^^

n.

strong cases;

middle cases also; thus, nom. sing.


tfT^,

in the

tj^,

f^^^

m.,

may be

make

does not

in composition), these

compounds,

Tdl^jfi, Pl-

g^^;

gr^T^T;,

endings forms from

The stem Xf^

XJT^^?

^JT^J f*?

'heart',

n.,

number (except
282.

j^^^,

etc.,

cases with vowel

281.

du.

g?T^;

g^.
For the stem

280.

ace.

'man',

"q;^ m.,

From

etc.

i^str. pi.

t^^

'biped', ace. sing, f^-

fl[xnfl^. [The stem XJT^

m., 'foot',

has the complete declension of -stems.]


283.

becomes
and

its

root ^^ *slay', as final

in

nom.

and loses

sing.,

member

its

of a compound,

in the

J^

middle cases

"^ in the weakest cases (but only optionally in loc. sing.).

Further,

The

thus,

when

^^^i^^m.,

ace. ofl!!?^*, instr.

du. ^IJTfTlft,

284.

^ in

is lost,

'killing a

WW^

of^'m:

personifications

of the

otherwise do not lengthen the

In

make

^;

compound words, an

^^f^

loc.

nom. ofTir^,

m., n. pr.,

sun),

^^

reverts to

Brahman', makes nom.

<^tc.,

etc.; pi.

The stems T(W^

contact with

or

thus,

nom.

nom.

original

'^^^Tj

voc.

o^^;

n. pr,

(both

o^^.

and -^tf+in,
,the

sing.

o^^fxjf,

ace.

its

ni.,

sing,

'^^1, ace.

altering cause in one

in

in^

but
instr.

"gnElT![l^,

member some-

But a
times lingualizes a i^ of the next following member.
guttural or labial in direct combination with i^ sometimes prevents
the combination, as in the instr. ^!^^.

Lesson XXVI.

108

Vocabulary XXVI.
fT^ i^VPy^^O ^^ pleased or satis-

Verbs:

^ move;

in cans, (arpdyati) send;

put; hand over, give.

1^^ (gUhati)

cans.

in

fied, satisfy

^fH^

+ f%

or satiate oneself.

(vildpati) complain.

(guhdyaW)

hide away, conceal.

ITTT^

Subst.:

W^^^

^cT

('^rf^) n., eye.

^^^ m., faithfulness.

^^rTT

n., notice,

^Vi|^^ (weakest

a Vedic

thought, mind.

V^) ^-i n.pr.

fiT^rT,

saint.

(part, of f^T-^^^),

^T

f.

ordained, fixed, permanent.

f^,

f.

o"^, beneficent, gracious,

blessed.

protection.

four-footed, quadruped.

^ft"^^

f|[tl^ m., biped.

III? m., foot.

l|T^f n

(homo).

vow, obligation, duty.

grnJF fv ^T, one-eyed.

divinity, deity.

f.,

n.,

man

Adj.:

^^RX[ ^-i demon.

f^^T

ni.,

Exercise XXVI.

xn^ %^

TT^T^

c^M

^T^^

^TTJT^^c^^T

^ \^ Q.
^^^^^f?r
I

WcPFi:

g^rrf

^^ ^fHT^

"^^^^fn^^fi

w^f^wr^^

f^nJTff

^8

II

ftr^T% trsniRi:

1^ g^pxTt WW ^"nrf^

^w^rt

^^

^-

%^ 17^ HTP^I^T ^fTJ|^< % TT^T


^ jf^: ^f ^TT^^'^T^T ^ f g^^^m'f
ttS
^f^: xrr^ ^T^nrm ^^fK^iJz mo

H^

Ti%Tn^T

'r f^rf^?^n?rf7T

MR ^t: ftm^ftr^ ^ ^rtctt ^ t^ch^


^^T^ ^^ ^^^ *^^ ^^"^ '^ ^w^cr ^ ^

f^

II

'

^^

^N f?rHf^: fw^: ^m^TrRi%^ f^l ^r^^

ii

^nm^TRt
^rrw

ff^TWR%^-

<^^

ii

Lesson

The meeting

18.

road.

In the

19.

and Savitar.
deities in
21.

Be

view
a

Water

Rik

gracious,

is,

Veda they

20.

the

of the

(use

is

the

24.

brought (use ^T-'ft?

The Maruts

285.

The Asura was

Who knows

caus.,

the

formulas.

The

seers,

and make
^^^,

slain

by Maghavan

the wind's path (pass.)?

curds.

from our

26.

Have

friend's house,

XXVH.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

pronouns ^^RTR^ and

and

pi.)

22.

among

are Maghavan's friends.

made up with

^1=[[

pass.)

sacrificial

that fire is to be found in the water (use

Lesson

as

in

Mother, satisfy (TT^ cans.) the child with

food

are

named (^l!!^,

Qiva, to biped and quadruped.

23.

place on the

sun Ptisan, Mitra(?w.), Aryaman,

"^g^^) and

direct statement with ^[f?f).

27.

109

men and women took

call the

also

with a bone of Dadhyanc.


25.

XXVI. XXVH.

^T^^

Two

demonstrative-declensions

particular irregularity: they are those of the

^^

(for

which the natives give the stem-forms

respectively).

The

first is

a more indefinite de-

monstrative: 'this' or *that'; the other signifies especially the re-

moter

relation.

Lesson XXVII.

10

Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing. ^[^J^, du. ^[^,


is

like the masculine.

287.

^m(^^):

pi.

^TTlf'T; the rest

Lesson XXVII.
has no passive, but only an indefinite past, sense; thus,

ticiple

This participle

290.

^W,

often used as an adjective.

is

'be', or ^"

^frm "^n^ ftfR^ld*^ "hy me a

tion, particularly

'

when made from

^ g^^

is

gone";

The neuter

'

'

"^^Vl.

>

is
'

^'^^^

>

has a present significa-

it

neuter verbs

thus,

f^cf (from

often 'standing'.

^T)

1.

Certain roots in

be

The

and

^STT^

f^

f%

'swell',

^^; f%^

number of
i^^

'wither',

^TT;

'cut', vrT-

f-roots;,

(which becomes

in Sf

*bend',

'fear',

roots,

before ^):

Some few

or ^rfXTT;

^;

f^^.

which before

T:

before the

!{

^R^^

2cfi

T);

J(m

'sink',

Also one or two others

^11 'attach', ^f^; sf^^

some of them very common,

^,

^W; (f^ ^^

t^

verbs

make double forms;

in

f^T^IWO

1?

f^^

^^

^^^"^

?5

'rejoice';

^T^

speak';

thus,

c^

'hasten',

'acquire', f^t^ or f^rT-

Commonest exceptions: ?5fTf^ ^rom

from

f^^.*

292.

"?'

^J

or

'^W^.

(which becomes

5^

"^^^f;

^ (so-called

which exhibit a guttural before the

'cut',

f^*T;

TZfT

or ^X^, as in the pres. pass.; thus,

^^; 1^^

break',

^'^ 'be sick',

4.

by a number

and w- vowels; thus,

or

few roots ending

^^^

in

'^^; "^

roots in variable

'cut up',

suffix .f is taken

fT 'abandon',

the suffix becomes

thus,

The

fat', TJ^if;

'destroy',

3.

[TJ[].

Thus:

ift 'swell,

2.

A. With suffix

291.

of roots.

f^

Sometimes

actionis.

"he

7[ff:

was written".

letter

frequently used as a substantive ; thus, <^tIH

and also as nomen

be supplied; thus,

to

is

Very com-

when some form

supplies the place of a finite verb,

it

monly, also,

TTcT,

trf^fcf, 'fallen'.

'gone', ^fT, 'been';

of

Ill

fijfrf'fl

\f^

from

f^^

?Tfi[

from

*eat'

t^

'know'.

?f tT

'weep';

from

^rf^

Lesson XXVII.

112

Vocabulary XXVII.

"Ir^

2cR

Terbs:

^Ip^ (hhaksdyati)

^^^

"^3^ (upeksate) neglect.

+ f^

(vikirdti) scatter.

+ "^^

3|(iji|

-f

T^

^3^

+ ^R"

in cans, (uccdrdyati)

(avatdrati) descend.

or

despise.

(jndjjatt) sink.

cans,

in

"g^

(yojdyati)

^l[ Qdgati) attach; hang,

emerge, come

out.

yoke,

(jpy^y<^t^)

become stout

cling,

adhere.

^^
"^T

^5^ enjoy.

harness.

^'ff (uttdrati)

"qt or

2^11^

pronounce, say.
ff

break.

avagandyati) ^ + xrf^ {'parihhdvati)


(den.

despise.

^^

eat.

(sidati) sit,

settle

down; be

overcome, exhausted.

fat.

Subst.:

f^<^]'^ m., wedding, marriage.

^fj^iff m. du.,

7107/1.

m.

^|t||4^

the

pr.,

A9vins (the Indian Aiog

xovpoi).

"walk and con-

versation"; conduct of

ob-

life,

servance.

^fUf

9|^t|^

f^

^^f^

n.,

^TW m.,

life

w. pr.,

'4^|x4^

of holiness,

i.

e.

a Vedic personage.

sweet drink.

pearl.

m., demon.

^rn^ m.,

n.,

plough.

-) chain, garland.

(part, of

2f^) reduced, de-

cayed; ruined.

meal-time, meal.

'4^^l4c^ m.,
f-,

m.,

^^

hunger.
n.

bed.

f.,

Adj.:

a mountain.

religious studentship.

^irr

^I^Srr

^TT

Di., n. pr.

f.,

in., illness.

IJ^^J^ m., car.

n., debt.

%^rRr

^V^

^nt^

acquisition, gain.

ff^^

t3^

f. oisTTj

gi'eat,

(part, of

strong, violent.

ift) fat.

9(^xj|(\*t, Studying sacred know-

ledge;

as m. subst.,

Brahman

student.

i|^

(part.)

abandoned; wanting

and so sometimes w.

in

'without'.

instr.,

Lesson XXVII. XXVIII.

113

Exercise XXVII.

^^Rftmif^ ^^J^mt^

II

^^ 5^wt

rf?fN

ffHT^^'fl ^-

i<^ II

Have medicine given quickly

12.

nom.) to these sick persons.

which Qiva dwells.

14.

13.

This

is

16.

The

By

In order to attain (^T*Ti

flowers in the garlands of these

these jewels.

<^^-)

me

praised

women

The

19.

Here comes

learned

(pass, part.) the queen.

on the neck of

this

20.

demon.

not committed by persons reduced in fortune'?


filled

with

I.

**
Perry,

the plough.
the

water.

chain of pearls
21.

22.

What

sin

This garden

is
is

XXYIIL

Past Passive Participle, cont'd. B. With suffix

Without union-vowel ^.

* "I

cans.).

withered.

men and women.

Lesson
293.

and

by us, we were delighted with

The peasant yoked two fat oxen to


Brahman emerged (pass, part.) from

(pass, part.)

this

(Tf^

are

17.

18.

hung

who was

that king,

in

that mountain Kailasa, on

that other world (gen.) the priest offered sacrifice for


15.

^^,

(use pass. part, of

am

Much more commonly

<T.

this parti-

so-and-so; N. or M."

Translate the pronoun-forms by 'here', and


Sanskrit Primer.

cf.

225.

114

Lesson XXVIII.

made by adding

ciple is

from

f^

llfT;

from

the suffix

from f^t(^; ^?T from

f^^

fgj;

to the bare root;

cj

thus,

^JcT

^ (or

^);

^.

HtI from

root end in a consonant other than

If the

294.

g?,

f|^,

Final '^ and

1.

from

g^^;

final 11

and
to

^^
^

ITW makes

1.

comes

^^

thus,

torical value,

^^ fi'om

from

is

The

^^.

original

^ir^;

^^

b.

thus,

^^

from

TTlg

"5^^;

^"^;

in ^Rtt

Wl>

usually has

^^,

form ^, before

^^

thus,

from

from TT^; but "^^ from

the

com-

f^,

where

represents

^^

weakest form,

there

system a distinction of strong and

weak

penultimate nasal

J{\ 'sing',

fl<! from

his-

if

rf

is

from

the

in
e.

from IT^,
'^S^y XT^

from

to

c^

its

f!^.

same abbreviation here;

from

be-

f[^

f^J^ from f^^; "^3^ from


c.

g.,

3.

TJ^ from

^put' (with

its

dropped;
(or

weak forms

(the

Final

^"^f from

e. g.,

from

^^); IJ^

>35^ from

^gfrom^x^^, Bf^ from^^; ^'Sffrom'^y^

f^^

contrary

represents original

W^'

Roots which are abbreviated

suffer the

'^'5

and the following

are lengthened

^J^ from

forms also

root before

I.

^)

Where

in the verbal

Thus:

^ ^

^ combines with

from
f^^, ^[^

makes

any where

forms.

2.

>

The

295.
is

?^

root

^^

from

^3[^

^^ fi'om ^W

^V,

Sometimes

f^- '^ forms ^^.


bination

and

^^

TT^^, rf^.

which short vowels (except

^"f,

and f{W

radical

after

treated in various ways, according to

is

a.

as also

'^^ from '^^; t^'S from

becomes ^, and

Final 1^

4.

^^

and

tflg;

Final

3.

thus,

made from

T^'2 are

from "ftp^;
^"^

f%"3f

thus,

after which,

If^,

becomes Z;

f^

^;

W^^'

becomes

Final

2.

become

If^

from

^,

"q[^,

the ordinary rules of euphonic combination apply, as follows

^^,

Tif^.

of the perfect
^"^^

from ^\^

same form from^'q

is

IXTT 'drink'; to

weakened

in

to

);

f^rf from

also changed to ^), fiTcf from

Lesson XXVIII.
irr 'measure', and a few others.

T<T (from im^

TrT,

'^STcf,

Tffj

fHT,

iITT,

^ff, ^71 (from

from

^cT from

^7^;

More

296.

Some

1.

roots in "^n^

root

The

^^).

lost

is

after

final

^^

in

in ^(T,

cases are f^"^

Isolated

5.

etc.).

'play'.

make

participles

^^, 111^, Wl'^, from

and ^n^ make ^f rf

2. ^fi^^, "^t^,

The

7^

irregular are the following:

^Tfr, "^T^, rTT^,

3.

final

and likewise

etc.);

"^(^

^^^

4.

115

in UT^rT;

thus,

efiT^iT,

oR?^ etc.

etc.

'give', forms ^tT (from the derivative form

1^,

contracted form

tI is widely found in composition,

especially with prepositions; thus, "JT^rf or ITtT, f^T^rT or ^ftrfj etc.

297.

form fy^i

The

With union- vowel ^.

II.

suffix with ^,

or in the

regularly used with the derivative verb-stems in se-

^s

condary conjugation, also often with roots of derivative character

f^^,

(like

f^^), and not infrequently with

When

298.

^TT

added to causative and denominative verb-

is

stems the syllables "^"^ are dropped

TW^.

TRUcT;

rf^

rnf^cf;

TrfTrT; f^, caus. ^fi-?rf?r,


299.

^,

thus,

caus.

^X,

pass. part. TTtfTf^j

cans. pass. part.

Tn'^;^Tf?T,

^rrfTfcT.

roots taking fTf

the original

Among

original roots.

may

be noticed the

following:
XR[^

'fair,

trfflTr;

^gftm;

^xr^ 'thirst',

^f^rf.

TT^

300.

makes

Y;

^^cf;

thus,

^ftrr;

^^

t%^,,

f^rf^cT;

"gfiBfrT;

few roots form

the auxiliary
301.

W^,

^dwell',

t^,

^ftff; "g^,

tf^cT; ^^,

Mie' makes ^f^IcT-

this participle either

with or without

TTrl and TTf^ff from ^^.

The grammarians reckon

as participles of the n-formation

a few derivative adjectives, coming from roots which do not

a regular participle; such are


gard'

(W\); Xf^

^J^

'ripe' (tp^);

'burnt' (^^T);

Tf^

'dry'

^IJ

(^);

make

'thin', 'hag-

JR^ 'expanded'

(5F^>
8

116

Lesson XXVIII.

cR^

302. Past Active Participle in

past pass. part,

is

^^^).

(or

made, by adding the possessive

From

suffix

i^^

(f.

a secondary derivative having the meaning and construction

"^fft),

of a pertect active participle

thus, oh'dc(*t^,

"JTRt^W^*^'

303. This participle is almost always used predicatively, and

generally without expressed copula,

sonal perfect-form.

me";

Thus, J{j

with copula,

or,

into great misery".


intransitives

thus,

i.

chP^^

with the value of a per*

e.,

" no one has seen

SII1^

^IH^^^HJ "thou

^^r^^

(fem.) hast

come

This participle comes to be made even from

^TcfWcft

"she has gone".

Vocabulary XXVIII.
f{^(muhyati) be confused or dazed

Verbs:
cf

+ iy

de-

in cans, (prdtdrayati)

^V^ + Wl

ceive.

r^-{-'^[T{^(samndhyati) equip oneself.

t^-"^in

Vi^-\-

or stupid.

caus. (vyapaddyati)

kill.

enter.
"^f^

*
ijiiji

\u

(pdldyate)

"ftpr

^5Irf

T^TT^

^^
JfT

X^^

m., end

in loc.^ at last.

n., n. pr.,

n.,

behavior,

^sr^

remain over, survive.

m., citizen.

R m.,

jackal.

^fifefi m., soldier.

%f^

life.

XI"^"^Y^T^ m., nom. pr.


*

irraT^ m., palace.

^J|

cave.

f-,

caus. (pravartdyati)

"q^wf m., Greek, barbarian.

Delhi.

m., ass.

^fl^cT

in

^ + "^m bestrew.

Tfi^+^n^ honor.

Snbst.

+K

continue.

flee.

enjoy, eat.

2^J^

besiege.

^^ + IT (prardhati) grow up.


f^^ + IT {pravigdti) penetrate,

juasf-root from

n.,

army.

^f^TT. M., elephant.

'go'

XJ"^ 'away'.

XXIX.

Lesson XXVIII.

f%J^

Adj.!

^^^

(comp.)

sing, as adv.:

In

more.

(part,

117
from

f%^)

affectio-

nate.

neut.

'

mostly.

Exercise XXVIII.

fw^TT^^fe^h^ T?^s^

f^^

(abl.)

wrt:

^^^^m^ff ^: ^i ?Tf^^ ^wi^m^

Trf^

ii

(In the following render


10.

Many

^TWT^ftwr-gfH: ^T^rftr

^^^^HlT^fM ^flTT^ T^IT^Tct^^ ^f

^ifrirr:
^ftcr: tfgreiftr^

into the city.

The

Yavanas

14.

city

(pass.).

("f ^T
12.

13.

fled

"^ft-

The Ya-

Finally the

proving victorious (past act. part.), entered the city by

The young and

women made

slaves

old

men were mostly murdered;

the

the great possessions of the citizens plundered,

the palaces and houses burnt with

has

some who survived

themselves for battle.

vanas approached and besieged the

force.

by participles.)

gates of the city were shut fast

f^rrn); the citizens equipped

ii

all finite verbs

of the soldiers were killed


11.

fif-

fire.

15.

The end

of Pj*thviraja

been described by the Yavanas, and his previous

life

sung

by the poet Canda.

Lesson XXIX.
304. Gerund, or Absolutive.

Sanskrit by one of the suffixes

The gerund

^^

and

Tf.

is

made

in classical

118

To uncompounded

305. A. "^.

usually added directly to the

It is

vowel

participle in

cT

wf.

^^T; t^Wr

1.

11' ^T

^^

wf

from

^W

^;j^,

fifc^T or

cftl^),

XW^

from

to the

form

treated as before

generally reject

Some

from

verbs

fl^'

^^RT from

^Bf^,

^l^
^^^

from

"q (cf.
igT^)

295,

(cf.

2),

"^^

f^ from
from

^.

^^cf), ^ftWT from TJ^

(cf.

make

both forms; thus, from T^i^ either

^-

(cf.

either

cTT^f^^;

Roots

'5EJ.

'^Wt,
and from

^^ from J^^, f^i^ from 2f^

?^fT?wr or ^rf'^^T-

307. Causatives and denominatives in

308. B.

ffcT)

from

TT^T; from VfT^

^, ^Tf^^;

(cf.

^WT,

f^f^Tfrom if^^'know', ^f%^^ from

i;:

^f^^T

'dwell',

306.

(cf.

^T^T

With inserted

from

from ^n^,

^f^^ from
2.

and

is

1^ 'place'
from ITT;
^^T
^),

ff^T

(cf.

^^ ^^T
(ft^ from ^

from

'

find

^^.

closely agrees with that of the

root-consonant

final

suffix

but sometimes with the

root,

Without inserted ^: ^T^T, f^WT)

from ^TT*

^T^T from ^T

g^T

added the

^^.

Examples.

'

is

to the use of ^,

formation

this

it,

or

roots

Roots which make the past pass. part, in

before

IT,

With regard

interposed.

of root before

cf.

XXIX.

Lesson

^"^ make ^f%J^T

^TT^rfTT,

thus,

^mf^T^T.

composition with prepositions (or some-

in

times with elements of other kinds, as adverbs or nouns) take the


suffix Zf, before

which

a short vowel adds

309.

form

this

is

never inserted.

before ^.

root which ends in

Thus, trfTW^^,

^T^^^;

Roots in ^1^ and ^^ whose pass. part,


gerund

(not an-roots)
able

c(^

in

may

'^^;

thus,

o^TW^

^^'

unaltered; thus, "^ToTT^'

thus, <ft^, xnj.

Some

roots

f^-

ends in ^cf

But such aw-roots

preserve the nasal; thus, ^^IfKr.

^ becomes %^ or ^7[;

Final change-

Final "^J remains

show a weak form before

Lesson XXIX.

from TT-^^; ^ir^^, ^^^pT; ift^ (TT-^^)


from
from
^-^^;
f^-^^.
310. Causals and denominatives in
reject those syllables

this suffix;

119

thus,

^H

^^

w^;

TTTK^fir,

thus,

C^-"^),

^n^-

encloses short

But

^ which

T\^v^; ^sf^^rm; ^^nm^sr^ft

3TrrrgT;

if
is

the gerund of the cans,

the root ends in a single consonant and

not lengthened in the causative, then

ends in ^IT^, to distinguish

gerund of the simple verb; thus,

"^^(^[-TfT^,

it

from the

ger. "^^^JliZJ; cans. '^^-

^nr^rRf, ger. -^^^^r^.

The gerund

311.

or absolutive

junct to the subject of a clause.

It

denotes an action accompanying

or (usually) preceding that which


clause.

(In

the

later

language

it

used generally as logical ad-

is

is signified
is

by the verb of the

not always confined to the

grammatical subject of the clause as an adjunct.)

It

has thus vir-

tually the value of an indeclinable participle, present or past, qual-

ifying the actor

whose action

Thus, fT^ ^"RjT^

it

describes.

^^^ ^^T ^TWr ^^ 'm:

"

having heard

having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his

this,

own house ".*


312.

The gerunds

of

some verbs have not much more than

prepositional value; thus, ^(<^|i| 'having taken', i.e. 'with', like

Greek

313.

thus,

'

'

^^TT having released', i.e. without', except'.


Before all gerunds may be used the privative ''351^ or ^;

"Ka^wv,

'i'/^Mv;

^f^fo^^

" without
having received";

'4|il^'(4

"without having

summoned."
Vocabulary XXIX.

Verbs:

"^^ +

f'f (nydsyati)

entrust

(to

^"R.
"^[

acquire, attain, reach.

3|

go forth

die.

one's care).

Of

course the absolutivcs are often best rendered by relative

clauses, or even by clauses coordinate with the principal clause.

120
fi

Lesson
the head,

"^rf^ put at

ap- gf^ m., victory.

point as ruler over (Zoc).

^^

+ ^

(pracdlati)

move

^^g^T
on,

march.

f^^

^
ft"

take.

W^

+ ^J^-"^! lay or place on.

+ f'f^

end, determine, settle.

leave one's

to

^Tf

ofifq m.,

^f\i^

^f^fT

^TH

disagreeable.

responsible, trustworthy.

du., both.

fif^,

m., plan, design.

f.

^'^j

^,

f.

7T^^ on

bringing.

fire.

Adj.:

^^,

"^"W

bridge, dike.

na.,

^^

Subst.:

^f^lTT^

become a

ascetic.

wandering

means, device.

;^TT^W^ (nom. ^J^) m.,

wander forth

home

n.,

^f^T't^m., n.pr., a monkey-king.

^^ + f% (vibhdjatif -te) distribute.


"^^ ^Ti(jpravrdjat{)

Ceylon.

m., hero.

^fT

(nirndyati) bring to an

n. pr.f

f.,

^T^5T

Cf. 312.

misfortune.

m., frog.

^^7

fall.

{cydvate) totter,

f.,

XC^ m., wing,' sidej party.

HoR

{cintdyati) consider.

^T + IffT

XXIX.

monkey.

little,

small.

daily, regular.

the head.

Prepos.:
irfTT {postpos.y with ace.) against.

m., elephant.

Exercise XXIX.

fcT^T^

f <^

^'T

^Twr

Ti^^^

^i^r:

^^-

Lesson

XXIX. XXX.

121

U. After the king had conquered the vassals of

the western

lands he marched (pass, part.) against the eastern vassals.

money and gave

merchants, in joy (pass, part), took the


to the king (use ger.^

and pass,

The

the jewels

"After adoring the gods

13.

constr.).

and placing fagots on the

at twilight,

12.

fire,

bring water from the

cistern": thus having spoken, the teacher seated himself (25ss. part.)

on the mat.

14.

The hero fought

(part.) great glory

man, abandoning
16.

When

by

his

the victory over

with his enemies and gained

them

own (pZ.), became an

15.

(gen.).

ascetic (jf-^^^

The Brahpass. part.).

the merchant had imparted


his plan to
(f%-f^Q[, cans.)

him

the servant, he sent

into the village.

house had money brought


18.

(ger.)

(ger.)

and

17.

The master

distributed

it

to

of the

the poor.

Let not kings decide law-suits without hearing the arguments


of both sides.

(cflxj^)

fights

19.

Whoever

despises powerful foes, and

with them without considering the means to victory (gen.\


20.

perishes.

Whoever becomes an

ascetic without having studied

the Veda, attains (ger.) not salvation, hut falls into hell (loc).

Lesson
314.

The

Inflnitiye*

ending of which

is

gi^

later

XXX.

language has a single

(or ^H*{^).

The

infinitive, the

root takes guna,

when

possible.
315.
1.

The ending

To

almost

and changeable

2.

To

TTF^ is

all

^.

added directly:

roots ending in vowels,

except those in

Thus, V\, TT^i^;

<^M*i; f^, ^g^l;

number of roots ending

^,

in

consonants.

As

root-

122

XXX.

Lesson

oR, c(,

finals,

'curse',

"l^.

TRf'H'l.;

according

3^^

the

to

and

remain unchanged before TTT^; thus, ^ip,

dwell',

rules

Other

^^^.
in

given

finals

XXVIII

Lesson

are changed

vq;, ^^Ti;

Final

'know',

m\,

becomes

The ending

roots in final long


roots;

and

?[_,

with

g^

Thus,

^^g^; fw^

^l^, ^ngnc-

form ^g?^) is talien by


with a few other vowel-

(in the
"gf^,

the majority of roots in consonants; and by verbs of the

by

317.

Tf.

^^r^*; f\,

thus, ^ST^,

w^;

and the root

Thus,

secondary conjugations.

tf^g^;

final 1^,

%^g;;R; (also ^f^gi^:);

316.

^,

mwK', j^, ?:^*j

the con-

for

version of final consonants before the participial suffix

^^

^f^g'i; jf

Causatives and

^f%?pi:;

^g^

(cf.

denominatives in

^,

UlRlJ*i5

ti^o

loi).

^^

have ^fi|HI^, the

root being treated as in the present; thus, 'g^,


^''(^f^rH^; cR^

318.

thus,

Some

^W^,

319.

roots in consonants insert or reject

^iMg^

The

or

^T^?^**. The

rules for the use of

with those governing

its

root

^^

at pleasure;

makes ^If^rm;.

in the infinitive agree


closely

use in the formation of the s-future and

of the nomen agentis iu


g.
320.

Uses of the infinitive.

The

chief use of the infinitive

is

as equivalent to an accusative, as the object of a verb,


especially

of the verbs

"^t^

'be able', and

The increments

of

'be worthy', 'have the right

are sometimes '^ and

^"^ and ^rr^; especially where a


is

^^

difficult

"^

instead of

combination of consonants

thus avoided.
In all the tense-systems, and in derivation, the root

exhibits often the vrddhi instead of the


^wwa-strengthening.

W^

XXX.

Lesson
or power'; thus,

oR^f^

"he

'Sl^tfiT

cR'TTT* *'^^ prince ought to hear it".

123
able to tell";

is

"^^

^g^rffTf

often thus used with

is

the infinitive to express a respectful request or entreaty, as in the


last

The

-example.

infinitive is

motion, and with those meaning

and the

also often

found with verbs of

like.

But often the

321.

infinitive

has a case-value not accusative.

Thus, a dative value: *{^f?r ^"^f^IT^?^ "there

^TJ^

"for eating"; a genitive value:

Even a

'know',

desire', *hope', 'notice',

construction as nominative

is

food to eat"

i.

e.

"capable of going".

^f!3=^

not unknown.

is

322. In certain connections the infinitive has a ^wasi-passive


force.

"
Thus, ^(f ^ \Ji^' "begun to be made

not

to be

fit

heard."

passive forms of

but

"c^TW T

^^;

1[^^ "he

This

is

thus,

^in

"

^<T ^ ^5?T%

it is

especially frequent along with the


f

l|^f?f "he cannot abandon",

cannot be abandoned"; ifl^


IC^STTf^WT^^'l^

"the two men can be brought hither."


323. Future Passive Participle, or Grerundive,

mostly secondary, have

ative adjectives,

acquired a value quite

like that of the Latin gerundive; thus, effn? (from

suffixes are three:

comes

'Q[;

from

thus,

a.

rf^/cZ/it-strengthening;

Before this suffix

^j"^^; ^,

times remain unchanged,

^, ^T^.

c.

of

The

TJ to

andlj often, and

^Sfg^

and

^31;

"^

^^(^),

and of

final

vowels some-

always, are treated before

%^

and aR2J; from

from ^, ^T^; from

^^ (^), ^^

original value of this suffix

inr^

ordinary

sometimes have the guna or even the

In a few instances, a short

the suffix; thus,

The

final radical iSfJ be-

Other

b.

if^.

ZT as before a vowel; thus, from f^,

and ^Z^; from ^,

'to be done',

^, Tf^, and ^n^.

A. Suffix ^.*

324.

^)

be made from every verb.

They may

/aciendus.

Certain deriv-

to
"^TSf^

before

(cR).

is ia.
it.

vowel adds
d.

^, ^^

\x, ^il^;

Medial

cT

from

before

remains

Hence the conversion

Lesson

124
unchanged in one
class;
e.

^qV^, ^tST-

assigned to

^.

in the present, but omit the syllables

^^;

^H^?^.
325. B.

from the

g,

is

This

Suffix rl^.

infinitival

noun

in

TT.

is

makes

thus, ^"^j

^t^.

a secondary adjective derivative

Hence, both as regards the form of

root and the use or omission of

the rules are the

^,

the formation of the infinitive; thus,

TT^

"^T^W
"^T-^R^
in
treated
as
and
are
denominatives
Causatives
"^sm

the defective root

and

^JW' 5^> ^^>


form "^^ (from

|;vS:f,

"SH^ makes ftj^.

root

^V )

^T^ (^)-

(^^),

sometimes have the ^fwna-strengthening; thus,

The

in another

lengthened

and f- vowels are sometimes unchanged,

w,

i,

is

JU^

but

^-^, if^,

medial

Initial or

and

class of words,

^,

thus,

XXX.

