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I

MANUAL OP PUSHTU
Major

c.i.e.,
POLITICAL OFI'ICKE

ROOS-KEPPEL

G.

f.kg.s.,

KUYBER PASS

;

i.s.c.

PRESIDKNT CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF

EXAMINATION IN PUSHTU

AND

QAZI ABDUL GHANI

KHAN

MUXSHI OF PESHAWUR

ASSISTED BY

SAHIBZADA ABDUL QAYUM,

k.b.

ASSISTANT POLITICAL OFFICER KHYBER PASS MEMBER CENTRAL COMUITTH!
OF EXAMINATION IN PUSHTU
;

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

HUMPHREY MILFORD
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
London

Editiburgh

New York

Toronto^

r

(^K,

Bombay

Calcutta

Glasgow
Melbourne

Madras

Copenhagen

Cape Town
Shanghai

Fifth Impression, 1922

PRINTED IN EXGLAKD

i\ h'^jrr^

AUTHOE'S PREFACE.
Since I have been President of the Central Committee of Examination in Pushto,

many
as to

inquiries

have had

from students of the language

what books they should

1 could

I

get,

and whether

recommend any guide or manual giving

a progressive course of lessons and based on the
»

requirements of the Lower and Higher Standard

Examinations.

I

have examined every book

I

could get hold of on the subject, and have not

succeeded in finding what
-)for,

my

correspondents ask

and the idea has thus been suggested

produce a manual modelled on

Manual," which, with the
Ganj-i-Pulch ^o

''

official

to

me

to

Clarke's Persian

text books (the

and Tari kh-i-Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi)

and a dictionary,

will enable a student to

study

AUTHOR

IV

language with the assistance of any

tlie

intelligent

he

S PRErFACE.

is

Pathan he may come

across,

unable to procure the services of

n,

fairly

even

if

trained

Munshi.

There have been up to date three Pushtu Gram-

mars published,

viz.,

Trumpp's (1873), •Ravert^y's

They

(1860), and Bellew's (1867).
sive,

are expen-

not easily obtained, and are far above the
Besides, they are

heads of beginners.

grammars

pure and simple, and in no sense " Guides " or
" Manuals."

Before writing the short
Part

T.

of this

book

I

grammar which forms
grammars

studied these

very carefully, and take this opportunity of expressing

my

indebtedness to their authors.

Major Raverty, the author of the grammar,
has also produced a
is

-written

throughout

" Pushto Manual,"
in

the

Roman

which detracts very much from

two people agree

as

to

the

but

it

(Jiaracter,

value, as no

its

transliteration

of

Pushtu.
In addition to the above,
India have

published Pushtu

cabularies,"

" Phrase-books*'

many

Munshis' in

"^Guides,"

and

'*'

" Vo-

Sentences."

<

AUTHORS PREFACE.

V

4

Those which I have examined have appeared to

me

They

to be valueless.

words,

and

seiitences

consist of masses

phrases

strung

of

together

•indiscriminatelv.

Twenty, and even ten

year'^ ago,

looked upon as an exceedingly

Few Europeans
teaching was

difficult

attempted to learn
the

in

Munshis in Peshawar.

hands

Pushtu was

it,

three

of

Within the

language.

and the
four

or

last ten years,

however, there has been a great rush to learn
Pushtu,

and

to

meet the demand the number

of Munshis has increased out of

The number
the

Punjab

of really good

could

fingers of one
rtian

who

almost

ail

proportion.

Pushtu teachers
be

counted on

in

the

hand, but every fairly educated

has a smatterino- of Eno-Ush and Pushtu

considers himself qualified to set up in business
as a Munslii.

Very few

of these last have

knowledge of grammar or of teaching, and

any
the\'

aye only capable of giving the meanings of words

and phrases

in the text-books,

and of correctmg,

after a f?^shion, the student's compositions.

They

are useful enowgl* for these purposes, but learning

under such tuition

is

arslow business.
6

AUTHORS

VI

I

hope

this

Manual

i^KEFACE.

will,

by supplying a

sys-

tem, enable the student to get better results than
before.

t

The student should be particular
pronunciation frpm a genuine

Munshi

is

is

Pathan.

mu6h

a Pathan by birth, so

many

but to

to Iparn h:3

of the Munshis I have

his

If

the better

met Pushtu

a foreign language, and although they can in

most cases talk fluently enough, their pronunciation

sometimes

is

vile.

Pathan, the student

is

Unless his Munshi

is

advised to read the short

phrases in the examples and exercises of Part

Chapter

and

I.,

the

a

11.

"colloquial sentences"

of

Part HI. over to his orderly, his chokidar, or to

any other Pathan he may have
to

make him

repeat the phrases after him,

fully noting the

pronunciation.

in

retired

Sepoy

'>

The Manual

is

I.

cai<j-

There are few

for choice) cannot be got

on a small

to practise on.

Part

and

Northern India where a Pathan (a

places

wage

in his service,

A

is

t

divided into three parts

concise

grammar, original

possible for a

grammar

to,

be

:

as far as it

so,

digested

from every other work on the subject available.

AUTHOR « PREFACE.
Part

II.

— Chapter

thirty

and

graduated course of
vocabulary and

(including

'lessons

examples)

A

I.

Vll

exercises, starting with

ele-

mejitary phrases and working up to a more

advanced standard.
tliese les'sons will

beginner, Avho

is

(The^

be

found

first

tNventy

of

sufficient for a

a candidate for the Lowei'

Standard Examination.)
Chapter

II.

Thirty exercises for more

advanced pupils, being passages
lation into

Pushtu in the Higher Standard

Examinations of the

Part

set for trans-

last fifteen years.

Colloquial sentences, being the whole

III.

of the papers of colloquial sentences set in the

Higher Standard Examinations of the
fifteen years

last

rendered into idiomatic Pushtu.

APrENDICESj
I.

Comparative table of types of Puslitu

In-

transitive Verbs.
II.

Comparative table of types of

Pushtu

Transitive Verbs.
III.

The Hegjdations
Pushtu.

for

Examinations

in

author's preface.

viii

The candidate
mination

is

the Higher Standard Exa-

for

advised to

grammar

study the

first

thoroughly and to read part of the text-books to
familiarize himself with the character

work

steadily thro;igh the lessons

Part

II.,

Chapter

into Eno;lish the

I.,

at the

same

;

tOj

t|>en

and exercises

in

timfi translating

Pushtu sentences

in Part III.,

and correcting them by means of the English
version.

If

he does one lesson and one paper of

sentences a day, this will take

He

him a month.

should then go through the exercises in Part

Chapter

II.,

and

at the

same time translate

Pushtu the English sentences in Part
recting his translation

II.,

into

III., cor-

by means of the Pushtu

version.

Each of the thirty papers

an average of

in Part III. contains

The

of colloquial sentences

total, therefore, is

some 1,500

fifty sentences.

sentences.

If

the candidate takes the trouble to master these, he
will

have acquired a very varied and extensive

vocabulary.

There

is

a certain

amount

of repetitiori in the

various papers which form Par^

thought

it

better

to

lea^e

111.,

them

but

as

I

have

they are.

AUTH04l's PUEFACE,

The form

of

the

sentences

IX

constantly

varies,

'and the sentences cover every subject on which

a European would be likely to con^-erse with a
«

l^atha.n.
«

There are probably

many

defects in this work,

though everything that care could do to prevent

Any

mistakes has been done.

suggestions as to

improvements, and the pointing out of any

slips

or omissions, will be received with gratitude, and
will

be made use of should the Manual ever reach

a second edition.

In conclusion, I would express
the Punjab Government,

me

to

make

my

gratitude to

who have kindly

use of the examination papers set by

their orders during the last fifteen years
*

allowed

;

also to

fmy collaborator Qazi Abdul Ghani Khan (son
Qazi

of

assisted

Mahmud Khan of Peshawar), who
me in writing the grammar, and who

undertook the translation
oentences

Part

in

III.;

Abdul Qayum, whose
Pushtu ,was always
authors.
I

into

and

Pushtu of
to

the

Sahibzada

unrivalled knowledge

of

at the disposal of the joint

-

mention the nanjes of these two gentlemen

X

AUTHOR

not only on account of

S

PREFACE.

tlieir

share in the produc-

tion of this little work, but as a guarantee that

the Pushtu rendering of the sentences

is

idiomatic

as well as grammatical.

r

G.

ROOS-KEPPEL,
I

<

Cajptain.

Landi Kotal, Khyber Pass,

I.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The Grammar.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Xii

PART

II.
PAGB

Chapter

A

I.

graduated series of Lessons

......

and Exercises
Chapter

II.

Pushtu

7.1

Passages for translation into
for

more advanced

studefnts

.

1

36

f

PART

III.— Colloquial Sentences

.

'

.

.167

APPENDICES.
I.

Comparative table of types of Pushtu
Intransitive Verbs

II.

.

Transitive Verbs
III.

The

Pushtu

,

Regulations
.

.

.

of types of

Comparative table

for
.

.

.

.

Examination
«

t

(in pocTcet)

Pushtu

(in pocket)
in

308

PART

I.

PUSHTU GKAMMAK.

PA-RT?

I.

PUSHTU GEAMMAB.
t

'

SECTION

I.

On the Letters and Parts
1.

The Pushtu alphabet

consists of forty letters.

these seven are purely Pushtu, viz.:

^;->*^

^

•-^^

^

L/'

Four are common

(>

J ^

Eight are purely Arabic,

to

of Speech.

Of

^

g or^

and

viz.:

^

^

L/'

and

f

Jf

Pushtu, Hindi, and Persian, but

are not found in Arabic, viz.
(

Four are common
not to Hindi,

5

_

y

and

CJ

to Pushtu, Arabic,

^

d

j

anu

c

The remaining seventeen are common
Arabic, and Hindi.
»

2.

These forty

letters are to

The

to Pushtu, Persian,

be considered as conso-

•nants, and are written from right to
3.

and Persian, but

viz.

letters vary in form, as in

left.

Urdu, according to
assuming the

their position in the formation of a word,

same
4.

initial,

medial, and final forms.

tn the following table, Column I. shows the form of
Column II. its name in the Roman character

the letter;

Column

III. tfie

corresponding English

and Column IV. examples
forms.

power
and final

letter or

of the initial, medial,

J

B 2

;

THE PUSHTU ALPHABET.
1

I.

»

PUSHTU MANUAL.

6
5.

Althougli

the 40 letters of the Pushtu alpha-

all

bet are used as consonants, the letters

,

1

.

and

^ are

also used as vowels, either with or without the vowel-

points

Zabar

vowels

short

or

(— ),

Zdr (~)^ ^^^

Pesh {—), or in conjunction with hamza ^.
The vowel-points Zabar {—) Zer (— j'and Pcsh _i,
^

,

,

are the real vowels^of the language, though in P.ushtu

MSS.

the consonants

1

,

^

and ^^ are indiscriminately*

used in place of them.
If not followed by

1

sent the short vowels

=

thus

—r'—^

thus

J-

ii

pronounced rd

I

)

pronounced

.

pronounced rd

thus

or

the vowel-points repre-

viz.

;

d

=

^,

^ or

,

ri

These short vowels can only be used in the middle
or at end of a syllable, as the syllable

must invariably

begin with a consonant.
If followed by

1

,

^ or

the long vowels; viz.

.

=
=
=

When

\

i>J

formed

for

;

=

^
iJs

When

»

^,

a

thus

e

thus

w or 00

thus

is

the vowel-points represent

:

^^,

followed by

^

.

»

^'

pronounced rd

1.

or

pronounced

ree

pronounced

roo

^_^

,

a diphthong

is

example

au or

on,

ai or

ce,

and

^_J

pronounced as in hough
'pronounced as

>i//i.

,

"majhul " are written thty have no

accompanying vowel-points,

this signirying that these

vowels should not be strongly accentuated in pronunciation

;

for

example

PUSH'UU GRAMMAR.

hot,

J.i"

^.;'.J^-

7

pronounced tod

rJ^ roitnd about,

pronounced ger

Thus we have ten vowel-sounds,

viz.

:

clidpSr

three

the

by the vowel-points —, -^r and
and ^; the three long, represented
by the same vowel-points when fo^owed by 1, ^ and ^_^^,
the two diphthongs, formed by the combination of -with . and j_j respectively; and the two majJnd vowels,
short, represented

*

not followed

}^y \, ^

when

^

;

and

are written

without vowel-points, the

short vowel which should precede

them being under-

stood.

HOW PROXOUNCKD

DESCRIPTION.

IN ENGLISH.

^-

an ass

khar, or khiir like

burr
Short Vowels

< 2.

3.

zinna, like

£jj the chin

s.i

raw sugar

like

gtir,

8in7Ui

French

jour only shorter
j'o

Long Vowels

{

-•

\3.
^"

(

Diphthongs

I

2

wind

Jjj

Jo
{

2.

kaol, like bough

Jji a promise
Jjugj

a flock

(JSjki-

bred, like breed

bud, like food

produce

birds

"Majhur

bad, like bard

Joo a houndari/

of
'

like

ssel,

like bowl

IV eight

tol,

a

khel,

tribe

Norwe-

gian Sceter

like

male

only less accentuated.

PUSHTU MANUAL.

8
G.

In addition

signs used with
tliey are

to

these vowels there are certain'

consonants to modify their sound

;

*

:

(,

"^

(i.)

'Siiadda/' only used with

Thus, J^.T

the sound.

io fitrn

1

(alif); it

round,

hat.

lengthens

a very long

a sound, thus, aaruwal.
(ii.)

consonant over which
thus,

it

is

placed to sound double

a chance, has a double

iJIaj'I

(iii.)

Arabic sign causing the

'^tashdid""is an

"

""

'

wasl,''

t

sound, thus,

This sign

is

it-tifak.

an Arabic sign of union, connecting

the al- at the beginning of an Arabic

vowel-sound of the

;

last letter of

word with the

the preceding word.

only used in words of purely Arabic

origin.

In purely Arabic words the vowels zabar, zer

(iv.)

and pesh

(''

a word, thus
that

these

')

are frequently doubled at the end of

^

This

is

the symbol which denote^

words should terminate

it-tifakan, hy chance.

in w;

thus, U'ijj

*

PUSHJU GRAMMAR.

^
,

i

SECTION n.

'

>

9

The Parts of Speech.

,

In Pushtu, as iu Persian and Arabic, there are
the Noun, the Verb,
but ,three pa^i'ts of speech, viz.
7.

:

>

and the Particle.
S.

Thei*e is no article corresponding with the, a or

an in English, the
though

is

it

numeral o

article

being inherent in

its

noun

;

sometimes expressed by the indefinite

(one) for

the indefinite article, or by the

demonstrative pronoun

1j or

,i:cd

for the definite

{tJiis)

articlxB,

CHAPTER

I.

THE NOUN.
,

A

9.

object

noun
it

;

indicate time.

numeral

a

is

word denoting the name

of

an

has an independent meaning, and does not

liouns,

It comprises

substantives, adjectives,

pronouns, and participles past

and

present.
10.

In

Pushtu

the

noun has

two genders, the

masculine and the feminine; t^vo numbers, the singular
and* the plural; and eight cases, viz.

:

»

(1)

Nomisiative

(abbreviation N.).

(2)

Accusative

(

Ac).

PUSHTU MANUAL.

10
(3)

Instrumental or Formative (abbreviation In.;.

(4)

Genitive

(5)

Dative

D.).

(6)

Ablative

Ab.).

(7)

Locative

,L.).

(8)

Vocative

v.).

G.).

Gender.
11.

Males are masculine, females are feminine; in

other words the gender
tion of the

12.
in

the

is

determined by the termina-

nominative singular.

nouns of the masculine gender terrrinate
nominative singular in one of the following

All

ways :—
(i.)

All nouns ending in

those ending in

^

s

(ye ma'^ruf),

(lie

zahir), in ^^

,

and

which denote a pro-

fession or occupation, are almost invariably masculine^

Examples

:

$

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.
Most nouns terminating
masculine,, Example
(ii.)

in

11

a consonant are

:

CSaS ,
Tq

5

this rule,

a good

In

'-r'^i-^

a

sister,

J

however, there are

many

feminine because
1

J^^.

the

of
it

more important

,

^y

etc.

many

exceptions

denotes a

a dauglder,

disregard as obvious.
are the

CS^j^, and O"'

female,

exceptions.

the

noun

such as

is

,^

an aunt; these we can

Of the exceptions the following
:

PUSHTU MANUAL.

12
14.

All nouns of the feminine gender terminate in

nominative

the

ways

singular

in

one

of

the

,

following

:

Nouns which terminate

(i.)

in

s

(he khafi),

iu ^-

ma'ruf preceded by hamza), in j^ \ye ma'ruf)
denoting condition, and plural nouns which terminate
(ye

in

^

(ye majhul), are without exception

Example

:

NOUNS
TERMINATING IN

feminine.

PUSfiTU GRAMMAR.

The

15.

differences in sex necessitating formations

of gender are either denoted

by separate words, as
FEMININE.

'MASCULINE.

X
,. ,.

a father.

jyo

a mother.

a brother.

,»i-

a sister.

J

a Ton.

^.

an

uncle.

l,,^Jui

a buffalo

(uv

a horse.

or the

1

..J
bull.

<i«*»J^

x>^

feminine

^Ji

by adding

a

»

(he kliafi).

^

Example :—

<di

thief,

i^js^

a female

thief.

a hen.

Those masculine nouns which have deepened

original

tion.

a mare.

FEMININE.

a coch.

CJj»-

agrci,in

buffalo coir.

:

MASCULINE.

the

o,

Masculine nouns terminating in a consonant form

the feminine

(ii.)

1

an aunt.

formed from the masculine by a

is

diffel'ent termination, thus

(i.)

a daughter.

dA^ a woman.

^jM a man.
s

13

)

to

.

in a shortened

Example

iu

^jyu»j

^^

Oj

last

restore

:

shepherd.

*

iiXjJL

a Fathan.

^til-*.;

coicherd,

&ki^

o>

syllable

it

form before the feminine teruiina-

MASCUL»?IE.

^^'y

their

FEMININE.

a shepherdess.
a Pathan woman.
a female cowherd.

14

PUSHTU MANUAL.

From masculine nouns ending

(iii.)

nine

Example

^.1

an

^juh

a doq.

antelope.

/^''^(^^^ o,''^^€lope.

<^

il^J'

a

ijuw

'^aS

hitch.
,

a granddaughter.

1

FEMININE.

MASCULINE.

a parrot.

lisjis

L^y^

From masculine nouns ending

(v.)

formed either by changing

is

j.ii
C-^j'

^

the femi-

^,

as iu

FEMININE.

a washerman.

'j.i)

a washerwoman.

a

tC^^S

a female

helper.

by dropping the

j^-

and adding

s.j,

as

:

helpter.

FEMININE.

MASCULINE.
>-•><,

in

into

^j?

MASCULINE.

or

,^-

I

is

,

to

the femiFrom masculine nouns ending in
formed by changing into ,^5. Example:

(iv.)

nine

the femi-

FEMIltlNE.

a grandson.

«j,^'

nine

^

:

MASCULINE.

,

in

formed by changing the termination

is

a shoemaker.

x.a:>-».<

a female shoemaker

or a shoemaker's wife.
j'jo

Note.
former,

an elephant.

— The

latter

wliicJi is

u.ij'jt

form

becoming

is

a female elephant.

more-inuuse than

obs^olete.

the

PUSHTa GRAMiMAR.

15

Number.
16.

The preceding

sections

have shown the singular

forms of both masculine and feminine nouns;

mains

10 sliOTr

how

the plural

it re-

forms of these nouns

are obtained.

'

In Pushtu the crude form of the noun always reprethe

sents

nominative

singular^

and the nominative

plurals are obtained by changing the terminations of

the crude form according to the following rules.

The

masculine and feminine nouns have to be taken separately, as each

gender forms

its

a different manner, according to

nominative plural in
its

termination.

(1.)

17.

Masculine nouns which terminate in a con-

sonant form the plural
(i.)

By adding

the termination

,1

or

denoting animate or inanimate objects

Example

;XJ^

:

SINGULAR.

PLURAIi.

Ci3uc a chief.

^J^^

cL^L; a leopard.

u'"^V-

.to

a snake.

uV'*

j^

a house.

^y^

J:

j^

a

hill.

..

a ravine,

for

nouns

respectively.

^'.J:

^iJ,^^

16

PUSHTU MANUAL.

(ii.)
By adding tbe termination % iu monosyllabic
nouns with the radical — -. Example
:

y

<.

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.

17

Masculine nouns ending in ^^ invariably form

19.

the plural by adtling

^^1.

Example

SINGULAR.

:

PLURAL.

/J

>Li»M
jfcLwj
»

^S'

J.i^

20.

soldier.
a soiaier.

^vjj&'^w,
..i^-J^'»

••^

••^

a murderer.

,.,ljL.>»i-

Masculine nouns ending in

by adding ^1 or

^J~^.

SINGULAR.

Example

:

^

form the plural

18

PUSHTU MAIJUAL.
SINGULAR.

PUSmtJ GRAMMAR.
24.

many masculine nouns

Also

plural

termination

to
Jtii.

meaning

their

;

Examples

theso.

are

in

Pushtu

being constructed as plurals, take no

collective, and,

19

grhss, ^.lU cotton,

are

:

Ji

is

the only guide

huttfir,

Jxi.

wheat,

and many others.

(2.)

Feminine nouns ending in any consonant except
form the plural by adding ^r-. Example
25.

:

SINGULAR.
ji

'^j
fj^j>

.3

a regiment.
a

^•^,

quilt.
ij^'^j>

When ending
Example

PI.UUAr,.

a mad.

in

»

they form

the plural by ^^i'^.

:

SINGULAR.

*

yLjo a she

or

,

PLURAL.

cat.

i^'.^Aj...

^

a she vionJcey.

•>''•!

;'^

f

Feminine 'nouns ending in
the pluial.
Examples
2€».

iu

ov

I

\'

*

^ remain unchanged

:

>

•is-

Sr >

a

«

»^

girl.
t

^

v«*«
,

'''''

the

moon
c 2

20

PUSHTU MANUAL.
27.

Feminine nouns ending

^

by changing

to

^.

^

in

Example

:

^Jo
28.

l^^

O^

evil.

in

i

clian|re

it

to

^.

:

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Hs^ a woman.

ls^

<tywl

29.

,

virtue.

Feminine nouns ending

Example

'

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
iuvj

form the plural

a mare.

Feminine nouns ending

'

l5:J^

in

)

form the plural by

j'^/ when
denoting animate objects,
when they denote inanimate. Example

adding

:

SINGULAR.

an,d

^_^»

*

21

PUSUtu GEAMMAR.

Also such feminine nouns as are in Pushtu collective

and are con»structed as plurals.
9

Examples

:

>

L<r,.'i-

,

snow.

'

^_SJ;}^

and 'many

dust.

Xj^

rice.

^J^^j^\

barley.

o'jhers.

>

Case.

The Nominative and

31.

(and,

Accusative cases

in

nouns which remain uninflected in the singular, the
instrumental case) are identical with the crude form

....m

and are only distinguishable from one

of the noun,
>

another by their position
In

(i.)

verb,

sentences formed with

all

with the present

or

a sentence

;

thus

:

an intransitive

and future

tenses

of a

transitive verb, the nominative precedes the accusative.
»

Example

:

^1.

'

(ji.)

JJ

Yakooh eame.

j&. js^ ^,»j

The 'man

I—-jIjL^ i^ s

1

:

will

beats the ass.

read the booh.

In sentences formed w^th the past tenses of

transitive

mental.

(--vibo

verbs the nominative follows the

Exaippje
8j!..

^^

:

^jui

(l^he

dog killed the

fojc.

instru-

22

PUSHTU MANUAL.
The Instnimental case (which

32.

is

the Formative) is only employed with

and past tenses

of

transitive verbs.

identical with

imperfect

the

It represents in

Pushto the agent, and precedes the object (which
being placed

in the nominative',

of inflection)

Example

at

of the

Ua^ Ci3jb

JJfclj^

CXii) ,^|J^

In

the

The hoy was
The

striking the girl.

girl struck the hoy.

Vocative

case,

noun

the

preceded by the interjectional particle

may remain
V

or

8,

,

usually

is

^^\j

but this

unexpressed but understood.

In masculine nouns denoting animate

(i.)

sentence.

:

<xljb^

33.

commencement

the

1

singular.

is

added

Example

to the last letter of the

— The

ol)jects,

nominative

:

*j)j}

Note.

is

norns in6apablo

(in

^JiJ3

form

first

<-^'

^

(

(with

brother I

is

)

more

in

use

than the last two, which are becoming obsolete.
(ii.)

~

In feminine nouns denoting animate objects,
added

is

singular.

f

^^
'

JJ

to

the

Example
)
\

)

last

letter

the

of

nominative

'
<

:

daughter

^^
"

I
^

jy-'J

x

\

mother

I

PUSHTU GEAMMAE.
(iii.)

nominative
''

nouns

In
«

denoting

23

inaninuttti

singular remains unchanged,

objects,
tlie

tbe

vocative

being expressed by the prefixing of the iuterjectional

Example

particle alone.

j>S

'

.

o

(iv.)

In

-''-*»

joy

L^'

nouns

i^lural

home/

!

sorrow

L_>'

!

of both genders, the vocative

expressed by prefixing the interjectioual particle to

Example

the formative plural.
JUsjIjuw

»j1^

34.

35.

:

^-1

soldiers

^^\

hoys

All other cases are formed by

affixes to the

and

,

{my)

^^\

r
is

:

The

iii./i-

)ȣ

<

Example
t>

to

the

:

the coto's milk.

^
^ly:

t>

the cows' milk.

^l« uliXc

t)

the chief's cattle.

"idJli

of prefixes

formed by prefixing j

is

formative of the noun.

'

means

formative of the noun.

Genitive

'

!

J'^ ^^'o ^

the chiefs' cattle.

T\e Dative is formed by affixing
formative of the^ noun (in conversation aJ,
Example
commonly used for jj)
36.

.

:

^

<jo

to

the

sJ,

xij

are

24

PUSHTU MANUAL.
^li

^

j>S

He

has gone

to his

c^

..i^

He

has gone

to his Iwuse.

jsJ

,S

He

has gone

to Jiis

^'.

.»^

He

has gone

to

\3

^L>

ij

ij"

j_^j

^j

li'

In old Pushtu MSS.
noun when the aflSx

is

house.

hisJiouse.'

sometimes prefixed to tLc
but

used,

is

i^^

house,

this

is

now

practically obsolete.

The

37.

prefixing'

<)J

Ablative

by

this prefix

or

when

is
it

case

and the

?

A)

from

i}

from

The Locative case

with or without the
used when

Example

it is

8

euphony,

Example

:

the house.

)

^

often used instead of
,.^

38.

In the former case

for the sake of

terminates in a consonant.

^

is

^.

affix

added to the noun,

i,J

J

formed sometimes by

is

the formative of the noun, sometimes

to

.

the house.

is

formed by

affix ^jxS

'desire(^ to

Example :—

(which

express

*'

in

prefixinr^

<):.>

is

principally

^'

or

:

«

^.'xm

&.>

with or on the eyes.

».'»^

<S.>

hy hundred^ of ilimiscvh.

*

ixi").

25

PUSH'^U GKAMMAR.

U^ J^
"

^

39.

(vu^

^J^

^-

*'"

^^^ house,

^j'z

£.>

in the

(Jol^

<icj

at Cabul.

hills.

Subject to the above rules, nouns in Pushtu

are divided into four declensiona' for masculine and

four for femiiiine nouns.

40.
(i.)

Masculine Nouns,

Masculine nouns ending in a consonant, which

denote animate objects, are declined thus
First Declension.

:—

26

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Second Declensiou.

PUSHTU GRAMAIAR.
(iv.)

Masculine uouus ending in
"

^ are declined thus

Fourtli Declension.

27
:

28

PUSHTU MANUAL.
(ii.)

Feminine nouns ending

in J^.

In these the

oblique cases of the singular remain uniuSccted.
are declined thus

:

Second Declension.

'

They

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.
Third Declension.

29

30

PUSHTU MANUAL.

THE ADJECTIVE.
42.

Pushtu adjectives are governed by the same'
nouns in gender, number and case, and the

rules as

adjective agrees in gender,

noun

it qualifies,

Note.
or

whatever

— When

more nouns

an adjective

Example

man and

tico

case with the

position in the sentence.

used

is

of different genders,

masculine plural.

One

number and

its

it

two

t-o

qualify

is

used in thb

:

women

are

ill.

Position of the Adjective.
43.

The adjective

when

except

noun which

it is

is

always placed before

used as a noun, when

it qualifies.

Example

:

a good woman,

(i.)

^Ks**"

a had man,

a
(ii.)

.

croolu-d stick,

woman

is

tiie

man

had,

tiie

stick is crooked

is

,

good,

8J

^-j

-ji

^ii

J

,»>

Aa> ^Ks^*

ji^

»

d^

Sr'^^

i-Jj"*"

fiie

,^u

i-Ji*"

-Sy
(

>-

44.
(i.)

noun,

its

follows the

it

Decleksion op Adjectives.

'-

Adjectives ending in a consonant are ma«cu-

PUSHTU. GRAMMAR.

and are declined

line^

masculine nouns of

like

Declension/ addin<^

First

tVie

the oblique cases of

in

^

-31

•the plural.

They

feminine by adding

forni the

mas-

to their

8

culine form, being then declined like feminine nouns

Fourth Declension.

of the

,

are

Adjectives ending in

(ii.)

declined

masculine

like

^

are masculine, and

nouns

of

Fourth

the

Declension.

^

They form the feminine by changing

to

%

being then declined like feminine nouns of the Second
Declension.

Adjectives ending in

(iii./

are

declined

like

masculine

masculine,

are

js

nouns

Declension, substituting ^ for

of

and

Second

the

in

the oblique cases

form

in the feminine,

s

of the plural.

They remain unchanged
and are declined

in

like feminine

nouns

of

the

Fourth

Declension.

Note.
rules,

45.

(i.)

— There

are

some few exceptions

to

these

but they are insignificant.

Comparison op Adjectives.
The, Pushtu adjective has no comparative or

superlative degree,^ but expresses
of affixes to the adjective-

the idea

by means

PUSHTU MANUAL.

32

The Comparative is formed by putting the
(ii.)
compared object in the ablative ca'se, the adjective
remaining in the positive^ and agreeing with its noun
in gender,

number and
Lead

ivoman

\

is stronger

The Superlative

(iii.)

:—t-

heavier than iron.*

is
'•

A

Example

case.

than a

girl.

formed in the same way

is

noun

of

wtich

is

which the subject

is

as the comparative, with the addition of a

multitude,

such

as

object

placed before the

compared.

J^

Example

or

;N"ote.

—The

<xL«^

&c.,

is the best of all these horses.

^J
^3

with

_

is the best {of all).

.*

or

a^A^b

:

This mare

This horse

_

^

T

J_jamT

Aoj J»wjI

first

noun

J
of

JCAa

aJ

^^I

1l3

JcIas^

jy

,^1

,'J

J

multitude J»j

is

more

in

use than the last two, which are stpctly speaking noc

Pushtu but Persian.

'

PUSHTU MANUAL.

34

Numerals (both cardinal and
Pushtu as adjectival nonns, and

ordinal) are use'd

47.
in

nouns,

hawf-, like

gender, number and case.
«

48.

With

exception

the

of

jj

one,

the cardinal

njimbers are plural, and do not change iA the feminine.

They are
of

inflected In the oblique cases

which end in

s,

by

no plural form.
like a
its

by the addition

to the noun, and, in the case of cardinal number,s
its elision

Its

o

before the ^.

masculine form o

is

one, has

declined

masculine noun of the second declension, and

feminine form »o like a feminine

noun of the

fourth declension.

The Ordinal Numbers are formed (w/'th the
first and second) by adding ^ to the
They form the feminine by the addition
cardinals.
Example
of 5.
49.

exception of the

:

Cardinal.
UASCDLINE.

three

FEMIN'INB.

men.

three wovicyi.

Ordinal.
MASCULINE.

the third

num.

The only exceptions to
makes the ordinal J^l Jirst
ordinal ^,J second.

the third tvonian.
this rule are ^« one,
;

».0

t^^\o,

which

.which makes the

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.

50.

In Pushtu only the simpler Fractions can

expressed.

Example

:

35
be

PUSHTU

36
53.

Example
,S^

s ,1.

AMI AT,.

put after a cardinal number, indicates

8.1. all,

universality.

.M

s,l.

,

:

,

(ill

four.

the 'wJiolc thoaannd.

;

Multiplication by degree

54.

the particle

much,

twice as

thrice

Jc.;

as

^i

,

«

expressed by using

is

between the cardinal

^..\

cardinal; the expressions SjJ

mean

«

^>

^jd

and any
Jo

othe^.

y>,j^A.

jcj

^j

much, and four times as

much, respectively, and so on.

THE PRONOUN.
55.

In Pushtu the Pronouns
i.

ii.

Reflexive or Possessive Pronouns.

viii.

*

Interrogative Pronouns,
Correlative Pronouns,
Indefinite Pronouns,

Pronominal Adjectives.

The Personal Pronouns are
J;

Of these
sj,

Demonstrative Pronouns,

iv.

vii.

:

Personal Pronouns,

Relative Pronouns.

V.

js:

be classed

iii.

vi.

56.

may

^, and

<U

^xiJt

^J

thou;
is

^_^^i

or Aia

he,

she or

it.

subject to chang»e for gender, while

are not.

They

are declined thus:

fUSHTt GRAMMAR.

3
bo

a

^7

38

Pm

PUSHTU MANUAL.

PUSH7U GEAMMAR.
dJtj)

*

wliioli

subject to change for gender,

is

declined

like,

but this

is

a feminine

no\^

little

above decle'nsion

tform

well

as

39

the

as

then

used in conversation, and the

commonly used

is

is

noun of the fourth declension,

masculine,

for the feminine
especially

in

the

singular.
'

,

>

57.

^-J or

The Pronominal
i3

t]ice, t]uj,

&c.

^ him,

;

^

and you, your, &c.

;

used for above in

all

Suffixes

them,

^^ or ^ me,

Jiis,

&c.

;

their, &c.,

»,-o

my, &c.

;

us, our, &c.,

are

commonly

cases except the nominative and

and vocative.
•J

now

the
c/nly

reumant
her,

it

.J

or them.

personal pronoun,

remains in the dative and ablative cases,

to him.,

ai

of the original

Examples

or them, and
:

<xj

..

fromi, Idm,, her,

it

40

MANUAL.

ftJSHTtJ

Kote.

—"Wlicu

,.

is

also 'used

above, the second pronoun

common

the

5

C-^.'»5

^H9

id
^^

^d

Jiitii

Tahe

the

as^

is

:

the \jun.

\

gun from him.

J

t

<JS.iy^

The gun

is

^j^J

The gun

is theirs.

Demonstrative

The
viz.

Give

verb

tlio

omitted, and

'p

d^i

58.

with

usually

reading of the sentence
S.i'.

number,

is

are

four

in

the two remote demonstrative pronouns,

:

n^

Pronouns

ours or yours.

which are identical with thq third
personal pronouns given above; and the two proximate
demonstrative pronouns, ^d and \d this, which are

and

declined thus

that,

:

Sing-ular.

PtJSHTlJ

GHAMMAB.

Plural.

41

42

PUSHTU MkNUAL.
^Jl}

,

CS*.^

X:>-

^yi,,^

Xt^

x^

^_c^^^s>-

There

in

whichever

^y^

whichever one

»j

strictly

is

mny

^^

x^ x^

^_f>.^

61.

wTaoever

.i>

rome.

i/ou'Jihe.
ijou like.

whatever t/o^o^may do,

speaking no Possessive Pronoun

Pushtu but the reflexive adjective t3^

be taken to mean

Example

•j'uo

;J.ji-

and

>

^hich. can

vnj, thy, his or her, our, your, or

tlielr.

:

Talce your gun.

As>-)j <-^:;^5 i)^=^

.

'

JU

<;^^i>. Xi

,

JU

(J.Ai^

»vl

ijj^

declined

is

He

regularly,

plural, according

of adjectives.

We

will sell his horse.

both in

the

singular

the rules for the declension

to

Example

will take our cattle.

:

Bring the saddle of your rnare.

Don't be afraid of your brothers.

When

the particle

the particle

is

^

Xj

is

prefixed to iJj^, the

sometimes dropped.
Xi

alxir

We

ivill

Exairple

go ourselves.

:—

»

of

43

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.
It is also retained in expressions like

'

We

ja. Xi Vui»^»Ui- JO

will go

I heard

JcX; ,J. (i^jj^ j^-*^ ^»

on our feet.

my

it luith

ears.

»

62.

The Ikterrogative Pronouns

(i./

CJ>fL.

are

:

which Lecomes ^^ iu the oblique,

I'rho,

remaining otherwise uncbauged in gender and number.

Example

:

/

^.

^
j_jj

Who

"-^r-

i_5»^

(^l5^ J

<)J

*;»j

^

are 7/ou

son are ynn

'^

43

TFAo.se

Ir^

<|J

From whom have you

'

>

To u'hom shall

jA. v)hat, is indeclinable.

(ii.)

brought it?

1 take it?

Example

jci

What

is it ?

^1.

^

What

do yoxi

^j>i J.^A. <ni

WJiat

tiling is tJiin

j,J,

*^

?

^p
3

(iii.)

?

:

sai/ ?

'which, forms the feminine

and

is

declined

according to the general rules for the declension of

Example

adjectives.

^
iii
<xi.

.

k^

*U'

^y J

^^j x*S
jj*>j

y^S

^i^ lJ'V.^

ij,

Which

tribe^

do you belong

TV/dch regiment

1

L>

is

that

to ?

?

Which men's houses have fallen
<^oivn ?

44

fUSHTtJ MANtJAL.
frequently used iu place of *^.

i»^^ is

y>_

either w]io,

of which
the

ivhat

one of

„iii

botli

sense

take

used

only

are

the

parts

<Ku.

aj

J»j 'J

J,

^}

Jl^A

(

rd

^

or)

hoys?

(or ^vhlch one) is the best of those

and

^L.

JS^.*

how many, or

^L.

How many

How much

How much

7neii

hoio

^yo^

The

Correlative

cattle do

Pronouns

8j.<j4>, viz. SjW^i),

&£.d,

:

,

fur

?

?

»

you own?

are

non-interrogative sense),

much, so much, or as much.

and ^jK,^

it

land do you oxvn

Ho7v ')nany {head of)

(in its

sell

'

much^ are

have come?

you

loill

3

.d

indeclinable, and are used only in the plural

this

tlie
'

Who

63.

in

:

-J

(iv.)

present;

but

regular inflections,

sinsrular

when used

or which
several

means

It

tj^^d

and

both meaning

(The older forms of

s^^a, and their compounds a^^a

are almost obsolete.)

Example

:

<xAa

'

PDSHTO' GRAMMAR.

TaJce as

mdch

as you ivant (literally, as

you want take

When

>

be done,

referring to
,

^J\d thus

commOnly usei

^ V'^

ij<^d L/i^y^

jjj^i_j

45

tlie

(the

way in which
modern form

in place of

muck as

much).

so

!$^,J;

a thing

is to

^«^lj)

of

is

,

the old form

(^*ijJt

in this sense only surviving in poetry.
X:s^

ij^^ii,

^ ij^^L

and

^^'ti are

aj5-

commonly

used adverbially.

Indefinite Pronouns.

64.

In Pushtu the Simple Indefinite Pronouns are
cL/j^ someone, anyone; ^xi some, something, anyone,
:

anything;

2^

or ^^xL. some;

^^

anyone, anything,

which when joined to a negative makes nobody, nothing ; and j) one.

Of these Lli^^ becomes

^J^

takes the regular inflection

Example

indeclinable.
auLi

l:>^

in the

oblique cases;

and

^ and 2^ are

;

:

u^ J^ 1^^ ^

^^

^^ there anyone in this house ?

JlL^

'^y^

There

^xi'K

Jj

15^

cJ^^
«iolj

1^

^
<u

^iL

vf^

2^

is

someone.

Give me something.
^^'^'^^^

Say

^^^

O^od, some evil.

nothing.

46

PUSHTU MANUAL.

Numerous Compound
from

C/j^,

nA..

.J another
else,

jd

:

and o, makes lLS^L
everyone

thing, y) .a

one

ludefinite

Thus

above.

the

ajs.

make

and

;

i-l^^

(Jj and<.:*:i

else),

*

^

»i^

.y or

^

copabining

^Jj

and cii^ ,y

l)^

with

everyone, dti Jb every-'

Jb

similarly,

another and

another, some-

.J something else, something more,

.J something else (with the

2:i^

Pronouns are formed

every,

negative form, nothin,j

Jj another.

which makes o

* j^

anyone

;

^li^

makes

C/^ i:^*

or lL/^stJ^ anyone, no one, nothing.
65.

The following Pronominal Adjectives

common

use

:

MASCULINE.

are

in

PUSHTU' GRAMMAR.

With

(i.)

From

,

the termination

or ij,

^i

Example

.

:

to

bind, the

noun

Jj»J^

to forget,

the noun

Ji

the infinitive

47

iiJ

binch'jng.

From

the infinitive

,i6^jjJb forgetting.

By

(ii.)

the use of the infinitive as a noun.

commonly

All infinitives can be, and
as nouns,

and take a regular

are,

employed
how-

inflection, being,

ever, always used in the plural.

In conversation, in the oblique cases the semi-final

J may be dropped
The

;

thus

infinitive JIj

:

go

to

becomes the noun JJJ

may be

going, which in the oblique cases
JJj

(iii.)

anil
in

<io

or yj

With

the

a;j

termination ^.

of the infinitive

J

either

in going.

the

to

being dropped

the

root,

verbs ending

(in

Jjo the whole termination may be dropped except

when

The
<

^
(iv.)

J

infinitive

^i.Jo,.

The

final

Example

Jo is part of the root).

Jj..<,.

1

hear, forms the

to

noun

hearing.

infinitive
J'w*.

With
of

I

:

jjjlvj

to

Iceej.),

forms the noun

keeping.

the

termination

t

to

the root,

the infinitive being dropped.

When

the
the

48

PUSHTU MANUAL.

root-vowel of the verb

Example

the noun.

The
J!

The

is

short, it is

infinitive.

lengthened in
*

:

to

Jj*^

noun

the

fornjs

eat,

.l»i^ eating.

infinitive

,

,J.x^

forms

see,

to

noun

the

<bl^ seeing.

With the gerundial termination
Example

(v.)

root.

The

infinitive J<^;»i^l

By

(vi.)

the

terminating in
stand

^. Jj .J.
to

to he

heard.

the employment of the present participle

terminating in

J^'

to

forms the gerundive noun

^.Joj.I what ought

to

J.

:

still,

or

or ^J^^,

jj

^

to

^^'

i^-

Thus the

participle

infinitive Jjo.tij

remain in one place, forms the noun

cCJ^Jj ,Jj

seize

and the past

a resident

forms the noun

;

and the

{^^

or

infinitive

^yJ^

seized'.

These participles are commonly used adjectively.

ABSTRACT OR DERIVED NOUNS.
(Substantives and Adjectives.)

Secondary nouns are derived from
following afl&xes
\^,

:

^y; thus:—

1,

^,

Ui',

or^

prr-iiary

Uju.,

by the

>—-Jyj,

^)'^»,

PnSHTti GRAMMAR.

Jx

a

thief,

with the

1

becomes Hi

with the affix

pleaded,

iA>^

affix

49

^_^

tlteft.

becomes ^^-^^

pleusure.

(L«JjLo

a guest, with the

i^jj^ white, with the affix L_jy

,juum lohite,

J JoV^)

with the

becomes

(—jujjuou-

becomes

Iljljuu.

affix ^Jl^

hnowing, with the

affix

J^

becomes

^ii*Jo\fj>.

acquaintance.

i^j<i

with the

separate,

affix

.J

becomes

^j%Ji5oo

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Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

separation.

Ij^jua^Juc*

»

hospitaliti/.
»

becomes

affix Ui^^

DIMINUTIVE NOUNS.
These are formed by the

68.

^

affixes

,

^,

^

and (rarely) 'j, to the primary noun.
Nofee.

for the

— Sometimes
sake 'of

^ is prefixed to

euphony

;

^

,

^^, and

primary noun ends in a guttural, the

initial

of the diminutive affix is dropped.

Example

*i»-

a

a

girt,

with the

^_^

and in cases when the

affix

consonant
:

o becomes

little girl.

B

^^''^

PUSHTU M'ANUAL.

50
^5 a pony,
a

^

the

with

^J becomes ^yii

affix

«

little iiony.

a

rat,

with

the

Cj

affix

bi?comes

CS^*

a mouse.
^

t

^

a

ram,

-^ith

the

^j^ becomes ,^j^^

affix

a male lamb.

<

CHAPTER

II.

THE VERB.
Verbs

69.

classes

i.

ii.

Pushtu may be divided

passing

an

to

JjoJ /

to fall,

verb

object,

denotes simple
such

as

JtXj^^

actSoii
to

Those which add the

to the root, as

(ii.)

flow,

to tvander.

There are three classes of Intransitive verbs
(i.)

two

Transitive or Active, and Causal.

Intransitive

Jjo J

ii^to

Intransitive or Neuter.

The

70.

not

in

:

jJ,juj'Jli4J^ to sit,

infinitive^

iJj^

termination

to rise, (Jj"^ to

Those in which the root ends in

:

jo,

J

go out.

and which

retain S> throughout the entire coiijdgation, as Jj>^
to fear, ^}Si^ to fall.

iJ«

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.

Derivatives formed from nouns by the addi-

(iii.)

of

tion

Jjo,' such

become

Jjsj^ouj to

*

51

as

to

JtXj^jij^

become

informed,

light.

Intransitive verbs form no passive voice.

71.

usually govern either the dative

oi»

They

ablative case.

*

Primitive intransitive verbs ending in

72.

defective and irregular

conjugation, while

in

J

are

those

ending in J Jo are regular, and are conjugated like
the example JajJ to fall (see Appendix sheet).
Derivative

intransitive verbs

are

regular,

and are

conjugated like the intransitive auxiliary verb Jjoi^

Appendix

(see

to becorr^e

sheet).

J may

be roughly

which form the tenses

of present

Intransitive verbs ending in

73.

classed under three heads

Class
Jiirjie

1.

—Those

by suppressing the

:

last three letters of the root

and affixing the personal pronoun, reverting to the

Example

root form in tenses of past time.
Infinitive

:

Present
Perfect
Note.

which

is

Root

jJjUi'JU*;*^ to sit.

ciitvj'J is

:

:^

Juu**^
*j

I

sit

or

^Xx^^S^.^

more

in use

I*

am

:

:

i^:i.^^^Xx^

sitting.

have

nowadays

sat.

than^X*,'.Ju^.u*^,

becoming almost obsolete, and there are very

few verbs that come under

this class.

E 2

PUSHTU MANUAL.

52
Class

—Those

2.

and which

in which the root ends in

tenses of present' time

foi'm the

by sup-

pressing u::^^ and substituting j or J, reverting to
Example
the root form in tenses of past time.
:

Infiriitive

Present
Perfect

Note.

:

:

roll.

^'x-^J:,

,

I have

3.

is

— Those

and which form

come under this class also,
also becoming obsolete; i}'^.f-j

the root ends in

which

in

or

j

the root form in tenses of past time.
Infinitive

:

Perfect

*

:

:

;^

Perfect

:

:

I go

:

*j

reverting to

,

Examples
:

I have gone

,

.

'out.

I
ascend.

M

ascend.,

ij-^ ^ have

ascendtid.

Most intransitive verbs ending
,

cu^

:

out.

^yis>~ to

\ v>»- I

J

Root

go out.

^ ^^

Infinitive

Present

74.

to

^Jj".

Present

(ii.)

c:ji,

the tenses of present time by sup-

pressing CLJ and substituting

(i.)

rolled.

—^Very few verbs

and the above verb
is more in use now.
Class

^ji. I

j^j_

to roll.

ijj^j

:

in

J come

PUSHTU GKAMMAR.
The

above heads.

under the

53

principal

exceptions

are
Infinitive

Present

^

Perfect

*^vw I

:

*j isy*^

:

*

J^

:

hum

Perfect

:

^I

JJo

:

hiirnt.

,or

to go.

^

j^ I have gone,

The

Transitive

the actor to the object.

verb

denotes

*

hear,

•77.

and

Jj*jXjuj*j

of

Jtio_, viz.,

Jaj m!

to ask.

Causal Verbs are formed from transitive or

intransitive verbs

by the addition

They are without exception

They

transitive

of

transitive,

to the ordinary rules for the

verbs.

the passage

All primitive transitive verbs end in J, with

76.

the exception of two which end in
to

been burnt,

go.

,Jb or

^_

am

^om

75.

action

:

burn.

^ have burnt

Infinitive

Present

or

to

conjugation of transitive

are declined regularly.

governs

the

J. to the root.
and are subject

accusative,

The primitive
the

causal

the

dative case.
78.

Though Pushtu does not possess a proper

Passive Voice,
verbs

can.

aJl» transitive,

causal,

and derivative

produce a passive form by the conjugation

PUSHTU MANUAL.

54
of

the past participle with

the auxiliary verbs

J Jo.^

and Jyij the participle agreeing with its subject in
gender and number. These two auxiliary verbs are
conjugated at length in the Appendix, and it is very
simple

to

produce any tense of the passive voice

Example

any transitive verb.

Active
Infinitive

:

J

to hind.

,i'

Passive

Present:
Perfect

^

iJL

:

^S

.

Past Participle

:

,J»J«

Voice.

being hound.

Be hound.

transitive

under three heads
1

,

have been bound.
^^J I

Primitive

Class

Voice.

^Sj I am bound, or I am

^J::^

>j

:

Imperative

79.

.j^^

of,

:

— Those

verbs

may be

classed

:

which form the tenses of present

time from the root, and those of past time from the
infinitive.

These are conjugated regularly like the

example Jj

to

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Katlang, Mardan. Jjb^
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

hind, given in
to beat.

Appendix

II.

Example:

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.

55

This class includes the great majority

of past time.

of primitive tYansitive verbs.

It

may

be divided into

'sub-classes according J;o the root-changes of the present

tense

:

Those

(i.)

the

vferbs

whose

Example

of past time.

Infinitive:

li

These drop

.

Perfect

:

^^

:

Root:

to hear.

J'^i^'

I

Present: ^.^1

^ioj^l

hear.

lS^'^J^'

^

^

heard.

''^^"^

'Those verbs whose root ending in

(ii.)

it to

ends in

root

in tenses of present time, res*fcoring it in tenses

t)

c:^*:.

in tenses of present time^ restoring

.

Example

of past time.
Infinitive

Present
Perfect

:

Root

{JXii^ ^^ want.

:

change

in tenses

it

:

^jl.^^

^jl^ I want.

:

^d

:

^IjLfjy:

I have wanted.

'v«

>

(iii.)

it

to

:

Those verbs whose root ending in
or

-.

ci^

change

in tenses of present time, restoring

tenses of past ^time.
Infinitive

Present
Perfect

U-^^

:

:

:

Example
r:!

:

Root

^^ open.

:

c:^i|^

^^\;i I open.

^d

iJ-'^\.'-

^*

^ have opened.

it

in

56

PUSHTU MANUAL.

(iv.)

Verbs

of

more than one syllable, in which tho
is formed by a short vowel, and

penultimate syllable

which lengthen this vowel in tenses of present time,
reverting to the short vowel in tenses of past time.

Example

:
,

Infinitive

speah (which

(Jj« ^«

:

and

(v.)

change

both transitive
(

^\^ I speak.

Present
Perfect

is

intransitive).

^p ^L U
,

:

I have spoken.

Verbs whose root ending in
it to

J

in tenses of past time.

Infinitive

:

Example

:

Root

(JXL>^ to throw or shoot.

Present
Perfect

Most verbs

or c:^^

L:l,^»*.

in tenses of present time, restoring it

:

:

:

c:„^j.

J^ I throw.
^t3

ixio^

U

I have

thr^own.

of Class 2 fall into one or ot-her of these

five sub-classes, the

exceptions being generally solitary

examples of independent forms.