^|R^,

^^^,

same as

"^f^cT^,

for

Itfji'

(ift).

326.

C. Suffix

^ifV^

[^''Cft'^Er]-

radical vowels

Generally

will be found gunated before this suffix; causatives and denomin-

atives

in "^r^ are

syllables ^^RJ; thus,

327.

treated as in the present- system, without the

^ift^ (^), ^TRt^ (^), ^^Wt^

The gerundives

in

Tf^ are common

sive construction described in Lesson

purely future sense; thus, ^if

in the

(^),

^-

impersonal pas-

X, and not seldom have a

^^ ^f^^ ^f^cfc^J^ "with

that

thou shalt be happy".

Vocabulary XXX.

^T^ + ^^ (avagahate)

Verbs:

^^
(cf.

"^rn^

(drhati) have the right, etc.

320.)

+ ^^

|?+^XI-^T pay.
'RC + ^"PT (abhigdcchatt)
attend.

(ace).
c1;t^

finish, attain.

dive under

(tdpatif

intr.);

-te)

pain;

burn

(tr.

in pass.,

and

suffer,

do penance.
visit,

y^ + f^

arrange, ordain, order.

dance.
"iR^ (nftyati)

Lesson

W + IT
+

'^cT[

be mighty, able;
TT

(pravdrtate)

valere.

XXX.

continue, frnrrrf^'l. acceptably speaking.

^T^"^^ m., husbandman.

sacrifice.

heat;

self-torture.

^Tf^,

n.,

^TTTW

^i|^

n.,

f.

enough, very;

^T^HR^

Vedic melody, song;

enough

Samaveda.

w.

away with;

of,

instr.f

w,

dat,,

suitable for.
^'^t;?^ at pleasure.

Adj.:

<T^^5

subst.,

AdT.:

body, figure.

m., convention, company.

pi., the

o^^T, capable, able.

epithet of Brahma.

Tff n., dance, dancing.

^xr^

f.,

f%-VT) ordained.

^^Jiil self-existent; as m.

drama, play.

^ifTZcR n.,

(part, of

f^t%fT

song, singing.

n.,

destined or suitable for

^f^'^

Snbst.:

cR^

ft-uitful.

Xfi^r^c^

n.,

fat.

trs stout,

go on.

^cT

125

ot, young, delicate.

Exercise XXX.

^^^t:

^rrr

mm^^'TTi^^t 4c|'n^^: trij^^:

vrm tt^^^
(^Sentences with

gerundives),
to

see

that
after

12.

^^

( 322)

or.

q.

man must

strive to

life

(use

^^

with

visit

singing.

will be fruitful in the other

recta), a

either

Brahmacarin must not


hear

5^^in[Tf^ ir^S

must may be rendered

or to
(iT-t;;^) dancing

works

^^f%

13.

^r-

-^w

or with

any companies

Remembering

"thus thinking",

perform what

is

ordained.

126

Lesson

The maidens

14.

bind wreaths.

seated themselves (pass, part.) in the garden to

True

15.

16.

The daughters came

17.

How

bow

(pass, part.) to

You must become

18.

19.

177).
is

from misfortune.

friends are able to save

before their parents.

the delicate body of this fair one capable of enduring

is

penance?

XXX. XXXI.

You must

^^'^

(use

wind?

22.

letter.

21.

The gentlemen

cf.

Who

20.

^^nt)

(use

finished the Veda, he

Having

and

bring a boat to cross the river.

able to stop the mighty

are to read this

a scholar

went on

to study the other sciences.

Lesson XXXI.
328.

Numerals. Cardinals:

^TT

6,

7,

^^

igfs 8,

^^>^^i5,^^

14,

TT^^^

19, f^^f?T 20.

^f^^

f^^ci: SO, ^WTft^ci: 40,


fcT 80, "il^fff 90,

f^f^
329.

or

9,

HTl 100.

^t 2000,

TjoR i,

^^

10.

f^

2,

TJ^Vm.

21,

4,

^TTJ

TJ^T^

15, ift^i^ie,

TI^^fTT

5,

ii,

j^^nir,

^jf^l^

^T^

^?rFr^^i<9,

"^^R^^,
etc.;

fl^fi; or^[T^o,

4878,
330.

^O, -^ft go, ^^frl 70,

42, 62, 62,

^^o

72 and 92,

pre-

But note:

either

f^x >c
|

r-

93, either f^o or "^^"gc^T" etc.;

or ^aN<!=ll etc.

96

is

'Ef^^'RT-

There are other ways of expressing the numbers between

Thus:

position;

e. g.

common

^iTMirf?!,
"^arrTT

^^-

made by

the even tens are

4373, and

and 98, either

the tens.

not

11,

f|[^?I or ^ l[% 200. ^f^ 1000,


^rf^f^ or ^f^ 100 000.

The numbers between

not

12,

22, etc.

fixing the unit- number to the ten; thus, "Cl^f^^ff^ 26.

TL"^!^^,

XT^ S,

1.

By

the use of the adj. ^TT 'deficient', in

TJoRV^ff^^fTf '20 less

except for the nines.


etc.,

'Euore',

1',

i.

e.

Sometimes

have the same value.

also in composition;

e.

2.

g.,

19.
TJifi is

By

com-

This usage
left

off,

is

and

the adj. "^Tf^ir^ or

^"STf^^^T^'RT (also

Lesson

The same methods

331.

above

100.

127

are used to form

the odd numbers

Thus, j[Sfi^7[H^101, ^Sf^JHim^lOS, "q^jf^^ ^Tm^lOd,

Inflection of cardinals,

332.
231

XXXI.

'certain

'some',

(pi.:

i.

T[cR is

The

ones').

declined like

TJ^ sometimes means 'a certain'; or even 'an,

^^,

at

does not occur.

dual

a', as

an indefinite

article.

2.
f.

n.

\,
3.

(dual only)

f^

^ftj;

masc. and neut. nearly regular; the fem. has the

Thus, nom. m.

stem fTf^.
instr.

f^f^l^,

^(\X has

^^TT

instr.

^^

Thus, nom. m. '^WTT^,


instr.

^nf^^ etc.

(d

19.)

''Sf^T^,

dat.-abl.

Fem.: nom.-acc. f?T^^,

4.

^,

^^^.

^ht-pr:,
is in

quite regular; thus, nom.-acc.-voc. m.,

is

Fem.

f^^,

J, 7, 9, 10.

some

m. "^i^, nom.-acc.

gen. ^idJ^TT?^, loc.

f?f^fH^,

dat.-abl.

ace.

m. ^gi;^; nom.-acc.

nom.-acc. t^TP^T^, instr.,

etc.,

gen.

^cf^.

^?TrfT5

^^^f*T^,

distinction of gender.

irregularity as plurals.

"q^, "q^ftre;,

n.

is

n.

f^.

frf^^^,

strong cases; the fem. stem

These numbers have no

are inflected with

ace.

They

Thus:

^^, "q^T^T^, "q^f

^H> "^.

and compounds of ^HJ, are similarly declined.


^1[,
as follows:

6.

IR^

5.

"^H may follow

20^ 30y
fem. stems, in

100,

etc.

all

1000.

Xf^,

"q^f^,

^^^,

TSf^PR;,

"q^, or be declined thus:

f^f?T

etc.,

f^lTc^?

"qz^.

^H^, "^"Slf^^,

are declined regularly as

numbers.
"^JT!

and

^^^

are declined

regularly

as neut.

stems, in all numbers.


333.

Construction of numerals.

1.

The words from

are used as adjectives, agreeing in case (and in gender,

if

1 to

19

possible)

128

Lesson

with the nouns.

2.

XXXI.

The numerals above 19

are usually treated as

taking the numbered noun as a dependent

nouns, either

or standing in the sing, in apposition with

or ^cT SFiTl:

"a hundred

it; thus,

^pf

genitive,

^itTl^ll*!.

l(^t IJ^c^ "in sixty

female slaves";

autumns".
334.

Ordinals.

^^^,

^, ^THT,

TC^m*

^^,

^T^^,

cardinals, but declined like

f^

'first',

or f^llTl^ 30th,

T?;^T^

^^,

^^,

f^;^,
f^^

etc.);

'^g^, XT^^,
same as the

(to i^*^^, the

or f^IjftrnT 20th;

Note also TJ^t^ff^IT or ^T^f^^,

etc.

U*^tR^f7nffr or ^rTf^!Uf?ff!*{, 19th,

The shorter forms (f^ etc.)

are by far the commoner.


335.
in

rest,

insj^,

f|[^^ and 'Hdl^ make

Occasional

"|\

met with from the


is

first

forms of the

their fem. in

o"^; the

pronominal declension are

three; but the usual declension of nouns

the normal one for ordinals also.


336.

'thrice';

Numeral adverbs.

1.

xfr|^ 'four times'; tj^^j^cf^ or Xf^^TT'^

and so on, with cR^sr^ or ^TTT'l.* ~~

fl[^

or ^\rr *in two ways';

or"5n^^,etc.

3.

f^^

^^Ic^ *once'; t|[^^ 'twice';

f^^

2.

l^^W

or %\rr,

'five

'in

times';

one way';

^^VT, "q^^,

^t^

Ij^ch^^ 'one by one'; "SJcIlJ^ 'by hundreds',

etc.

Vocabulary XXXI.

W^

Terbs:

cR^

;^?^ (samJcaldyati)

put to-

gether, add.
^irfi;+ ^rfir

pass (of time).

in caus. (hhojdyati) feed.

'Rr^ + "^rm

(abhisincdti)

anoint

as king.

^+^^-^

cite,

mention.

chat.
^[v{\^(jdlpafi) speak,

Snbst.:
the fourth Veda.
^Vi|'c|c|^ m.,

im

forms no ordinal.

^'rf^^Mld**

n.,

n. pr.

city.

XXXT.

Lesson
cfif^^'T n., the "Iron

of

Age"

^9ff n.,

wheel.

g^fTfEf

n.,

r^"^

n.,

^T^T

f'>

philosophical system.

n.,

lunar mansion.

branch,

AdT.:
'*f1Tl'^T^

(w. ahl.

Wit^^ sometimes

fl^^

one of a class of works

on the creation of the world.


m-, n. pr., a

ftsR^lf^^

often post-

pos.) after, immediately after,

Pandu.
n.,

re-

edition,

daction.

m., n. pr., descendant of

mu^'^

body.

^*[(^T m-, year.

n.,

q^jTif

^"CT
astronomy; astrono-

mical text-book.

^^^

m., Scythian.

"5JcR

the world.

129

(in altern.^,

namely, to wit.

^IHidH^

at present.

famous

king.

Exercise XXXI.

^f^

f^f^t ^cw[

cf^^

^^^

^^%^^

^"^fTT

Ti^

'^gioff

^^T ^^"W^^

8 ^^f: ^^^n2i
1

'^

II

^HRT^^^T^^ m^%^

WI^*UMT^Ht^^
11.

The wagon

three wheels.
i.

e.,

12.

II

RO

^rrrf^

^pTTf^

^W^IT ^^Tftjf
I

^?

11^

II

Ii

^^ifT

ITT ^^IT

^"W

^^I^

II

of the A9vins

The A9vins

is

fitted

("g^

part, pass.) with

are praised by the seer with four

in the seven stars of the

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

W ^ST^
II

^^^f?r: ^T^JT%^^ ^HT-

^^TTt ^ff ^T^T^ -^^

^^T^ TTWTf^ftw: ^ ^
^^TRT TT^ ^^Tftr Trnf^ ^

^^c^T

^T^ ^^

'%^T^ g ^f^:

Great Bear.

130
Rik-verses.
is

XXXI. XXXII.

Lesson

the

Krsna

13.

third

among

the

is

the

of six brothers.

eldest

Pandavas.

five

are eight sorts of marriage (pi);

mansions are mentioned

astronomy.

in

Ms

in his twelfth.

teacher,

Arjuna

think there

(model

2nd

after

Twenty-seven or twenty-eight lunar

IG.

a Brahman

six

others,

sentence in Sanskrit above).


in

Some

15.

14.

17.

One should

consecrate

eighth year, a Ksatriya in his eleventh, a Vai^ya

18.

Two

great lights shine in the sky.


the

having taught

Rik- verse,

fifth

20.

9^kyamuni Buddha

21.

Sometimes 33 gods are reckoned

recited

19.

the sixth.

died in the eightieth year of his age


in the

The

(life).

Veda, sometimes

3333.

Lesson XXXII.
337.

Derivative adjectives having

Comparison of Adjectives.

comparative and superlative

or
meaning

ally, a merely intensive value

are made

often,

and more origin-

either (A.) directly

from

roots (by primary derivation), or (B.) from other derivative or com-

pound stems (by secondary


338.

A. The suffixes of primary derivation are

comparative, and
accented,

derivation).

^^

for the superlative.

The

and usually strengthened by guna

sometimes by nasalization
few such formations are

meaning mostly

(if

or prolongation. In
in

5^qt(^

for the

root before them

capable of

it),

is

or

classical Sanskrit

use; and these attach themselves in

to other adjectives

from the same root, which seem


In part, however, they are

to be their corresponding positives.

connected with words unrelated to them in derivation.


339.

f^TT
*

quick';

broad';

m^l

Thus ^q^"?!^ and

^^"^^

tfT^fV'^^ and

TTfl'^re:

^^^

^ft^

and

"^f^

xrrftr^,

^^^^

to

(^/f^"'^) attach
(\/T3[

themselves to

'encompass')

to

"^

'worse' and 'worst', to the subst.

and ?Tfl to
X^^ 'skilful'; ^ft^^ro;

Lesson XXXII.

^Tfwffj

^^-^ra: and ^f%^,

^Tftl

to

to ^f^?|^ or

following are examples of

^f^^^near',

^ift^^T^, ^f^^^,

(but also ^^r^lft^I^, "^f%J^);

'long', -^T^^re;,
,

^f%TH; TT^^

^^ 'best'; frj^J 'dear',


^^^ 'young', ^ft^^,

^^

^T'SJ^ and

f^-

connections:

artificial

^T^

^sft^T^, ^f-T^

Mittle',

^H

IJ^ 'heavy', ^"0"^^, ^rfT^;

better',

^f^^;

^T^5Y^I^ and

^^^^j

^TV.

The

340.

131

%^^

'praiseworthy', 'good',
TiTS^,

OT; ^' 'much',

l;f^^',

gw

correspond sometimes to

H^^,

"^^T^^, ^-

'old',

TT^^

or

^rT^

sometimes to H^.

The stems

341.

in '^,

with

clension,

are inflected like ordinary adjectives

^^

342. B.

The

So also

-vftn^sj^

suffixes of

^[1(^

^^

in

and

^3^,

Thus,

343.

which the

That form of stem

initial

([^

is

usually

consonant of a case-ending.
^gTg^

and ^3^ become

of the suffix becomes

fim^r^, fir^^iiT^ w^; ^^'i,


Some stems which

for

^ZCHt?

secondary derivation are cTT and Tf^.

are always unchanged; final


after

fern.

and W^T^.

are of almost unrestricted use.

taken which appears before an

Stems

and

a strong stem in %"gi^,

which see 255.

They

in

with the fem. in "^'^ those in %"?I^ have a peculiar de-

'^.

"^if^nfx^ ^^r^;

f%-

are substantives rather than adjectives

are found to form derivatives of comparison; thus,

^rlfT^ 'most

motherly', wTcT^ 'most manly', TfolcT^ 'most like an elephant.'


344. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs are compared
the suffixes in the forms

345.

Constmction.

fpn'^ and fT?rn^;

thus,

to

him

than

JJ^Itch^T

a son";

'well', ^rf-

With a comparative (and sometimes with

other words used in a similar way) the ablative


construction; thus,

by adding

7f^

??fc!^^

5^^

is

the regular

"a daughter

<?^"^\1^^

"intellect

is

dearer

alone

ia

Lesson XXXII.

132

or locative
stronger than force". After the superlative either genitive

The comparative

be used.

may

often has the force of a strength-

ened superhitive; thus, 51<|*^l't. ^^^st honorable'.

Vocabulary XXXII.
f^^EJ m., n. 2w.y the Indus.

Subst. :

^[^^ m., one of a band of celes- ^nCIXf m., drunkard.


a Gandharva.

tial singers,

n. pr.

;^^ m.,

\^^f

Adj.:

^m

running, course.

n.,

m., winter.

^J{^

little,

m., deliverance, salvation.

-411^

Ttff

n, pr,

tl"^'

metal; iron.

Jljnr,

n.,

^j

"^T^TO

crow.

f.

f.

tf^>

such.

o^x and

old.

of;,

Indecl.:

n. pr.

f.,

subsi..

^fS'l, abiding, being.

^^tTiw., a system of philosophy.

IT^^

n,

swift.

!HVt5|

^^

as

atom.

''^TTRfT^ ^) the world-spirit.

f.,

small;

sometimes in sense of

if.

Exercise XXXII.

^^ ^TTTT firm ^Tf^ ^^ ft^t TRT^ft


^^^%
^^ ^W* ^ xTf^ -^Ti^: 9^

ftrcTft

^
^^T^^^

II

II

^TMT

%^

%^T

^Tt^f ^i^f ^frw^cc 8 ^f^ ^^T-^T w^f^^: 5^ ^T%cr ff^ ^ u^ ^t ^^^ wf ^H^^^ M
I

fl[wrfi'?ft

^fi^

II

^^: w^fhsri^ ^^nn^ tjI

^m^TifrT^wt^Tnffiffr
fHTcnfii^^f^:

^f

^^tt:

^fhn^^^g ^m% tr^f%^%i^r '^ft ^O^i-f^% ^

ift

^HTf^ilfTi^^ ifl^T^^'TFrr xjftw^^T^* ftfwt


ttto.
^%^: ^ttc xtr^t^:
^g: ^HTH^cc
-c:

^^

II

s^

II

* Translate as
though genitive.

^^

Lesson XXXII. XXXIII.

Of

12.

cow?/? )

nights are very long,

than Kaikeyi and Sumitra.

14.

Not very many

jewels are found on earth.


Prthvlraja

was

the

15.

mightiest.

all the

of quadrupeds.

20.

19.

of that time, and

(^^STT^

of the

18.

whole

Iron

21.

is

the swiftest

beautiful than

became the wife of

earth.

than gold,

is lighter

In running the horse

pakuntala was more

women

of Kalidasa are

Anathapindika was the richest

merchants in Rajagrha.

but heavier than wood.

In winter the

(express as pred.) such

The poems

IG.

17.

13.

those kings of the North

Among

sweeter than the works of Bana.

among

Kausalya was older and

the three wives of Da^aratha,

more honored (1115,

133

The crow

the mightiest
is

all

other

monarch

called the shrewdest

of birds.

Lesson XXXIII.
(Part

I.)

346. Compounds. In all periods of the language the combination

of stems of declension with one another, forming compounds which


are treated in accent, inflection and construction as
is

In

if

simple words,

one of the most striking peculiarities of the Sanskrit tongue.


the Vedic period

compounds of more than two elements are

In the later language this

rare.

the later

of composition,

become.

moderation

the period, and especially the

To

the

more unwieldy and

such an extent

is

this

is

abandoned; and

more elaborate

difficult

the style

do the compounds

carried that the advantages

of an inflective language are often deliberately thrown away, and

a clumsy

aggregation

of elements

replaces the due

syntactical

union of inflected words into sentences.


347.
I.

Sanskrit compounds

fall into

three principal classes:

Copulative or Aggregative compounds, of which the members

are syntactically coordinate: a joining together of words which in

134

XXXin.

Lesson

an uncompounded

state

*done and

cITcfifn=^

dharvas and men'.

would be connected by *and\

E.

g. "^-

undone'; ^^^5^^?rrgr: *gods and GanThe members of such a compound may obvi-

ously be of any number, two or more.


II.

DeterminatiTe compounds, of which the former member

syntactically dependent on the latter, as its

fying adjunct: being either a noun limiting

or an adjective or an adverb describing

it.

is

determining or qualiit

in

a case-relation,

Thus may be

distin-

comguished two sub-classes: A. Dependent^ and B. Descriptive,


pounds; their difference

Examples
'm({1<i 'cfi

is

not absolute.

are: of dependents,

^fTT^^ET^ *army of enemies';

'water for the feet'; ^^ToRcT 'made with hands';


*

descriptives, ilf TXTT^

gi*eat

king';

ft^^^

of

(353, 2) 'dear friend';

"5^?! 'badly done'.


348.

The

character of

parts of speech,

is

compounds of

determined by their

capable of being resolved into

classes

final

I.

and

II.,

as

member, and they are

equivalent phrases by giving the

proper independent form and formal means of connection to each

member. But
is

this is

not true of the third class, which accordingly

more fundamentally

from them than they from each

distinct

other.

349. III. Secondary Adjectiye compounds, the value of which


is

not given by a simple resolution into their component parts, but

which, though having as


jectives.

final

member

a noun, are themselves ad-

These again are of two sub-classes: A. Possessive com-

pounds, which are noun-compounds of the preceding

class (II.

A.

or B.), with the idea of 'having' added, turning them from nouns
into adjectives;
*

and B. compounds

This class of compounds

opment;
tongues.

only the other

is

in

which the second member

is

of comparatively recent devel-

two are common

in others

of the related

Lesson XXXIII.

135

a noun syntactically dependent on the

first:

compounds (only Vedic), of a present

participle with its following

object; and

2.

Participial

Prepositional compounds, of a preposition and fol-

This whole sub-class

lowing noun.

1.

namely,

comparatively small.

is

Examples: ^"?;%iT 'possessing a hero-army';

having

inffT^irnFI

desire of progeny'; "^f^TiTT'^ 'excessive'.

350.

times

The

adjective

compounds

used, especially

are, like

as abstract and

the neuter,

in

by

the

classes of

compounds, reckoned and named as such

Hindu grammarians.

351.

compound may,

a simple word, become a member

like

The

in another compound, and so on indefinitely.

compound (except
by a
oJcT,

in

of whatever length,

Thus

of bisections.

series

'done

copulatives),

the dependent

a previous existence',

its

initial

Final

^^

^^

and

compound

tiqain^eficf

and

The

final

of a stem

of another stem in composition according

But:

to the general rules for extefnal combination.


1.

must be made

two elements.

352. Euphonic combination in componnds.

combined with the

analysis of a

is first divisible into

the descriptive Tl^al3iil^, then this into

is

collective

Out of these uses have

nouns; and in the accusative as adverbs.

grown apparent

simple adjectives, some-

member become

of a prior

^[Xf^

and

^{^

before surd gutturals, dentals, and labials; thus, Wtfrm\r(^.


2.

Final ^Ji^ of a prior

member

often remains

unchanged under

similar circumstances.

^,

an

becomes

3.

After final ^, ^,

4.

Pronouns generally take the stem-form of the neuter; for

the personal

^H^^

and

5.

For

pronouns are oftenest used

"gtJl^
1{^[9^

ive compounds,
G.

initial

is

in

often

^^

and ^^^

lingual.

in the sing.,

the pi.

in the prior

member

of descriptive and possess-

used Tf^.

case-form in the prior

member

is

not very rare.

Lesson XXXIII.

136

353. In all classes of compounds, certain changes of final are


liable to

appear in the concluding member; generally they have the

effect of transferring the

Thus:

1.

3.

whole

as a

stem in "^X^ often drops the

^, TRoxf^.

compound

2.

An T

An

is

or

t is changed

added after a

final

The

separate classes of

354.

I.

W^

in

o^^, o-^^, o^p^,

(^^'l)?

will

now

T^

be

('Ft)-

taken up.

II.)

Two

Copulatiye compounds.

often adjectives, and once or twice

less

as in o^T^, ^|[

consonant, sometimes even

compounds

(Part

^,

^, as

to

after an w-vowel or a diphthong, as in

final

to the a-declension:

ordinate construction, as though joined by

adverbs
'

or more nouns

much

having a co-

and', are sometimes com-

bined into a compound.*


355.
into

two

The noun-compounds

fall,

as regards their inflective form,

classes:

A. The compound has the gender and declension of

member, and

is

in

number a dual or

plural,

according

its final

to

its

logical value as denoting either two, or more than two, individual

Examples

things.
TStif^

are:

*Rama and Krsna';

wtf^^"^

'rice

and barley'; X^TTcR-

^TSfT'^^t 'goats and sheep';

WlW^H^f^'

and Q^dras'; fqcTR"^


*I^!I^^5('U 'Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vai^yas
( 352, 6) 'father

B.

and son'.

The compound, without regard

to the

number denoted or

to the gender of its constituents,

becomes a neuter singular

(so-called samdhdra'dvandva).

Thus, XJTftl^r?*^, *hand and foot';

'snake and ichneumon';


^ti^T^^TR;
brella

and shoe';

356.
"^

The

^ftTT"^

later

collective

l^iTtTR^^ (353,3) 'um-

353,2) 'day and

night'.

language preserves several dual combinations

This class is called by the Hindus dvandva, 'couple'; but a


dvandva of adjectives they do not recognize.

137

Lesson XXXIII.
of the names of

divinities,

and ^T^TnT'fl' 'Heaven

^T^rrf^^^

thus,

which retain their earlier forms;

etc.,

^^TOI" 'Mitra and Varuna';

"^^ift^

and Earth';

Adjective copulative compounds are

357.

are rare.

Examples

and plump';*

are:

f??'^-

'Agni and Soma'.

made

likewise, but

round
and dark';
JJJ^ohmi 'light
"^TlTJtf

^TcTRf^lT

'

'bathed and anointed'.

358. DeterminatiYe compounds.

A noun

or adjective

is

often

combined into a compound with a preceding determining or qualifying

word

a noun or adjective or adverb.

divisions of this class are, as indicated above,

B. Descriptive, compounds.

Each

The two

principal

A. Dependent, and

class falls into

two

subdivisions,

according as the final member, and therefore the whole compound,


is

noun or adjective.**
359. A.

Dependent compounds.

is

oftenest genitive,

<Tf5^T^= ff^ ^^^:;


(=

"^^^

tained)

self;
(=

Noun -compounds.

of the prior to the second

case-relation

kind, but

1.

and
*

^WcTTf^

least

Nd<^ch*{^)

member may be

of any

often accusative.

Thus,

hundreds of fools';

'water for the feet';

The

XTT^^

f^^^^ 'money (ob-

by science'; ^^TTW^T^W (= "^TcJTTr ^f^'ll) 'likeness with

^*^i;;^^

^% Wt)

to the city';

'

(=^TTfr^5R:)

sport in the water

^l^^cT

'
;

'fear of a thief;

^ER^^

'iflir^^'T (= RT 1)

'lord of speech', n. pr. (352,

360. 2. Dependent adjective compounds.

going

6.).

Only a very small

proportion of the compounds of this class have an ordinary adjective


as final
rivative

member

usually the final

member

of agency with the value

is

a participle, or a de-

of a participle ( 204).

The

The Hindus reckon these as karmadhdrayas (see next note).


The whole class of determinatives is called by the natives
tatpurum (the name is a specimen of the class, meaning 'his man');
the second division, the descriptives, bears the special name karmadharaya^ a word of obscure meaning and application.
**

138

Lesson

member

prior

*gone

stands in any possible case-relation.

the

to

XXXIIL
Thus,

%^f^^ 'Veda-knowing';
^f^rT (= T% ffrfO 'good for

village';

^protected by Qiva';

t4[44|cT

f^^T^ff

the cow';

^'J^f^Trr 'fallen from the sky'; cf^^f^^^^frR; 'more mobile than

waves';

fl[^TfT (= f^WRTF^ ^tTTO

WT^mjT
361.

root

'cooked

Compounds of

this sort

sometimes modified

in

having as
form,

^%^X:

( 352, 6) 'forest-dwelling';

362.

in the heart'

member

relation, but qualifies

member

is

'well-done';

it

noun or

rftcjic^

The compounds

end

it

in the
TJoRlJ

^f^ft"?: 'firm

the bare
originally

wagon'

(or

'only-born';

in battle';

iR-

'love').

In this division of the deter-

B. Descriptive compounds.

minatives, the prior

final

e.
(i.

member

are very numerous:

wagon'); ^^If 'on the head';

'in the

f%^

if

and,

with an added c^

simply

'born

final

above (360); 7^^^^ 'standing

%^f%^

in a pot'.

in a short vowel, generally

thus,

*best of Brahraans';

stands to the other in no distinct case-

adjectively or adverbially, according as the

Thus,

adjective.

flHl^^

( 353, 2);

^^cf

*evil-doing' (adj.).

of noun-value cannot well be separated in

treatment from those of adjective-value.


363.
is

The

simplest case

is

that in

which a noun as

final

preceded by a qualifying adjective as prior member.

Wr^ (= ^n^

Thus,

vT^O 'black horse'; 44^|MI\b( 'great man'.

of an adjective, the prior

member

is in

member
'^-

Instead

a few cases a noun used

appositionally or with a ^wasi-adjective value; thus,

W^ftJ

'priest-

sage'; -^jjgrf^ 'king-sage'.


364.
thus,

Sometimes compounds of

^PTWTT

Reversed, tj^iEf^X^ 'man-tiger',


*

this sort

'black as a thunder -cloud'

Literally, a tiger

which

is

i.

e.,

'a

express a comparison;
(cf.

man

'coal-black', etc.).
fierce

not a tiger after

as a tiger';*

all,

but a man.

Or, perhaps better, 'tiger of (or among) men' (so Whitney).

Lesson XXXIII.
*

nrf^lf

man-lion';

139
i.

'foot-lotus',

M^il^

'a foot lovely as a

e.

lotus'.

The adverbial

365.

members

words most commonly used

as

of descriptive compounds, qualifying the other

prior

member,

are the verbal prefixes ("prepositions"), and the words of direction


related to them

tive,

likewise the inseparable prefixes "^i^ or "^ priva-

*well',

"5^

These are combined with nouns

'ill', etc.

^uase-adjectival value) as well as with adjectives.

^XlfTl^?! 'not a scholar';

done';

'more than a god'; "^fTTTT

Thus,

"^JoRcf

'misfortune';

"^ifTSy

(in

*not

"^fcT^^

'

exceedingly far'; "^fti^'^ excessive

fear'; TTfTJ'T^ 'opposing side.'

Vocabulary XXXIIl.

Terbs:
"^TR.

'3^

^^

devoted

complete.

+ f^ station,

place, appoint

Snbst.:

^P^nr

cP3

sft^

hermitage.

fcf^fciJ

n.,

ornament

^^

(o/?en /^.).

bathing-place; place

n.,

o^

place.

f.,

f->

queen.
chase.

m., race, family.

4Trini m., state of

of ^En^

f-,

affairs;

female friend.

^Tcopx^ m., hospitality.


f.,

world.
^TljffT m.,

journey).

^T'^jf-j march, journey; support.

pilgrimage.

fx(^ch

to, inclined to (loc),

step

n.,

^^^n

game, sport.

m.,

the threefold

Adj.:

^^^^,
n. pr.

^Yfti^ m., panther.

be

t*T return home.

irff

^'i boy' prince.


f.,

-ie)

XT"^ m., n. pr.

m., n. pr.

^?TTT

(1^

TJ^

m., air, sky.


ni.,

(anurdjyati,

^^^4Tr go away (on a


"^ct.

^T^IJ

+ ^T

'5^1f

^f^?T,

f.

f.

o^,

o^,

suitable.

adopted.

news.

Lesson XXXIII.

140

TW^>

or suitable
'feqEf,

of,

Gandbarvas.

for, the

^4ftU)f ^T? near; as neui.subst.,


vicinity, nearness, presence.

*^T, heavenly, divine.

f.

iTR^j

manner

*%? 5n the

f-

Adv.!

human.

t*j

tf'^T earlier,

formerly.

Exercise XXXIII.

M^m^

irf^E:

^^^^

rrf%^%

^^m^i-^f^wiftl^^

iTR T^^"t ^g^err^ ^fft^ f^^^'Ttr^ i^^t^

m^^TfW^T

II

When

brilliant (TJ"^ P^^^- pcirt.)

king-sage was inclined (pass, part.)

having learned that she (ace.) was

the

toward

Ksatriyas.
in the
city.

Dussanta, after dwelling very

10.

Afterwards,
to

her.

8.

Thereupon,

(f^^^)

(acc.)y

suitable-for-

many days-and-nights

when Kanva had

finished his

pilgrimage,

the hermitage, learning (f^H') the news*-of-his^-

daughter's^-marriage^,

she

the heart of the

hermitage, abandoned ^akuntala and returned to his-own-

and returned

11.

with di-

daughter-of an-Apsaras

he married her by the gandharva-ceremony


9.

^^5^^

of words joined by hyphens').

he had seen her,

as though (^^) more-than-human,

vine-beauty,

11

(Form compounds
7.

The royal-sage

he sent her into-the-presence-of-Dussanta.

at first

disowned (Tf^J-'^liger.) ^akuntala when

was come^-to-the-city^; but

at last he

her in-the-place^-of-the-first^-queen^

put(f^-"g^
12.

In

*'To engage in the sport of hunting";

the

cf.

part.^no^^

course

of time

below, 375,

3.

XXXIY.

Lesson XXXIII.

CRT%T 1"^ci

141

a beautiful-prince, named Bharata, was born to

I)

her (loc).

Lesson
366.

III.

XXXIV.
A

Secondary Adjective Compounds.

a noun as final

member very

compound with

often wins secondarily the value of

an adjective, being inflected in the three genders to agree with the

noun which
adjective.

it

and used in

qualifies,

The two

all

the constructions of an

divisions of this class have been given

above

( 349).

367. Certain changes are sometimes necessary in the stem of

member

the final

make

to

Masc. and neut. stems


thus,

hands

from ?r

nom.

in

possible the inflection in different genders.

^, and fem.

in ^TT? generally interchange;

+ ^T^ comes the compound

^^

'with excellent

1^ so also (from f^ + 1%^)


f^f^^^ ^. ^'Sl; and (from g + t?i^n.) ^Xfj^^, o^, og^.
The same holds good for masc, fem., and neut. stems in ^ and ^,
',

and stems
368.

sing,

^f^^,

^^T,

in consonants.

But often a

fern, in

f^ is

used by the side of a masc. and

neut. in '^; thus,


fl^XJlf 'two-leaved',

369.

Very frequently the

of indefinite value)

is

efi

especially to fem. stems in

'whose husband

is

and fem. oi^JJ^) or

(attenuated into an element

compounded stem

and

^,

general, where the final of the stem


in adjective inflection.

f^HTjff.

added to a pure possessive compound, to

the conversion of the

help

suffix

f.

i.

e.

is

less usual or
in rivers';

adjective;

^;

and

in

manageable
iTflH^RTfM

'widow'; iT^T^HI^ (nom. masc.

^fT^^W-

370. Sometimes the possessive-making suffix

secondary adjective compounds, without


thus,

an

and to stems in

Thus, ^^rl^c|> 'rich

dead',

into

(^*i*nf^^ (= IT^)

effect

f[i(^

upon

having an ass's voice.'

is

added to

the meaning;

142

XXXIV.

Lesson

ative

shown)

(as just

Thus, the dependent

^^^tj,

'

^^^tf

o-^J,

m.

f.

^t^"^T^ m.

372.

beauty of a god

n.,

^^^T^m.,
,

meaning of the determinative.

to the

the descriptive
f.

inflection

and also an adjective meaning of a kind best

by adding 'having'

possessive

possessives are determin-

which are given both an adjective

to

compounds

defined

The

A. Possessive compounds.

371.

n.,

'

becomes the

'having the beauty of a god';

Mong arm', becomes

the possessive

'having long arms'.*

Dependent compounds

are,

by comparison, not

often thus

But possessively used descriptives are

turned into possessives.

extremely frequent and various; and some kinds of combination

which are rare

in

proper descriptives are very

common

as pos-

sessives.

An

373.

adjective as prior

form, even though referring


thus, ^l|c(^|if (from

As

374.
1.

with

^T^)

member

'possessing a beautiful wife'.

members are found:


'

^rf^MK

'vvhose mother

^ff^T^ 'four-faced'; "f^^^f


^Mfl'.si-

pecially

common

is

^Tl^'^w
senger'.

is

the use of a noun as prior

or by

as

name';

^"^^'Q^^Ef

'using spies as
5.

2.

Parti-

Numerals;

3.

4.

Nouns

way

to qualify

These may

Thus, ^^JJpfTTT''^ 'having

'having

eyes';

member

of equivalence.

Es-

men who

are heroes';

^TH'cT 'having thee as

mes-

Adverbial elements (especially inseparable prefixes);

This class of compounds

slain'.

'three -eyed'.

well be called appositional possessiTes,

"Krsna"

of other form'.

adjectival value; thus, "f^TT^JT^^ 'gold-handed'.

the other appositionally,

the

takes the masculine stem-

a feminine noun in the final member;

Adjectives proper; thus, ^fi(^l|

ciples; thus,

thus,

prior

to

is

called

by the natives bahuvrthi;

name is an example of the class, meaning 'having much rice'.


The possessive may generally, in accented texts, be distinguished

from the original determinative by a difference of accent.

XXXIY.

Lesson

thus,

sons';
is

^^)

'ill

'^^rP'sl

^W^

"^sm^ 'childless';

'endless';

<:^iri

143

The

-savored'.

*with

associative prefix

excellent
often

(less

treated like an adjective element; thus, ^T^T? 'of like form

';

^14^ or ^^XT^ "with a son', or 'having one's son along with one';

(^ + ^TR^

^'n^'^T

'favorable'.

'of wide

I?^^^

thus,

fixes;

n-)

^^

fame';

'powerless'; "^^Ti 'with uplifted face'.

^^f^Tf

thus,

Ordinary verbal pre-

6.

'limbless';

'with mind directed hither'.

375. Certain words, very frequent in the


at 374, 4, have

in part

won

signated along with others

compounds mentioned

a peculiar application.

Thus with "^if^ 'beginning' (or


^f^ToR) are made compounds signifying

the derivatives

1.

gods Indra, etc'


^?n3 M

Often

the

such a person or thing

<fl f^ 'food, drink,

are used in the same


verbially.

way,

The noun

3.

etc.*

Words

2.

to denote

is

e.

'the

omitted; thus,

like X(^ (XT^oR) etc.,


chiefly ad-

accompaniment;

"^(^ 'object',

or

et cetera.
i.

first',

qualifying noun

^T^

or thing de-

the person

Thus, ^cfT ^"j^li^ilt 'the gods having Indra as

ff4^

Ordinary adverbs;

7.

'purpose',

is

used at the

end of a compound,

oftenest as a neut. subst. (ace. or instr. or loc),

to signify 'for the

sake of, and the like; thus, ^7T^ti|VJ 'for

Damayanti's sake'; "gj^tf 'for a bed'.


4.

^tTT^ (as neut. subst.) often

^^TnT"?^
region

n.,

'another region'

(See below, 379).

means 'other'

(lit.

in possessives; thus,

'that which has a difference of

').

376.

In appositional possessives, the final

member,

if it

de-

signate a part of the body, sometimes signifies the part to which

belongs what

which

it is.

is

designated by the prior

member:

pounds are commonest with words meaning hand


'with sword in hand';
377.

that

Thus T?fTIjli\^ 'with necklace on neck'.

The

^^TSf^

'with club

in

on or

in

Such com-

thus, ^"ftiMlftl

hand'.

possessives are not always used with the

simple

Lesson

144

XXXIV.

Often they have a pregnant sense,

value of qualifying adjective.

and become the equivalents of dependent clauses; or the


implied in them becomes about equivalent to our
sign of past action.
i.

lescence',

e.

Thus, ITT'Pnfi^l

having reached

'with unstudied books', i.e. 'one

'whose breath
is

come

is

gone',

i. e.

having'

having' as a

possessing attained ado-

adolescence';

who has

"^TpilTrl'Srr^

neglected study'; ^cfTTRT

whom

death

Thus may conveniently be

called

lifeless'; >4||4J^7T(^ *to

near'.

Compounds with governed

378. B.

final

member.

1.

Participial compounds, exclusively Vedic.

2.

Prepositional compounds.

those compounds in which the prior


prepositional value, and the final

member

is

a particle with true

member a noun governed by

it.

Thus, ^rf^"?^!^ 'lasting over night'; "^fTI^n"^ 'beyond measure',


'excessive'; ^fcf^TSr *next the ear'.

379. AdjectiTG

compounds as nouns and adverbs.

adjectives, like simple ones,

and

stracts

collectives,

the feminine

Compound

are freely used substantively as ab"

especially in the neuter,

and

less

often

in

and they are also much used adverbially, particularly

in the ace. sing, neuter.

380.

The

substantively used possessive

numeral as prior member, with some of the

compounds having a
strictly adjective

com-

pounds, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, and called

Examples of such numeral

dvigu*.

f^giT

n., *the three

ages';

abstracts and collectives are:

f^'^^R

"

'space of three leagues'.

Feminines of like use occur in the later language; thus f^^oji^


(by the side of oeR
381.

n.,) 'the three

worlds'.

Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary

The name

is

a sample of the

class,

(said to be used in the sense of 'worth

adjective

and means 'of two cows'

two cows').

Lesson

compounds which have an

XXXIV.

145

indeclinable or particle as prior

member

are considered by the Hindus a separate class of compounds, and


called avyayibhdva*.

frequent in this

*on the G.

^^,

prepositional

';

compounds are

use; thus, Trf7I(^M*{^ 'at evening';

especially

^T^T^^

'along the Ganges';

irf^m*i '^very year'.

made up

is

2.

'in

^q^^fT^

large class of avyayt^

of words having a relative adverb, especially

as prior member.

one

*as

The

^g^^f^ (=^^Hi: ^^)

sight';

bhdvas

1.

^%5@^,

Thus, ^T^T^ipi;, ^^TcRlTTT^,

And, with

chooses'.

adverbs: ^T^^ssftcfJ^ 'as

other

long as one lives'; ^"^cfiTTTT^ 'whither one will'.


Occasionally quite anomalous compounds will be met

382.

For such,

with.

cf.

Whitney,

1314.

Vocabulary XXXIV.

Sh

Verbs:

(vardyate) choose, select.

^Qr+"^T (dsidati)
t^ + f^^ determine, decide.
in
tear
H + f% caus. (viddrdyati)
+ ^^ in caus.

"q^ (pdtdyati) split open.

^ + "^f^

overpower.

n.,

limb,

^q

(hdrsati; hfsyati) rejoice, be

delighted.

cTT^

Subst.:

member, body.

n.,

palate.

rfX^JIT f- thirst,

desire.

-^S^XmX m., form, figure.

^^

f.,

tooth.

moon.

^f^f

f.,

brilliancy.

Jr--? m.,

Xf^ff m., mountain.

T3^ n., belly.


%H m., banner.

^fZ
^N^l

f-

f..

^TT
*

(samdsdddyatt)

meet with, encounter.

open.

"^^

approach.

n-,

xrf^n^ m., a

peak; point,

tip.

top-knot, scalp.

knowledge;

insight.

TT^TT

TCm

stroke, shot;

m-, breath,

^^o|i

The word means 'conversion

Perry, Sanskrit Triincr.

"^-5

tribe in India.

n.,

life

head.

to au indeclinable'.

|q

wound.

(often pi),

146

Lesson

^f

m., fish.

juncture ( 376, 4.)

^T^^

n., chest, breast.

^^Tf

m., boar.

%^iTT

f.,

^T^

^T^,

o^j, young.

f.

Indecl.

pain.

^^

then, thereupon.

therefore.
rf^ {adv. ace.)

Adj.:

^T> blameless, fault- ffT^c^ so long; often

f.

merely =

done, dock.

less.

^ToR^,

o^,

f.

favorable;

as

neut. 8ubst.^ favor.

^rf?^,

skilled.

XJ^

m., tendon; bowstring.

^!^^,

XXXIT.

f.

subst.,

as.

^T inner;
the

interior,

as neut.

middle;
occasion,

difference;

interval,

as soon
^T^cl^ as long as, while;

^ asseverative
the

present

particle; gives to

the

force

of

an

historical tense.

Exercise XXXIV,

Tlf^fT:

fzcTt^T:

^^ %^

3f%^

^r^t^g^T;^^:
16.

TT^rH

(pres. part.)

^rrinnfr w^trcTc^^

q^

tJ^fTftrT^TJ^lft ^fT-

-^^ cRf^ ^j^^

Those-who-have-done-evil must do

^^ ^tv ^Tm^

ciig

ft^ ^^-

penance twelve-days,

Lesson
six-days, or three-days.

XXXIV. XXXV.

147

Pururavas, Indra's- friend, married the

17.

moon-faced*, faultless-limbed* Apsaras Urva^i.


is

situated

(^<^) on the Narmada.

18.

Bhrgukaccha

There stands the long-

19.

armed, broad-chested king-of-the-Angas, sword-in-hand.


better than

is

path-of-knowledge

opinion-of-the-ancient-seers

band-is-dead

may

the

{cpd in

path-of-works.

loc.

is

daughter, Sita-by-name*,

arrived with-his-scholars.

lotus-eyed.*

26.

22.

Love

25.

21. In-the-

24.

is

bodiless,

TheBrahman's-

so say the poets. 23.

childless.

is

("^ft) many-wived,

The

or instr.) one-whose-hus-

choose a second at-pleasure.

and Jecrs-a-fish-in-his-banner

20.

The

king,

although

The eloquent** pandit has

With-upturned-face (^JT^) Cataka

prays for rain-water.

Lesson

XXXV.
Present System.***

383. First Conjugation of Verbs,

conjugation the optative act, the 2nd sing. imv.


pi.

act.,

In this

and the 3rd

mid., are formed otherwise than in the a-conjugation.

384.

Strong forms. The forms

strong form are these


impf. indie,

all

act.,

which the stem assumes

the three persons sing,

first

the 3rd sing. imv. act.

in

persons of the imv.,

All other forms of

of the pres. and

act.

the

its

and mid., and


present

system

and

"^TnTTT^

are weak.
385.

Endings.

are substituted

^^,

For the middle endings ^f^,

and ^dlH^; and after reduplicated stems

"'^TcT)

(and a few others) ^f?f,

Secondary

^rfT,

liffT,

and

adj. cpds., fern, in

Dep. cpd, "skilled

^^

are

substituted for tho

%.

in

speech".
For a comprehensive view of the ways of forming tho present-

stems of verbs following

this general conjugation, see Introduction,

78.
10*

148

Lesson

active

endings ^rHrT)

same

and "^^

"^fT,

often takes the ending

f^

XXXV.

or f\^.

The

dropped before

sign of the opt. act.

is

participle is

made with

in

the suffix

the root the

[Wt
?1^

V'O]'

yd,

and

In the

[^W]?

"^STT^f

conjugation this

first

before which the

pi. pres. ind.

The

fern,

^X*

388. Class IV. A: ww-class.


to

7U

the ending in the 3rd pi.,

stem takes the same form as before the 3rd

always

is

thus, o^?I^.

it;

387. Present participle middle.

is

sing. imv.

Otherwise the endings are the

with secondary endings; but ^3^


is

The 2nd

as in the ^-conjugation.

386. Optative mode-sign.

^JT

(impf.).

The

syllable

nu [j^ nu]

of the class-sign

of the 1st du. and 1st

in a consonant;

The present-stem

and the

pi.

in

is

made by adding

strong forms

may be dropped

endings, except when

before

no

ift

and

the root ends

before a vowel-ending becomes

cT

or

^^^, according as it is preceded by one or by two consonants.


The ending f^ of the 2nd. sing. imv. is dropped if the root end
in a vowel.

389.

I.

Roots in vowels.

'press'.

Indicative*

Lesson

XXXV.

149

Imperfect.

The

briefer forms

lowed and more

^g^w, ^fW, ^5-^ff

usual.

Imperative.
1

^H^I,

are al-

150

Lesson

XXXV.

Imperatiye.

2.

3.

^rrgff

^"raRw:

^tt^ct

^?rr^

^t^^t^t^ ^^^^

^TTKtg

^rrgfiTJ^

^rr^^^

^t^ctt^

^t^^ttt^

^^ctpfc

Participle.

The

other forms of this tense follow the model of ^.

391.

1.

sign,

2nd
2.

The

root

^, <hear%

forming ^Tn^ frno and

sing. imv. act. "squt;

The root

shortens

\3r

"sq^jj

contracts to

2nd du. ind.


its

vowel

3j

before the class-

prnu as strong and

"'l^^^ or

act.

weak stem;

iqUc|{^,

etc.

in the present-system.

Vocabulary XXXV.

Verbs:

^^
+

\JI

(acnute) acquire, obtain.

(dpndti,

1'3 (vrnoti, vrnute)

+ "^

^TTtr obtain.

v^lVH^

(dhundti, dhunute) shake.

rarely dpnute) ac-

quire, reach.

+ f^

+ ^R,

f^

IT,

or Wfi, reach.

{cindtiy cinute)

gather.

cover,

+ ^RT

cover,surround.

etc..

open.

explain, manifest.

^nf^ shut.

IjcR {gakndti) be able.

+ 11 or

^n=C? gather.

+ f%^

or ftfif^, decide, con- "^ (strnoti, strnuie) scatter, strew.

clude.

"S^ +

IT (pracoddyati) urge on.

^ (dunoti),

TSi

intr.,

or distress ;

tr.,

f^

(^rnoti,

grnuW) hear.

^XJ scatter.
(hinoti) send.

burn, feel pain ^+T(Wl(P^^fy^^i^^^t^ bring back.

pain or distress

(ace.)

Snbst.:

^rriTT

f^^^

^-y ^ood.

m., day.

^Tt^

m., doorkeeper.

xrfTjf m.

inn^

pi.,

ni.,

n.pr., certain demons.

might, power.

Lesson

^ffr

XXXV.

enjoyment.

ra.,

n.,

"^^Ef

m., taste, feeling.

root.

third period of his

o^ITir

f.

o^, entrancing,

agree-

able.

life.

-^^irT^,

sound; noise; word.

m.,

holy,

sharing.

JT^f^,

f^IT m., Brahman.

1|^

meritorious,

auspicious.

m., a Brahman in the

cjHi^^

^,

f.

tJIJIT,

J(^

151

^f^)

f-

f.

^<ft, tasteful.

%? similar; worthy.

Adj.:

o^,

f.

iff^,

new.

Exercise XXXV.

tWr^: m^rri 8 w^^^TO'^-rt^ ^r^ft:


1

'^

^^^'HfHV^

^t^(2T ^cTT:

^^

^^ xi^f* ^^irn^-

^^TnTT

^ ft^T^^-

^JUII'^iTVI^T^ ^ ^T%g frgi?^f^rIT ^^^^: tTT f ^ cI'R: ^


^T^T^ f^T'R ^fT^^T '^g^f^^^^ T^lt f^ftfll^T^^gI

^fT

f^^r:
11.

Visiju

4^jiM)^if^

^^ ^TfTTT^ irf^^^^iTfe'T: e ^f^n


I

n^^i^

^^uftci^ II
entered the

Having

we heard

women

(use

^0

Infin. of

Tbe

II

temple of the worshipful(VJ7I^f^)-

^if at end of cpd),

who are always gathering

**

fi:

the ear-entrancing
("gfd'H^lt^T) song-of-the-young-

voted (f^^, pass, part.) friend.

12.

13.

Listen to tbis

The greedy

word of a de-

('5n^, pass, part.),

riches, never attain the enjoyment of

g.

instr. is

sometimes used

or distance or road, traversed.

to

express the medium, or space

152

Lesson

them.

U. By

XXXV. XXXVI.

well-composed poems ye

tasteful,

in the ten regions of the world

mined

to travel to Benares.

Qakuntala, mayest thoa

16.

My-^M;o-brothers deter-

the king's-sword bring grief to

May

17.

attain glory

15.

(f^^).

get (imv.) a husband worthy-of-thee.

may

(T, imv. or opt.) the hearts-of-the-wives-of-his-enemies.

cover the sky.

XXXVI.
The few

Class IV. B. w-class.

Verbs.

of this sub -class end already in


erable irregularity

Clouds

Let the doorkeeper close the door.

19.

Lesson
392.

18.

and

except one,

so add only

flection is quite that of the ww-class,

roots (only six)

of consid-

eR,

as class-sign.

The, in-

the "^ being gunated in

the

strong forms, and dropped (optionally, but in fact nearly always)


before

393.

du.

and

cT*3?%5 etc.

^^;

of 1st dual and plural.


'stretch',

(or rTg^r^), 1st pi.

rf^^
394.

T{^

Thus cT^,

all like

The

root

the class-sign

du. and 1st

pi.,

cf^^

cfiftfiT,

(or rT^TRi;);

cT^ft,

etc.;

mid. <T^,

1st

cl?5i%,

a vowel-root of the nw-class.

IcR,

makes

'make', makes the strong stem

is

always dropped before "^ and

and also before

of the opt. active.

weak

oR'Jff?

T(^

Thus

in

1st

ludicatlTe.

Middle.

Active.

2.

^jTtft

^^^ra;

^^c^

f^*^

^^%

^^

^^ff

^l^ff

Imperfect.

^^

1.

'^iRiT^^

2.

^^Rifr^ iff^^fw:

^^

^^ff

^^5^

^^^rra: ^^^i^n^

^^^^^

XXXVI.

Lesson

153

Imperatiye,
1.
2.

3.

^^Tf^ ^RTTR
^^'^
^^

^g

^wr:

^T^T^ "^T^

cfi^^^%

^T^TTf

^^

^^^

of^^T^F^

^^P^

^^T^

^^TcTw;

^cn*i:

^^^5

OptatiTC,
1.

^^TI^

^TW

^^

^^f^

^*f^

^^If'^ff

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

Participle.
f.

^nT^,

^f eft

original condition) an initial

396.
'in

The

view';

*^.
gi^Nr,
assumes (or retains from a more
f.

395. This root sometimes

adverbial prefixes

after the prefix ^I(^*;

forward'; and the purely adverbial


are often used with

^m

'be' and
397.

oR,

TTT^^?

of sight';

'out

through',

"fiT"^^

and

"^f^^

^^H^

forth to sight',
'in front,

"CR^

enough,

sufficient',

'become'.

Any noun

manner of a verbal

or adjective-stem

to be

is liable

prefix.

it is

If the final of the

changed

to f";

if

oR

compounded

and ^,

in

an m- vowel,

to

Conso-

W-

consonant-

before

of course with observance of the usual euphonic


endings
makes
to

his

change those letters to ^.

^f[^

own', 'appropriates';

ashes',

i.

e.

burns':

^J^H^f^f 'becomes
398.

The

ffX

('HWl.)

'lie

'

he

changes

^Rft^T^ft 'becomes a post' (^^);

pure' (Tf^);

suffixes

rules;

Thus, ^^c(J^^f?f

^i^chOf^

the

stem be an a-vowel

nantal stems take the form which they have

but stems in

<^^-

and with one or two other verbs, oftenest

with verbal forms or derivatives of the roots

or an f-vowel,

thus,

(f-)

^V^^tf?! 'makes

and

^^

(n.)

are very

holy'.

extensively

used to form abstract nouns, denoting *the quality of being so-

Aiso sometimes after

"qfl^

and

^IJ.

154

Lesson

both adjectives and nouns,

from

and-so',

^f^^^

XXXVI.
Thus,

^^rf^m

f.,

'the rank of a Ksatriya'.

n.,

Vocabulary XXXVI.

hirute) do, make.

iR {karoti,

+ ^XJ

do

evil

to,

harm

{gen.^

loc, or ace).

+ ^'5n^

(dviskaroti)

do good

+ ^T^

( 395) prepare,

to,

cT^ (tanoti,

tend
benefit (gen.,

(tr.)

adorn;

ksanute) wound.

tanute) stretch, ex-

perform (a

spread abroad

If

sacrifice).

cause, bring about.

^'^j
+

loc).

+ t^X'^

visi-

ble.

^^w^^ (ksanoti^

make

exhibit.

known,

known, or

consecrate.

prepare, adorn.

+ ^if^^

+ ^TJ

HT^^ make

Verbs:

(tr.).

^^^ j blame, find fault "Sir (dusyati) be defiled.

with (ace).

?j^ (manute) think, consider.

tj"^^ put at the head.

'51'RT

pay, recompense; punish

(ace. rei,gen., dat.orloc.pers.).

^t^

Snbst.:

^ftriYf^

priest of a cer-

m.,

tain kind.

^I^^

m., fault.

ftfrf

politics.

m., progeny, descendant.

^*r^

m., king.

^fHTTTErn^-jpJan; view; opinion.

^1T^^

^^

f^fq

oRf^^
cfiTf^

n.,

breast.

name of a

m.,
f.

tribe.

n.,

^^^ ^-i

a certain

name

^TWfr^ fj

sacrifice.

of a tribe.

veil.

n.,

kitchen.

n., flesh.

V^cjTU n., salt.

^^^

charm, grace.

^TfcSfTPC -? astonishment.

^TJ^f^

conduct of

f.,

n., spice.

^"^fTT

ni.,

trade.

^^^J m., doubt.


cook.
;g^ m.,

life;

ethics;

Lesson

XXXVI.
^WK,

Adj.:

^5^,

o^,

f.

^^^,

f.

^,

W,

f'

og^^

f.

^^^,

blind.

s^,

o"^, necessary.

f.

^^,

knowing.

155

f.

W,
f.

dear.
false.

*>W, wrong,

o"^, good, proper.

o^,

ready.

enjoying.

Exercise XXXVI.

^%^^^r^

wrt:

^^ ^ -^^^t

R?

II

II

iT^^^: ^^ ^ftit^% ^^^: M


^Tf^^^T'i^S ^"^T ^T^ ^rwt^ ^^prrTTf^^^ ^^t^t%T^rfWT ^gf%T^4% ^fci^Mi^ ^TwrgTRT^^ ^
f^H^ff^ ^ ^rwgjRi^f^
I

ii

8.
9.

Mayest thou,

thy

friends and

harming thy enemies.


11.

What

thy friends even now.

12.

May

done me

a service.

the four princes

Cauiukyas

held

13.

By

the

according

sway

10.

Brahmans

16. If

Poss. cpd,

find

fault

thou didst (mid.), that distresses

recompense him

command
to the

(THT^ 5)

law (f^fv,
^"

(dat.)

who

has

of the great-king consecrate


instr.^.

Anahilapataka

By-the-charm-of-her-face the lotus-eyed eclipses

the moon.

(/)/.).

Great-King, protect thy kingdom, benefitting

with the trade-in- salt.

15.

ii

Every-year an Agnihotrin must perform the Caturmasya

14.

247

Tho

years.

(fd<^)

even

one consecrates a scholar, teaches him, makes


of.

374,

5.

156

XXXVI. XXXVIL

Lesson

him holy, then

one becomes his child (3TWT)-

this

wounded

of-the-Kaliiigas

his

enemy

the syllable if[


in the

72-class,

na

weak forms

of an ending the
400. Thus,
hrityi

^^]?

[TjfX

it is "if^

of

"if^

The

in

[Tl[f^

ni\

[T^

ni\

added

is

to the root;

but before an initial vowel

disappears altogether.

'buy': strong stem

(before a vowel, sflm

king-

class-sign is in the strong forms

accented, which

The

the breast with an arrow.

XXXVIL

Lesson
399. Terbs.

l'^-

"sflliil

krin'a^

weak

sfluH'

kriri).

Indicative.

Middle.

Active.
1-

^Wlf^

3.

"^fNiTf^r

1-

'^RR^'m:

Wt^lf^

"WhlftTT

oftu

2.

^^rWt^

^wtxsftffiic

^sfl^fld

whrra:

1.

sfNrrf^

^^T^

^WriT

2.

"^tWtff

3.

whaTf!

^Wff
wWrim: ^^55

1.

siTl^n^l*!

Imperfect.

Imperative.

^%
sfit^isg

sfhlftrTl^

RWrfT^=ic

^Tirici'R

'^hicrm:

Optative.

etc.

sR^WNt^

^^"^TR sfiW^

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

Participle.

401.

The ending of

the 2nd sing. imv. act.

and there are no examples of

its

omission.

is

ff, never f%J;

But roots of

this class

Lesson

XXXVn.

157

ending in a consonant substitute for both class-sign and ending in

^TRj

^TO (see
The

402.
class-sign

5f

^-

person the peculiar ending ^TT and; thus, "^T^T^, ^^T^f^

this

thus,

thus,

tji^TfcT,

"Q,

shorten that vowel before the

"^ft^.

The

^^

root

few roots which have a nasal

the present-system, lose

^Tfcf;

in

ending

is

weakened

to

^Tf^.

403.

402, 403).

roots

^^,

in the present;

it

^^TfTT; ^*r^ or

^^T

in

some forms

thus,

^^

or

^^TTf^. Similarly,

outside

^H(^,

H-

makes

WRTf?T.

404. Root-class.
itself is

also

In this class there

present-stem, and to

it

is

no class-sign

the root

are added directly the per-

sonal-endings; in the opt. (and subj.: 60, end) of course combined

with
it,

the

mode-sign.

The root-vowel

Roots ending in vowels.

405.
inflected

only in the active.

optionally take as ending

before

it.*

406.

1.

takes guna^

if

capable of

in the strong forms.

^f^

Thus,

'go':

Roots

In the 3rd

^^^

instead of

in "^T of this class


pi.

impf. act.

"^Ji^,

the

^J

they

are

may

being lost

11

Lesson

^T^
fTT

%"^

m.,

ni->

^^^fW

demon.

snake.

n.,

\^f^ right,

m.,

bride-

suitor,

who

dis-

of^^ knowing.

AdT.:

choice, privilege,

(^<ifci) ro-j

a snake -demon

n. pr.,

in

before,

^71^7^

m.,

TT-^) kindly

f^^ftfil, shrewd.

favor.
^!J^

high

posed.

groom.
2"^T

just.

(part of

TfM^

forehead.

(vara)

IcfX]

height, elevation

Adj.!

ra., sacrificial post.

^f^fj^

f.,

^T^ffiff* of to-day.

( 278) m., stirring-stick.

n. pr., a mountain.
^I^"^ m.,

"OT

159

position.

leading-rope, cord.

n.,

"T'SSp'l.

XXXYII.

the presence

of (w. gen.).

supports the earth.