Glass

3.

— The small

class of verbs

tenses of present and past time
infinitives, thus

which form their

from two separate

combining two defe^t^ve verbs to form

a complete conjugation.

Example

:

GRAMMAR.

PUSHTI?

and

Infinitives: J^ju

Indicative Present

Imperfecji

Past

Perfect

80.

U

(.i_Jo

:

^d

:

U

!s»jj

:

I

I may lead away.

away.

U

*

i //are led away.

The Derivative Verb.

—The

transitive, like the

intransitive, has its derivative verb,

by adding J

and

Causal .Verb.
ji- news,

^juw
81.

is

is

formed

identical in conjugation with the

Example

:

makes the verb J^rJ^

wldte,

which

nouns (substantive and adjective)

to

.

It is regular,

lead away.

I lead away.

^ »V

:

to

I ivas leading away.

Jed

^J^J^

take away,

^'sjo

:

Subjunctive Present

to

JJojl>

57

to

makes the verb JJuo^^

The Compound

is

inform.
to

whiten.

formed by conjugating a noun

(substantive or adjective) with tbe auxiliary verbs

or
{to

J^

{to do)

become

when

or, to he)

transitive, or with (}sx^ or

when
j<->-

.

,

.

^

JSj6

(

^^

(to

y^ )

intransitive.

Example

J»i^

J^i
:

neivs.

inform.

he or to

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Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan
become informed,

58

PUSHTU MAIIDAL.
The conjugations of these

auxiliaries are to be

found

in the Appendices.

Prohibition and Negation.

82.

(i.)

Prohibition

hibition,

<L«,

which

expressed by the adverb of pro-

ic
is

prefixed to the 2nd person singular

and plural of the imperative.
In practice x^ often coalesces with

Example

elision of the x.

^
^y

:

its

verb by the

go {thou),

do not go {thou).

ji

go {you).

^ > do not go {you).

(ii.)

tion, jj,

Negation

expressed by the adverb of nega-

is

which, like

the elision of
It is

au),

naay coalesce with the verb by

^

used with

all

formations of the verb except

with the 2nd person' singular and plural of the imperative.

In simple tenses of present time-Jt?
the verb.

Example

:

is

prefixed to

59

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.
^l' I

•'

^

!^xample
JCbl,

I do not

are

formed

between the

placed

is

V

--

tenses Which

In
the

go.

with

the

prefix

and the

prt^fix

^

verb.

:

I

to

,

struclc,

(X5)l.

In compound tenses the

AJ

Jcj

.

U

I did not

strike.

placed between the

is

and the auxiliary which forms the tense.

participle

Example

go.

:

^d ^

^^

Jjy ^j^

The man has not been wounded.

The

83.

expressed

Personal

understood)

or

in

present

are

various

The forms are

tenses of verbs.

Pronouns

forms

(either

in

all

:

>

The simple personal pronouns

(i.)

^

»

iJiib

tliou.

he.

:

yJ^

you.

^ffSb

they.

»

This

is

expressed or understood in

sitive verbs, anc],

verbsj

when

it

all

tenses of intran-

jn the present tenses of transitive

denotes the agent.

PUSHTU MANUAL.

60
The

(ii.)

affixed personal

pronouns

SINGULAR.

A

Isfc

^
^

person.

2nd person.
3rd person.

These

affixes,

all

PLUI-AIi.

j
jj,-

^.

1st person.

2nd person.
3rd person.

which are inseparable from the verbs,

are used in present

and in

:

and past tenses

of intransitive

tenses of transitive verbs, to distinguish

the various persons of the singular and plural.
(iii.)

MEDIAL.

The Instrumental personal pronouns

:

PUSHT% GEAMMAR.

61

with the object (expressed or understood) which
the nominative case.
Example :—

^ Jj
s.li^

,

jG

U

J bound

thee.

<xia>

U

/ hound

him.

is

in

In the second form the order of the agent

(ii.)

and object

reversed, the object being in the nomi-

is

native case, the pronoun denoting the agent in the

instrumental case, and the verb agreeing
and person with the object. Example

in

number

:

Jj.

^

This

He hound me

8:

formation

simpler than

conversions from
tenses of

is

looks

it

time

past

;

the

I

(lit,

him

hi/

— am

hound).

confusing at first, but it is
and the student, by practising
first

in

to

second

the

transitive

verbs,

form
will

of

soon

familiarise himself with the system.

Example

i.

:

SECOND FORM.
Ij

8

;

Thotc houndest me.

&ka> »:

^.ji.

J.i\

^3 J >^ We bound you.
<3Jta

We

J^

them.

hound

S'i^ y*.'o

Jj^

yts>

He bound

me.

You hound

us.

J^o They bound

us.

J».<

r
»

Example
^j

J,)

J ^jl^

ii.

U

the hoys.

:

J'hh.d

hound

^^

^]^

y l^

2

;

hound me.

The boys had

PUSHTU MANUAL.

62
Example

iii.

:

SECOND FORM.

FIRST FORM,
.!

J J

^Kla

hadst

Til on

'o

^^

hound the hoys.

Example
•5

J

iv.

.j

1

v.

A ^J ^J'^

vi.

vii.

^J^

^iit>

had

We

had

Ij

^J

^^

The hoys

bound. 1dm.

yl^ j^

had

Yon had

TAe

/j07/s

hound, us.

J^yJl^^o

^^

The hoys

had bound you.

:

They had

J

^j

J yiKisb

,.«xAj&

The hoys

had bound them.

boiind the hoys.

85.

y(^)^

^] ^Jj'

hoys.

Example
1^"

thee.

:

^'j'

hound the

,j

^i^cl

<^

the hoys.

Example

?>o?/s

:

J ^jl^ jivo

hound

T/ie

<-

the hoys.

Example

houpd

had,

:

J ^J^^ ^f^ II

hound

yl^!t> ^'

Jj"

The substantive verb

^

I am, makes a slight

distinction between the alternatives.

^J

and

the 3rd persons of the present indicative.

jjjLi

in

^ti

is

used affirmatively or interrogatively 'When a proximate
object is referred

to,

JuLi-

when

a remote.

Example:

63

pushtIj grammar.
d CSjy'i Have you a

<Kxi,

x'jJ^

^j

»j_^J

The Verb

80,

difficulty in the

I have a gun.

^ "^r!^

<-l^jo

t>

1

Is

^ CSjji

is

rjun ?

tliis

It is

your gim

my

?

gun.

generally considered the principal

In order to enable

study of Pushtu,

the student to compare the various types, two tables

of verbs, one of intransitive and

They

have been drawn up.

The Table

of the Manual,

pendix

I.)

includes

The simple

will

of Intransitive

Verbs (Ap-

:

intransitive verb

The derivative

one of transitive,

be found at the end

J Jo J

intransitive verb

to fall.

J Jo J J

to

become

hot.

The auxiliary intransitive verb Jj^j^ or Jy:
be, to

to

become.

The auxiliary intransitive verb ^ / am the
substantive verb to be, which has no infinitive

in Pushtu.

The

compoand

intransitive

verb Jjuo J J

to

JJxl. or JJoi.

to

become hof.

The

irregiditr

come.

verbs

,JXi

to go,

64

PUSHTU MANUAL.
The Table

cludes

of Trausitivc

Verbs (Appendix

The simple transitive verb Jj

The causal

(or derivative)

to heat.

in-

to hind.

transitive verb J.l>o

(

The auxiliary

transitive verb

The compound

By

II.)

:

J J"

ti'ansitive verb

or ^jJ

J J* jJ

to do.<

to heat.

learning these verbs thoroughly, and modifying

the type according to

the instructions contained in

the preceding pages, the

student should be able to

conjugate the majority of Pushtu verbs; and by taking
these

tables

as

a

guide,

be able,

should

assistance of any Pushtu-speaking

man

with

the

of fair intelli-

gence, to work out those verbs which are irregular or
defective.

CHAPTER

III.

THE PARTICLE.
87.

Particles are

:

The Adverb.
The Conjunction.

The

Preposition.

The

Interjection.

,

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.

6.5

THE ADVERB.

88.

Tliere are in 'Pushtu but few pure Adverbs.

are

They

:

.

quidiS).

;

ju'.^

thus.

If

even.

i

The Adverbs of Place

89.

Si

-J

itpon

if3
i jj^
jj^i

dj

abover

i.j

like.

...

slowly.

»^

at all, enth-ely,

<bkj

it

are

:

xf\

-

is^j»-

d^y^
iJijs..

jSb

behoves.

oj-i

backwavds.bachi

,

^

Jj always.

suddenly, by

I

together.

sJI.

S'l^ perJifirjs.

i^wJt)

at least, aftsr all.

js^

,

where."
everywhere.

"^'ound aboxit.

[ here.

uJj within.

<

Jo somewhere

Ai'^i)

els?.

li'^ji

near.

»Xjj..

behind

noiuherer

<xa:
i.Csi

below.
Jo^
oj'o jJ^

^ipside down,
top^fjf-turvey.

f^

outside.

ijciibb

Jo

u;

there^
I /I

fro at.

PUSHTU MAW UAL.

66

The Adverbs op Time

90.

^«j.j idj

^^ ahvays.

^J*r:\

(Jo

J"

:

at last.

r~-l

<x)o

are

ever.

for

,. ,^

successively.

yesterday.

tjo''

day

the

heforf

yesterday,.

^J^.l

j'i

li

'.$00

even

till

now.

^^

,j

before yesterday.

lastnltjht.

'jut

to-morrow.

jj.^

c?«y

ux?
i_$jSp>Ji>

^
^. o
^sK

<)J^.

when.

<xK

noi^

.i'

(XK

<xj

nowadays.

<)cK

t«i<?7

after

'A^ (Jj

^

til

e

second day

after to-tnor row,

and

then.

\xc j^

noiuadays.

when?

occasionally.

dJ^

.a

always,
at

.U

^,;

.L

^j;

rn

^wj'/i.

&=^ £)6

ri>

quickly.^
jj jj

tiine.

ichtnever.

^^i

always,
^O'Tly.

noic.

l^s; formerly.

\M

any

cvfr„

j^ to-day.

firstly.

^Ijm;

«-.i

to-

morroiv.

never.

^jxJ yLj. yx^^ii&j

day

the second

^J

(Jj

again.

^^.
\J^

»*.

ji,^

/low

o/i5eit ?

many

timea.

PUSHTU GRAMMAR.
The Adverbs of Quantity are:

91.

^

^•^

V-^=

how

much. ?

this

much.

»j.«

.J

^^« n^

,a>

however much.

^

a

Lsly

little.

zj\ij

more.

^

some.

jX

every.

tTliese are

,1

or

j^^L

,

:

Jt)

't)

however many.
whatever.

5#

Jt>

everyone.

tl/j^

tJt>

everyone.

-.^j

Ss- J

to

the

utmost

extent.

ti_>l> ;j>e»Ji

jc^\_>

CONJ UNCTIONS.

92.

67

beyond degree.
unlimited.

PUSHTU MA^'UAL.

68

THE TREPOSITIONS

93.

fwhicli include both affixes

5

^

_

5i

J _

and

suffixes)

|rS^*

of.

JC;

^
»>j

are:

m hetiveen,

in

the midst

of,

to.
ii.i'

^.

.'i

r

^^'.j

J

aJjove.

sii

INTERJECTIONS.

The common
or ^\ oh

ijM

at, with.

94.

j]

!

from.

1 1I.

ji

&s^

on.

Interjections are

:

up

to.

together with.

d below.

PART

IT.

PEOSE COMPOSITION,

•«

PAET

II.

chapter

i.

Prose Composition.

Chapter

I.

of Part II. contains a progressive series of

lessons and exercises, beginning with simple sentences, and

working up

to

the

standard required for the

The beginner who

Standard Examination.
>

is

Higher

going up

>

for the

Lower Standard Examination should do the

first

twenty lessons; variations of the sentences, on the lines
of the

examples and exercises given, should give him

sufficient practice in the

to qualify hini for the

composition of simple sentences

Lower Standard.

Although the

Lower Standard Jilxamination includes no written

test,

the student, is advised to write out these exercises in the

Pushtu character, '^s by doing so he
with the character which he

is

will familiarise himself

required to read.

72

PDSHTD

MAWtJAli.

PROSE "COMK

74

rUSHTlJ MA'KtJAL.
ITouso

75

rU0Sl5 G^MPOSITIONT.

Hax"

husband

Whose dog

is

Have you

guu

1*his

a

horse

^-J

is lazy.

that

c:^^«vl

*xi<

?

is stivDuger

^ (ir'^

than

Tllis

sword

of

is

the sharpest

JSJ

"i

AiJfc

''^^•^

v^'

''^

'"^

^Ci is»A^^

SI

^>

^

^yi

^jyi

1*^

all.

EXERCISE
That man's horse
horse
sharp.

is

is

2.

swifter than the mare.

His wife

is

a dog and a mare.

This sword

This husband

lazy.

is

the strongest of

inan's son.

all.

He

has a sword.

Who

are

you

?

is

haj^py

Have you a dog?
Whose house is that ?

that tall man's house.

The

strong and swift.

his wife is intelligent.

is

i)

JCs^ ,J '^^l^"^

'

that one.

^_^ii>

^^^ '^ J

^t^

?

^j^4*^

'J

.

I

have
It is

This boy
I

am

that

76

t»USHT(J MiiNDAL.

Service

A
A
A

^JJ^^

cavalry soldier

.k^«

((^5'^, S)

cavalry sergeant

Jiiltdd

cavalry regiment

The verb

jj'^

.

,

^}s^.^ or J^i, fo te, to become.

(See Appendix

I.)

Examples.

Who
He

is this

man

?

.li

^J

an infantry soldier.

is

In which regiment

Where

is

Whose

horse

his

?

^_^-'a^ (j^;;ij

!JJ

^J

this?

xij>-

'»=>-

a sergeant

^J

^

^^^L;

J ^_^I Ij

^jJ^SjtSii J

It is the cavaliy sergeant's.

He became

i))

isV'-; i^-<y^

regiment?
is

^^

'--'S^ ^Ji**"

yes-

iL^

^JarjJ

^j,.j«j:iio

terday.

Whose swords
They

^*^ ^^ J ^;»i

are these?

^'^ ^j^^ d

are the cavalry soldiers'.

-EXERCISE

'^^

1

3.,

Who are these men ? They are infaiitry soldiers.
They

Where

are in (of) the 3rd regimen'u;

reofiment

?

It is in

Peshawar.

I

am

is

their

a corporal,

j

PROSE
[

Is

My

became a corporal to-day.

tlie

Whose gun

house.

11

C/OM POSITION.

is

this ?

sergeant

soldier.

?

They

Wh^Sre

is

?

Who

are

are the daughters of a cavalry
their

mother?

Where were you yesterday ?
Where wm^e the
the house).
soldiers yesterday ?

in

It is this soldier's.

he a cavalry or an infantry soldier

these girls

is

I

She

is

ill.

Was at home

(in

infantry and cavalry

PUSHTU MANUAL.

78
Grass

au'.

Wood

A

J}

river

^^6^

People

;:ii-

u'

Tribe

J:!--j*'si"

,

^ft

Name

A

stony plain

^^'^:^-'e

^ >J^

i)

-

Intransitive verbs.
(See Appeudix

Togo

I.)

!$

,J^«

^;
^1/'^^

PROSE Composition.

Did you go
yesterday

My
I

the

to

the

Jj

<xi'

^,

here,

I,

city.

.^.i

came here

it>

^^..>

day before yesterday.

goes to the city.

The

The road through the
live in the city

.j^^i

^j»jj

^^^
Jo

^4,

* ;•

<x.>

_ *>^j'

<x!i!j

J
:>;

^lil.

This road

city.

i^eople of the city are good.

The people

forest is bad.

go to the

forest for grass

and

The soldiers came from the forest to the
They have five hundred horses, and have

Avood.
plain.

The

to the plain for grass.

the plain through the forest.

from the city yesterday.
plain near the forest.

days (nights)

garden ?

in

my

It is mine".

men

arrived

will live

in the

These

They

These

river flows from

women

The water

lives in a village in

comes to the

city.

the

When

I ani (an) Afridi.

stony plain.

is

this

flows through

forest.

fruit.

Of

I live in

]\Iy

it.

wife

She sometimes

will ,you

go the day after to-morrow.

stayed seven

Whose

big house.

People come from the city for the

you?

^

4.

There are large houses in the

come

Jcl

«

EXERCISE

who

Ij'

?

aunt lives in the

live

plain

79

go

?

I

shall

Avhat tribe are

Tirah near the

80

PUSHTU MANUAL,

PROSE COMPOSITION.
»

Transitive Verbs.
(See

To

eat

Appendix

II.)

g^

82

FUSHTU MANUATi.
bring water.

Tell thatinan to

The food

will be ready in

ij^^

two

^

kJ^;^

Take the horses

^^1

to the village.

Bring a bed and put

It will

*;'^

^j^

ijjj.i

<xK

(

<xAa

J^ X'^-

I

5.

under the

We

carpet near the bed.
?

it

.

8jy ^

EXERCISE

food ready

^

^J^

did he return ?

Aii

^j^

i^j^.

hours.

When

xi

jcjl^

Jis--

Place a

tree.

Is the

will eat food.

be ready in

an hour.

(after)

Take away (lead away) the horses. I will sit on
Have you
the bed, and you can lie on the carpet.
a

pipe

?

I

have tobacco.

Tell that (infantry)

soldier to bring fire for the

hear.

Now

he has heard.

He

is

from that small house near the
(some) tea.

The

tea

is

the meat good

who

?

are

I will

?

Give
is

no

fire

me
fire.

Make ready dinner

coming from the
go

did not

bringing

city.

not ready, there

Will you eat (some) curds
for four people

He

pipe.

to the city,

cify.

and when

Is
I

return (come again) I will bring bread, butter,

and

fruit.

Call

my

the tree by the bed.

servant.

Tell

He

is

lying under

him to »Vring my

tobacco.

t

PROSE

PUSHTU mAnual.

84
I

was

your

reading-

letter

x'x^^

^^

jj*^

- uiji

yesterday.
Sit on the bed.

-xij.^^^

Take away tbe dog,

lie

^i

has

JU«i:

^j^i

my

^j^^'

horse.

<xS.K

EXERCISE
This

man

my

servant to bring
?

me some

It is

my

is

,^1

my

sister.

writes a letter to

I will read

(it).

This tea

food.

this villao-e

He

Have you read your

day.

No, I have not read
eaten

?

*

6.

has brought a letter from

Does she send any neAvs

me every

^.^

lb

^>.^

eaten the meat?^

Bring

,_^^

uncle's letter
it

when

very hot.

have

Tell

my

Whose

fresh water.

Let us

father's.

I

sit

?

is

on a

carpet under this tree and the village people will

come to us. What are the crops
They are wheat and rice. The

Ava'cer

from the

river flows through the village.

Send

this letter

to

my brother.

He

all

I

will

The dog has drunk

the food.

AVe

?

lives in the large house in the

city near the ga,rden.

message.

in this village

will

all

also send

him

a

the tea and eaten

go back to the

Oity.

1

85

PEOSE COMPOSITION.

LESSON
Early

VIT.

^j

To-morrow

Morning

'ju?

js^

"

Evening

^W'*^

oi'

^W*-*

Noon

<)u,,

Late

c:^^^3

Wealth

c:J;J

Cattle (including

all

-

'o

':^>-i

JU

kinds of

animals)
Cattle (bulls, bullocks, and calves)

»

.

A
A
A
A
A
A

^,^

mule

iys^

sheep

(m.) ^_/j}^

if-)

cow

^^
\*c

goat

im.) jj _

^i^-

(/.) S;J

-

chicken

J^

'-^A'i^fT

Jx

thief

Verbs.

To

kill

To

die

To

strike

To

binjl

To carry

Jjj
Jjsji^ws)

,

.

Jjfcj

or

J^

J^

.

ofif**

To understand

^}^^.)

.

.Ijo^

or Jj^

Ja^^v;

PUSHTU MANUAL.

86

Examples.
I

do not understand Hiu-

^

i*j-^yi

^'^'^

*.i

^J

^ct'^

''^

dustani.

This

man

understands

Hindustani.

He

has

,^

-xa^,;

y

jJct

f.;

»

come from

the

mountains, and will lead

you to the village

^ ^'»r^ ^

K^l ^i^ lJ^^j

^ti"

tJj^^

'^

j^^

'^

^

to-

morrow morning.
The thieves killed two men

JU

^

J

Jj» j ^.-^ s.j Jx

who were with the cattle.

.5

Three goats diedlast night.

^^^

^_^yL

EXERCISE

many thieves

,^^rT- i^j'^ '^^i

7.

Do you understand Pushto
(will go) to the

We

?

They

in the mountains.

killed a mule.
I

are going

mountains to-morrow.

There are

Yesterday thieves

carried off twenty (head of) cattle from

have died.

My

sheep are

wrote a letter to

sergeant at Chaprahar.

my village.

off.

and two

ill,

'the

I wrote' that all

had been (have been) carried

(cavalry)

my

Which

road to your viDage through the mountains
lead you.

We

will

jSt«j

?

go to-morrow morning

cattle
is

the

I will

early.

PROSE 'composition.

My

uncle

is

dead.

for three days.

I

T will

had much wealth.

morrow.
soldiers

(It

and

village for

this evening.

My uncle

It is

to

now very

servants

;

we

will

go

late,

very well (good).

is)

t'he

my

must go
go

87

to-

the

Call

go to that large

villao;e this evenin";.

LESSON

VIII.

In recounting a conversation the actual words of
the speaker are used.

Example

:

He
He

told

*El*e

said

told nie

me^ "I have

lie

had killed the man.

killed

f

ufr"

'-o

'^

j

.3

|

To ask

AJ

a;u.^j

.

A.'xi,.c

or

says his

that^^man

name

^.jG

.

}^J^

EXERCISE
is

J.-.

AJ

To run uAvay

Who

<'^

j j ^'i

the man.''

is

?

Jan (He

8.

Ask him
says, "

his

name.

My name

is

He

Jan

")

88

PUSHTQ ma'nual.

him what village he came from (from which
village do you come?), and he said that he came
from Dakka (that I came from Dakka). The serI asked

geant has come.

He says that he saw

thieves in the hills yesterday, that he

(I

(-1)

saw) seven

asked them

who they were (who are you ?) and that they ran
away. He said that he would not go (I will not
They said that they had killed seven men
go).
(we have killed seven men). When Jan asked him
He first said his name
his name, what did he say ?
was Ahmed, but afterwards said it Avas Mohamed.

.

A

LESSON

IX.

servant (usually used for sold

89

PEOSE 'composition.

A knife

(large)

A

medal

A

brave

ij<»-

xaJc

man

..

i

oi*

^-.j'o

or .S^^ or ^^ij<

;

Bi-ave (adj.)

.d^^At

To be wounded

A

J'^*-^ c3^v'

wound

*^^

J'V^^j"

*i-; or

jfc..>

Examples.

He

is

(Government)

a

^^^i

Sy

<xia

servant.

He

has

fourteen

service,

and has been

through
>

Sy ^^ ^.L:L

^-j

years'

^

^J

jcAa

45

..

^Ij"

^^^jj^^i

^,.1

f.;

^1

cam-

seven

jpaigns (wars).

The enemy are well armed.

2 J <xL.^

EXERCISE

soldir&r

go to the war

?

Yes, I

of the 24th regiment.

Yes, I Avas

1^/*^^

<^

9,.

Are you a (Government) servant ?
an infantry

^

wounded

am

Did you

in the

Tirah

90

PUSHTU MANUAL.

expedition.

How many

(Since (of) liow
I

many

have four years'

one for

(of)

man

service,

and have two medals,
for (of) Tirah.

In a

my captain told me I was
You are a brave man"). In
Masjid many of the enemy were

Masjid

(said,

the fight at Ali

have you

years are you a servant)?

Agror and one

fight at (of) Ali

a brave

years' service

"

The enemy were very badly armed (the
weapons of the enemy were very bad). Thev had
swords and knives, but no guns.
killed.

LESSON

X

91

PllOSE COMPOSITION.

ExAMI'JiES.

1

can speak Hindustaui,

^_s-l>

J

.i-

-.'i*

"

but

cannot

I

stand what

under-

<o

. .^s>-

.aU-

Xi

^i'jai ij

^J^^^

these hill

-'

•^

l)

^

,i

^ ,aa».>

people say.

Bring twenty of your own

men, and
with

my

me

I

will

Al

take

.

^^J>^

J}^^ <j:^^>j x^-.

twenty-five of

^^^

^jli.

(^jjl* l;)

followers.

He swam

across the river.

Aj s

;

^o

.!

^j^»0

ci^jj,y;^.u^J jo S^'xj^

the river, as

it

deep

is

^ xia

10.

*Can you go across the river

acj'oss

cJ-i

A^^j

EXERCISE

^^i

(J:^=-

?

cannot get

I

(as there

is

much

you swim ? I can swim, but not well
Tn the darkness I
(but I cannot swim well).
could not see the man.
I cannot speak Pushtu, but
water).

I

Caq.

can understand what ^^eople say (the Avords of

the people), and' in (after)
able to speak.
ignorant,

The people

they * cannot

Can you go with me ?

two months

I shall be

of these hills are very

understand

Hindustani.

How many men

can you

PUSHTU MANUAL.

92

bring with you?
followers,

I

can take

and you have

LESSON

A

my own

of

XI.

i\^^ or k=^

letter

An

A

fifty

fifty soldiers.

^^

order

message

('•*:6.-',

To be able

J^/i-

To recognize
To open

J-Jo^j

^ycU- -

To shut

Jj-^-V

To run

J/ ^1^

— J;^
Jjtj

'^^^

or J^i"

or

t^.^j'-'c

^^

Jji' i_sjy^.

or JjsjJxj

To write

Ji^

Examples,

Can you get

He

said

across

that

recognize the

be

j^*S.

?

^^^.J^^_.

could

tliief.

*^ ^s^yx.^

^

^j

^

Xs^ ^ xkx

98

PROSE COMPOSITION.
I

could not open the door,

&.>

sLa,

sJ:,

^

so I returned.

That man's
run very

'Jl],

nephew can
he can

fast,

'^^^^^

Uj^j*

J. ^^la^ ^^x.^

run faster than any of

^J

<Xj

^^

^

me

that

.i,

message

a

he was

ill,

and

j^J
xi

^'^

,c:'^

{I'i

<io
,

^ ^j^

^'

>

J

L>)

"^

u^^iO-*^
J

^^o./

Ajo j_^^^ ^Jb

I cannot.

sent

<iiiyj^

^d ^j^

could go I would, but

He

.} ^.^

Jl^ia J»j ^J^

^^

the village boys.
If I

Lj

^JJ

»

;

»»-

j^

i'j

^1

,Jj'

jlT

^'^^

(t.>

»

could not come.

^^

EXERCISE
'

I

11.

gave him an order to go to the village in the

plain.

He

started,

but an hour after sent

a message that he could not go.
the door?

Can you shut
Can

No, I cannot (shut the door).

you speak English ?
I

I

understand' English.

cannot speak English, but
This boy can run faster

than this boy. 'Can you recognize this
Yes,

he

is

the

yesterday, and

Peshawar.

me

man?

man whom I saw in the hills
told me that he had come from

who

He

says that he

is

a corporal in the

PUSHTU MANUAL.

94
4th.

regiment (of infantry), and that he cannot

return to his regiment because

Can you write a

I

is

ill.

cannot

(his words).

LESSON
tlie

father

letter to his Colonel ?

understand what he says

On

liis

XII.

two forms of the past tenses of Transitive

Verbs.

To

strike

To

kill

Jjbj

J/j^

To murder

^}J Jiw or

To hurt

u3j^

To oppress

To

Jij\

J^i^ cSX'i

JL

call
,

Examples.
I

have killed him.

He

has struck me.

<)cAai

'w<

or ^^^ ^_^j^ q!X>

^i

^-^^

X.kSb

'w<

<^'^
^J

95

PROSE COMPOSITION.

Tgu have hurt me.
I

have called

*-.>

you..

^_jj

Thou hast oppressed

nie.

Why didst thou

me ?

strike

He had

killed him.

I struck

you to-day because

you hurt

Whose

me

is this

Probably

it

^J,

*j

^J
Jjbj

,

»J

yesterday.

dog

?

is

Ahmed

Xs^

<)c^

^^
j^^iio

,_^t>

U-

'--o

U

D

^

j

^^^

'^>'

^

o

lLxG' sj

^^^^ j

*j (_?vl^^3^

ij

!^

t>

4^j X) ^^J^

^^>^

''^^ y^«^

Jo

*

^^

c;^/^-

^_j~w.

c*..k.-^1

Ij

J

Khan's.

EXERCISE

12.

He struck me yesterday.
Wliy did he strike? You have murdered him.
He called you yesterday. He could not kill me.
He has oppressed me for a long time. Thou hast
hurt me. You have all oppressed me. Who is
Probably he is a
I do^ not kno^^^
that man ?
I

have struck him.

Sepoy

(he will be a

Sepoy^

96

PUSHTU MANUAL.

LESSON
I

himself said to

Why

me

<o

j_^^>i,

s:

<xj

^>af

xiLo

J ^J^

Av^

^jli>

Ism\L»

?

boy

little

like

you can-

tJ^U ^^^j

not do this work.

What

^ihss:^

.1 Aj',

,

did you not go your-

self

A

^L

go myself.

will

He

XIII.

thing

is this

What

of

sort

^.

Aj

^*i,
,

J.J'

,

^j

?

a beast

y^d

is

,i^

jc^ Ij

>i,

j^^

Ij

CS.ijL Ij

this ?

Where

did you find this

coin

He

Q^
aJjvXo

J

o

J6'y»-

<):^^

1

j

?

arose

and

sat

down

ci^^^'Ja***^

Uj

^1

«^j^^'o, iJch

again.
I

go myself to the village

^L ^j^

j$^

K

jj

aJuusr •&

every day.

Write a

Go
I

to

letter for

me.

^!j

your own house.

have got his book, I
have

lost

my

own.

'

^d

&.^

^x^s^\ ^
^^^

a1 I.

J

£

^|3j>-

.^^

l—jIIT

^J> CJ,j

^

j!»^

^^j^

jc.ia

J..tj>-

j

\

97

PROSE COMPOSITION.

my

G/ve

compliments

the Chief, and^ask

come

to

I

Ju'^.

him

A^

j,

Jui/L <uJii

dcS

(^jli-

<Xjjj

<t:>-

CXU

b)

J

jJ^^

in.

go myself

will

to

in

^'o-

his

JCj

<xii,

j

<xl>isr

jo

!Jy

»

place.

^jj

They said among

them-

J.^,

^^^ i^-<

f;^^

J.Ai-

selves,

EXERCISE
I will

come
I

go there myself to-morrow. If you cannot

yourself, perhaps

cannot go myself, but

(in

my

Kifstum, and
tribe

is

this

here to see

put

it

your brother can come.

my

cousin will go instead

Is this horse

place).

my

you can do

like

13.

man
n,ie.

?

He

Where

under the bed.

He

work.

as just as

your own?
is

as brave as

Naoshirawan.
is

an Afridi

;

did you put

He

A man
Of what

he has come

my gun

?

I

got up and. went out,

saying 'that he would come again to-morrow.
goes to the city every day to

sell

wood and

He

grass.

The chief sends his compliments, and says he will
come to-morrow to see you. Go out of my house.
What is this thing ? I do not know what it is.
Ask him why he did not come himself when I sent
H

VUSHTU MANUAL.

98
for him.

T Avill

go to the river to-morrow before

dawn, and you must

(will)

come with

LESSON
In a narrative,

when

a

nic.

XIV.

second verb occurs after a

verb in the past tense, the present or subjunctive of
the present

A

may be

used.

well

15^^

To get up

To escape

J^^ ^.

^^ Jj.j.^i=>-

To climb up

A

(JjU»

way

To

seize

To

fall

I

J'^f*-^.-!

%

AjJ
'

'
'

'

Ji^^j

To get down

J'Vijj"^

Examples.

The man saw that he
not escape.

could

i

;

*J^=-l('f*i.

t^i

^

<o

^J*^^

(_?

^"sxiol^

PROSE 'composition.
T'he river

was in

99

100

PUSHTU MANUAL

101

fROSB COMPOSITION^.
T^o steal

Only

A

J'^ or

J^j
ij^

(

merchant

An

A

01-

J^i'ii

elder*

grey-beard

^j-l^ uH'^

Dear, expensive

u'r

To buy
To load
To

)

fill

Examples.

The

Afridis

are

better

armed than the Orakzai,

JO

^j^

they have got manyLeef..^

'Metford
.rifles,

Martini

while the Orakzai

have only
rifles

and

few Snider

<i

and many flintlock

three

packets

of

animunition at a mark
to the east of

yesterday.

tlTe

village

i&s>-

£:k=

x>.

'^=

^}

<x^) s^ A^^

rW

ijVi

^_3^^^

ji^ JidXxAi^

and matchlock guns.
I fired

8^1

^

^^'^j; ^i^.y^ j/^j;^ i'

^^'.
'o)

}JJ

^\

{^s.

,j}

102

PUSHTU MANUAti.

Bring lue
I will
for

my

sliot-guu,

go out sliootiug

a

little

wliile.

^i^}
8^1

^

I

-

'ti^l;

^..j

_

(

^^

l<^'^.; j

't^

'--^.-l^'

<x.«

<x!

if"^^

'^

,^^
0"~'

shot 17 snipe yesterday.

This shot

is

too coarse,

have you no

He

is

finer ?

a very good shot.

J,-

J

^^

-^ lJjI-^
<)cxiJ

^j^

As^

,d

'"^

103

ruosE c'oMPosiTrox.

them to merchants
and the merchants sell them to the hill

Thieves steal cartridges and
in the city,

people.

The

hill

sell

people can

make good powder,

and can load empty cartridge-cases (cartridges).

Are they good shots (do they shoot
every village they shoot at marks?

good
the

shots,

shooting to-morrow.

The

Get

elders say that there are

in the

The

but cartridges are so dear

young men cannot buy them.

my

At

well) ?

elders are

now

I will

that

go out

shot-gun ready.

many

snipe and duck

marshes and a few hares in the plain.

shot seven francolin yesterday.

LESSON

I

104

PtJSHTtJ MA'A'tJAL.

Rich

105

fROSE C'OMPOSITION.

EXEECISE
The

mand

chief of this village

;

he

is

is

16.

Ahmed Khan Moh-

one of the elders of the

Mohmands.

Does he pay (give) much revenue to the Govern-

He

ment ?

pays four rupees an Acre for irrigated

and two rupees an acre

for unirrigated land.

The

settlement officer has assessed his revenue lightly,
as

his

father

and grandfather performed great

The

Government.

services for

irrigation channel

brino;s

the water to the villao-e from the Cabul

river.

He

is

dependents.

a very rich man, and has

He

is

independent territory

at feud with

who

LESSON
The seasons

(July

and

January).

;

^^^1

XVII.

summer (comprising ^j.l

(May, June), and

August)

October), and

killed his father.

are ^JjJ^ spring (comprising February,

March, and April)
hot season

many

the people of

^^?

;

x*

winter

the

Jl^!>io*

or Jl^Lij the rains

autumn

(September and

(November, December, and

106

I'USHTd MANUAL.

Rico

PROS

15

To ripen

Ja^st or J

Year
This year

Last year

rOMI'OSITION.

Rain

The harvest

Famine
Seed or seed-gfraia

107

108

rtJsHTtJ maI^uaL.

Many

come

Afridis will

down from

<xl

tj'^.r^}

Jl^ jm

the hills for

the harvest.

^

This year

<Li,

(Jv^

the harvest will be better

than

<xj

*i

J J

j»^]j jJ J^ J:

Jl^^o

a;!

JO

'

.^

*

last.

Among

17.

the Pathans the villagers are very busy

summer and autumn

much work

in ....

)

winter and spring.

autumn, and

in the

>i

h^

,

EXERCISE

in the

.

r^.*^

(the village people have

and have nothing to do in the

They plant barley and wheat
rice

and maize in the spring.

These crops are harvested in the hot season, and

maize and millet are sown before the
fruits

ripen in the rains.

In Peshawar there are

very good apricots, peaches, and grapes.
little

There

is

rain this year, and the crops will not be

good.

but

Many

rains.

Last year there was good rain in the

little in

famine.

the plains.

hills,

This year there will be a

PROSE COMPOSI'I'ION.

LESSON
A month
Pfithfins

XVIII.

Jw^Lk^

reckon by lunar months.

responds with

iTie

109

Their year cor-

ordinary ]\Ioharamadan calendar,

which in other Musuluian countries ^s used with the
;

Arabic names.
rUSHTU.

ARABIC.

Muharram
Safar

Rabi-ul-Awal
Rabi-us-Sani

Jamadi-ul-Awal
Jamadi-us-Saui
»

Rajab

Shaban

^

Bamazan
Shawal
Zil-Kaida
Zil-Hija

,

110

rOSlITU MANUAL.

A
The days

ENGLISH.

iveek

of the

week

di'jjco

are

:

or JCx^^

PKOSE coMrosmoN.

The

villagers

pray

at tlie

^

shriue every Thursday

.

<icl

<in^~^

a.;

.

Ill

(-^'-j

c^

i*

and Friday.

.1

ei^vl;;

l?^
^:L

EXEECISE

^-^

,i

j

<^

(aJ'^uO

18.

We will start on Tuesday and return on Saturday.
In the rains a tribal council

held every Friday

is

mosque at Bagh in Maidan. My nephew is
very ill we will take him to the shrine of Kaka
If you start to-morrow you
Sahib at Nowshehra.
will arrive at Nowshehra on Thursday morning.
at the

;

In the Avinter and

spring

Tuesdays and Fridays.

day

;

may

caravans go on

In the hot weather and

To-day

go only on Fridays.

rains they

he

the

is

Satur-

perhaps come here the day after

to-morrow, which

is

Monday.

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

LESSON XIX.
The cardinal points are
North

:

t^^vkJJ

'

,

South
East

West

(J-tH^

(!_j:^)

(1^)

iol^,.;

i'^^^-

.y or

<dju>

PUSHTU MANUAL.

112

As Pathans come more and more
civilization,

time

is

so

An

A

European system

the

making progress

terms are in

common

hour

into contact ^^ith

use

measuring

of

among them.

The following

:
,

i

a^j/

-

minute

^i^^

One

o'clock

Two

o'clock

jso

jc;sr

j^sr

etc.

Ti.Ci

etc.

Examples.

We

shall

arrive at

home

^^

jy^

^'

;*J^:i^

i^-.-!

in three hours.

Half past

A

y.j-^ji

five.

^^ssr

quarter past seven.

Twenty minutes past

The

original

^"^ or cL^'ol*

^j^

|,;^_

six.

(i^-^'-'

Pushtu measure

The

early

call

li

M

of time

to

-r^'-^

is,

^^AJ^i Jcs\!

!s^l

j^iU ^Ij

l;;-^*

however

prayer,

l)'*'

:

about an

hour before sunrise.
iUtC

^^-mAa.U

Noon.

The

second

or

afternoon

between 2 p.m. and 3 p.m.

prayer,

113

PROSE COAIPOSITION.

The prayer before

ioJjU

The prayer

^'.-il-o

JuuJ

after sunset,

about 8 p.m.

The night prayer, about 10 p.m.

^!L*.4.U)

JU/i,

sunset, about 5 p.m.

Midnight.

»

The

jiU x^Jl

(lead

of night, about

meaning

3 a.m. (literally

a.m.

1

2"*^^

to

still).

Examples.

Leave the
the

of

prayer,

fort at the

early

time
to

call

take the road

the south, and go

to

through the

hills,

xi,

.'.

jsi->-^^

^

dl

.

^_j^i^

,!)1

(^^ ^^f*

^o

JU

tji jJ

i^

iJ-t^i^

t\^ ^j

.y

^^

J

Xj y^ji.

J A> yiyir^.

return

uLkjoIc

^1

j;^

^w ^1

^ ]^.

u^

^aj

^

.J

jo

}y<

here just before sunset.
It will

be about three and

a half

We will
and

'

homV

jo

^ y^

early

to-

yi

.1^

^i/j')

,

a^jui

-'^^

Jc^oJ
^.

<Jo

)=^*'

^^

morrow morning.

A

pursuit party

Raiders

A

J

march.

start at midnight,

return

^^

raiding party

JC«»-

\

)

PUSHTU MANUAL.

114

EXERCISE
The

thieves

19.

came from the

hills

the east

to

they reached the village at the time of the afternoon
prayer, and started two and a half hours afterward;^,
crossed the river At 5 p.m., and reached the hills at

How

midnight.
I start at

the

far

your villnge from here?

noon, I can reach

The men should
to prayer).

my home

If

(house) by

prayer before sunset (5 p.m.).

time of the

people

is

start

by dawn

(at the early call

In the dead of night, when

of the village

were

asleep,

all

the

twenty men

opened the west gate (door) of the village and
took away eight horses.
pursuit party started

Twenty minutes after, a
after them.
The pursuit

party returned at noon, but had not found the
raiders.

LESSON XX.

Common
Pathaus

saiutations

and

expressions

used

by

:

j^

<U

^_^$Jj^

May you

not be tired (the

common

expression on

meeting anyone).

115

PROSE COMPOSITION.

^

'

is**^ t-^i^

^j)ji^ X*

^^/i, .JLo

,^y~>-

May you
Ma}'-

be

also not

tired.

you not become poor

(the usual

answer to the

above)

,

JL)

You

are* welcome.

x^^j <xK,a

You

are always welcome.

lil,

<K/i,

jjJ>-

J.O J

t^'lj^i-

Good-bye
you)

^J

L5^

J

s

i'ouj

ti'ol

be

(God

with

!

you

God.

j6'

^Ijo-

I entrust

i^

j_^ltXs>-

May God keep you

to

pro-

sperous.
aJ'wj

J',s^ji- d
iX/i

ji'o

t_5^Jsi-

1

J

j^

May God keep you

May

happy.

your house be pro-

sperous.
p
^^

o-*^^

'^^y ^°^^ keep you.

*/ ^^j J

t_^'i^>^

^i^.

<oL.^

»

,

May God make you a
lord, means May you
receive promotion.

*

<u,

J

^-0

iXj

Good-bye

[lit.

in front of

you(may) good (appear)].
8 .^'j

i^j^

1

XiJi

J^\

The same

Shame
Mercy

to you.

!

!

I

2

116

PUSHTU MANUAL.
^LJl

Peace be upon you

!

^LJl -XjAij

And upon youpeace!

(answer

*Cxlc

to above).
idJl

ftMij

In Grod's naqie.

^i

^Ij

By God

jdJI

O God

U

EXEECISE

Who
(it

is

that coming

!

!

I

!

It is

probably the Khan

May you all not be
And upon you peace
!

a seat in the shade under the tree.
to the city.
to

God.

\

20.

Welcome, Khan Sahib, may

will be the Khan).

you not be tired
Peace be upon you

?

*^

Good-bye,

Khan

No,

I

poor

Take

must go

Sahib, I entrust

you

PKOSE COMPOSITION.

117

Examples.
In a certain village there

was a

who was

girl

so

beautiful, that her friends

said that

up

to the pre-

sent time such a girl has

xo ^jjj

*law

s^

Xs^ »^

J:ji«j.jL,

K

^«a>

^_us^j^«g)t){Lisr_aJ^^t>
aj

».

o

aL;

<t»-

ic>^lt)

o'vl^.J*

L^^' 7^ *'^J

»

li

l))

lju..O ^_j.::sn.A

(j_^./i,

never been.

Day and

and

night, winter

summer, she would
main
but

own house

in her

if

re;

at any time she

had a great longing for

^
^^^

.^-i"

ij^'ri.
5^*i

t^^

^

^1

-«J-

(J«jki^

^J

^

^jlAa

^Ju^^jl

^^J

!$.j^

^,i

.^ ^1

<x>

^^

^sj^

j j;ix«

j'Ji

i

.^1

<)c^

j^y J>.^

anything, she would send

jj'

y

\r^^^;;

her servant to the bazar
,

,for

it.

Oue day her
was a
to

rio'h

her.

who

^^ ^

^

man, said

&L. i(^

j

father,

What

is

the

reason that you always

remain in

She
is

said,

the hpuse ?"
''

The reason

that I do n(5t like to

go out."

a:j

i^ ^
«zj

^

^l^x*

l^^'

<)G'

Aa
a::?-

Ij
aj

kib

bj

..

^c?-

Si ^
(_fr-wj

uw

rd'^

_ ^-^^j*!

^J4*^

.»i'

j^ti L-.'vjuw

lii

^

^

tJJ>^

"^^

llj

^y\

118

PUSHTU MANUAL.

EXEECISE

21.

who was

People say that there was a rich man,

so avaricious that, because of his great avarice,

But

would not eat meat.
great longing

for,, it,

if

at

lie

any time he had

a

he would send for a goat's or

sheep's head from the butcher through his servant.

One day a

friend

reason that,

He

head."

said

Avinter

What

very much."

lying

up

is

The

is

other said, "

to the present time I

that

You

LESSON XXII.
Falcon

JuXi

Crooked
old

m,,

woman

(literally,

j^

Alas

Poor wretch

^

^

j^s**"

tj
!^

i^'f (CrA^
'

!

f.

^-^^^ or

a white-headed woman)

Beak

I

are

have never seen

such a miser as you."

Au

the

and summer, you eat only

gave answer, " The reason

like it
;

"

to him,

«* or

s^y:*^

^U^l ^U;i
V.»^Njuai Jo

i

PROSE COMPOSITION.

A

knife

119

PUSHTU MANUAL.

120
They kept a

dog'

for the

^^x^

^

%J^

chase.

One day
was

xj ^5j'««-'

it

ran away and

^1

SJ^'i^^il

£,>-

lost.

,

EXEECISE

A

a ^*a

,1^

J

xict

i^

i

..

s^j
'

^Ji

22.

king of Afghanistan kept a falcon for hunting.

One day it flew away and alighted on the house of
an old woman. The old woman at once seized the

When

falcon.

she looked at

The

to her to be crooked.

" Alas, alas, poor wretch
to eat

cut off

with such a beak."
its

upper beak

upper and lower beak

now you
The

!

?

it, its

old

beak appeared

woman

How

will

exclaimed,

you be able

She took a knife and

When

she had

alike, she said,

will be able to pick

made

the

" Well done

up grain and

friendship and enmity of a fool are alike.

eat."
.

,

PROSE bOMrOSITION.

122

PUSHTU JIANQAL.

EXEECISE

23.

In the city of Peshawar two

men were

together (in one place), eating bread.

had

and the other thlee.

five loaves

man happened
replied,

welcome.

He

"And upon you

Come

therefore sat

When

got up.

He gave

your bread."

are

(was replete), the
the

loaves eight rupees, and said,
the price of

You

with us."

ate bread with them.

he had eaten enough

traveller

peace.

here and eat bread

down and

he got to

" Peace be on you."

their side he said to them,

They

When

to be passing.

sitting

One man
A young

''

owners of the

Take

this

;

it is

PEOSB COMPOSITION.

To inform

123

124

PUSHTU MANUAL.

The people drove that good
old man out of the village, and he cried, " Mercy
mercy!" They said, " Think well, old man there
v'ill probably be some good in this."
A good old
some good

in this."

!

;

man

is

sometimes stupid.

LESSON

PfiOSE COMPOSITION.

To

arrive

125

PUSHTU MANUAt.

126

camel-man

" I

said,

do not know you

;

who

are

After much quarrelling they went to the
judge said to the merchant, " Who
The
judge.
The merchant said, " I am a poor
are you ? "

you

? "

This

man.

man

has stolen

my

all

p'roperty."

LESSON XXVI.

A

priest

A

place

(_f''^

A

fruit

J5^^

A

journey

To

travel

To

kill

To

find

IL*

or Jim

tju.

Jjj' jA,*>

&i

J;_5

JjJ^

'

Examples.
If

you live

in that country,

youwillneverbecomeill.
I

was very desirous

,

of ob-

15'^^^

^^ Aj

jSr^^

taining that horse.

The spy went

to

Persia

disguised as a priest.

U^

.^s^'J

*


jl

Jo

^J^

j

aj'

1^^

x> xi x^

^rS?._iti

^JD^yc

<xj'

(sj Xjj

J'o

&kx

(-LxL*

'o)

y

,^1 xkx
8^

t>

<xJu^

^jL;!

jw»,^^\,>

x.^^^^

dj

127

PROSE COMPOSITION.

Wh^nhe returned home

he

^b .^

found that his son was

^4

J

15^';

''^r:^^

^ ^. ^
;

^

iJ^ cCcJ.^o

dead.

The prince
and

'sj

collect^ed a force

»'J:.;5'o jl

killed the king.

A priest

man

place, I

went

to

"^

J-^

lJ

26.

The king was very desirous

am

his son, " Sit

and said to

fruit,

a

disguised

many

years.

as

a

on

merchant, and

He saw many

and countries, but could not find

of

The king

going on a journey."

Persia

travelled for

is

eat of the fruit of that tree he

never die."

obtaining this

my

'':'.^

Jiyil;^^

.i^4J

said to a king, " In Persia there

If a

tree.

./ «4.s-

^^7'^^

EXEECISE

will

"^

'v^

cities

When

this tree.

he returned to his country he found that his son

had told the people

now 'king."
son,

The

:

"

The king

is

dead, I

king collected a force, killed

and once -again

sat

on his own place.

LteSSON XXVII.

The

tree of

Wisdom

knowledge

j61 ^li

^^JJ^.^Jt> -

J

Ac

am
hi?-

128

PQSUTC MANUAL.

Ja^

For ever

A

joke

ac^^

To search

J^^j

To joke

.,

J/

'

J^

r

Examples.

He

has travelled for

^o ^S,

many

^

Jl^ .;^ i.k%

years.
I

could not understand the

^

L__^lla« ^j >\ aJt*

meaning ofwhat he said.
It

is

make

not good to

^yi
»

J

Jtj

Ju?

o'^^

aj»-

v<

aJ

I

i^

js

w*.

Jx

friends with thieves.

EXEECISE
The king
"

priest

!

27.

sent for the priest, and said (to him),
I

have searched for

many

years, 'and

The priest said, " You
did not understand the meaning qf my words.
The tree is the tree of knowledge, and if anyone

have not found the

fruit."

eat of the fruit of that tree he will live for ever.

You,

king, havp travelled much, aiid have gained

great wisdom, therefore you haVe found the fruit."

The king ordered
It is

his soldiers to kill the priest.

not good to joke with kings!

PROSE COMPOSITION.

LESSON

129

PUSHTU MANUAL.

130

me whatever you

Bring

may

u.^K (<•<>«
J

^..-

^

find.

The enemy spared nothing.

<xj

j jcj^

Jl

^

i^J xjj Ail

EXEECISE

f

JO

^^>»Mi>i3

ij'*^'^

28.

Klmshal Khan assembled a force on pretence of
(a)

hunting (expedition), and made a raid

day upon the Aka Khel.

men

He

in

put to death whatever they might

to

dogs or men.

they found

They

cattle,

open

gave orders to

therefore

his

find,

whatever

killed

men, Avomen, children

;

they

spared nothing, and the streets of the villages ran
(flowed) with blood.

The blood

of dogs and

men

flowed together (in one place) in the streets intermingled.

The

raiders

went on through the

kills,

burnt three or four more large villages, and retu;rned
at the time of evening prayer without loss.

LESSON XXIX.

'*

A

pass

A

aong

J.jy

o^-

-

)ijd

or ^^[c
*

t*i^

PROSE COMPOSITION.

A

thought

A

detour

131

^

_ Jlxi-

To conquer
To subdue
To reduce

To aunex
To

halt

To

sing-

To

seize

To

attack

JoJ

or

J^

^'JU

ukj t_^;^i^ or

J.J^

Jj£

!5^)^

To guard

Examples.
llieAfridis are determined
t(!>

We

)^

l/'^

'^'^^ i-^'^j-'^

''^

rise.

will

spend some days

^^^

'jU».-:

'''.;

^'^

in Posliawar.