Exercise XXXVII.

f fTTt

TJ^TT^fTT ^TTi^Tf^nfrf^H't

^f^^jgf^r^^win^:

^^? ^T^^^f^g

^3

ir^^

^^f^^

T^f^^^nT

^Wt TT^T ^ftl^R^^^Wtcr

II

II

^M

II

^^rf^^> f^ftcii^ <^


wrmf^
^
i

II

^^t

^^

f^WT 5^p^^^xTi^* ?T^T^ w^'R ^ ^^ fwr ^^T^5^^


"fmi "=551^7^ ^Vft^'TTT^
^I^ ^^ ^3^ ^TflT rf^T

xntTRRf m ^^inf^^Tf cH ^TT f^HTf^ ^ ^^^''T ^^J^r^^^T^r^SRW ^

^f?T

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

II

9.

Allow me

With

to

II

II

go now.

10.

Take

the suffix ffif (sometimes

these jewels which I have

^)

adverbs, especially of time; thus, Ifl^


'
of the morrow'.
"J^T^f^

are

made

adjectives

ancient', TrTfT^T

from

early',

60

XXXVII. XXXVIII.

Lesson

you

given

(pass,

11.

constr.).

Let the great poet weave


(T|^,

^IJ) a verse-wreath of word-pearls


thieves robbed the king's treasury.
gifts

from every one

the world

by

his will

is

(^'^|^

by

punishments.

(pres. part.)

en's

We

17.

of the house.

hani before the

16.

34.

alone.

saw

He who

13.

polluted (^"51

salvation to the gods' protection.

12.

(instr.).

Every-day two
receives (part.)

The Creator formed

Betake thyself (^J) for

15.

Let kings restrain the wicked

Rama's

coming out

daughter

Let the bridegroom grasp the maid-

18.

IB.

fire.

An Aryan

must not

neut. sing.).
other's leavings
(^3^-fijTBf, pass, part.,

an-

One must

20.

bathe daily in unconfined (part, from f^-^^^) water.

eat

the

May

21.

three-eyed god, the great-lord (t^T!) whose-forehead-is-adornedwith-the-crescent, protect you.

Lesson
407,

Verbs.

Eoot-class, cont'd.*

or an w-vowel (except

\^X,

before vowel-endings in
408.

Root

*go'

i.

e.

Roots ending

in

these into

^^

'go') change

weak

(act.,

*go over for oneself,

comes

XXXVIIL

forms,

when

an

^-

vowel

and

^H

not gunated.

but used in mid. with the prep,


'repeat, learn, read'; the

"^rf^f:

then be-

as above).
"S^^j

Indicatiye.

Active.

irftr

T^

Middle.

T'T^

wt%

number of roots belonging

syllable throughout, in

weak

of course in the imperfect.

^T^fNf

^wt^f

to this class accent the root-

as well as in strong forms

except

Lesson XXXVIII.

161

Imperfect.

1.

3.

cf.

augment

(for

179.)

wrtr:

^^

^i?

^f^

^w^tf

"^^

"^fi:

"^ctpr:

wr^^

^rr

^wmTR:

^^sr^^m

^^r^nf^

^^rmw

^?r^%

^^rer^^t

^rsrsrnrl

^^^

wt^^rm;

'wh^

Imperative.
1.

2.

"^^^
t^

^/tr;

Optative.

X^K

^tc, 3rd pi.

^\iHV^

^^^

etc.

Participle.

The roof^f^

409.

%%

^"^^

^fetc;

^^,

^^,

IJ^^

etc.,

^^f^, ^^^^EC

irapf.

imv. ^"^fTR,

410.

has guna throughout; thus,


etc.;

opt.

Other irregularities are the 3rd persons

I[^n^

part.

(raid.), *lie',

The

pi.:

indie.

^^cT-

irapf.

roots of this class ending in

^ have

in their strong

forras the vrddhi instead of the ^rwwa-strengthening before

an ending

beginning with a consonant.


411.

^ 'praise':

Thus,

Indicative.

Active.
1.

^"tf^

2.

^"tf^

3.

^M'cT

^^
^^

Mid.:

Mid.:

Optative.

Act.:
1.

Imperative.

^^.

T^^FT^

1.

"^r^ft',

Act.

^,

^rff

^"^

^^%

^^

pi.

^TT^
^^^
"^^^j 3. ^?ra^, 3rd

jmPR:,

etc.

Iff

pi.

^^^rf.

^^RTOt, ^f^,

'^,

"Jg^rTH

Perry, Sauskrit Primer.

"^^f

2.

"^RT^?^,
3rd

^"^

^%

^Tf^

^fRC

Imperfect.

^^ql..

Middle.

^H,

^^-rI

41^

l^ITR

etc.,

3rd

etc.

pi.

3rd

pi.

"g^fTm:.

etc.

Lesson XXXVIII.

162

Act.: ^r^?T,

Participle.

The

412.

when

f.

^^PT.

Mid.:

^cft.

root W, *say', takes the union-vowel Rafter the root

strengthened, before the initial consonant of an ending.* Thus:


Indicative.

Middle.

Active.

2.

^^\f^

3.

w^f?r

55^
wrra:

Act.: ^STW^J^'

Imperfect.

Mid.:

"^W^.

pl-

^i^.

^%,

Optative.

Act.

^Wf%, "^f5T^
^f, ^f^,

^^THR^

Act.

Participle.

tcfq^l^ signifies *self',

along with

seldom

it

^^

.f%

f ^T%

-^i^f

3rd

etc.;

^f5

etc.;

3rd

^W^cT-

pi.

^^g; ^^J^

W^?T

*own

Mid.

etc.
.

Emphatic Pronoun.

413.

ative,

^Tr%

etc.;

3rd

pl.

etc.

^15^
:

^wft^, ^^T^^;

Act.:

IniporatiYe.

Mid.

55
f ^f^

Mid.

The

self.

words of

all

W^^

etc.

WTI *T.
uninflected

pronominal

It is oftenest

persons

word

used as a nomin-

and numbers; but not

represents other cases also.

Vocabulary XXXVIII.

Verbs s

('^0

+ ^5R

+ f^

go.

+ ^fV

{adhite) repeat, read.

go away

(apaiti)

"^TPt approach.

"^^HF^ set (of

+ "^^
+ ^Xf

rise (of

Jf explain, teach

depart.

heavenly bodies).

heavenly bodies).

approach.

'^(bravUi^ brute) s^ieak, say, state.

announce.

explain, etc.

"^ (rauti) cry, scream.

+ f%

"^

scream.

{(^ete) lie,

+ llf^

sleep.

asleep on (ace),

(sute) bring forth, bear.

lie

TJ

bring forth.

(stduti) praise.

Special irregularities in this verb are occasionally met with,


Some of the verbs in
are allowed to be
^fiT, ^^Vf^.
inflected like W, but forms so made are rare.

such as

Lesson XXXVIII.
^rrf^^ m., witness.

Snl}st.:

name

fgtTm., n.pr.^ a

t^r^

of Buddha

ift^^T!^ m.,

TT^

m., question.

^^

^^"^

in-, n.

m.

ready.

diligent, energetic.

efi-^^Uf, f.

o^T, lamentable.

^tTT.

leaking, doing.

AdY.!

sense, understanding.

murder.

m., killing,

"'I'TI^^

OW,

^^"fll,

n.,

n.,

f.

^^TcT,

flower.

gxq

crane.

Adj.:

n. pr,

zrr^ m., logic.

^"if^

^-^ m.,

tongue.

f.,

163

on

down,

^^RC. below,

the

ground.

pr.

"^

companion;

f.,

wife.

Exercise XXXVIII.

^Vt^^^TVT^Wft?!:
( 264)

^f

cT

II

II

<^

^J^^fTf^^^ -ftr^Rf fJETT^V^ ^t

II

^ifiT ^T^Tfxir ^iT^t

II

^^^:

T^f ^^-^nf^ ^^Wt^^w^fecT^ ^f .si^^f^


^HTf^^tT^^ftT^f^^-R^*^ '^ "Rt^Rt:

j^^ftrf

^rf^%

^^g^ ^r^:

T^^r:

II

II

ii

11.

and
13.

The

II

II

II

II

-^^Nl^lf^

^rWt^-

II

II

ii

iff^i^Tr:

^^V^# TT^fHTT^rn:
<^0

followed-by-Sita,

went

(^

"Women whose-husbands-are-dead must

the ground.

seen-or-heard

14.

is

^rfecn:

II

three wives of Da^aratha bore four sons.

Laksmana,

^3^ft^

^ f%^ ^ f^^ ^^ ttT^tt

^^''Jt: 'Ri^T'qil iT^^%

ft^^f^ Q.
^T^t:
^^t ^f^ ^^TT^f^ ftW^%
^R^xif

II

12.

the

into

sleep six

Eama
forest.

months on

witness stating anything oiher-than-what-was-

to be punished (fut. pass. part.).

departs from one-who-has-done-penance.

IG.

15.

All guilt

One must not look

XXXIX.

Lesson XXXVIII.

164

the rising or the setting sun.

Why

hast thou

at (TT-'I'W

("^Srf^-T)

to-my-house with-wife and with-children?

Varuna'':

17.

19.

land the rich do not

sleep in

Roots ending in consonants.

3rd sing. impf. act. are generally dropped,

and the resulting root-final treated according

But a root ending

Cf. 239, 242.

finals.*

to the usual rules for

in

a dental mute some-

times drops this final mute instead of the added

person

in

and, on the other hand, a root or stem ending

times drops this


in

In a kingless

20.

XXXIX.

Root-class ^ cont'd.

The endings of the 2nd and

to

peace (^TT)-

Lesson
414. Terl)s.

the truth.

Always speak

come

"Praise

who was bound

thus the gods addressed Qunah^epa

the sacrificial post.

18.

the second
in

^ some-

instead of the added c^ in the third person:


the ordinary relation of ;^ and
in
c^

either case establishing

the second and third persons.

Roots

415.
c^,

^^
*

"^^

and

in

^ and ^^ substitute

(which then becomes

Xf^)

Root lf%^ *know,

those letters before

before

\^.

Thus,

(act. only):

Indicatiye.
1.

%1^

2.

"^f^

Imy.:

and

speak': "^f^, "^t^, '^f^ (only these three forms used).

416.

f%TT,

cR for

Imperfect.

ft^

ft?r^

^^^'l

f%(^^

1^?^

^^^

%^f^,

f%^^.

f^f^,

or

^^cC

%^; ^^^,

Opt.; ft^Tl^,

^'rf^^

^t^^

^ftTnRC

^ftTf

f^rT^, ftrlTT^; %^T^,

etc.

In the inflection of roots with final consonant, of this class and

the reduplicating and nasal classes,

euphonic rules find very frequent application. The student is therefore advised at this point
to read carefully the chief rules of euphonic change in Whitney's

Grammar,

139

232

(the

two

larger sizes of print).

XXXIX.

Lesson

165

This root also makes a perfect without reduplication (but

417.

otherwise regular) which has always the value of a present.

forms of the
Sing.
pi.

indie, are:

1.%^, 2.'^, 3.%^;

f%^,

1.

2.

3.

f^,

du.

1.

The

f%^.

2.

f^^,

3.

f%^^,

participle is

f^^^^;
f.

f^lfra:,

f^^

268).

(cf.

418.

The root

*eat' (act.), inserts "^ before the endings

"^51^,

of the 2nd and 3rd sing,


419.

The

inipf.

root ^i^,

'kill'

thus, '^1<^^, ^TT^c^.


(act.),

noun-stems in ^I^^ in declension

is

somewhat as are

treated

Thus:

( 283).

Indicatiye.

Imperfect.

1-

ifW

f^^

I^?I^

^^^fT^

^f^

^1^

3.

^f^

fc!^

^Wt^

"^f^

^fcHii:

^^ft

Imv.: f^rrf^, Wff*,

^<!^.

Opt.:

^Wm^

420. Roots in v^,

becomes

The

"Bf), If

f^; 1^^, f c!i^,

Part.:

etc.

"^

^irT^,

substitute

before c^ and

f.

fcT,

^ (which

then

^cR'.

before

(which become

(which becomes ^).

before \J

I^T,

fcTFi:;

'Z

and

Thus, f^[^ *hate'

"3),

and

(act.

and

mid.):

Indicatiye

Act.

Imperfect

Imv. Act.: "^^Tftr,


ft[^|fe. %ff; li^TR
421.

^^

^^^T%, ^^^T^;

'see' (mid.):

Pres. Ind.:

^Wi "^1'

Anomalous

dissimilation.

'^T^^-

Act,

etc.

^%,

^, ^;

^P^-- '^'^t^'

'q^'%,

^^R^l^,

166

Lesson
422.

with

1.

"1^, *rule' (mid.), inserts

and
'\^;

weak forms
423.

XXXIX.

thus, 2nd

sing. "I^fij^.

before endings beginning

"?[

2.

contracted to ^''l^; thus, 3rd.

?f3T

'

"^"^,

wish'

(act.), is in

pi. ^I[fitT

'rub', 'clean' (act.), has vrddhi in the strong forms,

and optionally also

in

weak forms when

the endings begin with a

vowel.

In the treatment of tbe root-final this verb follows

roots in

"r.

Thus,

ind. 3rd sing.

?rrfS? du-

^S^

pl-

the

T^f^

or

Vocabulary XXXIX.

Verbs:

own

l^'^ (iste) rule,

(w. gen.).

^C\ (casfe)+'^T relate;


+ qEJT explain.

call,

name

wipe away,

"^^

^^T
1^^^

eye.

m., destruction.
n.

2?r.,

m.,

^"=tT n.,

firf kill.

watch (of the

conduct.

"SJ^T

n.,

grammar.

f'?

hesitation.

^^

m., n. pr.,

^rl

n.,

f^ffTf

a name of

C^iwa.

iftT^m., sacred text; spell, charm.

"^T^

smite.

a name of (^Wa.

learning.

^3J m., creation.

compassion, pity.

\{^ m.,

know, consider.

oEJT^ m., n. pr., a Rishi.

%cf m., conqueror.


f.,

^fH

^41^'^^

lip.

n.,

do

(aparddhndti)

off.

m., decay, destruction.

^^

'W\

wrong.

f'l.+

Sub St.:

^^ m.,

TJ^ +

off.

l'f^^(vetti ; veda)

(mdrsti) rub, wipe.

'\^'%^

wipe

"^"^ (vdsti) wish.

f^^ (dves^i, dviste) hate.


+ Tf hate extremely.
iT5T

If

night).

f.,

condition, existence.

Adj.:

^T^)

f.

pable.

o^JT?

blameworthy,

cul-

XXXIX.

Lesson

167

Exercise XXXIX.

IT%ft

^^^Y^T^ ^ ^^#f?r

^^ ^Tn^ ^^t^twt^^^
^5^% ^^ X^^:
^
irf^^cft*

II

II

II

TT^cIT^r:

R^

II

II

11^ tT^ Trm: fti^^n-

II

^T?n f* tt t^ftc^mft?^-

5TTw^ f^g^^TO'if^t^in^rJn'^T^ ^t^s 8


ww^f ^ftwr
^T-'lf^ ^ ^ ^isr fli^^^f^^^i^-R Mil
f^:

II

II

II

^^^wnft

^r^Tf^ftr ^rfrr

^^HTTTt cfTt^^hf

f^^T

II

fif^^

( 374, 6) 1S(;^^

Ti^Tfi.

Hear

^tct^ ft?:

^^^^^g^

^T^raf^w

'^fT'gff^

^^^* ^T#

^T

II

tt

^ ^:

^^^W

12.

II

^T'^TtcT

^ftRl^^

Ii

'TT iftr

ii

part.) the-science of-grammar.

13.

ii

^f^-

iO

11

II

^^??fx?

^^ftTT^

11

words of the learned man who explains

the

ii

H^ f^^ H^ t ?-

II

^^

ii

Know

that

Rama

(ace.)

(pres,
is

the

son, famous in ihe-three-worlds, of Da^aratha, and the conqueror

of Ravana,

lord-of-Lanka.

14.

Having sipped (^-^5R[) water


15.

Two

warriors smote (^f^T-^'l,) with arrows the king-of-the-Ailgas,

who

thrice,

one wipes the

had murdered

their

lips twice;

according to others, once.**

(^ft) a teacher who approaches


17.

you.

^"g

CWl

Why
9^^-)

of-Pandu.
greatly,

learning-and-conduct?

The women

me

a Qudra, though know-

18.

Do

not hate the sons-

i(;^ose-8ons-i(;ere-dead,

wiped the tears from

over bipeds and quadrupeds

without hesitation even

(past. pass, part.) in order to kill

dost thou consider (ft^)

^y

19.

16. Kill

companions.

their eyes.

20.

having lamented

Thou,

(gen.).

Refers to false witness before a court.

Lord, rulest

An

untruth where

email beasts (sheep, etc.) are concerned, involves the destruction


of five ancestors ; where cattle are concerned, of ten, etc.
**

^f^^.

Lesson XL.

168

Lesson XL.
424.

Yerbs.

^T^

Root-class, cont'd.

*sit'

Indlc.

(mid.):

^%, ^#, ^%; ^T^letc;


"m^T^, ^TRT

^rrft,

'^Wt'T

indie,

Impf.
Part.

(unique).

425.

forms

^T^f, ^^f*, ^^rra%.


^%, ^TR^, "^1^1*1 etc.

IiuY.

etc.

The

with
sing.

"^n^T

Impf.: ^SrHT^W;,

du.

etc.;

^Jim^y

substitutes in the

(act.),

weakened stem

the

^?rf^

^ITTcI:**;

The extremely common

pi.

root

I[T^^.
*
be

"^^wf?!.

pi.

but 3rd pi.

etc.;

1^^,

weak
thus,

flj'Er^;

but 3rd

fij^?f^ etc.;

Imv- 2nd sing, ^jf^; 3rd

^^T^^426.

'command'

root "^JT^,

consonant- endings

'

(act.),

loses its

vowel in weak forms, except when protected by the augment.


2nd sing. imv.

2nd and 3rd

in the

in the

is TJfRif;

sing.

2nd

sing, indie,

one

;|^

is

The

omitted;

impf. f^ is inserted before the ending.

Thus:
Indicative.

Imperfect.

1.

^f^

^^

^^

^^

^T^

-^nw

3.

"^rf^

^^n8[.

^nf^

^^i^

^T^^

"^^

1.

"^^f^

^^W

Opt.:

2.

Tiftr

^m^
W^

Part.:

^r^

^rn^

^a

Imperative.

8.

427.
"^

and

^, ^

Roots

in "^ (except

f^^ and

T^TR

etc.; 3rd pi.

^itT^,

"g^)

f.

combine

into ^, and then lengthen preceding "^,


^,

becomes

^;

in

endings are dropped)

and mid.): Impf.

Or '^^.
See

414.

act.:

So

2nd and 3rd

the

^f^,

^TJ^

^^Tc|^

is

sing. impf.

becomes ^.

or

Thus,

'^^.

^cft-

with

^;

c^,

before

act.

(where the

f%^

'lick' (act.

^1%^,

^%Z; ^f^,

-411^*144^

(imv., impf).

^r^^J^;,

said to be used in 2nd pers. also.

Lesson XL.

169

428. In the two roots "5^, *milk' (act. and mid.), and

'smear'

the final

(act.),

represents an

"f

reappears in the inflection.

Thus, from

earlier guttural

^^:

Indicatiye,

2.

Vtf^*

3.

frfi^**
Ind. mid

Imperfect.

^3^^
1^^^

^3^

l^OrT
^f, '^%, ^3^;

f^^,
which

^^

"^^K ^'^

^^^

^fJ^T^

^^

^?rff^

Impf. mid.:

etc.

^^f,

^l^m^, ^fJ^J ^I^ff etc.; ^flirff. ^W^^, ^fcf.


^%, ^^, ^^^i^; ^fT^f etc.; ^flW|, W^t^,

Imv. mid.!

429.

The

roots

"^j

*weep', ^Tf^, 'sleep',

insert
^5^^, 'breathe' (all act.),

with a consonant, except

where thej

insert either "^ or

f?f^, ftf^f^

^t^,

or

etc.,

3rd

etc.

c^

of 2nd and 3rd sing, impf.,

Thus,

"|^.

etc.;

+ TT
^I^

3rd

Opt.: "^^T^^

(prdniti) live.

Pres. indie:

"5^-

^ft^, ^ft^

pi.

etc.

^^^.

Imv.:

or

"^Qt-

(^ being mode-sign).

XL

^^

^(^ {dniti) breathe.

"^5^:

Impf.:

Vocabulary
"Verbs:

'breathe',

pi. '^^^fifr.

^^5 "^^f^

^f^ff Ttf^fT

^Tfif,

and

^J^,

before all endings beginning

{dste)

+ "^m

sit

sit.

by;

wait upon; at-

tend; reverence.

(dsti) be.

*
cf.

**

244, 249.

When

the final sonant aspirate of a root

or yj of an ending, the whole group is


ation of the root-final is not lost, but
of the ending.

made
is

is

followed by

c|^

sonant, and the aspir-

transferred to the initial

Lesson XL.

170

^^

TT-ft (pravicdlati) move, f^TT^

stir (tr.).

TjjT^

+ ^T

(dogdhi, dugdhe) milk.

ift^

f'l

(jiimilati)

shut (the

+ f^

f^f
+

or

weep,

^T

(ledhi, lidhe) lick.

^^

WRl

breathe gently,

be confident, trust (w. gen.

loc.

of pers.)

+ ^^*

(uttisthati) arise.

lick.

^^Iff^ m., shoulder.

Subst.:

^X(^^
^"^

or

revive.

eyes).
'^1? (roditi)

approach.

command, govern.

(^gaste)

breathe.
"3^^ (gvasiUy

fl[^ (degdhi) smear.

^^

^TT

m., enjoyment.

Adj.!

m., hair.

\i^,

fifinir,

;^Tf n., gift, generosity.

o"^,

f.

f*

firm, resolute.

shrewd,

^rTj

maiden.

t?rrsr,

f.

^,

TT^TW m.,

n., club, pestle.

TTRtT,

"^T5 careless.

^f%f^

blood.

n^T

'^'^

f'

gii*l

n.,

right, proper.

Indecl. :

n., sacrifice.

^gf^rf m.

skilled.

n. pr.,

the sun -god

UTrlT

^^''ly> ^"

^^^

greatly,

*^ morning.

much.

Savitar; the sun.

Exercise

^^ ^^ ^^
trrw^Tc!:

II

After

^<^TH?^

for

II

^^T

f^^^

^q[,

^^^ TT^^^'^cJJ ^TfV

Tfqg

-^

fwftrr?T ffi^'R:

of

^J

the initial

^r^igi^.

XL

and

^p^

is

II

^nf?TII

^fr-

dropped; thus,

XLL

Lesson XL.

Wf

f^*f^ j^MNcdtsniiiH
^^^Rg^fft ^^T^T^^T ^m^ wci:

f^fr^^^
^^Tf^fiT

ftci; n

II

fiTf%

^fwr^H^cn:

II

^0

ttN

ftr^rr

^^: ^ri^% ^t
^^
^^>THt'ift^: g^T^^^^^fq
'^Tf^

II

f^nr:

wsr^

171

"^^-r^^^Tct

g nfw t%^

't

^ wt^ft

11

Q.

II

f <Trwf
^g^^

II

II

II

ii

ii

^?r^

^^ m^^: ^
ii

^^^^m^ ^

II

n. Long may the great-king govern the earth according


law.

There

12.

Virasena.

13.

was a mighty

The

the guest:

"where

his

wept

Know

girl?

18.

world

lives, is

bitterly

sleep during the night"?

that that

16.

daily.
17.

(KIJ^).

19.

20. If

Having

The

livest,

art thou,

and the whole

arisen in the morning,

you do not praise Rama, there

be no salvation for you (use ^(^,

Lesson

15.

The boy, beaten by

Whose daughter

by which thou

the world-spirit.

reverence the sun (^ftfT).


"will

son of

(TT''R)>

Let the householder say to

14.

tongue.

didst thou

cowherd milked the cows twice


his father,

Nala by name

king,

to

lion, satiated-with-the-blood-of-the-slain-gazelle,

mouth with

licked his

ii

in pres. opt.).

XLL

430. Terl)S. Keduplicating Class. This class forms the present-

stem by prefixing a reduplication to the root.*


431.
1.

the

rules governing the reduplication are as follows:

The consonant

first

pirate

The

is

of the reduplicating syllable

consonant of the root; thus,


substituted for an aspirate;

^, ^^
and

is

in general

But, (a) a non-as-

(b) a palatal for a guttural

Only a small proportion of the roots of

this class retain the

In the great maaccent on the root-syllable in the strong forms.


jority, the accent is on the reduplication, both in the strong forms

and

in those

weak forms whose endings begin with vowels.

Lesson XLI.

172
or

^;

f^f, f^f^f; ^,

\n. -^yiJ;

thus,

fsr^t;

Wif

the root

begin with a sibilant followed by a non-nasal mute, the latter

repeated (with observance of a), not the sibilant; thus,


2.

and

A
is

432.

long vowel

is

replaced by

T;

433.

^^

thus,

and

of this class lose the

impf. act. always take

of.

^\, f^H^?

the root-vowel in the strong

the 3rd pi. in the active as well as in the

434.

^^ above;

strong f^i^; f^H, strong f^j^^.

f^^^'t,

The verbs

guna; thus,

^T, <T^T

shortened in the reduplicating syllable;

The present-stem gunates

forms; thus,

is

^^,

i^;^

from the endings of

middle; and in the 3d pi.

before which a

iinal radical

vowel has

^f%^^.

Root W,

For 2nd and 3rd

'

bear, carry

'.

sing. impf. act.,

122, 414.
Indicatiye.

Middle.

Active,

l.f^Hf^

f^g^^

t^^^T^

f^^

s.ft^^f^

f^^^^

fH^Rl

1^^

Imperfect.

Imperative.

Opt. act.: f^^T^??^ etc.; mid.:

Part, act.:
435.
cal

^^^c^

Th<^ roots

( 259),

l^,

f.

f%^'^
f^rft;

etc.

mid.:

f^TW-

'give', and XVli 'puf, lose

vowel in the weak forms, leaving the weak stems

their radi-

^^

and

^TJ.

Lesson

XLL

In the 2nd sing. imv. act. they form


of

VT

is

as follows

^f^ and Vf%. The

:*

Indicatiye.

173
inflection

Lesson XLI.

74

f^?f^ and f^f^ before consonant-endings, f^T^ and f^f^ before


vowel-endings; thus, 3rd persons indie.

^ 'pour,

439.

imv.

1.

^,

*fear' (act),

f^^^^ or f%f^?TO;,

thus,

ashamed'

vowel-endings;

shorten

weak stem f^"^


Srd persons

thus, indie.

vowel

its

to

f^^fif,

sing.

^^5^*

in

weak forms;

or f^fJT^TTci:.

f^jfl^Tfi;

its

changes

(act.),

may

f^i^T%.

and mid.), makes the 2nd

3rd persons impf.


^^ftf[., ^^:FfrR^,

^^ftl;
440.

sacrifice' (act.

f^T^^, t?nn%,

2.

;f>,

fwf^^

'be

before

f^T^cl^* f^-

Vocabulary XLI.

+ "^Tput on

Yerbs!

1^

+ f^

(ddddti, datte) give.

+U
iVf

(dddhatiy dhatte) put, place.


close, shut.

n., safety; feeling

^'mi

m., demon.

rff^ m.,

of safety.

^^

n-,

m.,

^TfT^

(jihreti)

be ashamed.

one

f.

o|^,

ftftr^'

^-

divine.

^^> excellent, remark-

able.

possessions, wealth.
n., rest,

end of religious pupilage.

at the

^^,

n. pr.

in.,

lay on.

Adj.s

oblafion.

J{1J m., gazelle.

f^TT

formed the ablution customary

^^Zf

f-,

arrange, ordain.

l^T(y^^0 <l^^^-, abandon, neglect.

"^

Snbst.:

^T""RT

(mid.) take, receive.

+ ^I^ unite, put together

entrust.

+ ^ft

remainder.

who

has

Adv.:

^T?^

at evening.

per-

Exercise XLI.

^i^^^Tftr

f^firt*^ ^mr^Tftr f^% f^%

175

Lesson XLI. XLII.

^^ ^ f^Hft

^1<1

^^
^fxT

II

II

m'^ ITTrT^W^T^ 3T^f ^f^^^T^^^T^ ft^Tf% iTf eft 53frf?Tq'^ ^ftf^ ^

II

"I

II

I!

II

3^?r^5t ^^T^^^TrRf7T^^^Tl[T 8 -^T^T^ff^gTrc^*^


%^T ^?rf^^^^ ftr^^ ^(^ T7l'^<ft ^^'T: M f^f ^^II

II

II

fTf (voc. sing,

f.)

frmr

^^TfTT

^^g^i^f^%

^(ft

ace.

(part.,

The

Meeting a

woman

be not afraid ".

royal-sage,
brilliancy,

18.

II

^^^

^g^t
SO

ii

ii

^^f

^f?n-

^TIT^TlTri:

II

Ii

||

sacrificial

offerings into the


in

the

law-books

the forest, one should say to her: "Sister,

in

One who

16.

Do

takes (part.) roots-fruits-or-grain


17.

Let the two doorkeepers

not neglect the teacher's command.

who wore much


like the sun.

it^eiV-lessons are

ft^xf

^^TSTT^f cTl

his sons to Vasistha as scholars.

strange-field, is to be punished.

close the door.

^^ W?:^T

Let a Snataka carry (wear) a garland, and an

15.

umbrella-and-shoes,

from a

^^

forty sacraments

ordain

Da^aratha entrusted

13.

(^fff).

seers

II

^f^^Tf^f^

Let the Adhvaryus pour the

12.

fire.

ffj

t^

WFcfNt ^FfV

TTT^f^TTT'^^ 5^^rt
11,

^ITTc!: H

"iT

^c[Tf7r

pi.)

II

^f^^ f^^f ^T^^ci:H 11

^ftf?T

^'ratT'rf trf^ X7(ft

14.

<1

20.

jewelry,

The

ashamed before

19.

The

shone (f^-^) with great-

scholars who-have-not-learned-

their teacher (ace. or gen.).

Lesson XLII.
441.

sonants.

Verbs.

As

Nasal class.

class-sign

With the

the

they insert a nasal before the final con-

o^, are formed adjectives signifying


In the second line, 'bear
consisting of.

suffix ITEf,

*made or composed or
name' merely,

All roots of this class end in con-

i.e. are

f.

not in reality such.

Lesson XLII.

176

sonant, unless one be there already (as in

adapted to the consonant, except

expanded
442.

to the syllable

f [ijf],

The combination

in the

strong forms, where

is

is

it is

which bears the accent.

of the final

those of the personal endings

this nasal

^^);

radical

consonants with

accordance with the rules al-

in

ready given for the root and reduplicating classes.


443.

Thus,

^^^

strong stem

'join';

^f^, weak "g^.

Indicative.

Active.

Middle.

Imperfect

Imperative

Opt. act. : "g^i^rnt

Part, act.:
444.

Root

g^'fT^,

etc.
f.

mid. :

g^i(

etc.

^^cft; mid.: g^T^.

^(ra 'obstruct';

strong stem "^TJ^J,

weak

'^s^.

Indicative.

Active.

Middle.

^^^jTf^

^^^

^^=ra:

^^f

"ir^

^^f^

^^^

^^'^rt^

^'%

^^f^

^5^%

Instead of

g^F"?T^> "g^gri^, and the

(and more usual) to write

"iJv^.V'l^,

g^^

etc,

like,

also

it

is

allowed

^^^, "^^ etc.,

instead of '^'^1^ etc.; in each case omitting the consonant immediately following the nasal.