1

thought that he would

^^
do

-Ua

.

come.

While

I

went

l5^;J '^

j^?-

jsj

y.

<_^f:^>

-^^

J'-J^

lJ*^1/

was talking he

.il

&i!b

y

^Jo" ^w^i-

out.

K 2

U

a:^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

132

BXEECISE

9.9

THl Yusafzais determined to conquer Swat.
They started together and halted in front of the
Shakot Pass, and spent some days there. The
Swatis guarded this pass night and day, and had

no thought
said to their

women,

when they heard
Yusafzais

The Yusafzais
Sing songs." The Swatis,

for the other passes.

would

"

the singing, thought that the
attack

them next

morning.

While the women were singing, the Yusafzais

made
In

a detour and seized the Malakand Pass.

(after)

twelve years they had conquered the

whole of Swat.

LESSON

133

PHOSE COMPOSITION.

lliXAMl'l.KS.

me your

Give

horse

in

exchange for these two
mules.

,

^1

(_)wV=^

;^i^

lJ'^

^J

have brought your horse

id.J<^^ J-^!^
^.J

Lj^'^'i^j

<^.-!

t!.^

^ls«-^:.

^-

oi')

fort will

tV*^

'^

^j

with great trouble.

The

\j

o**'

r*

'^

^.

(t/4*^ J'^?

*

Put tliis load on your head.
I

U) ^^.L ^. •t=s*

be attacked

Jl

j jda aJ'j

ili'

jcj

U^

<kj

to-morrow.

^ He was named Mohamed.
I will

I

not take this cow.

will

take

this

buffalo

*ii- ^'

k&>

instead.

J

j:j

A~>-

EXEKCISE

When

j^as-* *

!5j

1.

Ki

J ^ia J
1

J

^o 8^

(l^U, o) ^x^^x^ lo
'^

^^^J

J'^

'^^

30.

was attacked, Karlan's mother
ran away and forgot him. When she remembered
him, Umr, who was her brother, returned to look
for his

A

the

\'illage

nephew.

*After

much

search he found him.

cooking-pot had also been

left

behind in the

134

PtJSHTU MANUAL.

village, so

he put Kaiian in

and brought him home.

it,

put

Umr

it

on his head,

had no son of

his

own, so he said to Hanai, " I have brought your
son with great trouble to this place, do not take

him now.

I will

keep him.

cooking-pot instead."

Do you

Hanai agreed

;

take this

and because

he had been exchanged for a cooking-pot, which
Pathans
Karlan.

call

karlaij

he was named Karlanai or

I

PROSE COMPOSITION.

CHAPTER
Chapter

II,

of Part

advanced students.

have been

135

II.

contains thirty exercises for

II.

These exercises are passages which

Standard Examinations of the

Pushtu

in the

Higher

last fifteen years.

Three

set for translation into

which were unobtainable have been replaced by passages
set in earlier examinations.

EXERCISE

31.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
Ap-il, 1886.

Ik

happened

brotjier of the

in

this wise.

The

fact that the

Minister had but recently

Prime

gained

a great victory,

of the

other

members

suggested to the mind

of

the

Government that

the combination of the civil and military authority
in the

hands

-of

two men

fatal to the interests

so

related,

might be

and fortunes of the other

plunderers of the State.
Religion eagerly enlisted itself in a plot then

and there formed

for their removal.

At

the head

PUSHTU MANUAL.

136
of

were the chief muUas and the chief physi-

it

These pious men, well

cian? to the Sovereign.

from

supported

without,

entered

the

Shah's

chamber at midnight, and persuaded the weak
monarch that the safety of his cfown, even of
his life, depended upon the prompt execution of
rigorous measures against his Prime Minister and
his Commander-in-Chief.

EXERCISE

32.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1886.

The road now

leads over the low ridge on Vhe

and, going over some low undulations, .de-

left,

scends to the river through a narrow defile between

low

This pass

hills.

cultivation of the

there

is

a

little

is

practically the limit of the

Mashhud Valley;

beyond,

it

is

for

though

of the most pre-

The villagers exist in constant fear
from Turkaman raiders
yet under a strong
Government the whole valley of this river, right
carious kind.

;

down

to

Ak-Darband,

is

capable of being kept

137

PROSE COMPOSITION.
in

,

highest state

the

abundance of water

of cultivation, as

for irrigation.

is

covered with a dense jungle

of tamarind and high grass,

and a half passes the old
still

being distributed

its

The road now goes along the bed

of the river, which

there are

is

whose banks are

in the river,

not too high to admit of

there

ancl

after

one mile

Nazarean, where

fort of

a few miserable inhabitants.

then crosses the river, which

is

It

here only two and

a half feet deep and thirty feet broad, then turns to
the

left,

fort,

and ascends the right bank

to a ruined

and then going over an undulation, descends

again to the bed of the

river at Lano-unaba or

Inayatabad.

EXERCISE

33.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1887.
ft

Dilawar Khan 'wns not so successful as had
been

his

against
forced

master.

him,

him

led

to fall

The Tal^Duri chiefs united
him into an ambuscade, and
back with

loss

on Shikarpur.

138

PUSHTU MANUAL.

An accommodation was

entered into, in virtue

which the Chiefship of Sindh was vested

.of

in

a

Talpuri noble, Fateh Ali Khan, on condition of
his

acknowledging the suzerainty of Tanour Shah,

and paying him a fixed

*

tribute.

Gradually the Talpuri strove to rid himself of

both obligations, and at the end of three years
he boldly severed the

tie.

EXEECISE

34

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1887.

Kamran was waiting
It is difficult to assis:n

for

him within

the ci^y*

a reason for his inaction

In his case boldness would have been prudence,

and he might have used his superior force with

much advantage

in the passes north of the city.

But he preferred
soon,

from

however, as
Istalif

to

wait for his brother.

Hamayun's

••

force

As

descended

and had reached Deh-i-Afghanan, one

of the outlying suburbs of the

(iity,

he sent his

best General, Slier Af^an, at the head of his best

139

PBOSE COMPOSITION.
troops

to

followed.

him.

attack

At

first

A

hard-fought action

the sokliers of

successful, but to unexpected

flank at a critical period of the

and in the end they

fled

in

Kamraa were
on their

attack

day proved

fatal,

Their

disorder.

leader, after displaying great co\\rage,

was taken

prisoner and

of

Hamayun

beheaded on the

pressed his

field

battle.

advantage, captured

outer enclosure of the city, and planted his
lery on the hill which

commanded

EXEECISE

the
artil-

the town.

35.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.

*

Avril 1888.

The year following the XJsbegs, recovering from
once more invaded Khurasan, and
took Mashhad. They then moved on to Herat.
Herat withstood them for seven months, and then,
their defeat,

But the triumph
Usbeg was shortened. The following year
Shah Tamphan tidvanced with an army and recovered the whole of Khorasan but Herat was

hopeless of succour, capitulated.

'

of the

;

140

PUSHTU MANUAL.

again attacked by the Usbegs, and again relieved

by Shah Tamphan, towards the end of the same
year.
Shah Tamphan wintered in the neighbourhood, and for the two following years the city

enjoyed peace.

EXERCISE

36.

Higher Standard Pdshtu Examination.
October, 1888.

But the

Kamran

tide of his misfortunes

relieved

Kolab,

and drove away Chakar
against Suliman,

was

at its flow.

was joined by Askari,
Ali.

Then,

marching

he reached the banks of vht

Kokcha River, and encamped near the town, of
Rostak. When lying there his camp was suddenly
upon and plundered by a large body of
set
Usbegs,

who happened

was no time

to be passing by.

for resistance.

-

There

The attack was utterly

unexpected, the more so as the leader of the
Usbegs, Sayad Usbeg, was in alliance with
ran.

Kam-

It subsequently appeared that the Usbegs

had not waited

to ask to

whom

the

camp belonged

141

PROSE COMPOSITION.
before they attacked

However, the mischief

it.

Kamran, Askari, and a few others

was done.
escaped, but

army had disappeared

the

appeared no chance of reuniting

it,

for

;

there

Suliman

was now mai^ching, joined by Hindal, against the
revolted brothers.

EXERCISE

37.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April,

1889.

Candahar captured, Nadir marched on Cabul.
That city, since the date on which I last men•ticftied

had

it,

forj;une.

In

undergone

common with

Shah Jahan,

had,

it

some
other

after

the

vicissitudes

of

subject to

cities

usual period of

interregnum, recognized the authority of Aurangzeb.

'In

north-east

1670, hoAvever, the Usbeg tribes in the
of*

Lieutenant,

the country completely defeated his

and proclaimed their

under a chief of their own nation.
than two years later Aurangzeb

independence
Little

more

proceeded

Afghanistan to restore his authority,

to

but soon

142

PUSHTU MANUAL.

returned,

work.

It

leaving his Generals to

was

not,

complete the

however, until the Raja of

Jodhpur, Jaswant Singh, had taken up the

office

of Viceroy (1675) that the Emperor's authorityFroiii that period
was completely established.
to the time of which I am now writing, it would
seem that Cabul had submitted to the Governors

nominated by the court of Dehli.

EXEECISE

38.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
November, 1889.

At
tlie

The

sunrise the battle joined.

Persians bearing

the Afghans, forced

down on
it

the Viceroy of Arabia,

left

win^

of

the right Aving of

At

the same time
making a detour with his
back.

oAvn troops, turned the left flanks of the Afghans,

and

falling

plunder.

When

upon

This

their

act, it will

camp,
be

set

to

S'een, lost

work

to

the day.

he started to engage in the turning opera-

wing of the Persians attacked the
Afghans opposed to them and drove them back.

tion, the right

143

PROSE COMPOSITION.
Mij^hmud,

who watched tke battle from an eminence,

thought that

all

was

would have beem

lost

lost

and prepared

All

to flee.

had the Viceroy of Arabia

not stopped to plunder.

But, as he did not follow

up his advantftge, the Afghan General falling back,
drew the enemy within range of the swivel guns
»

fixed on the backs of the camels, kneeling in a
line,

and then opening out

his ranks

poured

in a

fire

not only checked the advance of

the Persians, but

threw them into inextricable

volley.

This

A

confusion.
this into a

enemy

charge of the Afghans converted

The

complete rout.

before

them

for

some

victors drove the

distance, then

wheeHng

round, captured their cannon, which had been
unprotected.

left

These guns were at once turned on

the Persians with decisive

efi'ect.

EXEKCISE

39.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1890.

Aibak, scantily provided and vigorously assailed,
soon surrendered.

Had Hamayun pushed on

at

once he would probably have carried Balkh, for

PUSHTU MANUAL.

144
the

made a

easy capture of Aibak had

But the

impression on the Usbegs.

Kamran

He

come.

He

paralysed him.
feared

still

g]5;eat

inaction of

hoped he might

the mischief he might

effect

should he himself be seriously involved with tKe

A

Usbegs.

vacillating

mind hovering between

two conclusions almost invariably decides on a
middle course exposing it to the two evils it had
wished to avoid. So it was in this case. Hamayun

Kamran should
he dreaded a 'hostile movement

dreaded to attack the Usbegs,
act in his rear

against
revolt.

result

;

Kamran,

He

lest

lest

he should force him into

and waited.

The
was that the two things he most dreaded

happened

Kamran

:

therefore sat

still

him

the Usbegs forced

to retreat,

and

revolted.

EXERCISE

40.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examina-^ion.
.

October, 1890.

The Afghan king was

at

'

first

unwilling to

proceed to extremities against .a man whom he
regarded as a friend and esteemed as a soldier, and

145

PROSE COMPOSITION.

he jused every means in his power to induce him
to return to his allegiance.

The

result afforded

another proof of the generally accepted
that

when an

oriental

chie^f,

at his beck and'call, puts the bit
soft

words only

maxim

with an armed force

between

his teeth,

*Nasir

Khan not

inflate his brain.

only treated the advances of his late suzerain with

contempt, but
his Wazir,

when

the latter sent a force under

Shah Walli Khan, against

Kalat, he did not await there, but
to encounter

his capital

marched

forwai'd

it.

EXEECISE

41.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.

'

1884.

Aurangzeb

alone

remained

unshaken.

He

presented his elephant wherever there was the
greatest

dangi^r,

and called aloud

to

his troops

that God was with them, and that they had no

other refusre or retreat.

In the

nio;]it

of contest

Raja Rup Singh leaped from his horse^ and running

up

to

Aurangzeb's elephant, began to cut away
L

146

PUSHTU

MANtJATi.

Aurangzeb was stFUck

the girths with his sword.

with his audacity, and even in that

alarm called " Well done
cut to pieces.

At

"
!

The Raja

moment
fell,

this critical juncture

of

almost

Morad,

having at length repelled the Rajputs, was able
to

turn his attention to the centre, and Dara, Avho

found his right thereby exposed, was obliged to
abate the vigour of his front attack.

EXEKCISE

42.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1891.

As Pollock's army approached the hills i^hifch
commanded the road through the Jagdallak Pass,
he found that their summits were occupied by the
enemy. Large bodies of Ghilzais under different
chieftains,

each with a distinguishing standard,

were clustering on the heights. The practice of
the guns was excellent, but the Ghilzai warriors
stood their ground.

They

from their

Pollock sent his infantry to

jazails.

still

poured in a hot

fire

the attack, and gallantly they ascended the heights.

i

PEOSE COMPOSITION.

147

AIL went forward with gallantry.
that their heart

was

in the work,

could turn them 'back.
tribe

The flower

was there under many of

chieftains,

They turned and
the

of the Ghilzai

most renowned

their

to deal with other troops

battle

was plain

and 'they looked down upon the scene

of their recent sanguinary triumph

now

It

and that nothing

fled before

was not yet over.

;

but they had

and other

our bayonets

A

;

considerable

army had betaken themselves

leaders.

but the

body of

for safety

to

The stormers
looked down on them

an apparently inaccessible height.
pushed on.

The

Ghilzais

with astonishment and dismay, and shrank from the
encounter.

The Ghilzai standards were lowered.

The enemy fled

in confusion,

to be occupied

by

and

left

the stronghold

British troops.

EXEECISE

43.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1892.

'

Jalalabad, formerly considered
of the second

district in

one hundred and

the chief town

Eastern Afghanistan,

Ave miles

from Cabul
L 2

is

and

PUSHTU MANUAL.

148

to

it

due

The

from Peshawar.

ninety-one

from Cabul

lies for

the

line

of road

ten miles nearly-

first

descending steeply the Cabul valley.

east,

The next ten miles, leaving the valley, commence
by turning south, and proceed thr6ugh a long and
narrow

defile b'etween steep

Along the

of verdure.

and

defile,

lofty hills devoid

which

is

only a few

yards broad, runs a stream which has to be crossed

twenty times.

The whole breadth

covered with pebbles and stones.
the elevation

above the
hills

is

sea.

At

seven thousand five

Ten

is

summit
hundred feet
its

miles further on the Tezin

commence, which are

still

thousand two hundred

eiffht
o

of the pass

EXEECISE

higher, and reach

feet,

44

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1892.

Mahmud

of Ghazni

was

the field, and his
hundred thbusand men, chiefly
cavalry, selected from the hardy tribes that reside

army

consisted of a

to the north of the

that

first in

lie

Hindu-Ku<h, and on the plains

on the right bank of the river Oxus.

149

PEOSE COMPOSITION.

Fanned by Mohammadan

and urged on by

zeal,

the love of plunder and the reputed wealth of
India, these

army

men 'were

of any

only too willing to join the

monarch who could assure them of

success in such

Mahmud

an invasion.

with his army into the valley of

having traversed the

tht^

advanced

Laghman, and,

district of Jalalabad, resolved

Khyber Pass, and then secure the city
of Peshawar and remain encamped near it for a
few weeks to give his troops some rest. The
news of the advance was carried to the Hindu
to force the

Rajas of India,
this

.

who

resolved to unite and stop

mo

FiXERCISE

45.

*HlGHER StANDA-RD PuSHTU EXAMINATION.
April, 1893.

The Logar,

gi

fine,

broad, rapid river, crosses the

Cabul valley aboijt thirty miles from

coming out through a narrow gorge
and, after crossing the valley, leaves
gorge.

This

is

its

head,

in the hills,
it

by another

the strongest part of the country

PUSHTU MANUAL.

150

between Ghazni and Cabul, as the lowland ceuld
be flooded by

and rendered

the river

nearly

impassable for any but light troops, whilst the

ground
side.

is

high and very stony on the opposite

This river

falls

into the Cabtil river, but not

until the latter "has passed the

A

slight description of

interesting.

twelve miles.

town of that name.

one or two stages will be

Cabul to Arghandi

The road

is

a distance of

for sfx or seven miles

runs through a highly cultivated valley abounding
with orchards and fruit

trees

and

After leaving the Cabul valley there

over a rough stony road

cultivation.
is

an ascent

till

within three miles

is

a gradual descent

of Arghandi, where there
to that place.

EXERCISE

46.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examinat.tqn.
.

April,

1885.

In six days the trench was finished, deep and
wide, throughout almost the whole length of the
defence,

and great stones were heaped along the

151

PROSE COMPOSITION.

inn«r side to

The

be used against the enemy.

dwellings outside the tower were evacuated, and
the

women and

'children

placed for security on

the tops of the double-storeyed houses within the

intrenchment.

'

These arrangements were hardly

completed when the enemy was 'reported to be

advancing by Dhad.

The army

of Medina, 3000

was immediately marshalled and posted

strong,

along the road leading to Dhad, having the trench
in front

and their rear resting upon the north-

eastern quarter of the city and the rising ground of
Silor.

to the

The northern

face

was the point vulnerable

enemy, the approaches from the east being

covered by walls and palm enclosures.

A tent of

red leather was pitched on the ground, in which

Aysha and Salma and Zenab

EXEKOISE

visited

him by

turns.

47,

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
Qdoher, 1885.

The nature of

A

these outrages

*

is

thus described.

trader loads his mules at one of our chief towns

and

starts across

country to a village he hopes to

PUSHTU MANUAL.

152

On

reach by nightfall.
spot,

he

is

the road, in some lonely

seized, gagged,

and taken aside to some

mountain nook, and there kept close under drawn
swords till dark, when the whole party starts

by well-known but unfrequented tracks to the
mountainous riv*er-bank, when he is ferried across
the Indus and is detained till his relations pay up
'

the required ransom.

His chief danger

lies in

the

day dawning or other obstruction occurring before
the kidnapping party reach the Indus, in which
case the

encumbrance

in the shape of the

must be got rid
him go if they could

gagged

They might perhaps

idolator

of.

let

afford

it,

but the locality

and route would be described by him, and
viduals perhaps recognised, and so he

is

on the head and thrown into a mountain

EXEECISE

indi-

knocked
crevice.

48.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.

April, 1894.,

A caravan consisting of fifty-six camels laden with
rice,

dried fruits, and woollen goods, proceeding

through one of the passes leading into India from

153

PROSE COMPOSITION.
Cq,bul,was suddenly set upon

by a band of marauders
it where the pass was
who
narrowest.
Th^ men accompanying the caravan,
about forty innumber,made a determined resistance
were lying in wait for

and shot several of their

assailants,

but having been

taken by surprise they were eventiially overpowered,
after losing ten of their

number.

The rest helplessly

submitted to the plunder of their goods and fled

with their

lives.

three camels with

The robbers drove away
their loads, the

remainder having

either been disabled during the assault or
their loads

forty-

had

and escaped unpursued into the

After the robbers had disappeared, the

cast

hills.

men whom

they had plundered tracked them to a village

about four miles from the pass, and came into our
territory to apply for help to recover their property.

EXEEGISE

49.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October,

The

siege of

1894.'

Herat by the Persians, in whose

ranks were Russian, French, and Italian

officers,

begun on the 23rd November 1837, had been

154

PUSHTU MANUAL.

continued
spring,

the winter of tlmt year and

a\\

summer, and autumn of the year succeed-

Owing mainly

ing.
officer

within

Bombay

its

to the exertions of one English

Eldred Pottinger of the

walls,

Artillery, the efforts of the Persians

been entirely

who

the

baffled.

It

was Eldred Pottinger

repaired the fortifications and

the garrison.

It Avas

had

who

inspired

Eldred Pottinger who, on

the 29th June 1850, repulsed the enemy's attack
led

by

the

Russian

General

Boramski

and a

battalion formed of Russian volunteers.

EXEKCISB

50.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.

,

April, 1895.
Still

matters were allowed to go on as 'if the

situation

Avarnings

were

tl;e

of the

same.

storm.

But

On

there soon

came

the night of the

9th October, the 35th Native Infantry,

commanded

Butkhak,
by Colonel Monteath and encamped
nine miles from Gabul, was suddenly attacked in
at

155

PEOSE COMPOSITION.

The attack was

fence.

repulsed,

and

Sale,

marching

The 35th Native

from Cabul, cleared the passes.

Infantry, remaining encamped and isolated at But-

khak, was again attacked and again repulsed the

enemy on

the '17th.

Sale,

aware now of the error

he had committed in leaving that regiment isolated,
joined

it

on the 20th with the

and began

his

march

for the

rest of his brigade,

Tezin valley.

BXEKCISE

51.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October,

1895.

Mohammad, considering that
fitted him fgr the supervision of

his blindness un-

authority in the hands of his son

Ahmad, reserving

to himself only the regal title.

father and soli remained in the

organizing their army.
*

son of Moshud,
of which
father's

placed the

For some time the
Punjab engaged

in

Meanwhile Modud, the

who was governing

Balkh was the
fate,

affairs,

capital,

the province

had heard of

his

had hastened to Ghazni, and had

156

PUSHTU MANUAL.

He marched

been welcomed there as sovereign.
with

all

cousin,

convenient speed against his uncle and

met them on the banks

of the Indus, and

Mohammad and

defeated them.

three of his sons,

Ahmad, Abdul Rahman, and Abdul Rahim were
taken prisoners.

EXEECISE

52.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1896.
Tj^is

to

agent had proceeded in the

Kandahar.

first

instance

Detecting that that city was but

a limb, whilst Cabul was the heart of the Afghan
territory,

he pushed on, armed with a

the Czar, to that place.
of the

Amir

The

letter

from

letter to the address

professed to treat only of commercial

matters, but that phrase veiled other and

more

Vikovitch had not been

many

important

affairs.

days in Cabul
to his first

when Burns

received the replies

communications to India.

Lord Auckland I'ecommonded the Amir

In these
to waive

his

PROSE COMPOSITION.

157

claims and be content with

such arrange-

ments as Ranjit Singh might make with Sultan
Mohammad. I'he purport of the Amir's reply-

was

that

Peshawar

he
than

his

fully sensible of the

brother,

good

Government, he must

and

at

though

that,

of the British

office's

decline

Sikhs

the

sooner see

Avould

to

renounce his

claims to that place.

EXEECISE

53.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October,
>

1896.

»

]yiahmud, I have said, had been astounded at
his
It

own

success.

He

had been snatched

by th« inaction

at

never realised
for

him out

the

critical

its

magnitude.

of the

fire, first

moment

of the

Viceroy of Arabia, secondly by the use made

by the commandant of
So utterly unprepared was he for

of that inaction

his left

wing.

so great

a success, that, as already related, he allowed the
Persians to

steal

back some of their

lost

guns

PUSHTU MANUAL.

158

On

morrow of the victory
he remained motionless. The repulses he had
experienced at Kerman and Yazd sat heavy on
Nor did he fully realise his position
his soul.
during the night.

the

he had sent out returned with the

until the spies

information that the panic of the Persians had

been so universal that he might have entered
Ispahan with them.

EXBECISE

54.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1897.

The army

collected to invade Afghanistan con-

The Bengal force,
under Sir Willoughby Cotton, numbering seven
thousand five hundred men of all arms, assembled
sisted of three distinct bodies.

at Ferozepore

;

a contingent of Hindustanis raised

Shah Shujah, numbering six thousand men,
officered by British officers, was to start from a
place well known by past experieiice to the Shah,
Shikarpur and third, a force called the Bombay
for

;

159

PROSE COMPOSITION.

column, composed of five thousand five hundred

men, under the personal command of Sir John
Keane, was to inarch through Sind and proceed

A

by the Bolan and Khojak Kotal

Passes.

Lody, of about two thousand

hundred men, was

five

fourth

likewise formed to keep open the communications

Bombay

Presidency by the occupation
The whole force to be employed thus
amounted in round numbers to twenty-one thousand

with the
of Sind.

five

hundred men.

EXEECISE
.

*

55.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1897.

Herat had only a small garrison.

The

officer

who commanded it tried to enlist the to^vnspeople
They were willing, but the tyranny
in its defence.
of the Commander Soon disgusted them with military
'

service,

and they began to intrigue with the Usbegs.

But for

five

months the

siege continued.

three hundred Usbegs having

At length,

by treachery gained

PUSHTU MANUAL.

160

entrance by night within the walls, the city was

The

taken.

garrison fled to the citadel, but a few

Four months

days later yielded to the Usbegs.

1537, Herat was recaptured, the Usbegs

later, in

having

left.

the Usbegs

;

Herat was never again molested by
their retreat

was a

final one.

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

EXEECISE

56.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1898.

The

state of the

nobles oppressed

them

to

country was very bad.

the

cultivators

and compelled

pay large sums by way of revenue.

and

kill

safe.

them or

Robbers would

seize

steal all their property.

could travel after dark, nor singly.

This

The roads

state of things disturbed the country.

were not

.The

travellers

No

one

The Sultan

never showed himself, and was surrounded by a
clique of tyrants, and appeared

unaware of the

161

PROSE COMPOSITION.

condition of the country, and did not hear complaints

The

from the poor, nor redress Avrongs.
result of this state of things

was that the

qnemies of the Sultan increased in numbers and

became

There was rebellion

active.

in

many

parts of the kingdom,

and the nobles Avere too

weak or

to

tAvo

slothful

tracts of territory

who

built forts to

put

it

down.

were seized by other

Large
rulers,

guard the lands which they had

armed, was not

The army, being badly
feared, and was concentrated

round the capital

for the protection of the

wrongfully acquired.

Sultan

and the nobles.

EXEECISE

67,

Higher .Standard Pushtu Examination.
October,

1898.