Lesson

XLIL

177

Imperative.

^wvTt^

^w^^ "^w^^

x^^

^XTOT^%

^f

^^rm:

^^'^WT^

^^mrlT^

^5^^

Imperf. act.: "^'^TJIV^, ^t|^0^


etc.

^I^fill
act.:

Opt. act.: ^^=12^1?^ etc.; mid.; ^i^^'^

f.

"^^cft;

^^5^:r^^,

445.

^^W^C?

^^^

Roots

ftjTET^,

mid.:

^nn^rmt

^5^rrm:
etc.;

etc.

mid.:

Part,

^5m^.

'grind, crush' (act.);

and

tl^j

'injure,

destroy' (act.):

Imperfect.

^fxRz

^cfe-m:

^fTT^

Ind. 2nd persons: frj^f^,

ff^. Imy. 2nd


446.

cT'^,

o^ -^rfwr^R; ^ff
ff^fW, ft^^

^ft^Ri: or

tw^,

t^;

persons: ftlj^f^^, fxfHT^, fTO;

crush'

(act.),

combines

ffllfj

fff^, ff^HF^,

with frf and

cT

into

r|%f% and ri^^.

Vocabulary XLII.

^^ (yundkti, yunkte) join

Verbs:
(inddhe) l^indle, light,

15[\J

fl^^

(chindtti,

chinddhe) cut, cut

off.

take away, remove.

"^3^

oTTI'^

exterminate.
(cans, stem)

+ f^

appoint, establish.

(rundddhi, runddhe) obstruct,

check; besiege.
(ginds(i)

f^|X^^

awaken.

leave,

+ f^

set apart, distinguish.

fire

^i^

(bhandkti) break, destroy,

f^ + ^r^

fif?

(bhindtti^ hhinddhe) split.

f^^

unite.

(fiindsti) injure,

(bhundkti^ hhunkte) eat, enjoy.

Perry, Sanskrit Trimcr.

leave

maining.

(pindsti) grind, crush.

Wlf

yoke,

harness.

''^^J

+ "^

13

destroy.

re-

178

Lesson XLII.

^f?^

Snl)st.:

^^^T

^^

condition, state.

f-5

Dawn.

^T^

tft"^ m.,

^^

high.

71"^ domestic.

ra., rice.

irRfefi^,

crime.

irrcTofi n.,

Himalaya Mts.

^T"^ suitable for Ksatriyas.

enemy.

m., bite, mouthful.

cT^^

m., the

Adj.!

^f^cT

eRTj^cR ni., thorn;

writing, copying.

f^'R'^rT

also personi6ed,

dawn;

f.,

Usas, the

n.,

^^,

<^T, unfavorable.

f.

"^j

f.

splendid, beautiful,

excellent.

grandson,

m., relative.

Exercise XLII.

^^
tff^

II

"^

ff ^f^
II

II

^fl^: in^ETf^TT

^ n

II

II

^^T

^TrPr

fft:

4^w:

II

II

^^TlTf^
11.

Tmurr

TT^ ^J^^ ^^^


^%^ ^^T^^T^^ ^ % f^

T% ^f^WT'R:

f^^f^nn^Tf^^^RTf^^c!:
^f ^cTTf^ ^T^Tf^ff f^% T^

ft^^trfTT

Wt^rJ^T^Tr ^^^fT ftWt!?^

*rfTTr^^^^^
^T^ff^

%m**

^Tfi;

ii

ii

II

^T'*

^^1"

^tf^f^fHTf^^^n^^t

mcTTf^^T^^q^
^r^ X'^^ ^"^ M
II

II

II

^^^

^ft Tif?i^ f^f^fti^rft


fllTif^
^5^* ^^t

f^^

^R fxTTT^^ ^^^f
cT

^^

^T^ f^^lf^5^ f^^:

II

qo

II

After Jayasinha bad long besieged Girinagara, he destroyed

The antecedent of

this relative is the subject of ^'^T'^fiT*

Translate as though dative.

179

Lesson XLIII.

(^^)
month

it

at last.

(loc).

An

12.

ascetic shall eat only 240

13. "Kindle the

fire;

mouthfnls in a

branches

cut

firewood

for

(^TRT^^T^); milk the cows; grind grain": thus said one priest
to another early in the morning.

Himavant

with

its

teacher entrusted

(fif-^lf

of the books {cpd.^ dat.).

the scholars with the copying

mountain -ra7?5'e

The

14.

checks

16.

exceedingly-high peaks.

course

the

The

of

15.

the

doers-of-right

are happy in Heaven, enjoying the fruits-of-^Ae/r-works.

king

who has conquered

the royal-family.

18.

must

a foreign realm

time-of-the-wedding.

Women

pounded

clouds
(o|Ki[)

17.

not exterminate

Aryans must kindle the domestic-fire


19.

The

the

at

the rice with pestles.

Lesson XLIIL
447.

Terbs.

Perfect-System.

In the later language the perfect-

system comprises only an indicative mode and a participle, each


both active and middle.
verbs;

its

characteristics are:

and weak forms;

3.

1.

essentially alike in all

is

reduplication;

2.

distinction of strong

endings in some respects peculiar;

quent use of the union-vowel


448.

formation

Its

Reduplication.

i.

1. Initial

cording to the rules given

4. the fre-

in Less.

consonants are reduplicated ac-

XLI

for the reduplicated

pre-

sent-stem.
2.

Medial and

final

vowels, short and long, are represented by

the corresponding short vowel, diphthongs

but

(or '^X)

is

represented always by "^,

reduplicated present-stem.

3.

Initial

Thus,

^, followed by a

(through ^-"^); thus, '^^,


4. Initial

by

and

1^,

their

second element

never by

'''^^^'y

as in the

^T, cT^T; "ftl^^

single consonant,

becomes

^T

^^

follow the same analogy; but in the strong

180

Lesson XLIII.

forms, where the root-vowel


protected from combination

^^

strong perfect-stem

^^'^

strong

(u-voc),

is

gunated, the reduplicating vowel

(i. e.

^"Cf

thus,

i-is)

^^,

^'q;^ (u-uc).

make

not in general

the ordinary perfect-system,

a periphrastic formation (see below).


the constant perfect-stem

making

"^ show

or

or

Roots beginning with vowels long by nature or position do

5.

weak

(i-y-es)

^[^TSf

weak

the insertion of

by

is

449. Strong and


the root-syllable

But "^T^

^T^j and

weak forms.

In the

an exception,

a few roots with

anomalous reduplication '^\'\

the

but use instead


is

initial

in the perfect.*

three persons sing. act.

accented, and exhibits usually a stronger form.

is

As

regards the strengthening:

and

in those with initial

In roots with medial vowels long by nature or position,

1.

the difference of strong

^,

and weak forms

does not appear, except in accented texts.

Medial and

2.

initial

strong forms; thus,

^%^

f^f, w. f^^f^,

Tg^, w. ^'q;,

Medial

3.

vowels are gunated,

s.

^^^

s.

possible, in the

if

fti^f

T\, w.

tx^,

s.

( 448, 4).

before a single final consonant

is

vriddhied in the

3rd pers., and optionally in the 1st; thus, from


in 1st sing,
Xf^,
either
4.

XJXT^ or XIXJT'^, in 2nd ^^'^^ in 3rd TIXTP^.

final

vowel takes

either

guna or vrddhi

guna

in the 2nd, vrddhi in the 3rd; thus,

U%

2nd fil%, 3rd fi|%.

450.

adds

^
451.

The root

from

in the 1st person,

if^,

in 1st tiT% or

makes, irregularly, the perfect-stem ^^, and

before a vowel-ending.

Some

roots, instead of strengthening the vowel in the

*
The grammarians prescribe (doubtless falsely) this reduplication for all verbs beginning with
or
followed by more than

one consonant.

Lesson XLII I.
strong forms, weaken

weak forms; some few

the

in

it

181

See below.

both.

The

452. Personal Endings.

perfect-endings are these:

Middle.

Active.

1.

vd

md

vdhe

mdhe

hthe

dhve

dte

re

2.

tha

dthus

se

3.

dtus

us

But roots ending

The "i;^

2.

The

sing, act.; thus,

Sanskrit usually joined to the base by the unionthe use of

for

rules

of 3rd pi. mid. always has

other endings beginning with

But

in nearly all verbs.

from *^)

by eight verbs:

2"J 'choose', "^ 'run',


3.

and 3rd

are as

1.

it

1st

The endings beginning with consonants

The most important

vowel ^.
follows

a take du in

in

453. Union-vowel.
are in classical

take

even do

For

its

viz.

'hear'

it is

before

consonants, except ^,

rejected throughout (except

1^ 'make',
"^

it.

'praise',

'bear',

llj

'go',

^flow'.

use or omission in 2nd sing. act. the rules are too

complicated to be given here.

With the union-vowel

454.

combined into ^, but becomes


precede)

^''ST

from

thus,

Examples of
455.

I.

Boots in

dhied vowels become

an ending.
Thus,

f^^YT,
firf^irR,

3.

^,

or

final
(if

radical

or

f" is

not

more than one consonant

fiffilj^ ni-ny^i-va.

A. Roots in final vowels.

The

%'.

and

"^ST^

a
or

Tf

inflection.

TJ

^T^

and

^ of gunated

and vrid-

before the vowel beginning

See also 454.


1.

ift:

f^^T^;

Act.: Sing.
du.

1.

1.

fiPRI or f^^T^,

f^f^^,

2.fil^,3.f^^;B: Mid.:

2.

fif^^^,

Sing.

Lfif^,

3.

2.

f^wTf^^

f^^g^;

2.filf;ij^,

pi.

or
1.

3.fil^;

182
du.
3.

Lesson XLIII.

1.

fiRn^,

f^RTT^;

3.

pi. 1.

-^i Act.!

f^^T^;

du.

456.

1.

II.

t^f^f^^,
3.

Roots in

453,

3.

2),

457. V{

is

or f^W\'^.

2.

f^ftj^^,

3.

1.

gig^

du.

1.

or

2.

g^T^,

g^,

2.

^^^

"^^f%^

^^^^ ^^

3.

^^^

^^^ ^^^

(Cf. 450)

Roots

in^.

AAA

459. If the final


the formation

460.

the

2.

3.

^^'

^^TTT;

with

or

TJ

^T

is

"tZITj

^,

V,

^:

^^

^f^"^ ^^f^^l

^^f^t

^^^T^
^^^T^

^^^

^^^^^
^^^^^

1|J (see 453, 2):

^^ ^^%

2.

^X:

as follows:

The
or

^,

1.

other roots in

^f^

"^ make the

^^^TTT^ ^ftlW, ^[ftlH;

^T

the

^W,

^^"R^,

"^ being

2.

^^^,

gunated.

(including those written by the natives

These take

"^"^ in 1st

and 3rd

before vowel-endings and ^.

^^^ ^
^g^ ^^

and similar

or

^^"^

etc.

^r^fr^j ^^T^^.7

^ or ^).

is lost

^ be preceded by more than one consonant,

IV. Roots in

^\JT^, ^ftPT

1.

W, ^, 2^ 'choose'.

persons thus: from

first

3.

^^'T

^^^^ ^^

also

gsf%^

Middle.

^^

So

f^-

pi. 1.

g^^^^, 3.g^^g^.

irregular in the perfect.

^cfi^

f^%^,

etc.

2.

III.

^^;

"g^lr^ (not

Active.

458.

t^?Jif^^ or

2.

t^ftrg^.

g^^;

Act.: du. i^r^ft^

2.

fiff^i^,

^ or ^ follow the model of the last- mentioned.

Thus, "^: Act.: Sing.


see

1^^^

1.

Sing.

f^fti^,

fliff^?r, 2.

1.

2.

fiff^iTf,

f^m*^.
2.

3.

2.

fiTf^f,

roots,

make

1.

^^
^^
their

sing, act.;

and

l^TT:

^^^
^^^

^ftl^

^t^*^
weak forms from the

183

Lesson XLIII.
simpler root-forms

from

^;

thus,

^ etc.; and ^
^^^ etc.

tJV,

^^^

or

makes

strong forms also

its

B. Roots in final consonants.


461.
1.

grft^
du.

^f^^
1.

from

etc.

^^T^

etc.

'^TR'N'^
463.

f^:

initial

1.

^^^,

f^ft^^
2.

f%H^;
or

^^ftf^

fM^-

So from

2.

etc.

du.

^^H,

g^:

3.

^^;

1.

if^^,

3.

t^g^J

3.

The

3rd.

TOwel capable of guna.

f^^,

1.

Sing.

III.

2.

1.

pi.

^^f^^,

k^T{,

2.

^^^;

3.

3.

i;^,

du.

2.

t^^-

^3^:

root ^, 'go', also follows this rule, forming


4.

^^^.

pi.

With

^^

^wf^

464.
1.

Mid.!

etc.

3.

''^^ makes

(see

448

5)

^i^,

etc.

^ra;,

makes

With

t^^^'

^q^T^

f^i^, 2.f^iff^^,

etc.

II.

^^

1.

f^f^f^^

pi.

etc.; 3.

462.

2-

Act: Sing.

f^^:

Qic,

f^^

With medial yowel capable of guna.

I.

initial

etc.;

etc.

^.

^^,

etc.

^rr^

But

"'?p^

(originally

^H;)

( 448, 5).

IV. With medial ^.

^^m.: Act.: sing.

Mid.!

du. ^sfifiT^ etc.

Thus

all

1.

^^PR

'^^

or ^"sRTH,

2.

'^^ftT^,

3.

^^CWW'^

etc.

such roots beginning with more than one consonant,

or with an aspirate, a guttural mute, or ^.


465.
final
is

2.

Roots

in

medial

before

a single

consonant, and beginning also with a single consonant which

repeated unchanged

a guttural,

with

general having

TJ

as

i.

e.

not an aspirate,

or ^ contract with the reduplication into one syllable,


its

vowel, in the weak forms; and this

when

in

2nd

8.

TJII^ and qill^, w.


*

in the reduplication

sing. act.

the union-vowel

is

is

allowed also

taken.*

Thus, H'^,

%^:

Several roots not having the form here definod are said to
undergo the same contraction, most of them optionally.

184

Lesson XLIII.

^^^

"^f^^

TTtl^^,

^2^

-qxrr^

466.

and

"^

'^f^'^

"^^T^

"^f^^

^^

^%

^^w

"^f^T

Certain roots beginning with

3.

one root just mentioned, with ^), and abbreviate the

root to

initial

weak

(X) ^"

forms.

persons.

^;

"^I^^.

qf

also

^ or ^^f^T5f,
-^JW

3.

Act. sing.

1.

Mid.

du. '^[fgr^ etc.

467.

'^TT^

"?;^^ or

^%

^f^"^

du.

^T^,

(the

(^) of the

^^

^"w[^,

(u-uc-i-va) etc.
2.

Mid.

or ^^flj^,

jyi^

and

'dwell',

or ^^"H",

"^^^

i.

the strong

2.

^^-

Bi%

3.

etc.

^^^;

etc.

Several roots which

4.

"^T^,

Act. sing.

^^:

Thus,

are treated like roots with

They

retain the full root form in


(^: 463) but

These roots are ^t^, "^^,

^ ya)

va (also one with

cf

one consonant, reduplicate with the syllable

ending in

have medial "^ between single

consonants, but cannot follow the rule of 465, drop out the

These roots

from the weak forms.


^l.'

^^'

'II.'

follow 465.

and

^^

I'Tv'

5.

The

forms.

469.

and only

^"^^,

3.

1.

roots

^"p^^ etc.

etc.,

and contract

Thus, strong

in the following
pi. 3.

'^T^fT^;

2.

The

^X(^, and one or

^"^,

The root ^^,

of the present.

^^, ^7^, W^ ^^;


^i^^

makes

its

and o|^n^

cate from the semivowel,

weak

which might be expected to

^^

Thus, ^?5lf or ^^H'R

the classical language,

are, in

They form the weak stems

strong stem ^f^TT^


468.

^"^ ^^^^

^"C^n;^

or

speak',

and

^tcf m^,
is

forms: sing.

two

others, redupli-

"^ to

and "^

in

weak ^^J^.

found only in this tense,

2. ^|(V!|, 3.

'^^;

du.

2.

"^1-

Hyi^'f^. These forms have only the value

root

if^^, ^know

',

makes a

perfect without

reduplication, but otherwise regular, which has only present- value ;

see 417.
470.

2f^,
The

*find',

forms the regular f^^'^.

roots f^, t^c[^, f^, and f^, form as perfect-stems

f^ftR, f^f^fi:, f^Or, and f^t%T.

Lesson XLIII.

Perfect participle.

471.

active is

"^t^ (mid. ^f^, w.

When

fect-stem.*

this is

1.

The ending

Active.

^5(^),

185

which

added

is

of the pf. part,

monosyllabic the union-vowel

(but not in the weakest cases, before '^^).

f^^\

strong stem of

^^=^t^,

f^KT^
2.

which
voice;

^' "3?^!^'

pf. part,

^flr^ft;

etc.;

2f^^,

Middle.
is

The

f^t^^^^'

weakest only

al^;;^^]^^,

from

tj^,

from ^'q;,

"^^TSrj

fr^ni

f^fn^i

"P^iri^'

per-

inserted

^f^^T^, 'Srf^^, ^^^j


^f^^t^, ^f^^. ^5\. But, from ^, fi^ft^, fiT-

^qf^^t^, qf^^ct,

^^ci;.

is

from ^[^

a.

Thus,

strong stem of part. Ifqcfi^, mid. ^f^^cj^, w. %g'^

from ^T,

weak

to the

or

The

^-

or

wfr^T^

or

Similarly, from

^^^,

^f^^i^

or

ftf%^

pf. part,

middle

^VS ^^^T^;

^T,

>

SUV*

c.

'

lf%^,

know

',

makes

etc.
is

added to the weak stem as

thus,

^ITC.

mid.

51^;^, ^^^^.

'find',

root

t^^, f^makes as its

Wl^t^,

^fr^^t^

ofTTT'?.

^^^"^

gi^' m^s5

made with
this

^^'^X[\:^\
N

the suffix

^TTj

appears in the middle

^> f^"R;

^,
'^^FTO;
tf

Periphrastic Perfect.
472.
sition
is

Most roots beginning with a vowel long by nature or po-

adopt a periphrastic formation

in the perfect tense; the

same

also taken by the secondary conjugations, and optionally by a

few primary roots not falling in the above category.

It is

made

as follows:
473.

To

the accusative of a derivative noun-stem in

from the present-stem which

is

"^, made

the general basis of each conjugation,

are added, for the active, the perfect active forms of

eft

or

^S[^^ (or,

very rarely, of W); for the middle, only the perfect middle forms

Mechanically, the weakest participle-stem


n instead of ^).

the 3rd pi. act. (of course,

is

identical with

Lesson XLIII. XLIV.

186

Thus, from ^tTT^rf^*

of

^.
from

^,

the perfect

In classical Sanskrit

meaning with the imperfect, as a tense of narration,

coincides in

less often

is

'^t^l'^^T;

o"*

i;^^T^%.

474. Force of the Perfect.

but

^T^'TT^

pf-

met with.

Lesson XLIV.
475. Verbs.

two

futures: I.

The verb has

Future- System (and Conditional).

The

simple, or s-future, which

is

and much more common, than the other; and

by

far the older,

the periphrastic

11.

future.

476.

and a

I.

participle,

The

verbs.

directly, or

The

This tense contains an indicative mode

Simple Future.

active and middle.

tense-sign

is

^ (in

root has the ^wwa-strengthening

^ gunate

precisely

like

-conjugation
477.

of the

thus,

from

is

with

that

When ^

478.
^^rfif;

when

1.

:jj,

^;

The

X^)some roots

inflection is

^f^^f^T,

of the

*>^.

not taken, final radical consonants suffer the

"^"^fcT; fs^,

the inflection of the root-

in

Thus, from

^^ft- The root ^^

Most roots ending

TT, TT^^rRl; f^,

take

possible; and

present indicative of a verb

or reduplicating or nasal class.

%^f^; f^^,

all

the latter case becoming

instead of %J^.

same changes before "^ as before


class

made from

be

may

the syllable "^, added to the root either

by the union-vowel

with medial

It

in

vowels

reject

%^f^; ^, ^lyRr.

thus, ^, cRf^;^cT;
and
(irftT^rft)
^(VlftflErfTr).

cT,

3.

^;
2.

^%

Vt^f^Tj

'

dwell',

thus,

But

all

makes

^ffj,

rrf?:^f?f ; and also the roots


"^I^

makes ^Tft^f?r.

^-

roots in

Lesson XLIV.

187

In general, the verbs which take

479.

periphrastic future (see below), take

accordance

is

it

in the infinitive

and

But the

also in this tense.

from complete; and these parts should be learned,

far

as a matter of usage, for any given verb.

Stems of causative

480.

make

their future-stems in

481.

Participle.

The

and denominatives

inflection,

^f^"^;

thus, ^X^,

participles, act.

^"^f^T^fTf.

and mid., are made from

the future-stem precisely as from the present-stem; thus,

^^*TT^;

^'^Tcft),

(f-

^PfT,

^^,

in

^,

;^-

Cf. 260,

f, ^fr^TnTi ^lifX^m^.

262.

482. Conditional.
is

made from

perfect

is

tense called the conditional (indie, only)

the stem of the simple future precisely as the im-

made from

the present-stem,

Thus, '^r^^J^, "^^fx;^!^;

and similarly

inflected.

it is of

extremely

^^T#, "^^fr^-

rare occurrence.

483.

II.

be made from

all

active participle, to the


1st

is

allowed to

verbs, contains a single indicative tense, active,*

formed by the nomen agentis

It is

This tense, which

Periphrastic Future.

nom.

and 2nd persons of

in Tl,

sing, of

having the value of a future

which

(cTX)

are added, in the

numbers, the corresponding inflected

all

forms of the pres. of 1^?!^ *be'.

In the 3rd persons the nomen

agentis is used alone, in the proper

number, without the auxiliary.

484.

The

suffix

^TTfT;

f^, %fT;

485.

root has

which

The

it

in

most cases the same form before the

takes before

the 7T?^

of the

^, ^tg; ^, HftcT; ^, ^^;

infinitive.

Thus,

^i^RT, ^T^rf^fT.

inflection is then as follows:

The Hindus

also prescribe a middle formation

ever, practically no existence.

it

has,

how-

188

Lesson XLIV.
assumes a weak form

but three or four roots in

Thus, ^str:, ^t?c!;; im^,

^^^;

^^,

'^Tci:;

^^,

^^;

^,

189

^?nT^;

^^,

'^nr^tt;;

^ take guna.

final

^^^

^^^

^'i;, ^^ir^?:;

irregular: T^T,
^^Hfi;.
^f^^; 2^^

^T, ^^<l; HT^,

^^t-

'throw',

makes ^^^c^, and "gcl^, "^q"^, which,


"^^^
with one or two others, were doubtless originally reduplicated

^f^^ (anomalous).

aorists.

489.

ir.

others in that

not formal, as the aorist

from the

root.

Its

in

is

'^3i^^,

as

all

deriv-

the.

The connection

its aorist.

made from

not

from

differs

has come to be attached nearly always to

it

ative (caus., etc.) conjugation


is

This aorist

Reduplicated Aorist (3).

the stem in "^^, but

characteristic is a reduplication,

of quite pe-

culiar character.

The

490.
skrit,

and

or two of

reduplicated aorist

formation.

its

in

classical

makes ^41^lc[^

Thus, ^fi^

The

^rfM^"^-

"5Iir^; ^^Tj

very unusual

is

will be sufficient for the present to give an

it

inflection is the usual

San-

example

^^T"^, "^Tft-

one of imper-

fects of the a-conjugation.


491.

The

tense-stem

usually has
^J{^, 2.
pi.
3.

1.

vowel strengthened.

its

^%XJT,
du.

2.

2.

492.

(5)

iftci:;

2.

3.

2.

The

f^r^,

3.

1.

The

augmented

2.

Mid.: sing.
3.

which

root,

sing. 1,

"^H^,
1.

s- aorist.

^^f^,

2.

-^^^Tcn^;

(mid. only): sing.

^%-

^^FR;
^%T^,

3.

pi. 1.
1.

'^-

"^Sl^fx^,

etc.

rVaorist.
inserted

^.

Act.: sing.
-^^^purify':
du.

^%T^,

^W

(4)

"^: Act.:

g.

^^^T^-m;,

3. "^1^;^^.

^W^

to the

E.

1.

^^g^.

^?R^ff,

1.

3.

du.
-^I^Mlri^;

^%5,

by means of an
E.g.

3.

"^^I^,

-il^cNI^,

made by adding

is

^%^^^,

^%^;

''Sirff,

2.

Sibilant Aorist, of four varieties.

III.

ISRTf^^,

2.

The

tense-stem

The
1.

root

is

1.

made by adding

generally strengthened.

^qrf^^^,

^qif^^l^.

Mid. sing.
f^g^.

is

3.

^mf^,

2.

^^Rl^,

o^rf^;
2.

pi.

3.

i.

Iffqif^^T^,

^trr-

of^x^,
3.

^-

190

Lesson XLIV.
du.

TTlf^;
2.

of^T^ff,

2.

3.

This
ofcmct-

in the

secondary and

f^r?'l^

made

1.

oftTT^^,
is

An

being of the s-form.

^JXf%^W^
494.
3.

The

pi.

I.

of^^rff,

which forms arc

denominative conjugations
^jpij, cf.

(but

for

489).

active only, the corresponding middle

example

sa-aorlst.

^f^; and so on^

will suffix here,

like

"m:

sing.

1.

"^-

Act. sing.

2.

o^^,

an impf. of the a-conjugation. But

in the

f^^:

mid. the grammarians prescribe the

1st. sing,

1.

^f^^j^,

^f^f^, and 2nd and

^fi[^T^*t: and OfTm;.

3rd du.

Generally the middle forms of aorists

495. Aorist Passire.


5, or

orTT^;

quite like the inflection of the ts-aorist.

etc.,

(7)

is

3.

the only'aorist of

cauBatives and denominatives in


493. (6) The ses-aorist

XLV.

are used also for the passive.

7,

may make them

arily take aorists of these forms,

4,

Roots which do not ordinlike

4 or 5 espe-

cially for the passive.

But a 3rd pers.

496.

sing.,

of peculiar formation, has become

a recognized part of the passive conjugation.


ing

some cases by guna,

strengthened, in
final

^^

is

added

^^, ^WTf%;

formed by add-

which takes also the augment, and

the root,

to

It is

^Sf.

but

in

is

usually

others by vrddhi.

After

^, ^^\U\; ^, "^^ift; |, ^^ift;


^?r^; J^. ^^ft; ^T, ^^Tf^.

Thus,
^?^,

Lesson XLV.
Derivative or Secondary Conjugations.

497.

Secondary

conjugations are

system of forms, more or

those

less complete, is

in

which

made from a

whole

derivative

conjugation-stem, this whole system being usually connected with

a certain

definite modification of the original radical sense.

conjugations

are:

IV. Causative.

I.

Passive.

II.

V. Denominative.

Intensive.

III.

These

Desiderative.

XLV.

Lesson
498.

The

Passiye.

I.

191

present-system of the passive has been

described; as also the peculiar 3rd pers. sing, used as aor. pass.,
the past pass, participle in

In

or gerundives.

and the

f,

fut. pass,

participles

necessary, with passive meaning.

if

used,

or

cf

other parts of the verb middle forms are

all

499.

The

Intensive.

II.

or

intensification

intensive conjugation

repetition of the

the

primary conjugation of a

Forms

root.

the

signifies

action expressed

by the

outside the present-system

are too rare to need notice here; indeed, even within that system
they are by no means

two

fall into

500.

common

of the

first class

tensive-stem by reduplication
a.

strengthened,

and
h.

t^

later

with \,

Radical

(only act.) form their in-

and the reduplicating syllable

and

^ and ^ with ^;

Sometimes the reduplicating

reduplication

is

thus,

"^^^, ^T^, %^v

consonant of the reduplicating syllable;

The model
class,

of inflection

is

^^^

syllable has a final consonant, taken


c.

Sometimes the

an t-vowel being inserted

dissyllabic,

is

are reduplicated with "^, ?[

from the end of the root; thus, ^^^1^, ^JT^

final

Intensives

language.

classes.

The verbs

1.

in the

thus,

after the

"^^jlc^c^^.

the present-system of the reduplicating-

but deviations are not rare; in particular, an

sometimes

"l^is

inserted between stem and ending.


501. 2.

another
It

From

the intensive-stem as just described

formally identical with a passive-stem

may be formed

by the

suffix "^.

takes middle inflection, but has no passive value, being used

precisely as is the intensive just mentioned.

502.

few intensives

to be used as presents,

as simple roots.

assigned
impf.

1.

to

having

Thus WTT,

"^T^^t;^,

TfTlflT^.

come

and are treated by the native grammarians

the root-class
2.

Thus, WoT

lost their value as such,

really

pres.

"gR^I^T:,

SH^iIh
3.

of

intensive
etc.

"^flTPn:;

du.

^"-

*wake',

^j^M^

"^^T^^

etc.

is

etc.

So

Lesson

192

^ 'run',

also rfl^j'T, intens. of

'be poor',

f^^

XLV.
used as a present with the sense

and some others, use the

'wash',

present -system in the same

way, and are assigned

duplicating class; thus, 3rd sing. ^%flTi 3rd

pi.

intensive

to the

re-

%f%^fcT.

Intensive forms outside the present-system are very rare.


503.
the

for

Desideratiye.

III.

or

action

By

this conjugation is

denoted a desire

denoted by the simple root;

condition

thus,

flj^lfrf 'I drink', desid. fxTTT^f'T 'I wish to drink'.


504.

To form

the desiderative-stem the root

and adds ^, sometimes


is

The consonant

is

reduplicated,

of the reduplication

determined by the usual rules; the vowel of reduplication

if the

root has an a-vowel,

has an w-vowel.

505.

stem

Thus,

'?n,

number of

The

2s-form;

^,

^,

^ f^t?I;

f^c^fif.

is

perfect

the periphrastic.

The

^f7ff?Tf^^.

The

thus, %"qj, ^"P^TEjf(^;

with the auxiliary vowel ^; thus, ^f^^iSlffr,


verbal nouns are

is

the root

if

is

that

like

of

Outside of that desiderative forms are quite in-

The

ever taken.

^, t^^fW^T;

conjugation in the present-system

other a-stems.
frequent.

f^T^rf^T;

and

roots form an abbreviated desiderative-

thus, ^^RH;, "I^T^^flT;

506.

an e-vowel, or

made with

passive

to be obtained';

may

5|[

in all forms

be made; thus,

aorist

of the

is

futures are

made

^f^TTlf^.

The

where that vowel


i^<-'^"^

'it

is

desired

is

part ^'H^Tf.

The present-system
already. 2. The perfect is

507. IV. Causative.

has been treated of

1.

of the causative
the periphrastic,

the derivative noun in ^TT being formed from the causative-stem;


thus,

^"^^t

^fi1T'

2-

The

aorist is the reduplicated,

made

in

general directly from the root, and formally unconnected with the
causative-stem; thus, ^, ^^J^V^TT' ^'^^S^'^' ^ * ^^^ instances,
where the root has assumed a peculiar form before the causativesign, the reduplicated aoiist is

made from

this form,

not from the

LXV.

Lesson

simple root; thus, 7^1,

made from

^;

the

'^^T'Q^^rfTf,

causative-stem,

futures, in

^m

replacing the final

The verhal nouns and

5.

inf-

same

in the

part from the causatively strengthened


fut.

root-form; thus, pass. part. "^f%<T;


ffTqf^cf^, ^TT2?;

5|[

^oth futures are

formed from the causative-stem

adjectives are in part

as the

^-

^f?ff%fl<t.*

the auxiliary

thus, ^rrrf^^fTT, ^TTf^TcTrf^.

manner

193

^t^t^^;

gerund

(gerundive)

pass. part,

^TT^f^T, ^^TW,

^'l-

( 310).

508. Cansatiye passiye and desiderative.

from the causative-stem as follows.

by adding the usual passive sign

root, the syllables ^"^J being omitted

ative-stem

is

made by

^|[^,

thus,

f^^TTTf^^f^? f%HT^f^^f?T-

formed

is

thus,

\Tr^%-

The

2.

desider-

and addition of the syllables

replaces the final "^ of the causative-stem;

V. Denominative.

This

is

a rare formation.

denominative conjugation
In general, the base

that has as basis a noun-stem.


the noun-stem

These may be made

The passive-stem

to the causatively strengthened

reduplication

of which the

509.

1.

is

is

one

made from

by means of the conjugation-sign ^, which has the

Intermediate between the denominative and causative con-

accent.

jugations stands a class of verbs plainly denominative in origin but

having the causative accent.

from cftf^,

g.

See

cfi^^zrfTf kirtdyati.

'be

crave'

'desire,

Examples: from
ascetism';

^^l*(f^

*act

like',

from

as',

fi?^,

'seek horses';

'

is

is

or treat as',

signified

T^^f?T 'honor';
i\\

i|f7T

the

by

variety;

'make

noun-stem.

cftJ^rf^T

cf|im|^%

into',

'practise

'blacken';

'play the herdsman, protect';

'

'

fH^P^f^T P^ay the physician, cure'

J^f(^ 'desire a son', from the poss. cpd

Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

of the greatest

'penance, asceticism',

rn^RC.

*|^*<nT desire wealth

'regard

which

that

76.

The denominative meaning

510.
e.

Thus, from ^?3", J{^^IWi mantrdyate

THf^^

ll-^cftif-

'desiring a son'*

ia

194

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary,

Glossary to
For

tlie

Exercises.

the alphabetic order of Sanskrit

I.

words see

p. xii.

Sanskrit-English.

Adjectives in -a form their feminine in -a, unless otherwise stated.

adhas adv., below, down.

aki^a m., die, dice.

aksan (aksi:275)
fire

agni m.,

god of

n.,

eye.

agnihotrin m., a kind of priest.

agra

n., front; tip,

anga

n.,

end.

body.

angiras (253) m., certain mythical

adhika

ahjali m.
a.,

a gesture (Voc. 37).


small; as n., atom.

adv.,

across,

additional; superior.

adhuna adv., now-

who

adhvaryu m., priest

recites

the Yajurveda.

atas adv., hence.


ati

a.,

adhlta part, of adhi-i.

characters.

anu

underneath.

gen.

adhi^ adv., over, above, on.

fire.

limb

adhastdt adv., below; prep.

as n. pr., Agni, the

\/

an

{dniti:

429) breathe;

-f

live.

pra breathe;

n, before cons, a, negative prefix.

past; in cpds,

to excess.
atithi ra., guest.
atra adv., here, hither.

ana^uh (278) m., ox.


anantaram adv., after, immediately
afterward

as prep.,

w.

abl.,

right after.

atha adv., then; thereupon.


anartha m., misfortune.
aiharvaveda m., the fourth Veda. anavadya a., faultless.

adas (asdu : 287) pron., that one ; anahilapdtaka


so-and-so.

anu

n., n. pr.,

adv., after,

adi/a adv., to-day.

anukula a., favorable

adyatana adj., of to-day.

anujnd

adroha m., faithfulness.

anurupa a., suitable.


aneka a., several.

adharma

m., injustice, wrong.

f.,

city.

along, toward.
;

permission.

as n., favor.

I.

anrta

anta

untruth.

n.,

rn

end;

antara

a,,

avagya

in loc, at last.

inner

as

interior,

n.,

middle; interval, difference; oc-

andha

a.,

blind.

andhra m.,

condition, state.

f.,

avdnc (272)
\/

]/

a people.

n. pr.,

necessary.

a.,

avasthd

Cf. 376, 4.

casion, juncture.

195

Sanskrit-English Glossarj.

a.,

lag (agnute)

+ mm-iipa

downward.
obtain;

acquire,
idem.

2ag {agnhti) eat; cans, {dcdya-

make

ii)

eat, give to eat.

anna

n., food, fodder.

aglti

(332) num., eighty.

anya

(231) pron. adj., other.

agru

n., tear.

anyatra adv., elsewhere.


anvanc (272) a., following.

agva m., horse.


agvin m. du., n.

anvaya m., descendant, progeny.


ap (277)

f.

pi.,

water.

apara (233) pron.

adj.,

hinder; astddaga (332) num., eighteen.


astdvingaii (329,332) num.,twenty-

further; as

api (190) adv., unto;


conj., also, even.

ahhaya

the A9vins

asta (332) num., eight.

other.

apsaras

pr.,

(the Indian Atog xovpoi).

f.,

of safety

(dsti:

y2as

heavenly nymph.

n., feeling

eight.

yias
safe-

ty-

426) be, exist.

ahhipraya m., plan, design

view.

hurl;

ahhi repeat, study, learn

ni entrust;

forward or

dbhi adv., to, unto.

throw,

{dsyati)

asi m.,

pra throw

into.

sword.

asura ra., demon.


ahhyasa m., study, recitation.
amrta a., immortal as n., nectar. asdu same as adas.
;

amha

(273)

f.,

mother.

asthan {asthi: 275) n., bone.


asmad same as vayam; as stem

ay am same as idam,
ari m.,

enemy.

artha

m.,

in cpds,

aham

wealth.

arthaya (den.
for (w.

arthdyate) ask

two ace);

aryaman (284) m.,


arh

|/

(drhaii)

cf.

352,

meaning; ahan (ahar, ahas:

purpose;

-\-pra idem.

n. pr.

(223) pron.,

4.

271) n., day.


I.

ahita a., disagreeable.

aho excl., oh ah I
ahordtra n., a day and a night.
I

deserve; have a

right to; w. inf. (320), be able.

alam adv., enough

enough

of,

away

a (130) adv., hither, unto; as prep.,


w.
w. abl., hither from; until.
instr.,
very
with w. dat., dkdra ra., form, figure.

suitable for.
alt

dkdga

m., bee.

ava adv., down,

air,

sky.

dkj-sfa part, of d-kr^,


off.

akrdnta part, of dkram.

196

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
itara (231) pron.
conversa- itas adv., hence.

n., arrival.

agamana
dcdra m.,

"walk and

tion"; conduct; observance.

iti

idam (285-286) pron.,

command.

f.,

dtman m.,

soul, self; often simple

reflexive pronoun.

ddi m.,

beginning;

cpds,

cf.

\'

indh (inddhe: 444) kindle,

light.

indu m., moon.


indra m., n. pr., the god Indra.

dditya m., sun.

ddega

command,

ra.,

prescription. indraprastha

dp (dpndti,apnute) acquire, reach; indrdni


\-ava, pra, or anu-pra,

+ sam idem;
dpad

dyusmant (263)

(by),

dgd

f.,

dgu

a.,

a.,

e. filled

fit.

a,

y Iks (iksate) see, behold

swift.

neglect;

sit;

Idrg,

cans,

(o-

f.,

-z, a.,

oblation, offering.

go over, repeat,

cans,

(adhydpdyati)

\-

1-

abhi approach

man.

teach;

apa go away
;

rise.

f-

mid.,

(gen.).

adhi udara n., belly.


read; udyata part, of ud-yam, ready.

408]) go:

+ anu follow

own

422) rule,

Igvaraia.^ master; lord; rich

udaya m.,
\/i (eti \-ite:

such.

adv., up, up forth or out.


udanc (272) a., northward.
udadhi m., ocean.

dhdra m., food.


ahuti

upa

\-prati expect.

ud

bringing.

n.,

f.

\/%g (iste:

1-

ucchrita part, of ud-gri, high.

n., seat, chair.

dharana

wish, desire.

(with).

sit by;
\- upa
sdyati) place;
wait upon; reverence.

dsana

y'lis (icchdti: 109)

entered iha adv., here, hither.

hope.

(aste: 424)

so much.

isu m., arrow.

long-lived.

dgrama m., hermitage.


y as

so great

iva adv., postpos., as; like.

of vig

part,
i.

a.,

a goddess.

iyam fem. of idam.

calamity.

f.,

Delhi.

n.. n. pr.,

n. pr.^

f.,

idem; iyant (263)

finish.

dpta ^art. of dp, trustworthy;

dvista,

this, this

here.
\/idh,

in

1.

375,

adv., thus, so.

ittham adv., in this way, so.

dcdrya m., teacher.


djnd

adj., other.

f-

udydna

n.,

garden.

udyoga m., diligence.

astam udyogin

a., diligent,

energetic.

(lifly go home) set (of the sun, upa adv., to, toward.
ud rise; + upa ap- upanayana n., initiation.
etc J;
pra go forth ; die. upanisad f., certain Vedic works.
proach
\-

icchd

f.,

\-

wish.

upabhoga m., enjoyment.

I.

upavUa

sacred cord

n.,

of the

updnah (249) f., sandal, shoe.


ubha a., du., both.
uras

n.,
f.

urvafl
usas

n. pr.,

kantaka m., thorn, enemy.


kantha m., neck.

an Apsaras.
n.

pr.,

Usas, kanva m.,

katham

goddess of the dawn.

n. pr.

adv.,

how ?

ykathaya (den.:

move; go

109)

fall to one's lot, fall

to;

kathdi/aii) relate,

tell.

upon; caus. kadd adv., when

{arpdyati) send; put; give.


rksa m., bear.

rgveda m., the Rigveda.


re f., verse of the Rigveda

apt,

some

at

cana, cid,
often

time, ever;

w. neg.
kanistlia a., youngest.
in

pi., the Rigveda.

rna

no one

kata m., mat.

dawn; as

]'r (rcchdti:

whatever (236).

breast,

f.,

some one

oftenest in neg. clauses

urvT, a., wide.

f.,

cles ca, cana, cid, apt,

or other; so also w. relatives;

three higher castes.

wrw,

197

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

n., debt.

kanlyas

kanyd

younger.
daughter, maiden.

a.,

f.,

kapi m., monkey,


kapota m.y dove.

rtvij ni., priest.

\/kamp (kdmpate) tremble.


kara m., hand trunk (of elephant)

rsi m., seer.

ray; toll, tax.


(231, 232) num., one; pi,
karin
others.
eke
some*'
m., elephant.
some;
"eke,

eJca

ekadd adv., once upon a time.

karuna

ekddaga (332) num., eleven.

karna m.,
kartf m.

ekddaqa (334)

a.

eleventh.

etad (231) pron., this, this here.

karman

evam

^kal

e&a

same as

o.^tha

m.,

lamentable.
ear.

doer,

maker

(204);

author.

eva adv., just, exactly.


adv., so, thus.

a.,

4-

n.,

deed; ceremony; fate.

sam

(samkaldyati)

put

together, add.

etad.

kalaha m.. quarrel.


kald f., crescent.

lip.

kalinga m., n. pr., a people.

ausadha

n.,

medicine.

kaliyiiga n.,

the "Iron

Age"

of

the world.

ka (232) pron. 1. interrogative, kalydna n., advantage; salvation.


who, what; kirn w. instr., cf. kavi m., poet.
2. indefinite, kdna a., one-eyed.
note on p. 89.
and
subst., chiefly w. parti- A^anfi f., charm; grace.
adj.

198

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

I.

kdma

m., desire, love

as n. pr.,

granting wishes;

a.,

loc.

pers.);

\-

dhenu, the fab- ]/2^r (kirdti) strew, scatter;


ulous Wonder-covi^.
+ m', idem.

as

f.

sc.

subst.,

kamaduh

a.,

idem.

ykrt

(krntdti:

krti

-karin

causing, making.

krtrima

business, concern.

krtsna

karya

n.,

kala m., time.


kdliddsa m.,

kdvya
kd^l

n.,

kdstha

n.,

a poet.

krpd

poem.

\/

n. pr.,

f.,

work

f.,

whole, entire.

a.,

poor; niggardly.

graciousness, pity.

f.,

fagot; wood.

draw

krs (kdrsati)

on or up;

Benares.

city,

(literary).

adopted.

a.,

a.,

krpana

n. pr.,

krsi f

cut off;

cut,

110)

ava idem.

kdya ra., body.


karana n., reason, cause.
a.,

iprddus make known or visible;


sam (395) prepare, adorn.

the god of love.

kamadugha

or

dat.,

gen.,

\-

d draw

(krsdti) plough.

agriculture.

krswalam., husbandman, peasant.


kdsthamaya a., made of wood.
kim neut. of ka w. <w, however. kfsna a., black; as m., n. pr., the
god Krsna.
kiyant (263) pron. adj., how
;

great?
Alr^i

f.,

\/

kutas adv., whence?

why?

pdyati,

kutra adv., where? whither?

kega m., hair.

be

(Jcupyati)

angry

(gen.

or dat.).

kumdra
kugala
J/

apa do

make, kdunteya

adhi put at kdusalyd

ruler over (loc.)

evil to,

harm

\/kram
step;

(gen.,

apa-d pay
alam prepare, adorn
avis

loc, ace.)
4-

1-

make

hibit;

nefit (gen.,

upa do good

rask.) hide; blame;

put at the head ;

recompense,

punish

to,

1-

1-

ex-

n. pr.

(krdmati,

ati

krdmate: 134)
pass

beyond;

pass (of time);


to,

attack;

be- ykrt {krlndti^ krinite) buy.

puras

prati pay,

(ace

f.,

treasury.

n. pr.

+ a stride up
+ nis go out.

f-

[-tiras (ti-

loc);

point, tip.

ra.,

transgress;

make known,

(dviskaroti)

peak

kosa m., treasure

able; clever; learned.

do, perform;

f.,

kopa m., anger.

IkfQcdroti, kurute: 394-5)

the head,

kdildsa m., n. pr., a mountain.


koii

m., boy, prince.


a.,

cans, {kal-

ordain, appoint.

-te)

ketu m., banner.

kunta m., spear.


|/ /:wj3

kip {Jcdlpute) be in order; tend

or conduce to (dat.)

glory.

rei,

kridd
\/

f., game, sport.


krudh (krudhyati) be angry (gen.
or dat.).

krodha m., anger.

199

Sanskrit- English Glossary.

I.

kva adv., where? whither? +

cit

man

ksatriya m., warrior,

sam

1-

meet

sometimes, ever.
ksana m. n., moment; time.

(mid.)

come

together,

(instr.).

gartyas comp., very honorable.

of the

\/2gd (gaijati) sing.

gandharva, f. -2, a., in the manner


of Gandharvas.

second caste.

ksaya m., decay, destruction.


ava
\f ksan
(ksanoti, ksanute) hurt, \/gdh (gahate) plunge;
dive or plunge under (ace).
wound.
1-

I'ksal (ksdlmjati)

wash;

\-pra gir

idem.
ksdtra

voice, song.

f.,

m., mountain.

giri

suitable for Ksatriyas. glta n., song; singing.

a.,

quality, excellence.

y'iksi (ksinoti) destroy.

guna m.,

ksitipa m., king.

guru m., teacher.

\/ksip (ksipdti) hurl^ throw.

]/guh (jjUhati:

hide, conceal;

101)

kslna part, of ^ksi^ reduced, decaus. (guhdyati) idem.


guhd f., cave.
cayed, ruined.
kslra

n.,

ksudra
ksudh

milk.

gTha

a., little,

f.,

kseira

house.

n.,

grhastha m., householder, head of

small.

hunger.

family.

n., field.

grhya

domestic.

a.,

go (209) m.,
as

\/khan (khdnati) dig.

khara m.,

ass.

f.,

gotva

gopa

ganga

f.,

n. pr., the

\'

y ganaya (den.:
count;
f.,

f.,

bull,

steer,

cow;

speech.

ox-nature, stupidity.

n.,

cowherd,

m.,

shepherd;

guardian.

Ganges.

gaja m., elephant.

gait

fig.,

gopdya (den. gopdyati) be keep:

er guard.
gandyati) number,
ava despise.
gdurava n., weight; dignity.

1-

gait; course.

]/

granth

Qjrathndii)

string

to-

gether; compose.
gandha m., odor, perfume.
gandharva m., a Gandharva, one grantlia m., literary work, book.
of a band of celestial singers.
y grah (gr/mdti, grhmte) receive,
\'

gam

(jgdcchati

follow;

f-

100)

go

set (cf. i

nis

come

+ anu

abhi visit, attend;

lava understand;
go down,
-f a come;

\-asiam

astam)

+ ud

rise;

forth; proceed from;

seize

check

grdma

-f
f-

hold,

prati take.

m., village.

grdsa m.,

bite,

mouthful.

ghafa m., pot, vessel.

restrain,

200

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

I.

or vi-nis decide,

ghasa m., fodder, hay.

nis

ghrta n., clarified butter; ghee,

\-pra gather

citta n., notice

sometimes
cakra

n.^

-que

a relate;

\'

behold;

see,

name;

call,

thought; mind.

cint (cintdyati) consider.

impel.
\/cur (cordyati) steal.

cudd

vi-a explain.

f.,

top-knot, scalp.

ced adv., postpos.,

caJcsus n., eye.

if.

cest {cestati, -te) stir,

be

catur (332) num., four.


caturtha, f. -i, a., fourth.

]/

catur daga (332) num., fourteen.

\/cyu {cydvate) totter, fall

catuspad (282)

ciram adv., long, a long time.


in caus. (pracoddyati),
\/ cud \- pra

=if.

wheel.

\/caks {caste: 421)


\-

re,

idem

\-sam collect.

\/ghrd {jighrati: 102) smell.

ca end. conj., and, also,

conclude;

vi

\-

a.,

alive.

cdulukya m., n. pr., a people.

fall

quadruped.

1-^*

away.

catvdringat (332) num., forty.


chattra

candra m., moon.

candramas m., moon.


chdyd
chid
with
used
X' cam^
d{acdmati), y
only
the
mouth.
off;
rinse
sip;

n.,

umbrella.

shade.

f.,

(chindtti, chinddhe) cut, cut

+ ava idem

camatkdra m., astonishment.

away, remove

year (cdrati) go, wander; graze


(of cattle); tr., perform, commit;

minate.

\-

-f

a.,

car aria

carman

\fjan (Jdyate

exter-

a.,

on, march

leather.

ypra^vi,

pra move
tr.,

155

jandyati) trans.

\-

1-

coll.

sing., people, folks.

cdturmdsya

a certain sacrifice. janaka m., father.


gold.
janaril f., mother.

n.,

n.,

cdra m., spy.


cdru a., beautiful.
{cindti,

cinute)

janman

n., birth, existence.

jay a m., victory.


gather;

1-

ud

(ujjdyate) be born, arise (abl.);


pra or sam idem.

move, jana m., man; pL, and

stir.

cdmtkara

loc), arise, spring up;

leathern.

cal {cdlati) stir;

men

produce; intrans. (jdyate and


middle forms) be born (mother in

life.

hide, skin

n.,

(Jandyati and active forms), beget,

moving, going.

carmamaya

yd

d take

\-

ra., n., foot, leg.

carita n., behavior,

\'

\-

d perform, complete, do; jagat n., that which moves


ud cans.
and beasts; the world.

sam-d idem;

(uccdrdyati) pronounce, say.

'Cara

ud

jaras (280)

f.,

old age.

in

I.

201

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

jar a (280) f., old age.


jala n., water.

tatas adv., thence, therefore; there-

yjalp (jdlpati) speak; chat.

tatra adv., there, thither.

]/jagaraya (caus.) awaken,

tathd adv., in that way, so.

jdti

upon.

tad nom. and ace.

birth; caste; kind.

f.,

jdmdtr m., son-in-law.

woman,

adv., therefore.

tadd adv., then.

wife.

jdijd

f.,

jdla

n., net.

\/ji

(jdyati) trans,

tadyathd adv., namely, to wit.

and

intrans.,

+ para, mid.,
conquer, win;
be conquered (cf. in Voc. 9).
n. pr.,

jina m.,
Jihvd

name

of Buddha.

tongue.

f.,

jwita

n., life.

juhu

f.

a.,

sacrificial

esp.

jdmte

403) know;

anu permit;

f-

command

jyd

n.,

\-

vi

jyestha (340)
jyotisa

n.,

insight.

extend.

n.,

-te),

tr.

and

intr.,

tapas

heat; self-torture.

n.,

a.,

\/tam (tdmyati:
taru m., tree.
f.

131)

-i, a.,

be sad.

young, delicate.

tasthivdns pf. part, of sthd; as n.,

a.,

best; oldest.

astronomy; astronomi*

light;

tddr^

a.,

such.

tdlu n., palate.

cal text-book.
jyotis

the immovable.

knowledge;

bowstring.

f.,

{ pra

a caus. taruna,

recognize.

jndna

stretch,

practising ascetism;
as m., ascetic.

knowing.

(djndpdyati)

tr.,

(a sacrifice);

d cause, bring about;

tapasvin

(jdndti,

'\-

perform

penance.

spoon,

jetr m., conqueror, victor.

-jna

(tanoti, tanute),

extend;

burn; pain; in pass., suffer, do

spoon.

yjnd

ytan

]/tap (tdpatiy

\f'jw (Jwati) live.

n. to ta; as

s.

tdvant adj., so great, so much;


tdvat as adv., so long, so much;
often concessive, like rfonc, dock,

heavenly tiraskarim

star;

body.

f.,

veil.

tiryanc (272) a., going horizontally;

as subst., animal.
ta

(228-230) pron., he,


both subst. and adj.

etc.
;

that,

also as

j/

f.,

n. pr.,

tlra n.,

ornament (often

Taxila, a

ta4 (jid^dyati) strike, beat.

city.

pilgrimage.
tlvra a., great, strong, violent.

however.

ta^dga m., pond.

tu conj., but,

ta4it

\/tud (Jtuddti) push; strike.

f.,

lightning.

tan4ula m., rice.

fig.).

bank, shore.

iirtha n., bathing-place; place of

def. article.

tak^agild

tilaka m.,

]/tul (Jtoldyat'i)

weigh.

202

I.

]/tus (tusyati) rejoice,

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

take pleasure daga (332) num., ten.

in (w. instr.).

ti.

dagaratha m.,

/>r.

\/tr (tdraii) cross over;

ava

+ ud emerge;

pra ]/dah (ddhati) burn.

descend;

-a (335),

trttya,

c/fl'.s^a

\/ldd (ddddti, datte

in caus. (prdtdrafjati), deceive.


f.

part, of dang.

Yd

436) give;

make

caus. (ddpdyati)

a., third.

take (312);

\-pra

\/trp (tfpyati) satisfy oneself.

pay;

trsnd

entrust; give in marriage.

thirst, desire.

f.,

\/tyaj

leave,

(tydjaii)

{pari leave

off,

abandon;

erous.

ddna

tringat (332) num., thirty.


-ki

f.

the threefold

trivrt a., triple, threefold.

tristuhh

f.
(rarely m.), sky.
divasa m., day.

three-headed.

a.,

name

f.,

352,

day.

n.,

div (277)

of a metre.

divya

tryagiti num., eighty three.


tva stem of pron. of 2d pers. (226
cf.

ddsa m., slave, groom.


ddsi f., female slave, servant.
dina

world.

trigirsan

present; generosity.

n., gift,

ddnava m., demon.

(332) num., three.

triloka n.,

ddtr m., giver; as adj. (204), gen-

give up.

trayodaga (332) num., thirteen.


tri

(dydti: 132) cut.

y2dd

tejasvin a., courageous.

in

give or

heavenly, divine.

a.,

ydig (digdti) show, point out;


+ d command
upa teach,
\-

instruct.

4).

tvad so-called stem of pron. tva.


dig f.
point;
point, cardinal
tvastr m., n. pr., a god, Tvastar.
quarter, region direction.
,

\f

\/dahg

(ddgati) bite.

dih (degdhi

dlrgha

dlrghdyus

daksa m.,

ydw

daksina

n. pr.

right-hand; southern.

a.,

danda m.,

ydu

n.,

curds.

tr.,

n.,

milk.

durdagd

f.,

caus.

durlahha

a.,

131)

f.,

daridra

dargana

compassion, pity.
a.,

n.,

poor.

philosophical system.

misfortune.

misfortune.

hard to find or reach;

dificult.

(damdyati) tame; compel.

dayd

durjana m., scamp, rogue.

n. pr.

distress (ace).

misery

|/ dam {dhmyati

control

adv., afar.

long-lived.

n.,

dadhyanc (weakest -dine) m.,


:

am

(dunoti), intr., burn, feel dis-

dugdha

dadhan (dadhi: 275)

(divyati) play.

]/dan4aya (den.: danddyati) pun- duhkha


ish.

a.,

tressed;

stick; punishment.

428) smear.

long;

a.,

danstrd t, tooth.

\/

dus (dusyatt) be defiled.

diisprayukta

dussanta m.,

a.,

w.

badly arranged.
pr.

I.

203

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

bow.

dus insep. prefix, bad; hard.

dhanus

\'duh (dogdhi, dugdhe: 428) milk.

dharma

dukitr

l/lc?Aa {dddhdti, dhatte

data

daughter.

f.,

messenger, envoy.

ra.,

\/dr in

caus. (ddrdyati)

-j-

vi tear

pass,

cans,

(dargdyati)

{drgydte)

seem,

look.

deva

f.

god;

-,

goddess;

-2,

dosa m.,
f.,

dravya

sam put

dhi

just.

+ aww

n.,

running; course.

a.,

wise, prudent.

brave.

dhunute:

391),

shake.

^ dhf

dva (332) num., two.

c?Ar?t f.,

dvdhstha m., doorkeeper,

dhenu

rfijar f.,

dhdirya

door, gate.

dvija m., Aryan.

in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear.

firmness; courage.

cow.

f.,

n.,

steadfastness.

]/dhya (jdhydyati) think, ponder.

Aryan.

dvittya (335

dvipad (282)

a.,

a.,

adv., not; with opt.,

second.

Tia

biped.

naksatra

{dven^i^ dvis(e)

hate ;

pra hate extremely.


?r/f

(two ace);

together, unite; lay on.

(dhunoti^

\/druh {druhyati) be hostile, offend.

c/i?2^

in

arrange, ordain;

a., steadfast, firm,

\/dhu

l^dru (drdvati) run.

I'

+
make

understanding, insight.

f.,

dhlmant

object.

etc.).

dvijdti m.,

down;

after.

drastr m., seer; author (of Vedic dhira

hymns,

clothe

on,

dhdvana

fault.

lay

pari in caus. (~dhdpd?jati),

run

divine.

property

1-

\/dhdv (dhdvati) run;

brilliancy.

n.,

cover,

d put on; mid.,


sam-d lay or place
\-

dhdnya n., grain.


dhdrmika a., right,

dega m., region, land.


f.

435) put,

\/2dhd (dhdyati: 126) suck.


dhdtr m., creator.

divinity, deity.

f.,

api close,

h vi

queen.
devakl f., n. pr.
devakula n., temple.

c?</uf

on;

put

m.,

ddiva,

keep shut;

look, glauce; eye.

devatd

receive;

show;

f.,

m., right; law; virtue.

place;

open.
l^drg (127) see;

dfg

a.,

m., enemy.

n.,

n., -

nagara
Tiarfi f.,

207.

f.,

city.

river.

\/nand (ndndati,

dvis adv., twice.

cf.

lunar mansion.

'te)

-\-

abhi re-

joice in, greet joyfully (ace).

dvipin m., panther.

\'nam (ndmati)^ intr., bow, bend


tr., honor, reverence (ace).

dhana

natnas

n.,

money,

riches.

dhanin a^ wealthy.

nara

n.,

ra.,

honor, glory.

man

(vir

and homo).

204

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

mti

naraka m.,

hell.

narmadd

n.pr., a river in India.

f.,

nala m.,

n. fr.

nava

new.

a.,

f.,

conduct of

life; ethics,

a., healthy, well.


nilakantha m., w. pr,

mruj

nava (332) num. nine.

]/nrt (nrtyati) dance.

navati (332) num., ninety.


navadaga (332) num., nineteen.

nrita n., dance, dancing.

nrpa m., king.

navina

nrpati m., king.

\fnag

a.,

new.

perish;

(ndgyati)

perish; disappear.

]/nah (jidhyati) bind;

vi

+ sam ndu

gird, equip oneself.

n.,

f.,

ndli

f.,

name; ndma

eye.

ship.
a.,

low.

nydya m.,

logic.

nydyya

right, proper.

a.,

by

adv.,

paksa m., wing, side; parly.

woman,

paksin m., bird.

wife.

pipe, conduit.

panka

ndga m., destruction.


712

f.,

nyanc (272)

name.

nan

netr m., leader.

netra n., leading-rope, cord

naga m., snake.


nataka n., drama, play.

ndman

pol-

itics.

down;

adv.,

in, into.

nitya a., constant; daily;

mud, bog.

pawc (332) num.,

-am as pancadaga

five.

(332) num., fifteen.

pancapancdga (334)

adv., always, daily.

nidega m.,

n.,

(pdcati) cook.

)/^7ac

command.

a.,

pancdgat (332) num.,

]/nind (nindati) blame.

fifty-fifth.

fifty.

(pdidyati) split open.

l/pcf^

shrewd, skilled.
|?a^M a., skilled.
niyata, part, of ni-yam, ordain- ]/path (pdthati) recite, read.
ed, fixed, permanent.
pani m. pi., n.pr.^ certain demons.

nipuna

a.,

nirdaya
nirvrti

pandita m., learned man; pandit.

a., pitiless.

f.,

contentment, happiness.

nis adv., out, forth.

\/nl {ndyati; cans, ndydyati) lead,


h ;? lead

d bring;

consecrate,

bring
settle;

to

marry.
nica

a.,

\-

an

end,

fall,

away;

[-

wc?

n., leaf, letter.

pattra

nis pathi

f.,

determine, pathya

pari lead about;

7?afZ

wife, consort.

same
a.,

as panthan.

wholesome.

(282) m., foot.

]/p)ad (pddyate)

low.

fly;

pati (274) m., lord, master; husband.

upa introduce, patnl

initiate;

(jpdtati)

fly up.

nigcaya m., decision, certainty.

guide;

^pat

caus.

go;

(vydpdddyati)

vi-d in

kill;

f-

I.

ms

205

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

(m'spddyate) grow, arise from pdgupdlya n., cattle-raising.


flee for refuge pzYr m., father; du., parents;
\- pra

(abl.);

pada

]/pis (pindsti) grind, crush.

step; place.

n.,

padma m.

n., lotus.

]/

panthan (278) m., road, path.

payas

para (233)

chief, highest

a.,

adv., to a distance,

away.

pari adv., round about, around.

ascetic.

\/paIdy (pdldyate:

n.,

beast.

caus.

]/\pa (jpihati: 102) drink;

(pdydyati) give to drink, water.