A party of leading men, having, plotted together,
put the nephew

of 'the

deceased king on the throne

of Sherpur, in place of the king's son

BaiduUah

Khan, who, according to the customs of the country,
was the rightful heir. This without doubt gave

PUSHTU MANUAL.

IQZ

The new king was ^'ery
young and weak. li e had not the power to control
the leaders who had put him on the throne.
The country is a hilly one. The villages a^e
built at the foot of hills, and small forts are erected
These forts are guarded by
in all high places.

oifence to

many

fighting men,
villages

people.

who from time

which were under

king.

The

keep

many

little

land, and

result

These

different leaders.

became very common

raids

to time raided those

in the reign of the

was that the

cattle or flocks.

new

villagers did not

They

cultivated very

sowed only the most common kinds

of grain, such as barley, wheat, millet and maize.

One

often

saw the ploughmen working armed with

sword and gun.
hatchets or clubs

Even the milkmaids
when they went out

Avould carry
to milk the

cows in grazing lands.
These troubles bred a
braye, and good fighters.

the

The

army

fine set of

men, strong,

They gladly

for the sake of the fighting

result

enlist&'d in

and

loot.

was that every year the army became

stronger and larger, and the neiohbourino^ kin<is
feared the

power

formerly do.
so

of Sherpur in a

way they

]\Iany paid tribute in gold

Sherpur became rich as well

a|s

did not

and

strong.

silver,

163

FKOSE COMPOSITION.

EXEKOISE

58.

Hlghee Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1899.

At
officer

the time of starting

who provided

no one but the Civil

the guides

knew where

I

was

going.

At midnight

the troops assembled on the bridge.

The

PCven at that hour the heat was tremendous.

road was unmetalled, and so

many men,

horses

and oo'uns raised the dust. We marched as far as
we could, and halted as we crossed the river.

The enemy's camp was about two and
quarters koss off to our right.

our spies that

all Avas quiet, 1

When

three-

assured by

halted to let the

men

The heat and dust were
very bad, and our mai'ch had been rapid. At the
expiration of an hour we started again, and just at
daybreak the first shot was fired. The enemy's
position Avas strong, between two villages with a
restk ^iitl

marsh

have some food.

On

in fronft.

their right,

where the ground

was open, the en^my had two guns on a
rise.

slight

These guns were escorted by a body of

cavalry.

ii

'J.

164

PUSHTU MANUAL,

EXERCISE

59.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
October, 1899.

PROCLAMATION.
In the years 1873 and 1874 the Mahsud

Wazms

entered into treaty engagements with the British

Government, with which for a long time they had
Treaties were taken from

been at enmity.

the object was to

of which

secure the

them

British

border against predatory invasions and murderous
assaults

by members

for their

good

As a guarantee

of their tribe.

faith

and security for their good

conduct they gave several representative members
of their clan as hostages.

The Mahsud s, however, on the

1st

January

187'9,

violated their engagements, and, disregarding the

warning conveyed to them,

collectf.d

a body of

3000 men of their
of

tribe, who plundered the town
Tonk and other villages, causing the loss of some

lives

Since

and of much property
that time

frequent

causing

offences

further

disturbing

the

Mahsudss

within
loss

the peace

in British territory.

of

the
life

have committed
British

border,

and property and

of British

territory.

In

Prose compositioi^.

165

ord^r to punish the tribe for their misconduct, and
to

prevent a recurrence of

it,

the

Government of

India has offered' the Mahsuds peace upon certain
terms.
.

to the

These terms have been announced publicly

Mahsuds

for

some time

the tribe has not tendered

its

EXEECISE

past,

but hitherto

submission.

GO.

Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1900.

Mahmud had

noticed with satisfaction the blows

dealt at the empire of the Safis.
Safi ,

Kuli

Khan

The

defeat of

had been followed by the loss of

the dependencies of the empire in the Persian Gulf

and by attacks on

its

southern coast.

seemed distressed on every

Mahmud resolved to
to

em}3ire

side.

But
march on Farrah

seize the opportunity.

just at this period he heard of the

by the Abdalis

The

which

I

have referred.

But at the moment
be dreaded. But the case

was garrisoned by the Persians.
the Persians were not to

Farrah

PUSHTU MANUAL.

166

would be

different

were that

place, then a placp of

by men who, though Afghans,
were Abdalis. Before dealing his blow at Persia,
he resolved then to march to the relief of Farrah.
strength, occupied

There he met Azadulla,
his

army.

killed him,

From Farrah he

and defeated

took a south-westerly

route across the Seistan desert, and then

towards Kirraan.

Surmounting great

moved

difficulties

he reached Kirman, and caused his authority to be

acknowledged

was the

in the province of

capital.

which that town

PART

III.

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

PART

III.

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

LESSON

I.

Paper set at Higher Standard Pushtu Examination.
April, 1886.

(1)

What

from

procurable
to

supplies

rice,

Has

it

been raining?

Are the roads good?
the bunnias

tor

march

The

'"

^^

y l^ 1^

^.'$

Tell

at 5 a.m.

will

^.

^
"

^sr^ a;s^

should take some food with

them.

^^;--'

"

^^^J^l'

^^
Xj X)

"^

ij^

^

"-

j^

"^

^

^j

^}^ J
(r)

?

^
'

(r)

.

.

i

i

'

'v.)

^^ j^

('^

'

d.L i^^^S ^jl,U

....

j

The men

j

^^ (^^

Jy ^ ^^Jj^^J'^r^

*

regiment

^^'

'

nave every-

thing ready.

(3)

uJjyi ^^'*'^'^ j^-^t

want

wheat and grass.

barley,

(2)

Peshawar

We

Charakauni?

are

^

••

--

'--^'>?^

,^

*^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

170
any

(4) Is there

How

the road?

(5)

tree

can

it

on
he

by a bridge, boat,

crossed,

or ford

river

?

Is that a pomegranate-

No,

?

mulberry

is

it

the fruit will ripeu soon.

My

(6)

khan

brother

lambardar

the

is

of that village

the

;

named Akbar;

is

and Khawas

the chauki-

is

dar.

(7)

A

came down

flood

Nowshera

the Cabul river.

was carried away, the guesthouse of Eahmat only

re-

mained.

(8)

*

liain is

country.

destroyed

good

The
all

floods

the crops.

corn

Indian

for the

is

have

The

entirely

ruined.

(9)

Who

do you want

are
?

you? what
I have

come

Oft/M

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

make

to

a report, as I

am

171

^^^iJJ^i 3 \j ^-- ii^

the chaukidar of Peshawar.

There

was a burglary at

the house

of

Sultan

>^.

.

V^ J-f H u'^*-^^

•^'^.-f..
*

last

iU,

,^3

jiight.

The attempt was
(10)
made from the rear of the

The

house.

residents were

awake, the police
the

alert, all

have

offenders

lio

.0 j

L^^J

J^

j'f

J^

-

(11)

Is there

>•

river

a.i.

t^;'*'

^j

^

{^y:,
-

\

\

dj

-i^-i.

u)

>ii

c

^
*^

if"i

j

ti>.'-._wj

the

(1.3)

Have

the

quails

1/

/.

c^J J-^J;

^^

^;^-^

('O

You
prefer

^

c

people

gene-

hawking

^

j}^

J;S^

to

.J2

(ir)

'

1

«

,

shooting.

(14)

i

••>

like

the look

of

the horse, but* he ajipears

be lame.

.

(15) Government has demanded hostages from the
tribe.

^

(11)
••

in yet ?

rall^

to

^;

i

(12)

come

of

(1.)

^'^ "J^^ ^

" "^

any shoot-

-

'^

* (o

ing on the banks

.^-'0

j'ooj

sj

been

Well done I

arrested.

^j-^)^

^^^^

>

>

,^1

*,

^

.
••^

Ij

(,^)

^

^
* ^V^'^' '^ v'^ t^^
A'<z,i Aj

^U J

^^

X^
*

^^

f-'^

(ic)

^^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

172
(IG)

If

they

Government
will not be

agree

terms,

to

^y^

j

.

^

'

will

(18)
in

make

your village

(19)

commit

raids,

^

.

much crime

^

} lLS-xs^ ^h-

t>
-

j..«j

K

^;.A^

t

(iv)

aii"

(i^)

a:;

c

murder yesterday

,.

>

?

Four men were con-

^

/

^^

j

^^

^

^r».

^--^ ^j}^ o^;*^

reprisUs.

Is there

victed of

'

^^^

(17) If they

.

.

,

any expedition

against them.

we

(n),

&J>

i^-^ii

there

'*•••'.

.^

^'^^

e;^7"
*

...
i

and sentenced to death.

(20)

One

man

escaped

"

,

^

sic

,^1.

[

^,^

>

yi

«^>

(r.)

to independent territory.

••.-•»

LESSON
H.
(1)

The

S.

village

1111

were driven

Pushtu.
cattle

to the grazing

ground at daybreak.

II.

October, 1886.

JU

^.K J ^"-i*-^

'",
*

js

^

'

^

.

.

if*'*'
- ^

I

^j

(0

.

..

Vi'*'

S^'*

^^

y**^}
^ ^'

173

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

The

•(2)

river rises in the

heart of the

sprmg
as

is

hills,

and

said to be as cold

ice.

(3)

Fish are caught in

Nisatta in

large

j y^}j-^

"-^

,

.

its

,

'^

J-J^

^j

^'j^

^^

numbers.

.

are brought into can-

tonments, and sold at

re-

->*-'•

(r)

<xAi
.

.

"

SP

J ^l^

_j;jlj

^

;

"^-^ >

^

j.

i

i

Tney

jJ^a^

a:jL^j

^>};

(r)

j;.

^

i

t

i-5>"

"s^-v-

J^«J^

v

jlj ^1

J:,

t_5j;^

^

munerative prices.

(4)

The

city is populous,

y}

^\

^j

narrow and

(5)
is

ill

^-^"^

kept.

Every kind of sport

^^

jnbabitants prefer to take

^

^

^m^

procurable here, but the

y^

.

^/^

H

^'oTyii'^^u,

and the roads and lanes are

^/'^

^

^

^' <^^^

^Uj

>^

(e)

- l/" ^/'^r°

their ease at home.

y^^
(6)

Order a native

officer

to go on ahead and arrange

for supplies.

^S.^ X--

*

(7)

Take a hundred

so-

-''

^

"^
fj^

s^^j's^s.

wars with vou, and make a
sketch 01

tlie

country.

I'tV"

ti

^

(O

^

u^

^< ^^^

C^^^jAJj
!;>

.O^^p J^^j

"^

y

,9

^.

._

^

*

jJ

.

.

/i

(v)

'
i

^

i

i

^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

174
(8)

Heavy firing was mainon both winos

tained

1
11
nigntiall.

^^-f^

(^)

J^

^

,

*

,.

A ^jyj

..l.t>

till

^J^

J^r^^
-

^y..^
^'i^^
^

,0

Tlie regiment is to be

(9)

^j^ j

x>

J'^. (0

aJ

j:j

<

"

armed with lance^ instead
of with sabres.

The

(10)

and

hither

fled

(11)

the

ti

^U j^

Say concisely how
occurred,

and

|j &>.

11

SP

not what you heard

J^j

from others.

first

saw

the accused, was he coming

-^

.

^_^I,

spot

If

when

curred, as you have stated,

you

must

have

there,

J^l ^

the

1

''^.-'J^

v-v

>

l

^^

I

v^

'^v

(,r)

y

Jaj^^.

,

^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^

,,

(,^)

^

.^

^

u>';

noticed

besides

\

^ 9 ^ ^j^

J^A;j

^

o-=^

\^^

'^'^

^

^i

'^ j

j

.^

-

u;'^"

^

^^

^^^

^

"

whether there was anyone
else

>

^

S sJ

the murder oc-

.-.

'^ ^^

'^^

?

you were^ on the

(Jj

^^

^

towards his home, or had

he arrived there

(<

.•.

1

^^

is^ ('0

^j^

''^^^v

^t

When you

.

^

,

*

(13)

u

j

i^>}^

merely say what you your-

(12)

(i .)

.

* s^.j^^^

affair

^

'5-

^

7-

fire.

self saw,

J ^^^

^,^"
.^,

J

.

^^'^^ ^^"' ^^'^

down

thither

the hill as soon as the guns

opened

^

*

enemy

^

,

Jj^

-'^ ^^''.

^

l5^

175

COLLOUUIAL SENTENCES.
prisoner and the murdered

If

(14)

you had given

notice to the

the

Thanadars

enmity which

between

the

ij

^ ^y^

J

J

of

^

they

would have made arrano-e-

The night was very

dark, and there

Jo^i^y

^,

exactly

what

/

the

You must take

v..

'''..

^''j 1j

this medicine

.

^

-^

v

_ ,<^

'

i

^'''•'

&.i_S) ^i}ji

v

(n)

U^ j joy

,

>

(ic)

^^ ^..[^^Xk^
i

&^

r.

\

^

.

^

i

Jcj

i

,

"
d^

\.:

^io a>J:

s.^'

s.

o

o^t)

^_^

\

?

Put out your tongue,

.

o

...

describe

clothes

man was wearing

(16)

J

s^

o";^

(it=)

Jc>

.

'^

was no moon;

how then can you

o

i^«'j

^

ments to prevent crime.
(15)

J

-^ j> j-^j-

existed

parties,

J'^1

^' k-Sj^

O-^.

^

..

,

,

at ftnce, otherwise the lever

^

will^ recur.

l>)

(17)
to cut

Unless you allow

on your

leg,

you

me

^^

"-''

S?.

^>^' j

,ju,

.\j^

Jui'

J

1>

U

Uj

jl'

A3

Jci

^J>

(iv)

will

»

never recover.

(18)

Do you

»

,

cultivate

any autumn crops on
gated lands

r

irri-

^.^'j

"o- ^j;^
/^j ,_5^T ^o
a:,-

(i a)
.

,

^-/^

o-^.-^^

>

Sr

>

I
PUSHTU MANUAL.

17^)

There has been very

(19)
little

but the heavy snow which
fell

in the winter has caused

ji.^

}

.^

m

the J3ara

rivex-,

conse-

quently the irrigated land

i

.

v

^

i

>

'^'^

.

/-

.

i

^

-

~T
>...,/

^

*Aj^j aJ^^^<!cj^L«;j^^l

jcki

has not suffered.

We

(20)

of

the

have sown some

Indian

corn

seed

us.

The

^i^

^cs.

^

^

grain

is

very good, but the

stalks are so hard that the
cattle will not eat them.

'

-

.W
^

,

S^^

^

t

which you gave

.

^^ ^^

U^ \^j H '^ ^!))^b

^J'^lji

a plentiful supply of water

^^

^^

^

.

,

^'^ ^

-'•^^

('0

.^y^K tJr-^'^
"'

rain since the spring,

^-"^^^^^

J

y^

(i**)

"n
i^ -^

- -^

COIiLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
there

Is

(?)

water in

snow melts
great deal

in

any

ever

Yes

it ?

;

when

tlie

hills a

of water comes

^-'-J

What

(3)

tion

to

off

the condi-

is

your

of

irrigate

crops

?

money out of the spring or

autumn

harvest?

I

do they cause

;

'

^/"r."^

them out

^

ijijj

,^

-?

^y

y^i

y^^

.

,

^

^ ^

J^

••

^^^

'^ t^j;'

(p)
.

'

'^

'^~

^J/

'^

,-

,

'^

^ ;^ ;J

"

C^

C^

,

S^ >

^

^
^

^'-'-^

l^;^'»

^ j ^j^ 3 Jl<^^

^'y^
^

.

hear

^-r^
,Jb'

^•-

^_yo &»- ^

.^

^-^

-^*

>;

i

\J^''

much

damage, and how do you
get

y

.._"..

rats often get into the corn-

stacks

(r)

^,

J

•••

this

What crops do you
sow? Do you make most
year

^r^,'^

we build dams
the ravme and take

water

the

^^

^^,^

tlie

iown, and
across

jo^l

^^^

177

''^

^3^

J ^'>^

?

Sr^y'/'

^1

-

L^^y'v^^ ^

^y^

;!. >

^J-^'-

9

I

(4)

Take

am

going to

to-morrow

tanni

my

Ma-

black horse to the

chauki near the Bara bridge,

and post the mare at Badaber.

I

You

start to-night,

shall leave

in the

at

^

j^^

morning.

6

and

o'clock

J

^^^ '^

(^)

^

^i ^^i^

'-\C

^ ju^T J s:o

Lt'

o o-

jJ

'''

^

^^j"^ J

^«. ^

J^ ^J

r^

A=b=^

3

^

^

"

>'/^

U^

^

^

^1^^

morning.

N

"^^

H

^^

j

PUSHTU MANUAL.

178
Is there

(5)

the

district

any spurt

Yes

?

in

fv^L

^JLo

^jj^i

^0

j:.;

(ol

there

;

are several large jheels in

which numbers of snipe are
and

found,

the

rivers

amount

also

teal.

On

there

.^re

any

and large

of duck,

flocks of sand-grouse

open

on the

plains.

5.

(6) I

am going

out shoot-

jK*i> ij ^j<mj.s>,

ing this afternoon, but will
&i

till

o

li"

ifi-

-

dogs

not take you or the

with me.

^J^

^

Keep them here

I return;

take

don't

^.j (t)

^

8,uJ

tr
O

^A>^ O

J

them away.

cJ-

J"

y

,J

J;;

<

(7)

for

My

Cherat

You go on

regiment

on

starts

the

28th.

a day before and

see that all necessary supplies are collected; the

Tah-

sildar will help you.

Sj

'^

4>J^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

Be very

QS)

lumbardars

careful

of the

tlie

J^

179

^^

l)

j

^J

ji^) (a)

village

supply you with good chau-

and take none but

kidars,

fnen of good character.
is

a bad place, and

we

It

can't

*

be too careful.

^J
Has

(9)

there been

much

crime in your village lately

Yes

;

last

month

and several

y^

H

^'^

'^'

?

there were

^^*7t^

y."^

U^^

1^

lJ^

mur-

three burglaries, one
der,

^ji

A

thefts.

drought occurred this year,

and

bad

the

characters,

S:^

I—?>

J

J- J

being hard up, turned their

hands to stealing.

A

(10)

days

case occurred ten

ago,

in

which

lambardar carried

The

wife.

took

the
a

offender

the

deputy
bribe
off.

had been sold

-

and

one

Amir's

police came,

inquired into

but

off

and

matter,

inspector
i'et

the

The woman
for Ks,

200

a chief in independent

^

-fit.

to

ter-

N 2

^

^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

180
ritory,

to

and her husband had

ransom her.

f

How

(11)

crossed
is

Is

?

there

the

is
it

river

a ferry-boat?

deep

is

JvXA

X~\

>jj

(l l)

Is

the boat pulled across by a
rope, or is it

X.^-'xL

fordable, or

rowed

the river

?

!$L>

.IJO

How

,1- ,JU
i *->

^

J^

JCj

i^ .\

.JO

Sr'ir-

j:.

c

?

^^
(12)

A

flood

came down

last year, just as a boat full
of

women

The rope

was
broke,

crossing.

the boat

was washed away, caught
in

a whirlpool, upset, and

all

the

women were

di'owned.

Che boatmen, however, who
could swim, got to the shore
safe.

- IJwJv

.1

»5)J

5'

k^r-^^

lis^lJ:,

_ &X^^^ ^jjj l-jIj^
!

•;

J

.*

jK.>

181

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

LESSON
H.

(1)

the

S.

Pushtu.

I say, Khan, what

is

IV.

October, 1887.

^K

i>

news of your vilWe?

Is all well there

crops

Are the

?

good and plentiful

?

(2)

The only news

importance
thing

is

jl Aj,

There

rain.

The

crops have been eaten

up by

The only people

rats.

who have

v

.-

(ci^^^oi^-)
9

>

v

v

^

y^

-

^J^j^

^

-

*r'.

^

,

^

'^^/

ij^^i
i

'

(r)

<

>>"

/
^

L^ioo j

s-*^
\

are

rates.

vyel.',

^^

any

of

no

been

t*

n

^

^

having famine

has

ii

u,^' u

iO^^ S^j

.-.i.

.

/

?

We

very dear.

"

(i)

J-^ ^j/

^

that every-

is

!

o

,

>^^

Have you had any crime
within the last month

J

'^

^=^=^
-

--,.

"^

^

^J-o r^

^?.

-

V* '-^

j^^i

flourished are the

:/j

<_5:

thieves.

(3)

What

lauds

have

village?

description
yo,u

in

of

Are they irrigated

by water-cuts from the
or from wells,

river,

or, are your

crops dependent on the rainfall?

aiJiA.

your

^^

d

v

>'

A^

^
^

.

,

f;

/

••
%•

../

y^'^^

(r)

r,

v

H ^ ^/J^

^

^-y

<^

it

"^

^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

182
(4)

Our lands

pendent

on

are all de-

In

rainfall.

^^
i,/

.

lormer years the water was

^^

brought from the river by a

^'^

canal; but the channel has

/

..

^^

^t

^

,

.

it

out.

{\^\,

^^^

^

^^^

i

^C^j

\

,

skxm ^

-^

'

<o^l

^i"

jcj

>••

r

been filled up, and tte people
are too lazy to clear

^

^^!^

r^

i

J

j^

^^

3'

^

J/l,;

l^.)

i^ ( J_r^"

i^j'

'*>-^'^

v-^^'*'

^J

Li-

(5)

If our lands were all

from wells, we should not
suffer as

Then

we do now.

there would be no bad harvests,

and the revenue would

be paid without difficulty.

(6)

Trust

His prophet.

to

and

Grod

!^

(X.j

irrigated from the river, or

y

•>

"

"

>

.

••

•••

^^o^"^

^^y*^y
1

>.

"•"*

A^*^i>,

^

^

^j

^'^y^

|_j'j^

^1

v'A

^

(n)

Next year the

millet,

Indian

corn,

and suoar-cane will be
r,fi
,
n
-ii
excellent.
Then no one will
rice,

complain,

(**)

1

('

^. ^r^^'-^ ;'

J

contented.

1

> ^

yj'\'J

""

JO

Jl<

crops of barley, wheat, mustard,

1

^

15^;'

»

-^<^^ "^
^

^

^

i

'^

and

all

will

be

^

x*^

.

.

^aC

1'

.

.^

«

1

^'r^ ^-j'
yrj}
j jjjj

Cj^y <^

^

j

-^/J:.^ -yKii _y:o.jl

_^lLi»j£

Jj

^^ CS»^:t^
n

•••

.

-

J;W
jjj-

a:jU.' _

1

^^
..

»

183

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

(.7)

What

that villaoe

lambardars
or

more

Are there two

?

Is there any guest-

who owns

house, and

lage

Who

?

The name

number.
all

J^
''

./

,.

^

••'

^ v_^t^

^

•''

^jy

^

,

j

a:ii,

f

'^

-"

^y^ f^
^ ,;;^

(v)

^

v\

'-^^•rj

^

=.

l^

of the vil-

The

two

are

They

^y k^

?^_^j

it ?

Shalbandi.

is

lambardars

with

of

are the

How many watch-

?

•men?

(8)

name

the

is

are

in

friends

the thieves in the

neighbourhood, and in these
days of pleaders they have
a nice time of

it.

(9) Are there no means
of punishing them for their

misdeeds?
but

it is

Yes,

there

very hard to bring

^j^ ^

home

to

them,

bad characters are

on their

side.

rally

,

The crimes

are gene-

All

thus committed.

men

of

village

feach

fV^ J^^

j^

^;^;

^

^

All the

the

^jk^

is;

Iheir offences

(10)

^3

J^

^ &^
^^

J/

* ^.^ 'jt

H y^

^^^0
1

..

"^^^

^'^

1^ 3

^^

^^

J>~

J^

"

'"'

j^^- _

"^

JL^I
1/

^

-^

^

J-^^'^

'v

^

(••)

&^^-^js-

*

^^

yb

J^^'-^'^.i

j-:.^

-'

-

.c

>•

-

"^^

attend at the guest.houses.

(j^^^^^-^^'^j^ yr^^yJT'

The women alone

^'^y,

their houses.
still,

attempt

sleep in

Wlien
is

break into a place.

^^

made

.

J^^ ^y^,/ ^^
...

all is

-

^

to

*^,j^

J'>^'^

4^-^ y^.^

^f'J^

184

PUSHTU MANUAL,
In the morning a

(11)

station.

made
The

spector

arrives

report

is

made

stir

deputy

but

;

-

with

There

constables.

^^

.s^ J

JS^O

Hj

(i i)'

at the police-

is

in-

his

a great

1am-

the

u*^

b

;=

.^

jd?

jdjj)

bardars ruin every case.
^

1-

What

(12)

of that

crossed

river

the

name

How

?

any

Is there

?

ferry, or

is

is

(1^ t3ajuu

lJ-'

ford,

^.^

a bad stream,

^j ^y

and very narrow, with steep

<kL

is

^

v...

but

if it

rains

down

comes the

;

^-^

Wf

'^W

(

\

1

^j

ij

fj^.'^

<Jj^i

^^^

^

<WS

JCj

- \^-J,

flood.
4)JI>

io

C^'^

"Li,

then carries away

everythine; before

;

before Ismail's house

w;is

carried

Now

'•:^^

J;i«

U? ^tJy
^.j

jJ^.i

y

11/

fj;^
^

J^

^i i^

'^^

-^

^

^

('*^)

,

.

the

year

away.

u'^ f- 7^

Last

it.

year one mosque went

H

JCj

>

^^1^ j^^

(14) It

(t)

jcAjd

seldom any

in a particular locality,

it

S

jo j,^
\

There

water in

r)

?

(13) It is

banks.

(i

it

bridge for the use

of travellers

J

iXAa

u^ H

^/

"-^^^-^^

J^«>i>-1

3

J^

185

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
it

someone

be

jgaay

chance to

What

(15)

tave

you

Pabbi

?

either side

of road

sort

from

here

j

:

?

trees on

aj

£>

^^L ^d ^

&i

i^^l

((o)
.

^

^'

\>

v

>^ >

,

i^^^i^

j

^

'j.^

^ ''^^

?

?

plies obtainable ?

t!/lj ^jJIaj.^

Are sup-

,

They

____'

will

c

"^j^ ^^
^.