\/2pd (pdii) protect; caus. paid-

pdtaliputra

n.,

n.

pulinda m., n. pr., a tribe in India.


\'pus (pusndti) make increase or

grow.

pr.,

n.,

pustaka

pdni m,, hand.


n. pr.

crime, sin.

beam. pfthivi

pdrthiva m., prince.


pdrvatl

f.,

pdlana

n.,

flood, high-water.

m., n, pr.
n.

pr.^

Pusan,

the Sun-god.

bad; as n. subst., sin.

n.

book (manuscript).

pusan (284) m.,

pdtra n., pot, vessel.

a.,

n.,

pura m.,

pdndava m., descendant of Pandu. puru

m., foot; quarter; ray,

fat.

flower.

]/pu (pundti, puriite) clean.


^puj (pujdyati) honor.

m., lecture, lesson.

n.,

(homo).

pururavas m., n. pr., Pururavas.


purohita m., domestic priest.

the city puspa

Patna.

former,

creation, etc.

pusta gart. of pus^ stout,

yati) idem.

pdtaka

a.,

-^,

one of a class of

man

purusa m.,

pagcat adv., behind (w. gen.).

pdpa

- and

f.

ancient; as

works on the

\/pag (pdgyati: 127) see.

pdda

city.

adv., earlier, formerly.

purdna^

p. 116, note)

flee.

pdnini m.,

daughter.

adv., again, but.

f.,

purd

f.,

cf.

~tri f.,

putra m., son;

punar
pur

assembly.
parvata m., mountain.

pdtha

meritorious, holy, aus-

a.,

wandering pumdns (279) m., man, male.

parivrdj (247, 2) m.,

pagu m.,

fat.

picious; as n., merit.

paragu m., axe.

parisad

as pyd.

same as pumdns.

other. purhs

m., the world-spirit. punya

paramatman
para

same

pz

pina part, of p,

\'pid (piddyati) torment, vex.

milk.

n.,

pi.,

Manes.

to (ace).

^jr.

protection.

2;a('a m., noose, cord, snare.

f.,

earth, ground.

pr{hu a., broad, wide.


pf(hvi

f.,

earth.

pfthvtrdja m., n. pr.


\/\pr (piparti)

fill.

posaka m., supporter, maintainer.

206

I.

pdutra

Sanskrit-English Glossary.
sociable.

grandson.

ra.,

citizen.

paura m.,

priyavddin

]/pyd {pydyate) swell, get stout.


forth.

pra adv., forward,


prakdgin

bright,

a.,

\^pri

idem.

a.,

(prmdtt^ prinite)^

glistening;

make

ndyati),

^plu

act., illurainating.

act.,

de-

caus. {pri-

light; mid., rejoice;

glad, please.

(jpldvate)

d drench.

-\-

]/prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about.

prajd

f.,

pliala n., fruit, reward.

creature, subject.

prati adv. and prep., back, back, phalavant a., fruitful.

again

towards

(postpos.

w.
]/handh (badhndti, hadhrilte) bind;

ace).
pratikula

a.,

unfavorable.

bandhu m.,

pratyaham

bala

adv., daily.

cans,

in

]/prath

(prathdyatt),

a.,

pramatta

a.,

praydga m.,

much

bdla

many.

f.

careless.
n. pr.,

Allahabad.

prayoktr m., arranger, user.

pralaya m., destruction.

much, many.

a.,
a.,

young; asm.,

disposed.

wound.

prdnc (272) forward, eastward.


pi.,

breath,

life.

prdnin m., living creature.


prdtar adv., early, in the morning.
prdyagcitta

n.,

penance, expiation.

prdyena adv., commonly.


prdsdda m., palace.
priya

a.,

dear.

priyakarman
priyavdc

a.,

a.,

prudent.
-te ; budhyati^-te)^

]^budh(bddhati,

m., often

a.,

boy;

baspa m., tear, tears.


bdhu m., arm.

prasanna^ part, of pra-sad^ well- buddhimant

m., stroke, shot;

child,

-a, girl.

enlightened.
buddhi f., prudence, intelligence.

pragna m., question.

prdna

might.

strong, mighty.

a.,

bindu m., drop.


buddha part, of budh, awakened;

prayukta part, of pra-yuj.

prahdra

com-

relative.

n., strength,

balavant

bahu

a., first.

prabhdva m., might, power.


prahhuta

join;

pose.

balistha a., strongest.

spread; proclaim.

prathama (335)

catch;

entangle,

pratyanc (272) a., backward, westward.

wake

saying pleasant things,

know.

budJia m., wise

brahmacarya

man, sage.

n.,

life

of holiness,

esp. religious studentship.

brahmacdrin

studying sacred
as m. , Brahman

a.,

knowledge;
student.

brahman n, devotion; sacred word


(of

kind.

God);

sacred

knowledge;

world-spirit.

brahman

(a personification oibrd-

I.

hman)m., the supreme All-Soul; bJidm

Brahma, the Creator.


brahmahan (283) m.,

a.,

shining, brilliant.

a \/bhiks (bhiksate) beg, get by beg-

killing

ging-

m., priest,

Brahman.

\'bru (braviti, brute), speak, say;


\-pra explain, teach,
\-vi

speech, language.

f.,

bhdsvant

Brahman.
hrdhmana

207

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

bhiksd

announce; ybhid

explain, announce.

f.,

alms.

bhiksu m., beggar; ascetic.


(bhindtti, bhinddhe) split.
(bibheti) fear; in caus. (bhl-

\^bM

sdyate, bhdydyati) terrify.


bhaJcta a., devoted, true.

bhakti

]/2bhuj

(bhundkti, bhunkte) eat,


enjoy; caus. (6Aq;a^a^i) feed ;

devotion; honor.

f.,

+ upa

l^bhaks (bhaksdyati) eat.

bhaksana

-bhuj

enjoy.

enjoying.
honorable, blessed. bhujyu m., n. pr., a Vedic person.
+vi bhuvana n., world.
]/bhaj (bhdjati, -te) divide;
n., eating.

bhagavant

a.,

distribute.

I'bhanj (bhandkti) break, destroy.

bhadra

good, pleasant; as

a.,

n.,

fortune.

bhaya n., fear.


bharatakhanda m.,

n. pr., India.

bhartr m., supporter; preserver;


lord, master; husband.

bhava m.,
bhavant,
f.

n. pr.,

-te)

become; be,

abhi

overpower;

in

respectful

exist;

pari despise;
pra
arise; be mighty, rule; valere.
bhu f., earth, ground.
f-

bhuta part, of bhu; as n. subst.,


being, creature.

prosperity, blessing.

f.,

a name of Qiva. bhubhuj

used

bhavati;

\/bhu (bhdvati,

bhuti

hhavatl; in voc. bhos,

f.

a.,

ra.,

bliubhrt m.,

bhumi

f.,

king.

king; mountain.

earth, ground, land.

address instead of pronoun of bhuyas (340) comp.

2nd person.

bhasman

n.,

Cf. 264.

+ a

bhusana

ashes.

\'bh& (bhdti) gleam,

adj.,

more;

-yas adv., mostly.

glance;

or vi idem.

n.,

ornament.

y bhr (bhdrati, -te) support (lit.

and

fig)-

bhdga m., part, piece, share.

bhj-gukaccha n., n. pr., Baroch, a

"bkaj

holy place in India.


bhrtaka m., servant,

a.,

sharing.

bhdnu m., sun.


bhara m., burden.
bhdrya
\/

f.,

wife,

b/ids (hhdsate) speai^

answer

bhftya m., servant.

(ace. of pers.)

converse.

bhj-gam adv., greatly, much.

woman.

\-prati
-I-

bheka m., frog.

sam bhoga

m., enjoyment.

bhojana

n.,

meal.

208

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

mastaka

hhos see bhavant

head.

n.,

\/bhram (bhrdmyati: 131) wander mahant (261)


mahdnasa n.,
y pari idem.
about, flit

great.

a.,

kitchen.

hhrdtr m., brother.

mahdrdja m., great king.

bhru

mahisa m.,

eyebrow.

f.,

mahisl
maJcsikd

f.,

maghavan (270) m., Indra.


id em.
1]/inajj (mdjjati) sink ;

mani
mati

ra.,

jewel.

matimant

mdnsa
mdtr

matsya m., fish.


mathi same as manthan.

mad

called

352,

stem

4.

madhu

drunk;

cf.

honey.

n.,

madhuparka m., sweet drink.


madhuUh m., bee.

madhja

a.,

middle; as n., middle;

waist,

yman

sweetness.

n.,

m.,
n.,
f.

man

(homo).

sense; understanding.
-z,

human.
way,

m., road,

street.

garland.

f.,

wasa

m., month.

mzVr^

n.,

friend.

mitradruh

(249)

n.,

sam honor.

1-

mind.

mma

m., fish.

\^mU

a.,

friend-be-

(milati)

muktd
mukti

manoJiara

a.,

agreeable; entranc-

spell,

mantrin m., minister; councillor.


(jnathnhtt) stir.

manthan (278) m.,

stirring-stick.

mandara m., w. 2?r., a mountain.


marana n., death.
Storm-gods.

close

mukha

pi.,

n, pr., the

pearl.

f.,

f.,

salvation, deliverance.

n.,

mukhya

ing.

mantra m., sacred text;


charm.

m., wind

wink; +ni

the eyes.

manoratha m., wish.

mmi

mother.

mdnusa^

manusya m., ma^ (homo),

X'manth

195.

traying.

manute) think,

(mdnyate;

suppose

manas

mdnava
manasa
mdrga

used in

like Lat. ne,

n., flesh.

f.,

maZ(2

etc.,

cf.

/-ivf;

mddhurya

of aham;

]/mad (mhdyati) get


\-pra be careless.

mea-

create.

adv. and conj., not;

greek

shrewd, prudent.

a.,

sure;

wa

ws work,

prohibitions,

mind.

f.,

queen.
mimite: 438)

f.,

I^lma (mdti;

gnat.

fly,

w. j>r.

mouth, face.

a., principal, first.

y'?wwc (inuncdti: 110) free, release;

muktvd, without (312).

]/mud

(inddate) rejoice;

\-

anu

allow.

muni m., sage;

ascetic.

['mus (musndii) steal, rob.

musala m.

n.,

club, pestle.

\fmuh (muhyati) be confused or


dazed or stupid.

I.

murdhaga a., on the head.


murdhan m., head.
mula

\'mr (mrij/dte \55) die; caus. (mdrdyati) kill.

mrgdyate)

yasti

hunt

]/

f.,

yd

^/mrj (mdrsti: 423)

wipe

rub,

caus. (mdrjdyati)Tuh

polish;

off,

Jumna.

stick, staff.

{yati)

chase, hunting.

f.,

n. pr., the river

glory, fame.

n.,

come

for, seek.

mrgaya

ni or-

yavana m., Greek, barbarian.


yagas

mrga m., wild animal; gazelle.


(den.:

\-

dain, fix, appoint.

yamundL,

y'mrgaija

ud undertake ;

\-

root.

n.,

209

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

with

go;

into such

abstracts,

and such a state;

d approach.

ydtrdt, march, journey; support.

yama

m.,

watch of the

night.

or pra, wipe off. ydvant a. , how much or many


\- apa, pari
of
mrta, part,
mr, dead, fallen.
ydvat as adv., as long as, while;
;

as soon as.

mrtyu m., death.


nfc/

earth, dirt.

f.,

mekhald

yuga

yugma

girdle.

f.,

rnegha m., cloud.

age of the world.

n.,

n., pair.

\^yuj (yundkti, yunkte) join, yoke,

moksa m., deliverance

salvation.

harness; caus. (yojdyati) idem;

Two^a m., infatuation.

ni place, appoint, establish

1-

pra arrange

ya (231) rel. pron., used as subst. yuddha n., battle.


and adj., who, which, what; cf. y'yudh (ijudhyate)

234

ff.

Vyaj

(ydjati,

pers.,

yati)

instr.

make

sacrifice

-te)

(ace.

caus. (ydjd-

rei);

to sacrifice, offer sa-

crifice for (ace).

yajus

yajna m.,
a.,

fight (instr.).

yuvan (269)

a.,

young;

yusmad

called stem of

stem

cpds (352,

in

f.

4.),

suitable for sacrificing.

l^raks (rdksati) protect.

yatas adv., whence; wherefore.

raksitf m., protector.

yati m., ascetic.

]/rac (racdyati) arrange,

yatna m., exertion.

when,

if.

if.

rajju

protection.

compose

f.,

cord,

\'ranj-\-anu (anurdjyati ^ -fc) be


inclined or devoted to
(loc).

rana m.

\/yam (ydcchati: \00) furnish, give; ratna


Perry, Sanskrit Primer.

n.,

(a literary work).

yatra adv., where, whither.


yathd adv., in which way as.
adv.,

as

sacrifice.

raksana

yadd

you.

formula, text. yuyam (226) pron., you.

\^yat (ydtate) strive after (dat.).

yadi adv.,

yuvati,

yUyam

yitpa m., sacrificial post.

n., sacrificial

yajniya

use.

to yuvan.

f.

yuvati

n.,

n., battle.

jewel.

210

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

ratlia m.,

wagon.

rupa

rathya

street.

rupaka

f.,

^rabh

grasp;

(rdbhate)

+5

take hold on, begin.

ra^mi m., ray rein.


rasa m., taste, feeling.
rasavant a., tasteful.
;

yraj

(rdjati,

^te)

rohini

f.,

laksa

n.,

rdjya

\/

rule;

kingdom.

I'

+ apa

n.,

n.

\/ru {rduti: 410) cry,

scream;

please (dat., gen.).

{rundddhi,

\-

upa

a.,

receive,

descend;
ascend
;

\/lunth (lunthdyati)

harsh, rough.

427) lick;

nis rob.

devastate; plunder.
]/

lubh (lubhyati) covet (dat., loc).


n.,

writing, copying.

world

sing,

people.
lobha m., desire, avarice.

loman

+ a climb, loha
-f-

smear.

lidhe:

ava idem.

loka m.,

blood.

up.

ruksa

make

n., salt.

lekhana

rise,
spring up,
cans, (rohdyati, ropdyati)
rise or grow,
plant;

mount,

take;

receive,

(Idbhate)

X'lip (limpdti)

ob-

(rohati)

make
+ ava

com-

vi

|/Zwp (lumpdti) break to pieces;

besiege.

1-

n., plough.
Idbha m., acquisition, gain.

nmddhe)

struct, check, besiege;

grow

n. pr., Ceylon.

^lih Qedhi,

surrounded; suffused.

]/ruh

cling.

light;

\'likh (likhdti) scratch, write.

ruddha, part, oirudh, besieged,

n.,

a.,

Idhgala

X'rud (rdditi: 429) weep.

rudhira

-ghu or -ghvt,

lap (Idpaii) prate

lavana

sickness, disease.

\^rudh

goddess of for-

laldta n., forehead.

idem.

]/ruc (rocate)
f.,

give.

a noted poem.
pr., a demon.

rdgi m., heap.

ruj

plain.

m., n. pr., a hero.

vi

a hundred thousand.

caus. (lamhhdyati)

rdvana m.,

f.,

\/lahh

do wrong.

rdmdyana

n. pr.

little.

small,

radh (radhnoti) succeed

rdma

f.

laghu,

lankd

night.

f.,

possessions,

X'lag (Idgati) attach, hang,


direct,

shine; be illustrious.

rdtri

f.,

tune.

raj an m., king.


n.,

gold-piece.

rdi (277) m. (rarely)

laksml (276)

demon.

m.,

n.,

wealth.

]^ram (rdmate) amuse oneself;


+ vi (virdmati) cease (abl.).

rakmsa

form, beauty.

n.,

n., hair.

n.,

metal

iron.

fra grow

vahga m., race, family.


vakra a., crooked, bent.

and pL,

I.

vaksas
]/vac

vastra n., garment.

n., chest, breast.

(vdkti:

speak,

415)

written leaf) speak,


vanij m., merchant.
vatsa m., calf.

^^vad

abhi

caus.

in

greet;

vi

say;

blameworthy,

a.,

woods,

]U'ap (vdpati) scatter

body;

vdri

sow.

f.,

Brahman

in

life.

cistern.

n.,

water.

vi adv., apart,

vinga (334)

figure.

pron., we.

vayam (223)

m.,

vdyasa m., crow.


vdyu m., wind.

a., forest-dwelling.
(vdndate) greet, honor.

n.,

culp-

able.

vdpl

forest.

vanavdsin

vapus

vdcya

word.

the third stage of his

^vand

or.

voice

vdnaprastha

vadha m., killing, murder.


vadhu f., woman wife.
n.,

carry, bear;

(ahhivdddyati) vdnijya n., trade.


(mid.) dispute, vdta m., wind.

argue.

vana

vd end.,
f.,

proceed; flow; blow.

intr.,

vac

speak,

(vddati)

(a

read.

e.

i.

tr.

say; \U'ah (vdhati)

make

caus. (vacdyati)

name;

211

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

a.,

out.

away,

twentieth.

vingati (332) num., twenty.

vingatitama (334) a., twentieth.


vayas n., age.
\vard m., suitor, bridegroom.
vikramdditya a., n. pr., a king.
ud in
2vdra m., choice, privilege; favor. yvij (vijdti) tremble
^vara a., best; better (vv. abl.:
caus. (jidvejayati) terrify.
\-

vitta n., possessions; wealth.

than).

vardha

ra.,

\'vid (vetti; veda:

boar.

varuna m., n. pr.^ a god.


varna m., color; caste.

^varnaya

(varndyati)

describe,

varsa

a.,
n.,

vallahha

year.
a.,

on a journey;

\-

tmsu

n.,

dwelling.

wealth, money.

vasudeva m.,

n. pr.

ni in-

vidhi

pra go away vidheya

habit.
f.,

pass.

of vi-dois,

part,

detested.

dwell;

habit, dwell;

knowing.

vidvista

dear.

\/vas {vdsati)

(vinddtiy -te) find, acquire.

a.,

vidyd f., knowledge, learning.


vidvdns a., knowing, wise.

abiding, being.

}/vaQ (vdsti) wish.

vasati

y2vid
-vid

portray.
vartin

416417) know,

consider; caus. (veddyati) inform


h ni caus., idem.
(dat.);

prati

in-

rule, fate;

a.,

Brahma.

obedient.

vinaya ni., obedience.


vind prep., without (with

instr.

or ace, often postpos).

vipdka m., ripening; recompense.


vipra m., Brahman.

14*

212

I.

pervading, far-

'hhvi^ a.

f.

vibhu,

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

reaching; omnipresent, mighty.


vivdha m., wedding, marriage.
vivekin

^vig

shrewd.

a.,

approach;
self;

vig

m.

+ upa

pra

enter;

(vigdti)

+ sam-d

veda m., science, knowledge; esp.


sacred knowledge, holy writ.

vedand

pain.

f.,

a system of philo-

part, of vi-gis,

vigva (231)

excellent,

a., all

vyahjana

(Vedic).

Ivr (vrnoti, vrnute) cover,


\-

sam

n., spice.

]/vyadh (vidhyati)

a cover

j-

explain

false,

a.,

vydkarana

n.,

grammar.

sur- vydghra m., tiger.

apa-d vyddha m., hunter.

manifest ; vyddhi m., disease, illness.

shut.

vyddhita

\/ 2vr (vrmte ; vardyatiy

-te)

n. pr.

]/vraj (vrdjati,

vrJca m., wolf.

+ wander

vrksa m., tree.

cetic.

\/vrt (vdrtate) turn; exist, subsist,


h

m return home

ill.

sick,

a.,

choose, vydsa m.,

select.

be, become

hit, pierce.

wrong.
vyavahdra m., trial, law -suit; trade.
vyaltka

vihaga m., bird.


vihita part, of vi-dhd^ ordained.

[-vi

of the third caste.

ment.

visnu m., n. pr., a god.

man

in caus. (vyathdyati) tor-

yvyath

poison.

n.,

sooth; often untranslated.


vdigya m.,

vigvdsa m., trust, confidence.

1-

fig.,

vdi assev. particle, to be sure, in

vigruta part, of vi gru, famous.

open

rain

enter, penetrate.

remarkable.

round

give

sophy.
people; the Vai^ya- vedi f altar.

pi.,

vipsta

^/

shower down; overwhelm.

seat one- veddnta m.,

caste.

visa

rain

\hrs (vdrsati)

proceed;

become an

as-

-te)

forth

vrana m., wound.


vrata

n.,

vow, obligation; duty.

\-pra get a-going, break out,

arise; continue; cans, (act.) continue (trans.).

vrtta n., conduct.

vrttdnta

m.

state

of

affairs;

news.
vrddha part, of vrdh^ old.
(vdrdhate)

(vardhdijati ,

brin g "P-

-te)

grow;

\-

pra proclaim.

\^gak (gakndti)he able; sometimes


pass., cf. 322.

gaka m., Scythian.


gakata m., car.

vrtra m., n. pr., a demon.

]/vrdh

]/gans (gdnsati) praise; proclaim;

gakuntald
caus.

make grow;

gankd

f.,

f.,

n. pr.

hesitation.

gata (332-333) n., a hundred.

gatatama

a.,

hundredth.

I.

gura m., hero.

gatru m., enemy.

gabda m., sound, noise, word.


]/

gam

become

(gdmyati)

grgdla m., jackal.

quiet,

m.

gesa

n., rest,

be extinguished, go out.
gayyd f., bed, couch.

gesa m,,

gar a m., arrow.

^ gram

garana
garad

grdddha

gdkhd

name of ^iva.

branch;

f.,

red-

edition,

action.

gdnti

repose.

f.,

\'gds(gdste)

command;

rule; pun-

n.,

oblation to the

Voc.

(cf. in

+a

16).

(agrdyate)

goddess of fortune; as

n. pr.y

science; text-book.

grimant

a.,

rich

famous.

]/gru{grn6ti,grnute: 391) hear; in

ygiks (giksate) learn.


gikhara m., summit.

cans, (grdvdyati)

head.

giras n.,

names, famous,

honorable, etc.

gdstr m., governor, punisher.


n.,

Manes

go for protake
tection,
refuge with (ace).
f.,
fortune,
luck,
riches; as
grl
]/gri

prefix to proper

ish.

gdstra

become

131)

weary.

gartra n., body.

garva

(grdmyati:

grama m., pains, trouble.

autumn; year.

m., n. pr.^

remainder.

a fabulous snake sup-

porting the earth.

protection.

n.,

f.,

213

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

bless-

ed; as m., n. pr., a god.

hear,

i.

e.

proclaim (ace. pers.).

recite,

givaa., beneficent, gracious

make

gruta part, of gru; as n., learning.


gruti

f.,

hearing; holy writ.

greyas a., better; best; greyas as


remainleave
\/gis (gindsti) leave,
n., salvation.
ava
remain
sur+
over,
gvan (269) m., dog.
ing;
vive ;
\-vi set gvagura m., father-in-law.
i-ud idem ;

gigu m., child.

gvagru

apart, distinguish.
gisya m., pupil, scholar.
\^

gi

409) lie;

(gete:

\-adhi

lie

sleep;

asleep on (ace).

glta a., cold.

]/pwc (jgdcati) grieve, sorrow.


guci a., pure, clean.

gunahgepa m.,

a.,

\/gu^ (gusyati) dry up.

g&dra m.,
gudratva

n.,

gvas adv., to-morrow.

429) breathe;
^sam-d breathe gently: revive;
\-vi be confident; trust (gen.

Ygvas

(gvdsiti:

or loc).
gveta a., white.

i^as

of the fourth caste.

condition of a

attringat (329) num., thirty-six.

^a4agtti (329) num., eighty-six.

good; splendid.

man

mother-in-law.

n. pr.

\/gubh(gdbhate) be brilliant, shine.

gubha

f.,

(^.'udra.

(332) num., six.

8a!i{i

(332) num., sixty.

m{h(^i

f-

-^

(335),

a.,

sixth.

214

I.

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

o4aga (332) num., sixteen.

samdgama

m., meeting, encounter.

samdja m., convention, company.


samyukta part, of sam-yuj^ pro- sainidh f., fagot.
vided with.
samipa a., near; as n., vicinity,
samvaisara ni., year.
nearness, presence.

samgaya m., doubt.

samudra m., ocean.

sakrt adv., once.

samunnati

sakthan (sakthi: 275)

n.,

sameta

sakhi (274) m., friend.

sakhi

f.,

sajja

a.,

\/

a.,

female companion, friend. sampurna

provided with.
part, of Ipr

sam,

full.

ready.

sanj (sdjati; sajjdfe:

hang on,

22)

height, elevation;

f.,

high position.

thigh.

be

cf. in Voc. samyak adv., well,


properly.
fastened on samrdj m., great king; emperor.

sanY

(loc).

satkdra m., hospitality.

f.,

river.

sattra n., sacrifice.

sarga m., creation,


sarpa m., snake.

satya n., truth, righteousness.

sarva (231)

a., all.

down; be sarvatra a., everywhere.


or
exhausted
sau27r m., n. pr., the Sun-god Saovercome
-\- a

]/ sad

(sidati) sit; settle

l-sam-d seat one-

approach;

self; cans, (sdddyati) meet, enh ni

counter;

+ pr

sit

down;

be favorable.

sadd adv., always.


f.

sadr^a^

-i,

samdigdha

samdhyd

a.,

f.,

a.,

twilight.

sant^ part, of las, being, existing;

good man

|/saA {sdhate) endure,

sa^a adv., together; prep., often


with , along with,
postpos. ,
(instr.).

similar; worthy.

doubtful; unsteady.

sahacara m.,

companion;

-t

f.,

wife.

sahasd adv., suddenly, quickly.


sahasra n., a., thousand.

as f. sahdya m., companion, helper.


good woman, especially a sdksin m., witness.
widow who immolates herself. sddhana n., means, device.

good

as m.,

vitar; sun.

salt,

sddhu m., holy man, saint.


sdman n., Vedic melody, song;

sapta (332) num., seven.


saptati (332) num., seventy.

saptadaga (332) num., seventeen.


pi., the Samaveda.
sabhd f., council, meeting, court. sdmanta m., vassal.

sam

adv.,

samaksam

along with; completely. sdmpratam adv., at present.


adv.,

presence of (gen

samartha

a.,

before,
).

capable, able.

in

the

sdyam adv., at evening.


sdrasa m., crane,
sm/ia m., lion.

I.

215

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

drop, moisten; so.nam., the intoxicating fermented juice of the Soma-plant.


anoint as king.
skandha
y/lsidh (sedhati) repel;
m., shoulder.
\-prati
]^sic (sincdtt) drip,

\-abln

hold back

forbid.

y stu

]'2sidh (sidhyati) succeed; in cans.

stuti

(sadhdyati) perform; acquire.


sindhu m., n. pr., the Indus.

\/

siman

border, boundary;

f.,

out-

strew

n.,

sumanas

strt

fortune, luck, happiness.


f.

sundara,

or on,

a., beautiful.

-t,

a.,

(276)

favorably-minded; as

flovi^er.

f,,

woman.

y sthd (iisthati) stand, intr.


etc.,

{sthdpdyati) put, place; appoint;

stop

mount

adhi

suhrd m., friend.

p. 96, last note);

bring forth;

(sute) generate,

rise

(cf.

\-

Voc. 40)

\-8am
sthdna

surya m., sun.

sthita part, of sthd;

\-apa

^anu follow

go away;

in caus.

let

go, create;
loose or out; raise (the

voice^.

move

\ srp (sdrpati)
sj's^i

let

{^rjdti)

+ wrf

sthiti

ysnd

n.,

f.,

anu

(cf.

also

ud

+ pra

cf.

290, end.

ra.,

one

who has perform-

ed the ablutions customary at


the end of religious pupilage.

sndna n., bathing, bath.


idem.
\-pra
sndyu m., tendon, bowstring.
snigdha part, of snih, affectionate.
inclined to,

\/8nih (snihyati)

love (gen., loc).


8nusd f., daughter in law.

army.

dwell;

devote

attend.
sdinika m., soldier.

sdinya

n.,

army.

condition.

setu m., bridge, dike.

ni

place, locality; stead.

send

f.,

mid.,

creation.

\/8ev (sSvate) serve,

arise,

upa ap-

(snati) bathe.

sndtaka

(j-sardyati) drive away.

ysfj

cause to remain

in caus.,

suda m., cook.

up;

stand

start off; in caus. (act.), send

8uta m., driver, charioteer.

^/sfisdrati) flow;

1-

proach reach;

-^pra generate.
sukta n., Vedic hymn.

be in

be situated; caus.

over; rule, govern;


follow out, accomplish

upa

-I-

song of praise.

surdpa m., drunkard.


suvarna n., gold.

ysu

strndti,

scatter, bestrew.

stotra n.,

su (sunoti, sunute) press.

f.,

strnute;

(strnoti,

stena m., thief.

skirts.

sukha

song of praise; praise.

f.,

str

strmte) scatter,

su adv., well; easy; very.


\'

(stduti: 411) praise.

honor;

oneself to;

feel

touch.

]'8prg

(iipr^:dti)

\'8pj-h

(spfhdyati) desire (dat.).

ama end.,

slightly nssev

accompanies

present

often
tense.

216

I.

the force of an histor-

it

giving

Sanskrit-English Glossary.

ical tense.

ysmr
on

remember; think havis


mind teach esp. in hasta

(smdrati)
call to

'it is

taught,

i.

e.

\/2hd (jihtte: 438) move.

srastr m., creator.

sva

a.,

own;

yhi

one's own.

svanj (svdjate) embrace;


pari (Cf. Voc. 21) idem.

\Uvap

{svdpitii

svayambhu

a.,

epithet of

part, of Idhd]

as adj., ad-

vantageous; as n., advantage.


himavant a., snowy; as m., the

Himalaya Mts.

self, self.

self-existent;

causal,

\'hihs (hindsti) injure, destroy.

hita

429) sleep.
svapna m., sleep, dream.

svayam pron., own

because.

for,

f-

similar.

a.,

ypra idem.

send;

(Jiindtt)

hi assev. particle, surely

]/

svadrg

(jdhdtt) abandon, give up;

neglect.

garland.

f.,

hastin m., elephant.

tradition; law-book.

f.,

oblation.

m., hand.

^\hd

traditional'.

smrti

n.,

pass, smaryate

sraj

harina m., gazelle.


hala m. n., plough.

asm., hlna part,

Brahma.

wanting

of

abandoned;

Ihd,

w.

in;

instr.,

without.

svarga m., heaven.

\/hu (juhoti, juhute) sacrifice.

svasr

hutabhuj (nom. -hhuk) m.,


\' hu see hvd.

sister.

f.,

svddu

a.,

sweet.

fire.

svddhydya m., private recitation \>hr (Jidratt) take away; steal;


of sacred texts.
+
plunder;
apa idem;
svdmin m., possessor, lord.
d act. and mid., fetch, bring;

f-

svdiram adv., at pleasur.

ud-d

yhan

have killed;

\-

hrd (281)

apa hrdaya

n.,

n.,

\-prati hinder', injure, offend;


h

sam

hanu

f.,

killing.

jaw.

hanumant m.,

heart.

hfsyati) rejoice, be
1-

pra idem.

he interj., O, ho.

\^hri (jihreti)
n. pr.,

ud

hemanta m., winter.


hrasvam adv., near by.

write.
a.,

\-

heart.

+ abhi smite;
remove;
^hrs Qidrsati,
h ni kill;
+ sam-d wound;
delighted;

-han (283)

save, rescue.