Yes,

Bunnias

the

have been ordered
vide everything.

to pro-

Owing

S^

be difficult to procure.

be inspected to-morrow at 5

The Genevery particular. Take

'

•.

y'^Uij

,

•"

.

**'

^^

^^

lA-^-^

(iv)

s^

-

i^^

(j^^^)

J^l^

c:^

^-t

,.

-^

-.^

^1^^^^^

vi

y:

-

^^k

^s=f.

^'j^
.l

.

yt

^••>

v"

S-^^^
^

will

^'j^i' r'T
•,.'',

',

<)6"

"^

<

to

the* severe frosts, grass will

The regiment

y

/

'''

to Cherat.

i

j (n)

^l^,.;

.

be wanted for troops going

(18)

c

,

v

*^

What number

grounds clean

(17)

^

Jj j

l^s-

...

to

Are the encamping

(16)

^'o

.

Are there

of stages

else's

suffer.

->

'^^

j

'^

('-)
^^^

in the morning.
ral is

care that musketry 'returns

f-'^

^,

(w-^^-vo u-^'j^ - ^c;rM
_

^^

(k^U

'o)

are all con ect.

kJ^

C^r" ^''^

^J-^^
"'

'^^

^>*^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

186

We

(19)

shall

prepared for him.

be

quite

.^j jlxi

Our men
have

^

<)^

what they are

*

A

(20)

boat

full of pil-

Getting caught in a

whirlpool, the rudder broke,

the boat was upset, and

all

^d

S-^,

y'j^'«^

c

-

(^L jS)

>

v

^^.

}

(•*•)

^;^

^^

u^ ^ "^f

^^^l)

sjo.^^]^

^|

•.

Jj^

if-^

^ ^^

ij j,^}'^^^

j^

&>»^

J^^

<^

^-

_

^^"

^>f

•••

v

grims was going down the
river.

-^^

**"

•'-^

Vr^-'

been carefully instructed in
to do.

^C

\f

\

are splendid sliots, and

'y^ {\^)

<x^ <^t dj

I^ ci^U

^)

were drowned.

LESSON
H.

(1)

Khan
to

Have you

any rain
it

had

?

Pushtu.

seen

What news

?

give?

taue.

S.

the

has he

Has there been
The Khan said

fallen at the

proper

V.

April, 1883,.

^L ^^^j
'*
\

^^

^

,^^

v

i

}
*

J-»i

v

(•)

"

'

*

1

^""^
'-^^^^^

'

"f

^J^

^

^-

^

'^

^=^^

^-> i_s^
\

187

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
There was no danger

(.2)
ill

The bun-

cutting wood.
,

uias were unhappy, as they

had been collecting grain.

Our

(3)

village crops are

barley, wheat,

and mustard

in the spring.

grow

sugar-cane.

,

*

v-

^^

.

. s.

(r)

/J^

^>_

^

.

.

>

<.

^J -^^ ^J^'^ ^
K
'^

.

_._

,.

.

,

v^

SP

>'

^

Jy^

^_jt>

^ ^^j

;j4»^

^S

1

^

i*^

(")

J»^^

a;j

.

v,

.

2:^ i^i

^jJ^

<)0

^

^
^

JiJ

Ij)

,^.J.JU
«-'•••

Later on we

Indian corn, and

rice,

{^^

1

- w$J:^^ v-^j^'

Eats have been

ery troublesome this year

Is there

(4)

in the
it

much water

Swat canal

?

I hear

commences near Abazai

and goes towards Mardan.

(5)

The Khan

ing very wealthy.
the

of

sonfe

is

becom-

J

^j

^

Zamindars

(6)

village is from the* north

«

^

"-'

v'"^^

^'^a^

(0)

..

\y/

^n

!ws-l

_

S^-^'
.

^Ij

<i6

^

,

_

Jo^l

<xj

^
,

^

^

to the

1

fV'^V^^'^'^J^'^.J^-^-'

fell,

The entrance

a,

^j^j'

.

'9

none

^'^^

"^

s

».

Last year

They expected

canal.

x(

^

^ij^ ^^

»Aa

rain, ar?d

a

^

^-^^^-^

'

would not take water from
the

H

'J^e

^

Jj"^

,

1

\

'

^

'\

,

^
^""^

^

I

i;

you pass between the two
towers.
lies

A little to the right

the grand house of the

i^

t^•;^
'>
,

C

J

-^j---;^'

A

,'.i^

L/^
s

z^

^"
,

Ji

188

PUSHTU MANUAL.

Khan.

Further on to the

left is

the masjid of Omar.

The Khan

is

very friendly

He

with the thieves.

two chaukidars
from the

J

<b

f^jA

,o'^ ^

Xx^ ^y«^ -^
•_•

I

-

'(Kj

^rvA~^
5.-

j

Y^C

keeps

they steal

;

villages,

and send

the property across the border.

Khan

The

gets

his

share in time.
i-j

&.Z

'f-

(7)

What

do the police

do?

The Thanadar comes

and

asks

They

tell

^! JJS^li"

S^^^ i.L^^i_^

(v)

headmen.

the

a story of their

own, and implicate
border men.

trans-

This relieves

the police of further inquiry.

This

a regular Pathan

is

custom.
J! ,

;

lij

r,ju.4»j

J

1

J

_

/i.

(^^

* id

(8)

I

wish

What

Abazai.

to

to

rokd must

Are there any

take

?

bridges

?

none.

You must

I

go

No,

there

are

search fur

fords on both rivers.

r

189

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

The Swat river comes
(9.)
down by Abazai. The Cabiil
river flows by Michni. Both
some

unite

from

distance

^jj]

'%*
j^>i>^

Nowshera.

down the
they
all

Kaka

The

(10)

are

Khels

wood

of

river.

very

The

(11)

very

Jmi

^

^

J^

1

j

1

^^

^•-

>

/^ ^1^

^j'^

L-

vi|

j

••/

^

*

jci'

^i:^U

(

1

1

It will

There

good.

on either

^-^

''

^'^^

1

" -^^^^^

Aii

(i.)

••

y^^ ^i'^

is

^^^

,^

^^

^j ^}jj^

J^jyi-

regiment

(c^l;

^}

y".

unhappy

march on Saturday. What
sort of road is it? The road

tj'ee:*

^U^

_

_ i^j^i^.

't>

r

ordered to Cherat.

is

^J^ii

This year

by a tyrannical ruler.

seized

&>

J

(Jjl^

(logs)

timber has been

their

i^X^.^

^j^ J^

bring lots

(0

ajuu« ci;iL<? j

<Kj

side,

t>'-'

S

«j

clumps here and there.

"^

dXL

,^J

are

with

l5

•'^

^- ^J
ic»i' — »^

.

aL'

-

.,

,

>^>

^

>••

•.•

^^'^ (^-^H

^^

y

i^ ^^'^

r
(12)

The quarter-master
Bun-

must

see to the tents.

nias

will

have supplies at

every halting-ground".
shall

march stage by

The regiment
spected

by

will

the

We
stage.

be inGeneral.

^^^U

(if)

c;^y

^;;.--.U

.

}*^^
^i

a:.;

.

? >I^

•^-

^1/ 'oJo

a;^

.

~

^/

^

^
_

-

U-t^

(

-^

.."

.

/>"*

fS^^j^-

^Jj

.

,

>'

-'

-3'^ -^y

*^ 3

J ^

J^-

M-

H

PUSHTU MANUAL.

190

Everything must be ready

by 6 a.m.
^

IP

1

i

1

^^

^.^

r* t^^*^
> >

gives us a lot oi trouble at

Nevermind.

these parades.

The General
of musketry,

jo

^,;;J..;

(^^>o?^'«^

c^ V-1-^

>^

v'

We

shall

do well.

''^^^

lJ''^
•-'

^'».«v,-;^^r^U^.;;^:=-L^/i-^'.^'J

very fond

is

and ^pur men

are good shots.

(13)

_

^t^..

The Adjutant

h

-^^^j;'^

^^^^U
f

There have been few

!

*

jj

i^_

j

C/b

J^i^r^ .u^J
LI

v;i

I

'^Sr'^ d

•;••

\

;

(ir)

J\^^

jj

^:^*
.

,

S.i

'

pilgrims

this

year

from

.'
,

.

,

,

Bokhara.

They go now by

the Eussian railway.
veiling

Tra-

in Afghanistan

^>

,Aj

^(^^J.j

.

"

is

^^

very troublesome.

^^J u^^-^

" ^^"^

.

.

.

j-

w-

>

^j^iA

———

^^^.

t)

7:

v-'

.•

^

«

(14)

How

do you go to

Dir? The road leads through
Mardan over the Malakand
Pass into Swat. The people
The
there are very simple.
mullas mislead the people,

though some are very good.

They

advise

them

to

speak

^i

S

j^^IiLaI^jJ

^7;^
^

^_,
'

J^

^^^, Jj—
.

u/'^ iAi j _

^jj^

^U)U

_

H kJ^

b"^^

j'^

^^,

((f)

^^^^

^,3

,

^'

jl^^^

"

^^

j-^.^j^

_ ^-J

^St
&.^ ,1^

^r
^i

191

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
be kind to the

tlie .truth,

poor,

UjL,,

a:r^

aud commit no murder.

Has

(15)

revenue

the

been collected

this

^^^

The wealthy

^

^^l^loJa^^rsr 'o)

,1

»

the last to pay in their in-

^

stalments.

:!^:h^

LESSON
H'.

(1)

Who

Khan

the

Is

he

of

a

man
Has he lots
land? What revenue

wealthy
of

is

village ?

this

Pushtu.

S.

does

ment?

pay

to

Govern-

^

.

"^

^

y^

u

.•

,

/

^^

^'^^ U

^j

^

1,

••

>^

^

^^^

H cJ^'^t;

>"'

VI.

October, 1888.

^.L
^

Jj^
c

'-

^^'^
^
7

^

d^

Jbj^

(')

^

^

^

.(^

^

he

(I'j)

^

••

,

"^ >

>•

Arbabs and Zamindars are

^!U J^ j*^

,

,

The Tahsildars have been
very busy.

aJ^j

year?

;

'

c

^

>j>

»j a^,^ <Scb^^^
^
'

(
"r^^^

Ji

xA' '^
-

PUSHTU MANUAL.

192
(2)

The Khan's name

Akbar Khan.

He

is

This enables him to keep

&i^

Es.

50

half-yearly

pays

as

(3)

His village

situated

is

Lunda

This side

river.

very steep.

Even

if

A

supplies

a flood

(4)

small

p;arden

him with

apples,

and quinces.

grapes,

him

with

,

^

^i'nj 'U^y^

^

,

t/^^
.

, ^

He

is

a

good landlord, and liked by

Did

I

^K

^_j5

1

(r)

i

^
'^^

hi
^|; |«^ ^-'^:^'^ j
^'^^
^(^ !j j y
^ ^^
l5^ l/^^

*? ^ *T^

^^; ^^1

^^) ^^^xJ

^'^

^j

*^ - ^i.'^J

_^^l

4_^^

_

<<j

'

^^^
(f

^;^ - Lj'^j;

- ijy.j^ ''^

y

^l

**** - 1-^^;:^*

3

^^UJlx^j

^1

'.

-

j' -

f^

^^

ci^jJ
^^3
"

^

you

see

any

game as you rode from
Mathra yesterday? No, I
did not.

c:^-^^ a.«

l«*^

v

i

his tenants.

(5)

•••

t)

)

<^

^,

-

^^^

...|

,.

wheat,

barley, mustard, rice, sugar-

cane, and cotton.

^j) ^i J«c'^

^1

'

*

His irrigated lands

provide

<t.;

^"'

'

'^

is

comes down his place never
suffers.

^d
,.

'^

on the other bank of the

(k)
'

^

"'

^'-''^

^^^

^

re-

venue.

j

'.i.

ii/
-^'"'^

He

.J
'

income of Es. 2000 a year.

up a guest-house.

^1

,'j^

an

lias

heard the quails

t_f/?^ ^

s.]

,

ty

r:*.

''^

\

'H^'^

i/

-O -^
^ c5

c;j

('^)

"^
«

- 6J)

r
i-'i

v-x

ls >'^^
*j <o

S

^

193

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
I

are in.

saw several

call-

_ ^_JJ

<)cj

(6)

that

The

shikari tells

me

snipe

and duck

and

He saw

snipe

geese are in.
in the

Shahi jheel, and duck

and geese

on

the

Cabul

m

t

t

^

^

("*)

^j^'i'

^Ua

,|

'ii=-

1

^

-

>^*^
/

^'^j

^}i

jj.i

^

ij^\ ^Jr'

birds out in the fields.

-

'^ J^^ H J lj-^^ "
j^,

jj^

^\

^\

J^^J^

river.

(7)

But shooting here

very poor and hard

is

3 i>_xo^

ju

work,

^

with a large garrison here.

'^-*

Numbers

^jV.'^rr'.'^ fj!^ ^ r*

of soldiers are out

every day.

The

birds

in
,

time get very wild, and you

you can

are very lucky if
get six in as

many

"

^_y^

-^-^
<>^.

.

*>

^/.yi.^-J

.•.

;'

f-

kf

!

^

^?^

-'^-'

>r-

(,>

*

^

i

^ /•• v

.

^

hours.

v

i/

i

i

>

^

(v)

»i^

<tjilj

^."^

J

'^j-^J^-!

j

T^*^

r

^

^j,

<i:j

r-'

^
(8)

Wliich road do you

generally take

the

artillery

cross

by the

for

I ride

down

parade,

and

?,

ford.

Look out

the quicksanfl

follow this line.

if

ij

^-^^^j^

c^ Hj^^

^^^

u

^

you

-

li j J

<f^

^

^

Hy
^

^J!^.jH2^

;j

j:

^^^

jo

-

*

8,

'J

1^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

194

On

(9)

the

Daodzai there

river

lower down there

which

bank by a

in

Sxj^ Ax:^ ^j^t}

4\i'o

^

m

-^

y

is

there

on the

&'_

*J

^ ^^

^'^

;

^^

^-Sj {xx^k^)

^

Mo-

waz then had Akbar Khan's

J^ J^y^

/t; ^ J-*

J^T^]

j

^ ^i

JK

JU*

[j^

1

j

Jj^'^^!
"

^^^^

p^.

(n)

ij

r,

he had Mowaz

cattle poisoned.

^kj

^^j^^

?

Akbar Khan's stacks

were burnt

('•)

fj

in-

In a blood-feud how

are matters managed

Khan's

\

* so jui

^

(12)

"

-^

either

,

(11)

(1}

1

'

crime

this district

crease

••

rope.

What

(10)

y

:

a boat

is

pulled to

is

by

a bridge

is

(ir)
^

,^

'-'

^^ ^

.

^J^.

trees destroyed.

Last night there was

(13)

an alarm in our village.

was

It

in the eastern quarter.

A man

had broken

into a

house and alarmed the

(ii^)

IS^j^j

fj

.^\."..\.

J

^

../

^^ ^^^

in-

,

-^^>

fj .l^^'-"

^^;>.

(\

.

-"

^

\

^^^

c

^

<:

mates.
*

(14)
pistol

The owner
at

the

fired his

thief.

The

thief escaped into the court-

yard,

up the

steps to the top

j

aii;

,

j:.>

Jo^li,

.

i->^'*'

'^j

.v$'

J

u^.3

("»^)

.

.

^

S?^

'

"^^^j

^ /^J)^

''

.

'^

v'"

~ yjyi

*v

^-^^

195

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
and

then

lumped up into the

lane.

house,

of 'the

He

went

then

_ J^ti
j
...

..

,

>

the

into

^^^ J"

aJ

^^

..

.,

(15 J

The

* c:^^il.>».iL

regiment will

Agror campaign.

^-^,.,^0^ j^ f^

It will be

^f^'^.^^ ^>'
^^^

Friday. See that everything

ready and complete.

(16)

It will

the

march stage

carriage all

How many
ponies,

camels, mules,

and carts have been

told off to us

?

supplies

all

>

••

/>

ready

^j, ^a/o

camping ground. They must

L

have milk.

From Darband
very

road
leads

up the

difficult
left

the
;

bank

ji

:•

;

V

,

sj
.

j
i -^^

-

.

,

"

^

(^^"-^^

.

'-'^

''^

^!/J

.{''.•'

rfji^s^,^^^ ^* jJo^j

^

it

of

<io

a::

,

^/J"

_ t_^jJ>i^
.

S

J'/UJu (iv)

<)J

.

;

-^'^'••"

is

y v^^

^^

"^^^

^

.|
I

:>

^

.

,

j J^o

i^

they will be wanted at every

(18)

J- J

s^.l;

,

••^''^

'

^^ 0.^^"^ ('"'^
.

^>

^J

^^^-'.^

<Xj

^^

,

r^=^ v^-

The bunnias must

(17)

have

?

"'

^
>

^

!^j,->.

.

,

C

._

^1 ^ ^^.

J^f

"^

^

j

a;*.«o-

^

"

-

Is

provided

<ic,.

..

,

>'

Darband.

by stage to

('")

^J^'^'

for the

inspected by the General on

is

i

>>

>

masjid and lay down.

march on Saturday

.)

jJ'-jj

^

(ia)
^

^

-'^'^^
^J^ ^'2^^^
;^

-'

- **^

PUSHTD MANUAL.

196
the Indus to

Kot Kai.

tlie

^s'iS^]

Ravines and precipices have
to

^

be faced.

Our cause

(19)

and

we

just,

is

J^^ ^

much, and the fanatics are

/

^

^^
(n)

'^
^1

'^

^\

ij^r^'^i

j

J-^

,

f

f

J
^^..

r^.'^

"

^.

,

(20) Five boats

Tell

have been
the

^J ^^

boat-

more

and

remain ready.

^^xi As^i

^

,

collect

to

.

xjj^

^_ ssl^

going away.

men

^

,

^^
'

as ah'eady sunered

collected.

,

,

The

win.

shall

-^L ^ ^^^

^6^j^

^

j'

i?jS!^

,

(r.)

,,^.,

..

"^^

,

-^

••''

s^j^ l^'^

i?

-y

tj;^

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan

LESSON
H.

(1)

Ask

Pushtu.

S.

Call that

man

him

name

his

here.

and

VII.

April, 1889.

_ jJo
^

jl,

ij^d

ta

^j*«

<iia

0)

^

from what village he comes.

'^~

Where

*^\;^ ^J^Ji^-^^-. cs^ f"^

is

his house

?

"

\^

*

(
"

-*

'•

'

)'
'^

rOM.OQUIAn SENTENCES.

My name

If2)

is

Akbar.

I live at

Sofaid Dlieri, and

my

is iiist

house

behind the

mosqne.

(3)

got

?

hands have you

They

are " abi," and

?

Bara

is all

river.

The dam

Tlie

k

^Icj l^J^
^

^^

/'

-

(r)

ei^c '.at^ j ci^s^tt"

a:.,

'

^^

^V ^
'^^

^

-( .i^

/-.

^,^ J

]

^

'

Jt..J

(r)

-^-^

j

'j

,

-

right this year.

(4)

usual crops are

wheat, barley, mustard,

rice,

In

autumn we have Indian

-

j

^^aJ:

-

.^

1

.iil

j'-^ ^^^

»

,.

v

>

f^*-<

(t^)

,.

,.

.

>>•>>>

^

^

a:.wL^«

I,)

,1/

sugar-cane, and cotton.

the

'j:

^^
^j

the water-supply comes from
the

^j

.J

.

C^' ^-^ ^^'

^

I't^'^
»*

What

^^ ^]

_

<)c..

197

^^ -

•>>

^-:

ij>.»

corn.

o:^'

^5)

'heavy.
poiA-.

money

The revenue is not
The people are very
They r.pend all their
in civil and criminal

di^ _ s5

ai s.j.j

^JU

(0)

^

^^^ ^"-^

yLjJ

cJjow»i J

,

^"^ J '^ >"^

'

j;.'

L..

,

suits.

Is there a guest-house

(6)

that village

in
it

?

Yes, and

belongs to Sikandar Khan.

He

is

liked

a good landlord and

by

all.

0^
— J^

^.^^

-

U^J
5

.1

^

^_$3

!^

,

i

uLC'J

^'^

^^.

('^

.,

-^
<);u»

^

"^

y

^Aa
.

-

s

\

j
.

PUSHTU MANUAL,

198

The people are very
ignorant. They are quarrel(7)

some
vail

(8^^'J

y Jjfc'o^^^.^ jii-

(v)
,

Bitter feuds pre-

also.

amongst them, and

this

f^ ^^

^liO &XS^

- kjjl^

^>.

leads to murder.
<

(8) I

The

went

river

Daodzai.

to

had

to be crossed

At one place there

twice.

was a bridge,

at the other a

boat which was pulled from

bank

to

bank by a

The

(9)

police

work here.

rope.

have hard

Theft,

house-

breaking and murder are the
chief oifences.

of prisoners.

is full

(10)

All was quiet in the

An alarm was

kandi.

denly raised.
dars

came

(11)

Khan

The prison

sud-

The chauki-

to inquire.

The house

of Jumma

had been entered. The

thief ascended the wall by a
ladder.

He then jumped into

the courtyard.

^ ^^
,

••'^>'

^l.c

J^
...

J

a^A^^^
^

"

^^-'^j

"-'''

1 '^•="

(ii)
..

..

^,.

S^.-^
j "^ J'^.*^

^ V;^ ^

199

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

What

(^2)

People call
they in

bird

it

is

that?

Are

a quail.

S

^j
t

^'

now ?

i^j^ ^^i

^
\

\

\

"^

Ij (ir)
\

'^^'

S

Yes, they are.

(13)

Send

thirty every

get twenty to

^1^

^Jl^i _ ^_^j

You may

out call-birds.

y&

and duck are

(14) Snipe

but

scarce,

^J-

^_jji'^

of

lots

i

bustards have come in this

*

^^^^

^^

am

fond of shikar,

i'

^'^^

^,S

j6'

ijj ^

Have any orders come
Yes, we
for *tlie regiment ?
march on Saturday.
that everything

(17)

ready.

The camels and mules

should be sent
11

is

See

for.
1

are all repaired.

Theteuts

(^ J^

_

^^^<^

j )jd
.

;^^

(

"')

^
*k^

'

^^i,

i

^ -;^

\

..

yy

^^A^.

^5

>^

(

'

^

•'^"

^^ ^c^

^jW^l
*

-

o)

..

"

jl

"-r^^-"^

t

>^

-^

^

(

{^
••>

^y ^^; y^.^ ^

^j:^

Vs^

{^h

'^

^

^

J'^

i^j

>

^1^

.".
r

(16)

* ^^J^i;

.

.

<^J /"

but can spare no time to get
out.

^

lj^*^

* ^j^
I

jJ-

^

winter.

(15)

(ir)
^

>^

>*"

morning.

very

k ^j

"'

^

'^>'-^^

^

\

^ ^^/^

^

i)

u<^'

^^^

^

(iv)
••

.

l5^ i-s-^;"^
^tr?'

2<")0

PUSHTU MANUAL.

How many

(18)

are

there

One to each
iney must have

?

company,
all

huimias

J-^'-J^J^^

JJ

i^^j

supplies ready.

S?

^''^

^

.

.

^"^

*-^

^r*^^

^

">^

••

-

i^jo - ^<.

^^>i

<^=;-

t^J jj^i J

The General saw the
The firing has

(19)

been good.

young and

The men

^-'v^-U

^^^l.;

regiment.

-

strong.

^>»^y o^-^

^Xi

^'.^

(r.)

i-J^

sentries to load with buck-

^^>^

shot cartridges.
t)

LESSON

(1)

Is there much water in

stream

snow

Pushtu.

is

fell

very low.

d
^

on the Sofaid

durine; the last winter.

Koh

»Ai-

t)
LJ

-

^i

(_cJ

u

It)
I

(_^<^

^.

<Xi
ft^
j^

••J

t_f'^ j^^.'^-o

<XJ»^J ij (Is- ^.i" a.J ,.|l^

J

I

J)

,'X'kMJ

>v ly -J

VIII.
October, 1889.
^jxS jJuuj

No, the
Little

*i

^

J
W

1

the Cabul river?

.

i^^-^^-c ^'

s.lj
•J
»

S.

.

* ^^J

Warn the night

H.

.,
,

are

(20) Is this place called

for thieves.

(m)

J-xj,^..

,

j:-

^

i

jJ<i fj
i

'.

-t

(i)

ii;

i

••'^

.

^J

J..!^

c

»

i^^^ii

^j-

-j

^^^^ ^^..'^
.

^

201

COLLOQUIAL SENTKNCES.
(S)

water-supply

the

Is

due entirely to rains and
tliere

no springs

on the river-bank?
Is

^

I

snow? Are

What

the depth of water in the

river between

Michni

(3)

Warsak and

?

How

do you cross be-

tween Dakka and Lalpura

by

bridge,

ford,

..

^,^^

,)

J^

(r)

.^

'f

or

boat,

Chiefly by boat, which
moved by a rope tied to

raft ?
is

^ xV

either bank.

^.
(4) I see that

rafts

and

this

river.

T]se

lan

you have
on

inflated skins

The boatmen

oar in place of a

regular rudder.

tom,

;UJ

The

cus-

though universal,

is

not perfect.

(5)

A

raft

of

wood was

being sent down stream.
first

It

struck on a sandbank,

which turned out to be a
quicksand.

Later on

it

came

Skx^ 3

^^•s>.

!S^_

»^ij

(o)

202

PUSHTU MANUATi.

into a whirlpool,

and

all

the

(6)

It is proposed to

make

^^^^ ^y. H

^^^

occupants were drowned.

,

,

3

a canal from near Warsak.

The lands

at

the'

head of

the cut will get the most

The country

water.

''

,

Indian corn, sugar-

How
on

fixed

this

calculated

land

the revenue

is

village

irrigated

from

(8)

of lime and

There

is

.

^

.

c^.^.

x

'T'J)

/i

v

^U

^^^^
c

.•.

.,•/

\

(v)

^_^K t_j4) fj
^\

'"

*

*a

\

i

•"

{^'*^H3^^^J^ ^J'^r^J'^^i^
^ ^-^ ^/^^^ |j

^^^

i

It is light.

Whose house is that ?

Ibrahim Khan's.