Qidnti: 419) kill; cans, {ghd-

tdyati),

mention;
back;

bring

praty-d
hata part, of han.

cite,

a monkey- hri

king.
hantr m., killer, slayer.
hari m., n. pr., a god.

]/

f.,

be ashamed.

modesty, bashfulness.

hvd (hvdyati)

call; in caus. (hvd-

ydyati) have called

summon.

-fa

call,

II.

217

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

II.

English -Sanskrit.

abandon, to: tyaj; lh&.

answer, to: bhds + pi'ati.

able: samartha; gakya.


able, to be: gak.

appoint, to: kip, caus.; yuj +

ni,

according to: anu^ postpos.

approach, to: gam-\-d; yd-^d.


argument (reason): vac f.

acquire, to: labh; ap.

arise, to:

Agvins: agvindu^ du.

arm: bdhu m.

address, to: hru.

army

adore, to: nam-\-pra,


adorn, to: Ikr alam.

arrive, to: gam-{-d.

kalydna

n.

send

n.

Aryan:
ascetic

m.

isu

dvija m.; dvijdti

muni m.

vrdj m.; tapasvin m.

afterward

come an

again

against

tatas.

hri.

age: vayas n.

ask, to (inquire): prach.

all:

ask

sarva; (entire) vi^va,

for, to: arthaya.

sabhd

all-protecting: vi^apd.

assembly

allow, to: jnd-\-anu.

astronomy jyotisa

alms: bhiksd

attain, to:

f.

alone (adv.): eva,

parisad

kartr

hymnns,

2vid;

sadd, nityam.

m.;

etc.) dras{r

axe; paragu m.

oneself, to: ram,

ca, postpos.

f.

n.

lag; dp;

\-ava

author:

f.

bad: pdpa.

ancient: purdna.

and

labh'y

f.

or pra.
attainment: Idbha m.

although: api.

amuse

dp

also: api.

always

be-

ashes: bhasman n.

prati.

altar: vedi

pari-

to

vraj-\-pra.

ashamed, to be:

punar.
:

a.,

m.

yati m.

afraid, to be; bhl.


:

sthd-\- ud.

f.

arrow: gara m. ;

-\-

advantage: hita n.
adversity; duhkha

bhu; (get up)

tathd.

bank:

tlra n.

anger: kopa m.; krodha m.


animal: tiryanc ra.

banner: ketu m.

announce, to:

bathe, to^ snd.

\vid-\-niy caus.

barbarian: yavana m.

(of

m.

Vedic

218

II.

rana m.

battle:
be,

to:

n.

hhu; vrt;

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

(be

born, to be: ja7i; jan-\-ud.

n.

yuddha

situated)

sthd.

bear, to: bhr; (bring forth)

sic;

rksa m.

kumdra m.

m.

dvija m.;

vipra m.

f.

breast: uras n.; vaksas n.

bridegroom
broad

prthu

m.

t;ara

m+a;

bring, to:

hhiJcs.

begin, to: rabh


:

bdla m.

gdkhd
brave: dhlra.

beauty: rupa n.
become, to: hhu; vrt.
bee: ali m.; madhulih m.

behind

boy

branch

beautiful: sundara; rupavant,

nam.

to

dvijdti

beat, to: tad.

beg, to

ubha du.

Brahman: brdhmanam.',

sil -\-pra.

bear

both

bow,

hT-\-d.

uru.

brother: bhrdtr m.

+ d.

burn, to

pagcat (w. gen.),

dah.

behold, to: tks.

business: krya n.

Benares: kdgi f.
bend, to: nam.

but: tu; kimtu; punar.

benefit, to; \kr-\-upa.

call, to:

beseech, to: pad-\-pra.

hvd; (name) vac; vad.


capable: samartha.

besiege, to: rudh; rudh-{-upa.

caste : jdti /.

best

cattle: go

m.

cease, to:

gam;

grestha; jyestha.

betake oneself, to: yd;


better

pn'

+ a.

chain: hdra m.
charioteer; suta m.

biped: dvipad.

vihaga m.

birth

jdti

black

f.

charm: kdnti

paksin m.

janman

n.

chest: vaksas n.

blame, to: nind; Ikr + tiras.

bhagavant;

(as

m.

prefix) choose, to: 2yr.


cistern: vdpi

blood: rudhira

rudh.

uras n.

child: bdla m.; gigu

gn.

blow,

f..

check, to: dam, caus.

krsna.

blessed:

ram-\-vi.

celebrated: vigruta ; grimant.

greyas ; jydyas.

bind, to: handh.

bird

pi.

citizen

n.

to (intr.): vah.

f.

pdura m.

nagara

-t f.

pwr

f.

body: garira n.; vapus n.; kdya climb, to rwA + d.


m. (heavenly sun, etc.): jyotis n. close, to: Ivr + sain; Idhd

-f

boat: ndu

city:

n.;

cleverness: buddhi

f.

f.

bone: asthan

book: (manuscript) pustaka


(work) grantha m.

api,

cloud: megha m.

n.

n.;

coachman: sw^a m.
come,

to:

gam +

a; yd

a;

II.

come out gam +

ahhi or a;

nis;

yd + nis.
comnaand, to:

daughter: kanyd
hitr

dig-\-d; jnd-\-Q caus.

command: ajnd

f.

219

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

nidega m,

day: divasa m.
d.

f.

pulrl f

du-

f.

d.

by

dina n.

dine dine

ahan

n.

pratyaham

a day and a night: ahordtra


commit, to: car + a; \kr.
companion: sahdya m.; sahaca- dead: mrta; vipanna.
ra m.
decide, to (settle) nl + nis.
deed : karman n.
company: samdja m.

n.

to: rac.

compose,

conduct: vrtta

confine, to: rudh

conquer, to:

deity

f.

delight, to (tr.): tus^ caus.

ni,

deliverance:

ji.

consecrate, to

devatd

delicate: taruna.

n.

nl

wiwA:;ti f.

demon: rdksasa m.

upa,

consider, to: cint] Ivid,

depart, to

consort

describe, to: varnaya.

patnl

f.

cook, to: pac.


copying: lekhana

desire, to

lubh.

destroy, to: bhanj.

n.

man + ava ;

cord, sacred: upavtta n.

despise, to

count, to

determine, to:

ganaya,

courageous

cover, to

f.

Ivr (mid.)

Ivr

+ sam

f.;

go

mr ;

srj.

diligently: bhfgam.

disappear, to

crescent: kald

disease

f,

+ ava;

nag

f.

ruj

distress, to

chid

ava.

distribute, to

divine

tyaham,

dancing: nfita n.

vi.

-^

prati-d.

vi.

da.
:

hhaj

vi.

divya.

do, to: Ikj"; car

dally: nitya\ (adv.) nityam; pra-

vyddhi m.
ruh -f ava.
;

vad +

dispute, to:

cut, to: kft; chid.

kft

dismount, to
disown, to: khyd

tf.

crow: vdyasa m.
curds: dadhan n.

off, to:

vi-nis.

pra', pad-\- vi.

creature: prdnin m.; jagat n.

cut

bhU 4 pari.
or

durlabha; dukara.
dig, to: khan.
diligence: udyoga m.

creator: dhdtf m.; srastf m.

cross, to:

nis

difficult:

f.

cowherd: gopa m.
create, to

ci

die: aksa m.
die, to:

(mid.),

cow: dhenu

devoted: bhakta; snigdha.


devotion: bhakti f.

tejasvin,

course: gati

apa.

domestic: grhya.
dog: gvan m. gunl
;

door: dv&r

f.

sam- a.

f.

220

II.

English-Sanskrit-Glossary.

doorkeeper dvahstha m.
dove: kapota m.

even (adv.):

draw, to: vah.

evil (adj.)

apt.

every: sarva.

papa;

drink, to: \pa.

exceedingly:

driver: suta m.

explain, to: brU


caks + vi'd.

drop, to:

sic.

drop: bindu m.

exterminate, to

dwell, to: Zvas; vas

on

prthivi

east, eastern

bhu

prdnc

f.

bhumi

f.

ad; 2p; bhaks; bhuj.


Ikr

chid

to:

one's

fallen

r;

fame

tiras.

^irfi

f.

eighty: a0ti

fast (firm): drdha.

f.

^ ud.

tr

encompass,
end: anta m.

enemy

ari

m.

vig

equip, to

(killed):

n.

pusta.

janaka m.

lA:r

m.

jpz7r

tiras.

anavadya.

-f-

ava.

fifth

pancama.

+ pra.

Ida

nah

\-

eulogy: stotra n.

dvis m.

purna; sampurna.

finally: ante.
find, to: 2vid.

entrancing: manohara.
envoy: duta m.
entrust, to

fault, to find

filled:

gatru m.

enjoyment: bhoga m.
:

to

fight, to: iywc?A.

enjoy, to: bhuj.

enter, to

fall

field: A:sefra n.

\vr ; chid

endure, to: sah.


:

fear: bhaya n.

emperor: samraj m.
:

father

faultless:

eminent, to be: gubh.

to

pma;

fat:

elephant gaja m. hastin m.


eleventh: ekadaga.
:

n.

fasten, to: bandh.

agltitama.

eldest : jyestha.

emerge, to

aksan

pat; pat-\-ni;

lot:

eighth: astama,

eightieth

ud.

patita; mrta.

eight: asta.

f.

yagas
family: vanga m.
famous: vigruta.

Ivj-^-vi;

vi;

n.

fagot: samidh

fall,

eating: bhaksana n.
eclipse, to

n.

the E. : prdci fair: sundara.

sc. dig.

eat, to;

caksus n.

mukha

face:
f.

papa

locana n.

karna m.

ear:

n.

(fig.)' ^^^J*

earth

f.,

ni; dwell eye netra

(sxih&i.)

ati.

finish, to:

dp

-\-

sam.

agni m.; hutabhuj m.


firewood: samidh f.

fire:

first

prathama ;

at

first

pra.

sam.

fish:
fit,

matsya m.

to: yuj.

?nIno

m.

pra-

n. English-Sanskrit Glossary.

221

five: panca.

generous:

flee, to

get, to: labh'f lag; dp.

paldy,

to: bhram.

flit,

flock

sumanas

gam + anu;

follow, to:

+ anw.

fond, to be: tus.

food
foot

anna

kanyd

girl:

give, to:

f.

sam.

m. ; pad m.

f.

6a/a

f.

Irfa.

yam;

giver: datr m.
cfrp

f.

glory: klrti

f.

glance:

go, to: car:

n.

29aJ(z

girdle: mekhald

f.

up pat + ud.
fodder: ghdsa m.
foe: ari m. ; gatru m.
to: pat; fly

n.

nah

gird, to:

pi.

flower: puspa n.
fly,

ddna

gift:

pa^u m.

(fa^r.

(continue)

7/apas n.

yd; gam;
:

vrt

deva m.

go on

i;

pra.

force: bala n.

god

foreign: jpar.

gold: suvarna n.

forehead: lalata n.

govern, to: gds; rujyarh kr,

forest:

vana

n.

good: sddhu;

forest-dwelling: vanavdsin.

form, to
formula

Imd +

goddess

devl

f.

sant.

gracious: giva.

n/s.

graciousness : krpd f.
n.
yajus
grain: dhdnya n.
(sacrificial):
fortune: pn f., often pi.; goddess grammar: vydkarana n.

of

f.

pr f

grasp, to : grah.
graze, to: car.

f.

forty: catvaringat

great: mahant.

four: catur.
free, to: wimc.

mitra n.;

friend:

saA:^z

great king: mahdrdja m.


m.; su- greater: mahlyas; adhika.

hrd m.

greatly: hahu; hhrgam.

friend-betrayer: mitradruh.
front: agra n.; in f. of:

samaksam
fruit:

phala

fruitful
full:

greedy: luhdha.

(gen.),

Greek: yavana m.
greet, to: vand; vad

n.

grieve, to: du.

agre,

ground

phalavant.

bhumi

f.

abhi^ caus.

on the g. adhas.
:

grind, to: pi.

purna; sampurna.

guard, to: rakf; gopdya.


guest: athiti m.

gain, to: labh.

garden: udydna
garland: mdld
gate: dvdr

f.

gather, to

ci

n.

f.;

guilt:

ra;

pdpa

n.; enas n.

f.

hand kara m.
:

am.

gazelle: harii^a m.

hang, to
mfz/a m.

pdni m.

sanj lag.
happiness: sukha n.
:

hast a m.

222

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

happy, to be: mud.


hard to find: durlabha.
to

harm,

hate, to

iJcr

dvis

intelligence: buddhi

jpra,

jaw: hanu f.
jewel: mani m.; ra<na
Sana n.

hear, to: prw.

heart

n.

hrd

hrdaya
heaven: svarga m.
:

n.

heavy: guru.
hell: naraka m.

kill, to

here: atra', iha.

kindle, to: idh.

hero

pwra m.

vzra m.

hesitation: gankd

king:

-\-

apt.

knowledge

holy writ: (tm^2

honor, to: puj; nam]

pa-

bhubhuj

f.

vidyd

jndna

n.

Zaj)

'*

land: Jepa m.

language: 6^a.so

sev.

f.

last, at: ante.

f.

law: dharma m.

horse: apra m.

grha n.
grhastha m.
:

master of the

h.,

law-book:

m.

wacZ^i

smrti

f.;

dharmagd-

stra n.

grhastha m.

law-suit: vyavahdra m.

purohita m.

lead, to:

how?: katham.
human: mdnusa.
hurl, to: 2as;

m.

leader: we^r.
learn, to:

hunter: vyddha m.

gam +

a!;a; lyzc?;

adhi.

learned

A:s?p.

husband: pati m.; hhartr m.

hymn:

lament, to:

(adv.); grham.
honey: madhu n.

house-priest

han, caus.

f.

home

householder

m.

ro;'an

bhu-

m.; bhubhrt m.

holy: sadhu.

house

m.

nrpati m.;

m.;

7zr/?a

/?aw

n.

kingdom: ra;?/a n.
know, to: Im'rf; ^wa.

ra.

pura

hold shut, to: Idhd

hope: apa

mr, caus.

rthiva

f.

high: ucchrita.

high w^ater:

f.

iron: loha n.

apa.

dvis

adharma m.

injustice:

sukta n.

vidvdfis

learning: vidyd
leather:

carman

pandita ; kugala.

f.

n.

leavings: ucchista n.
I:

aham.

impart, to

'

lesson: adhydya m.

Ivid

+ m,

caus.

lick, to: //A; Z/A

inclined, to be: snih.

life:ymYa

increase, to: vrdh.

light: y?/ofzs n.

India: bharatakhanda m,
initiate, to;

upa.

ayo.

n.; ayws n.;

light (not heavy): laghu.


like: iva.

carita n.

II.

limb: aiiga n.
sinha ra.

lion

modesty: hrl

m.

moisten, to:

listen, to: prw.


live, to

jw

duhkha

misfortune:

lip: ostha

an + pra,

vrt ;

223

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

n.; apaci

f.

f.

sec.

monarch; samrdj m.
money: dhana n.; t?asw

n.

long: dlrgha; (adv.) dram.

month: rwasa m.

look at,

moon: candramasm.; candra m.;

to: iks \- pra.

lord: igvara m.

^^aie

padma m.

lotus:

m.

indu m.

n.

love, to: snih.


love,

god of

1.

bhuyas.

mostlj'

morning, in the: prdtar,


mother: mdtr f. ambd f.

kama m.

lunar mansion: naksatra n.

mother-in-law: fvap-u f.
mountain grm m. ; parvata m.

maiden: kanya

mouth

f.

maidservant: ddst

make,

5a/a

f.

mukha

mouthful: grdsa m.

to: l^r.

man

(vir): nara m.; pumdhs m.; murder, to:


cans.
purusa m.; (homo): jana m.;
mdnava m. manusya ra..; wara m. must: rA;
;

mankind: ^awa m.

many:

n.

much: prabhuta; bahu.

f.

Twr, cans.;

r,f.

320 and Exer-

cise 30.

pi.

fta^w; prabhuta.

march, to:

name: ndman

cal-\-pra.

n.

marriage: vivdha m.

name,

marry, to n* + pan.
master: bhartr m. ; pa< m.

ganaya.
neck: kantha m.

mat: ka^a m.
means: sddhana

neglect, to: \hd.

meet, to

(intr.)

</aw

-f

sam

(mid.),

meeting: samdgama m.
melted butter: ghrta n.
mention, to: hr

-\-

to:

ud-d.

merchant: vanij m.

ndma.
(reckon)

apt,

cfcf,

or

news: vfttdnta m.
night: ra^n f.
no one

na ka + opt,

i^rftct

f.,

cidy

or ca7?a.

8C. dig.

not: na; wfi.

milk, to: duh.

nothing:
cana.

Ar^Ira n.; /Jflryas n.

n.; wa/i

n.

vad;

cana.

mighty: balin; balavant; vibhu.

mind: manas

by

north, northern: udanc; the N.:

merit: punya n.

minister: mantrin m.

vac;

net : jdla n.
never: na kadd

n.

medicine: dusadha n.

milk:

han; kan,

f.

na

kirn

-^^

apt ^

cid^

now: adhund; sdmpratam.

or

224
O:

II.

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

he.

pilgrimage: tirthaydtrd
pious: sddhu.

obedient: vidheya,

Idhd ; dhd + sam-d,

oblation: havis n.

place, to

occur, to: drg, pass.; ^vid, pass.

place

ocean: udadhi m.; samudra m.

plan: abhiprdya m.

oiFend, to:

Ihd.

han+prati;

parfa n.

plant, to: rwA, caus.

play, to

old: vrddha; older: jyayas,

please, to: rue.

dega m.

offering (sacrificial): havis n.

onanipresent

f.

dlv.

pleasure: sukhan.; with p., pleas-

vibhu.

once: sakrt.

antly: sukhena; (wish, choice)

one: eka.

icchd

only: eva.
opinion; mati

cchayd.

mata

f. ;

or; vd, postpos.

n.

athavd.

ordain, to: kip, caus.

\dhd-\-vi',

ordained: vihita.
order, to

jna + , caus.

kdma m.;

f.;

n.

plough: Idngala
plough, to

hala m.

plunder, to: lunth; hf ; lup,

poem: kdvya u.
poet: kavi m.
point out: to;

outskirts: siman

polluted, to be: dus.

dig.

overcome, to: 2pr.

poor: daridra.

overwhelm, to:

possessions: dhana n,

vrs.

own, one's own:


ox: ana^uh m.

sva,

yugma

n.

palace: prdsdda m.
parents

pitr,

m. da.

part: hhdga m.

path: mdrga m.
pearl:

muktd

yupa m.

post, sacrificial:

pot: ghata m.

pound, to
pair:

n.

krs.

other; any a; itara^ apara,


f.

at p.: sve-

powerful
praise,

panthan m.

f.

pis.

balin

gam;

for, to

balavant.

song of p.

praise, to:

pray

peasant: krswala m.

pour, to: hu.


power: bala n.

stutif.

stotra n.

stu.

arth.

prescription: ddega m.

prdyagdtta n. presence: samipa n.


s. and pi. previous
pUrva.
perform, to: sidh^ caus.; car; priest: rtvij m.
cari-samd; (a sacrifice) ^an.
prince: kumdra m.

penance

people

tapas

jana^

n.

pi.

loka,

perfume: gandha m.

property: vasu n.; dhana n.

perish, to: wcp + m.


pestle: musala m. n.

prosperity: bhUti f.
protect, to: raks ; 2pd', pd, caus.

pierce, to: vyadh.

protection; garaf^a n.

II.

protector: raksitr m.

riches: dhana n.; vasu n.; frt

punish, to: dandayaj fds,

righteousness: satija n.

yuj right (subst.): dharma m.


Rigveda: rgveda m.; rcas

Idhd;

caus.;

f.;

m.

rdi

punishment: dan^a m.
put, to: sthd^

225

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

+ riL

rise, to
i

f.

pi.

(of sun, etc.): gam-\- ud',

ud.

river: nadl f
sanY f.
quadruped: catuspad.
quarter: pdda m.; (of the sky) road: mdrga m.; panthan m.
.

rob, to: nw,

dig f.

queen: devl

rdjnl

f.;

f.;

mahisi

f.

root:

mUla

Zwn.^A.

n,

rub, to: mr/; mrj, caus.

rain: vfsti

rain, to (give rain)

ni.

pdda

reach, to

read, to:

srj

dp

ac?A^;

ud.

(aloud) /?afA;

labh;
Ida + d.

grah;

grah

(tell) kath,

path;

reckon, to: ganaya,


:

f.

dega m.

mud,

return, to

vft

grah

reward : phala
rich: dhanin;

for the:

salt:

lavana

n.

n.

salvation: muktif.; bhutif.]hitan,

Savitar:

tfp^

caus.; (oneself)

hr + ud.
savitj-

m.

say: vad; vac; brU.

-f ni,

nam; pUj;

ariha in cpd

375, 3).

save, to
m'.

scatter, to: ^kj-.

rice: tan^ula ra.


:

of,

n.

trp.

to: smf.

restrain, to

reverence, to

sake

satisfy, to:

rejoice, to: tus;

rsi

satiated: tfpta,

rein: ragmi m.

remember,

sage:

(cf.

recompense, to ikr + prati.


reduced (in fortune): klna,
region: dig

some one)

yajna m.
formula: yo/us
m.

sacrifice:
sacrificial

recitation (private): svddhydya m.


recite, to:

sacrament: samskdra m.

yaj, caus.

to:

+ prati;

n.

sacrifice, to: yaj; (for

rtZ/^a n.

receive,

ip.

dm.

+ pra.

vaCf caus.

realm

run, to: dhav;

running: dhdvana

ra.

rapni

labh

vrs,

raise, to (tlie voice)

ray:

royal: ra/a-, in cpd.


rule, to : sthd + adhi ;

f.

&8-\-upa.

scholar:
pancjita

fi^ya:

(learned

man)

m.

grimant; vasumant science: gdstra

n.

(comp. and sup. sometimes va- sea: udadhi m.; samudra m.


slyas, vasiffha).
Forry, Sanskrit Piimcr.

seat oneself, to: 8ad-\-ni.

15

226

II.

second

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

dviWja,

iks-,

%ks

pra.

seer: Yi m.

servant: bhrtya

in.;

hhrtaka m.

Idhci]

(intr.,

f.

she, etc.

f.

sd,

of ta.

shine, to: gubh; rdj; hhd

ship

ndu

vi.

api; Ivr

+ sam.

paksa m.

stone

drsad

f. ;

(precious) wiam m.

f.

strongest: balistha.

d.

study, to:

f.

to: sad\ sad

adhi (mid.); 2as

z -f

subject: prajd

six: sas.

such: Idrg.

sixth: sastha.

suifering:

skilled: patu.

suffused: ruddha.

dig

f.

pi.;

dkdga

n.

f.

duhkha

n.

suitable: anurupa.

slay, to: mr, caus.; y^aw.

summit: gikhara m.
snn: bhdnu m. ddiiya m.

sleep, to: simp;

survive, to

slave: c?asa m.;

c?sz f.

gt.

\- pra; han
evam: tathd.

smite, to: hr
27z;

gis

-j-

wcZ.

sweet: svddu.

smell, to; ^^ra.

so:

abhi.

\- ni,

situated, to be: vrt.

f.

mdrga m.

strive, to: yat.

,92^0 n.

sister: svasr

lunth.

mus;

strike, to: tad.

cam +

sky: div

f.

stand, to (intr.): sthd,

street: rathyd

sing, to: 2^a.

sit,

bhdsd

strange (another's): para.

p2?a n.; ewas n.

f.

stop, lo (tr.): rwc?A.

sick: vyddhita; rugna.

sip, to

f.

spoon: Jm^w

stick: darida ra.

shut, to: Idhd

singing:

speech: vdc

steer: go m.

show,
shrewd: paiw.

spear: kunta m.

steal, to: cur;

f.

to: drg, caus.

sin

e;ap.

state, to: bru.

f.

shoe: updnah

side:

(of praise)

of speak, to: vad; vac; bhds.

sun, etc.) i + astam; gam-\- astam.

shade: chayd

5f2^a n.;

dtman m.

soul:

sow, to:

to: (place)

f.

stotra n.

serve: sev,

song: gir

send, to: sthd-\-pra, caus.

set,

son putra m. suta m.


son-in-law : jdmdtr m.
:

see, to: pag] drg\

ahhi.

swift: dgu.

sword:

asi

m.

soldier: sdinika m.

some
ers

eka pi.; some


ke cit
ke cit.

(pi.):

oth-

take, to

dd

d;

grah ;

sometimes: kva

cit.

take place, to jan ; hhu


:

grah

4-

II.

take refuge, to: pad-\-pra.

treasury: kosa m.
tree: vrksa m.; farw m.

tasteful: rasavant.

tax: kara m.
teach,

to

227

English-Sanskrit Glossary.

tremble, to: kamp.


-\-

adhi, caus.

di(;

true

satya; (faithful) bhakta.

truth: satya u.

teacher: guru

ni.

dcdrya m.

twelfth: dvddaga.
twelve: dvddaga.

tear: ap'u n.; hdspa m.


tell,

to: kathaija; vad,

temple: devakula

twenty-eight: astdvingati.

n.

twenty-seven

tend

to, to

twilight: sandhyd

kip.

to:

terrify,

saptavingati,

twice: dvis.

ten; daga.

caus.;

hlii,

vij {

ud,

two: dva.

caus.

text-book: ^dstra
that: ta;

n.

umbrella: chattra

ayam; asdu,

then: tadd,

understand, to:

there: tatra.

unite, to(intr.):

tatas.

thief: stena

m.; cawra m.

think, to: cint;

third:

n.

gam ava.
gam + sam{m\^.).
-\-

untruth: anrta n.; asatya n.

thereupon:

smr;

f.

twine: bandh.

man;

upanisad: upanisad

think on:

f.

useful, to be: sev.

dhijd,

vassal: sdmanta m.

fr^t?/.

Veda: veda m.

thirty: trifi^at,

thirty-three
this: ta;

verse

trayastringat,

gloka m.

(of Rigveda) fc

ayam,

thou: ^ram.

victorious, to he: ji,

three:

victory: jaija m.

tri.

view (opinion): mati


village: grama m.

threefold: trivft.
thrice:

tris.

thus: iti;

evam;

virtue:

taihd,

visit, to

to-day: ac?^a.

voice: vdc

tongue

touch, to

to

Kflr/

^r^w
f.

-f-

n.

n.

o6Af.

^/r

f.

wagon: ratha m.

f.

pld; vyath^ caus.

warrior: ksatriya m.

wash, to: kal; spfg.


water: jala n.; vdri n.;
vdnijya.
vlci m.
wave:
vas + jfra; slhd
pra

sprg.

trade: vyavahdra m.
travel,

gvas.

jihvd

torment, to

f.

dharma m.; punya

time: kdla m.

to-morrow:

f.

vessel: pdtra n.

n. (mid.).

-f-

we: vayam,
15*

a;?

f.

pi.

228

II.

wear, to: dhr, caus.


to

English-Sanskrit Glossary.
winter: hemanta m.

hhr.

become: gram.

wipe, to: mrj; mrj


wish, to* is.

weary,
weave, to: granth; bandh,
wedding: vivaha m.

with: saha, w.

western:

West pratici
what (rel.): ya.
:

wheel: cakra

pratyaiic;

f.,

the

woman

ndrl

f.

ace),

vadhu

jdyd f.
woman-servant: ddsl

kutas.

wood kdsth^ n.
:

word
work

where?: kva; kutra,


which (rel.): ya.

stri

f.

f.

(forest)

vana

n.

gabda m.

vdc

karman

f.

f.

n.

(literary) gra-

ntha m.

which (of two)?: katara.

world:

white: gveta.

vana

whither?: kva; kutra.


ya,

loka

ra.

jagat n.;

brahman

world-spirit:

ya ka+ apt, cid


cana; often by rel. alone,
whole: krtsna.

hhu'

n.

worship, to

whoever

(instr.,

wolf: vrka m.

n.

(rel.): yatra.

who (rel.):
who ? ka.

or by instr.

witness: sdksin m.

where

withered: mldna.
without: vind

sc. dig.

when (rel.): yadd,


when ? kada.
whence?:

inst.

alone,

weep, to: rud.


west,

or pari.

+ apa

n.

puj.

or worthy: sadrga,

wound, to ksan.
wreath mdld f. sraj
:

f.

why?: kutas; kasmdt.


wicked papa,

year: samvatsara m.; varsa m.

wife

hharyd

win, to

f.

ndrt

f. ;

yoke,

to: yuj^ caus.

yonder:

ji.

wind: vdyu m.

patm

f.

vdta m.

tatra.

young: yuvan.

n.

Appendix.
Hindu Names of Letters.

The Hindus

call

the different sounds, and the characters re-

presenting them, by the word kdra (* maker') added to the sound


of the letter, if a vowel, or to the letter followed by a, if a con-

Thus, a (both sound and character) is called akdra; u,


ukara; k, kakara; and so on. But sometimes kara is omitted, and
o, w, ka, etc., are used alone. The r, however, is never called raThe anusvdra and visarga
kdra, but only ra or repha ('snarl').
sonant.

are called by these names alone.

Modern Hindu Accentuation

of Sanskrit.

In the pronunciation of Sanskrit almost all Brahmans employ,


with insignificant variations, an ictus-accent, which is quite different

from the older musical accent (svara) described in Indian and


European grammars, and employed nowadays exclusively in the recof the Veda.

itation

The

older system, moreover, as

marked

in

very considerable modifications by the Hindus in the traditional recitations of the Vedic
the Vedic texts,

has been

subjected to

schools.

The modern ictus-accent is weaker than that of English. The


more important rules governing its use are as follows:
1.

a. In

syllable

is

primitive verbs and derivatives

usually accented,

from them the root-

But the accent never goes further


and seldom back of the third. It may
b.

back than the fourth place,


on the third syllable only

if the penult be short; on the fourth,


and
both
penult bo short; thus, kdranam, kdranat,
only
antepenult
but karanena; hodliatiy ksipasi, nu^'j/atha, but bodhAcah^ knipdmah^

rest

if

nagydnti; dahitd, dufnlaram, but duhitfndm.


2. Derivatives from nouns generally retain the accent

of the

230

Appendix.

primitive, with the limitations given in

1.

5.; thu8,

rdnku, rmikava;

gdrga, gdrgijah, but gdrgydyani. A naturally short vowel in the


penult, if followed by a group of consonants containing y or v,

does not generally become long by position; thus, prdbala, prabalyam; ukta, uktavat.
3. In verbs and verbal derivatives joined with prepositions, in
augmented and reduplicated forms, and sometimes in declensional
forms, the accent

is recessive, if

the root or stem-syllable be short;

but utkfstam^ niruktam

thus, dgamat^ dnatam, anusthitam^

dgamat,

dksipat^ but bibhdrti, tustdva,jagdu. Polysyllabic prepositions, when


prefixed to other words, retain their own accent as secondary accent

thus, upagacchati,
4.

upagamatdm.

In compounds, unless the

word, each part generally retains


principal

member

is

the

member be a monosyllabic
own accent, but that of the

first
its

strongest

thus, rdjapurusam, pdrvatagi-

kharakdram ; but unmukham^ diggajam^ pragisyam.


The division of syllables is much more apparent

in

Sanskrit

than in English. In reading Sanskrit prose the Hindus generally


drop into a sort oi Bmg-song recitativo. Verses are always chanted.

Perry, Edward Delavan


A Sanskrit primer

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