,

\

Jv'

^ {^^J

^^;' ,^;i<^

canal and one-tenth on unirrigated land.

Wi^

-

and

the

.

i

-

One-third on

?

(">)

i)

t

^^

cane, cotton, and mustard.

(7)

,

v ^
i^ -jj^ - '-^4'^^ - tJi^

produce wheat, barley, gram,
millet,

"'''^

-^^y*

can


i

^-^^

'"^•l/*^

,

C^j*

^^^^V

«*J

^'^

,

It is built

pakka

3

^^j^^

^

«

V ^ ^'^

-:

-r

^.^^

H^

,-t

^

bricks.

an under-room for

'

'^

-

"

^

v'^'^

"

-J^

^

'

«o_^Xwiv

,

_jisr.

J

the hot weather.

(9)

you

To reach

first

this house

enter the village.

The gate has one tower over

a. 5^
^

Ju^-.^

-d^ ^^ (0

"

^J}

^
*^

' ^J} y^

^

vj,^ *

J^'

COt.T,0Q,UIAL

208

SENTENCES.

with stone steps to the

it,

top of the roof.

Then comes the mas-

(10)
jid

with

garden

pretty tank, its

its

filled

with mulberry

almond, and peach trees. The

muUas

eat all the fruit.

Has the khan aguest-

(11)

house

He has two. He

?

)ijsr^

^.XJJi,

JJ^ 5

(l l)

is

famous for his hospitality.
This has brought him into
debt.

(12)

That

all

the police

officials,

man is the
He has bribed

fat

khan's enemy.

and

^'s5-

3 t_^^

c^

««Ai

(

'

r)

Tahsil

who make up

cases

against the khan.

(13)

Last

night,

about

10 p.m., I was goi.ng along
the alley.
still.

Everything was

Suddenly I heard a

<0

^

^>Jj

t\

'^

(ir)

204

PUSHTU MANUAL.

shot in the southern quarter.
I stood

still

J^ j^

.Sij^l _ s>

aG'

^-aU

<xJ

to listen.

^^Ij^

(H) The chaukidar came
running
that

,He

along.

said

had been

a burglary

attemptedonacertain house,

He did

know the

not

\ ^
^^ J 9
(y

}s^S^L

&

^3

. ^J^\

(it^)

y.,,

^J^k
j^

'^'iyi>-

'^

^:.

J

.^

;

J>)

t\jS jC^'iS

_

owner's

name.

The

(15)

thief stole into

the hole he roused the hus-

band, whose wife shrieked.

The man then

He

(16)

rushed up

the

and

fled to

into the street,

after

is

People suspect

probably a seeker

^

-^

^ j».;

y

^'

'•'

L/^-*

.

<)G

^

'^

/••

T ^

,

c;^.^ (n)

...

.
-'

#,

,

j;.;

(ic)

^

.

-I.

''^'*'

-?

^.

,^.

Jx

jc.

^

/

.

.

*^^ ^
^^ ^ <::^z.\*^ ^i

-'

i^j^t.?'^*

,_Ji^^i^^^ "^.^ ^l^^.il^5

knowledge.

(17) I

went to shoot

the Tartarra
ago.

^

^ l5^^

-

"

,t

^-^

,^

!^

^^>'

^

.

lumped

that he

.

bolted.

staircase to the roof,

the masjid.

(j^^j

In making

the courtyard.

We

in

g.^

Eange a week

saw a couple

markhar and one

urial.

oi

i..

^r^

^^^

j>-».--

i/

i

-^

v< ^u^j

i

/
%j

-'

,)

so (iv)

.

-'J

^J

S-L,h !$.J

~- >

205

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
In going up

{]8)

stumbled and

fell

hill I

down.

J

jsJ:

'Xi>.

A

This fright-

into the river.

-^"

"

^^xJ ^xj.^,

ehed the animals, who ran

What sport have you

(19)

'

geese,

^^^^

wild

'^^

swan and quails

Now

(_j j

^Jj^

••

"S^
^'

'"^

••

The regiment

will

The bunnias

thing ready.

must have

supplies.

.^^

^^s.;

.

..

,

-^

"

<c>-

,_^<^

i/

H.
(1)

S.

Pushtu.

Whoisthatman? He

is

a zamindar in the village

of

Tangl

^-^^ (r.)
^

..

'-^^

'

iSiio.'o

jJ

y'^'•:^^

"

of two thousand jaribs of

«

unirrigated land.

J

-

'^}

^J

IX.

^^;5
"

is

^

^-r^>>

April, 1890.

the owner

He

\/

^W.

LESSON

n

'^>>'

i/

^ ^
.

r

"

(

is^ tVV^^

-

lJJ'J'

"^^^

"

c
••

I

(20)

..

j ^^ rJ^

jc.<

.

and then you see a hare or

march aLoa.m.
at 6 a.m. nave
Have everyevery

-^

^'^

.

,

bustard,

duck,

snipe,

/

f*

^1 s>J:.,

d^ ^^^ »Lc

j:^

.

J

,.

^'-^-'

There are

in this district ?

^..

.

.

'

away.

r^vv-J ^>

a)

i

,

.

i

down and went

stone rolled

(

i:>.

^..

••

^S^

^cj-

^ -—
(•)

^

^

^
;

^

^^J^V ^. ^^
^\ j^^j
d^ r^-j s.O
'^

xa]]

'^

206

PUSHTU MANUAL.

How

(2)

are his irrigated

By

lands watered?

from the Swat

river.

."—r

The

"^

^^ ^ J3

lands at the head of the cut

this is true.

(3)

The

His revenue

He

mosque.

after

thus

is

bad

s^

-•

^^

^j-^^'^

^jJ'v<,

(r)

The
a;i>v ^'>'^

is light.

has two

^

guest-

The searchers

knowledge resort

mosque.

^'

^j^^.M-A}jd6^Xxj^^:iJyo

.j

He has built a
He is noted for his

hospitality.

^H

irrigated lands

pay half the produce.

(4)

^

Yes,

rest are assessed at one-tenth.

houses.

{*)

,_$^\

His revenue

lixed.

^Lej

,!(^L^i

-

_

get the most water.

jl>j!

a cut

They

^j^

^^

^^^

^.,^
^

.^z_/i^
,

,

'

are a very

^^

lot.

^/'-'

^j-:.^

^3

(»«)

Uli^^ALj..*
-r

.

s^ J

_

LS"

j

s^.lj

^,^^

^

_ ^- j ^J ,_j^s^
^"^ ^2^ ^y^

to his

_ ^^J^\sj^j

•*.:

^yt

1

ii

tn

....

^^ ijy^y
* SJ

(5)

The

lands

produce

wlieat, barley, clover,
tard,

cotton,

_

Ji ^^i X^; ^^'A;

mus-

sugar-cane,

Indian corn, and millet. The

"

f'T"

1.1^4,^

value of a iarib of sugar-cane
is

-j

*

.1^=^

.1

-

j

^^; ^>^

^

.

^'T"

'

^^

sometimes as much as 60

rupees.

6j

."
,.

.

-

.^-^
j

^i.

~

l3

^'i
,1

-

.

Ji
^i_

,/

,

..-j

y^^j

.JUUui; «Xa>J
_j-S^J

207

COLLOQDIAT. SENTENCES.

(6.)

What

sport have you

in this district
in the

way

Not much

?

of deer, but there

There are

are lots of birds.
partridges,

^uail,

duck,

snipe,

t
t
iiL <i:i i^^jJ «L:

uST^.'^

and

•L5^^

of snipe.

,1^

The

very wild,

and

frightened

by

jJ

i?-*^

^

were

V-

had

been

^_^'jo^j.

village

,

'<->^^'

''"'^

.,

.

j

~

(^"^'j

v \

»i

i

,

f^

••

u'V*

ji^

,

^j

s-^'"^

l

j,j-

birds

the

y>-

'^yJ^ - ^h"

L^Vy'

..."

I got six brace

jheel.

(i)

^>-0^-JVV"^-l5^

*

I went to shoot in the

(7)

<Xj

^_s•^y<J^'i'

^j<

^j

chikor,

bustard,

geese.

Shahi

^y^ -^

i^^ ji'^

-

^J

»

\

*^;JjJ7^.>-J- J^'^y^*;

cattle.

^
I

(8)

saw some geese

but they would not

also,

let

^

me

come near them.

The day

was cloudy, with

slight rain

and no sun at

^'^i^^i

,

>

i

,

.

^^ H

>•

v

^

>

J^j-^.^jy ^3rj) x^ji
"i

:^

v

^

'^'^)

...,.,

"V--

^^'

all.

(^^ '^

(

\

*

t

-J

»

Do you

(9)

here?

No,

ever see deer

they have

been driven away.

all

found in the

(10)

Take

cross that river.

ford?

hills.

Is there a

Look out

,w

,

.-.

for

the

i

u^

y^;j^

^

^
jrT

^jc,

^'^^ -

^^j

-

.•

'^•y^-. '"^

^^ j^^^
i^

3iJ

^^

i

-

H ^J^ y

^^j^-:^^

(0

^*>^

^*

,

how you

care

\^..i^^y^'>Jj^

Some-

times urial and markhar are
to be

'^^

-I

(^i

f

:

i.)

^^Jyi-jyi

208

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Possibly there

quicksands.
is

a ferry, or a bridge, or a

boat pulled from

bank by a
(11)

bank

Last

year a

tlie

flood

C^bul

A

of

the village

\

of

A
under
water.

were

boat with ten boatmen

sank in the whirlpool.

(12)

.

vt-'jr..

--^

What

is

tion of crime in

Jj^ 5

fj

^J

the condi-

city,

I—-Jitx^

y^

^j^ ^J:^^

i

<^

Who

were

the

This matter

is

of-

^j--

•>'•••

J

v^

.

,

••

cJ^

^^j
-"

\

others say that
act 01 outlaws

Kuki Khels,

it

was the

amongst the

A third

report

"^

t__5l

J.<j^^
^
-

.^

(*->"*

lti^jJu^«

^

i

s? '

\^^yH

^

U^3

<-^'^v

^

.s^^^j

^

t

>.

>/

((r)
n

O'^

i

<-

'

T

j

^

JJ^ '--^^

Jc^s-

»^

,

^

v

w

>

•.

t

~

""^

,

^y

.

('

'

.

not

Some say it
was done by Mohmands;
yet.

,^

^'^

_ ^_^j

joyi, 8^>

^.
,^

^

'

-^

~i3 ^/jf

,,

-

-

i/

u^ji^iH

...

"ji^

jJ^Ji'.

^'^'^ ^>"^ i^
LS^
../
- >

^ ^,^y

^yof^ ^

and

^jxS

j

-

A
,\

("

-^

^y
>

-^t

,

known

..^

J - {JUiy^.
{J uJ-H/^

-

their arms were taken away.

fenders?

JciS,

^

..*-/^

u^3j'.

^^

Peshawar?

night outside the

J'l^

^\j

_

;_jii

^^^

Very bad indeed. Two constables were wounded one

(13)

S

,

.

river.

Three quarters or

XT
T,
Nowshera

«^^

to

Two water-mills were carried
sections

,...

Ar 5

rope.

came down
away.

^

_ i} J^

sjSjt

^
- >*

f J'if"^ "f^

C0I-L()(^UIAI,

blame on the

lays the

Khels of

village

fectly still as I

house.

It

midnight.
to

J

was perto

I

got close

y

^K

my

was the hour oi

As

.,

..

went

^^ ^-ti^
~

.as^ *j ,0 _ ^wj^'

Laffhnifin.

The

(14)

Ud

209

SENTENCES.

*j^^

"

^

^

''

"

^

^)

^

i

f;
,

-.,..

-'^

-

(

JCr>-

.,..

~

'^

f^-^}

,^ ij

aj'

-

.

TT

.

,

^^^

-^

'^*^

J<^*^ \^t

Ibrahim Khan's house I
^

heard a shot fired in the
southern

quarter

the

of

y>.

J->

^

"-^

^

^

^

village-

(15)

* s>j^]^

The chaukidars came

running

fast to

me,

I

what had happened.
been broken

into.

rpuFgd and ran, but

How

^

had

He was
still

the

did the thieves

They ran into the
court-yard, got up by the

j

stairs to the top of the house,

then down by the .vine into

and hid in the

J

j;=^

^

*

if

ij

X

-J'-

^l^

,

i»J

t>^7

J^

')'.>

^L ^

''^^

'^'^^
t_5'-^

(n)
9

.

\

<)6'

..

j^
/

.

j*-^

^

'-^

Jjv!

^
».

''^v

^.,

..

^

^

'x

l5^^'vv

^^ ^^ ^
J,,

~

L^.O ^'^

''^'^

(:

L/^

'ju J«a~^^
.

,,..

,

(_jO

^_/i»>

^'^ 3'

^

>

_

^j „Ai

^l^

..

f ^

•'.

^y^ j^i

?

the lane,

,Uj>>/ji> (10)

J).
...

They

thieves fired a shot at him.

(16)

.45 jo

asked

said that Khuaja's house

escape

i^

u-rH^

'^y

'

V^
1

I

210

PUSHTU MANUAL.
The regiment

(17)

will be

^

L^^-vs^l^

by the General.

inspected

^

^^

'^'^

llie parade will be at 6 a.m.

Be

careful about your

Our

ketry.

march

mus-

mences on baturdqy next.

Are

(18)

the

tents

mules and camels will be

Three hundred

required?

and

mules

lour

-

'^

^Jy^

,

i

w >>„>-.•
^"^

^^/^

"

>

("")
/

>

../

^j*^

hundred

'

c

.

^

r:!

i

^

^_s"^^^
;•

,

\

t

v'

••"

^'

lJ^ v^:*.
^

'

'

^
" "^^^^

^'

,

^j^

of

^

»4^

<^.'.

,,

Sr^

all

What number

ready?

y^'^l*

com-

(iv)

J--^'t*.

^'^/j-J^i^-

\^

\

*

i

j

camels.

Supplies of

(19)
will be

wanted

all

sorts

(jjo,y&

each stase,

at

especially bhoosa and gram.

Tell the bunnias to go on and

make

all

arrangements in

iXJlj

.

'

-

^<

,

"^

w

'

^

j'^^^Jt

^>}i)

^

,

>•

>

»^'^^-^. - ^^jjlj^i

..^^^.^^.i, J^j^l

^ J p^
"'

time.

(20)

(m)

jcj

f

Taru is a bad place for

thieves.

Nowshera, Akora,

and Khyrabad

are equally so.

The chaukidars

are thieves,

^^^
_ ^d

and no trust can be placed
on them.

^

y^

i,

*

^

j

-.

^r^r
i^^lii

"

-i'

..'o

(r.)

^

,

-,/|

.

jo ^^J-ji*

J

'^'^' r:^-=^

it

^J^^

^^
Jl

'

i_5 ^ "'-r^'^

'«•,.,.

,

j:}

Jii

'

.loci

^'

^
••

<.'>&.

.

J
AJ'j

211

COLT,OQaiAI, SENTENCES.

LESSON
H.

(1)
is

S.

Pdshtu.

Who are you? What

your name?

What is your

X.

^^ ^ ^J
-

What

is

your income every

"i

^,L

^,

(i)

'^

^

,

'

o

^^

occupation? Are you a landowner, cultivator, or trader?

1890.

October,

<fS

^

j^dj.^

,^3

lio^-i-

^^

^ ^_^^^ 3

{^^V

^^1^^

year ?

(2)

am

I

a cultivator, and

^jL^yj x>^] ^jKj,>~

I cultivate

live in Yusufzai.

^

^

ten jaribs of land, and give

my

landlord one-third of the

produce.

Heisagreattyrant

and ruins

all his

^

^

^^^

^^

^-^

(Jti^^;' (*j^

^^

,

_

Why

plain to

don't you com-

'What would be the

use?

He

chaukidars,

hah bribed the

headmen, cha-

and

prasis, Tahsildar,

in his pay.

'

.^^ j^

x>

Government against

him?

.

\.

<x.;

'^^_5^^

/

/i

-^

ol^^l

^/

aA»

yl^lcSAi"^ AAa

U^^"

J

To

i*")

^

1

^/

^^
^

^

c

'"

^

^^

^

*

(3)

^'^^*'^

^

1

"-^.'^^

"

.

^

"^

'

j^y'^i ^

tenants.

aj ^r)

.

.1

'^

"

^ »_^-^

J'o^l^

^1

"

all

are

^

^
"^

J^

'^^

j'

l/*^

'

<^Jji ^'^

P J

212

PT7SHTU MANUAL.

My

(4)

lands

the canal.

I

lie close

get the

to

^

^i^'ji

^J^ a ^sj
"

first

supply, but even then

^

my

i'

\

'^^

•>

crops have failed this year,

x!

Everyone hates this landlord,

»

wheat and barley.

autumn

we

have

corn, sugar-cane^

and

are

cotton.

This land also produces millet,

yo

In the

u-^^j

^'^

H

^^^

The

(6)

^'

both irrigated and unirrigated.

On

the former we

pay two rupees a jarib and
a water-tax of four.
latter

On

the

\

-

The revenue
and we ought

is

not heavy,

to

be rich.

•-

"^-^v

^

^_^

^^^.

i^

("»)

,\t

v

'"'^

"

_

^j^^

'^

^;'_^ J

_

-'

^

i^. 3j ^3*^/3^^!^^

^^^ ^jj^^^

,"

^ Wc!

.

J

^"r^j-^

3

J^ - ^J^

,

"

we hand over one-tenth

of the produce to the owner.

^«;

t^^'

\

i

.

'^^

_ ^^^^^^

^J'^^^ 3^ y^^~' -

village lands are

*.

•^

-

mustard, gram, radishes,

turnips, and carrots.

j^'iijy^j

•••

^^

u

'

"

" '^yi

^
'

^

\

^

*

_

k >^

j;j

cJ'

^

"rf.

^^

~

.

-^i

Indian

f^

^

•'

^

^

^""^

^

\^jir^

Our spring crops

^^^^

>'*

J^ J^ /^

whofattensonhiscu&tivators.

(5)

(»*)

'

\

"

'r^ lt^.

/j/^ ^

v^'^j;

^Jj^ ^^

^

-

V.

-u-

<)C=-

^•

^^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
I started last night for

(7)

On

Michni.
a lot of

^^ J\^.

.

the road I met

with convoys to Peshawar,

_

on the Cabul

river.

-l

J[
^.^.'i

••

J

^

,

,

People

bank

were taken from

")

^^

"

j^^i_ ^y^

<)6"

(Jii'l,

^^.^^ ^

l|V*
"•

^

^

There was no ford or bridge

jj

^

\i-i

Mohmands, coming

213

to

<^

<^Ji^

^"^

^i

^v^.

- 2j

'O

bank in a boat pulled across
by a rope.

Whose house

(8)

It is

is

that?

Khuaia's house, where

j

^ j_f J

...

lather led guests,

anyone.

All the

is

stout and a miser.

The

(9)

the river.
it?

Mahabat Khan's mosque

(10)

all

Can you

Takal

(_f

14^^ <'s>-

^

iXi>-'»i^

^'^3'^ <iiy^Jj.«

^^

1

••

^-o^

ji.^

^-'^'^

,;^

1

-v.-

"

'

^y

-

<-^

^ ^'^

^^

L^yj^

(0

is

c:*^'.>»^jfii-^i..::^^i-^^iib|«Jb

}^ c:^U^

t>

JJJ aJ

-

Peshawar.

direct

me

?

Yes, go straight

down that

road, and take the

to

''a)

^xAa

just

then going to the mosque.

famous in

^

t^'

flood came down
At what hour was

The people were

4V

gj

^1^ - *

people dislike him very much.

He

J

lie

would never give a piece of
bread to

'vr*-

.,

,
^

his

,*i'

^5^^

^^,^_yj

'^•^ij'^

("^ J^

j^^- 3

l5^

'H

3^

(,.)

^-

o*

214
first

PUSHTU MANUAL.
turn to the

One

left.

.

^^

kos farther on you will see
a Avhite building.
to

It belongs

^3^^

had four boatmen and two
A flood came down
oars.
and broke the rudder.

^:^jJ
.

.,

-

^

'j

o

>.

^

,

\

^^^

(_^^

^^i-'^

(n)

«^^.

.

>

y

^^

t''

.

^^

Two

j*

Jjl ^

,

^

'

o>!^

<xS

^^

We

went down the river.

^"

Ji^ ^Is

* ^^I)

took a boat and

cJ-^XjS

<xi'

^
''-'*

Fateh Khan.

(11) I

%j^^

y

^^'^

i,^-.

U^;**"*

^1

t

.ili

.

men were drowned.

(12)

that

What

iheel?

Shahi

is

the

name

of

(village)

.

and swans to be shot
later,

at.

had two

and

Such is
The powder was

missed both birds.
ray fate.

damp.
^^^-

^_

The caps

are very

i

'

...

J
»

(if)
.

-.

c^

'^z

^ ^^^

" '^'^

"^^^

*

'^
,

{ji^-j^[,\^)^^.^^^^^j[i^\

"

U^}

Li>r^.^

shots,

^_5*i

^^^
'

and are

very scarce now.

(13) I

^\

There are

snipe, bustard, ducks, geese

Quail come in

*y ^^

It belongs to

^^

i

^/^
...

\

^

3

'

'

l^V i-^J3 ^J2^

('^)

^^;*i »;'>
^^
\

n\

^>--

'

vis

'"

^

-j j ^'^^
*

^/

^^''^

-

u^*^

S-^'f^

^^^1;^ ^j^.^

^^^

COLLOQUIAL SENTiiN'OES.
was a moonlight

(14) It

night.

was

All

village as I
alley.

went along the

Look out! what

\hat cry

is

^
~

'

iXi>-

was

cry

in the

The chaukidar came running
along, and I asked what was

He

the matter.

He

(16)

^

The

mitted.

that

said

had

.

^

a

and dug

into the courtyard

s.cS*

^-

(lo)

j

^

f

'^v)

^

._.«

,

^.-^

^l5 .o

_

8

v/

^i>

^

^

,

(if)

$.

^^
oj'^

-

"

^^^j

^1

^
-

,

,

'

Srr^

^r^

J

^^

J-i

ov/ y

'^

.1

^'-u^'

^.

He

fired a pistol at

the thief.

It hit

him

d

in the

U^^

staircase,

ascended

^^^^)

and hid

in

..

^j

.-.

j^j't

/

H

i

j'^

^
.

"

^o

^

o'^'^
"-^

'^^v

,

the

t^ ci^Ur^

(iv)

<ri5»

^ H -J}

thief ran

the roof, and jumped into

^di

^'Ij

The

right hand.

the lane,

J

-z

j

^

noise alarmed the owner.

raasjid.

I

i

'

.

.^'sS

The

below the foundations.

j

i

got

thieves

K d

iS^ '^^i.

<x»-

com-

been

t
,

"^

.

^

burglary

^"

<)cj;'.i-

was ereatl

alarmed.

up the

aL

J:

'.^^AC ^^
The

.

,

.

(^

J

^j

L*

^'^

,

eastern quarter of the village.

(17)

.

J

^il

fired.

(15)

lI*'^
^"

...

heard a shot

I

?

s^

_

jos^

»j

in the

still

215

"T

>.

v-

^d '^^>
*

<io*i

216
(18)

He

PUSHTU MANUAL.
They asked

the mulla.

said that the thief

searcher after

*

(19)

The deputy Inspector

a

Why

hundred rupees.

did he want so

nush up the

(20)

much?

regiment

march to-morrow.

Warn

at

will

Get sup-

...

J ^ ' ^"^^
J

<)U<3JLo

i

\

say

S.

last three

'^

# 8

Uj

'^

(''•)

^-i^
^|^^

there

has

months.

How

are

^J

^'i

J

^

••

^^

J^^^-

XI.

Aiml, 1891.

d^

It has been

raining and snowing lor the

the crops?

,

^^Xi>^ s^^ii ^j

*

Pushtu.

~ ^j

<^ ^'^^

'^

every stage.

H.

You

^'^'

j^ ^^

the bunnias.

been no rain.

^i"^

^

-u^/^/ii^.^
_ ^

-*^

~

^b^j j\d%^^3 (m)

^1

LESSON

(1)

(*''^*

case.

The

ply ready

To

.

.

^

'•'

<^^i^Ji j^-j

J«^

(»*5

^

^"

are always giving trouhle.

^^

«d

.

.,

wisdom. They

came and wanted a bribe of

JU

AAA4.J &>

was a

••

1

SP

i.L

JiJ^

>

^

.

n^ ^\^

iS {\)
'

r

1

->

<itjj^ _ t^^j>j»

->

^j^^ ^

-

\Jj^.

s^-0.^^

217

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

(2)

The chances

barley,

mustard,

of wheat,
dal,

and

on there will be Indian corn,

and

we know nothing

(3)

Who

Of

cotton.

is

that fat

owner of ten

jaribs of irrigated

man ?

(4)

•.

.

,.

^^
».

ii

,.

,.

,.

\J

^'^ ^ LJ^-

-f^

"

^

<S"^

>..>.•..

.

|

"-P^^

l,..

thousand

and

fifteen

"";;

,

^
^1

^^

^) *^iy^
^^ ^

((.;j^

He

thousand of unirrigated land.

pay ?

...

^^

.

^

at present.

He is the khan of Hoti.
is

this

{&s^ ^_jd sj^\) (r)

^'xc

Later

clover, are very good.

millet,

_

^^

^

^,

'

(•")

,^.

^

-

L-^%j^ jj

^_yJ

'^'*

-

^ ^^^ ^
^,

^j^^

l^^

What revenue does he
For lands at the head

of stream

five

rupees an acre.

For the other two annas a
jarib.

the word

(5)

on the

He

His village
left

is

situated

bank of the .stream.

has two water-mills, two

^\

two

" jarib."

j

^J^ ^j,^

which

^,

is

J^

equal to

5

(e)

218

PUSHTU MANUATi.

be

What

had?
found

be

any sport to

Is there

(6)

earn e is to

Peshawar

in

Snipe, duck, geese

the quail come

"i_5^

In the

^^i

and sand-

What

Who

this village ?

khan?

Which
can

I

is

by

go there ?

to

go to Taru.

the

do you wish to

Because a

lot of

It is a

bad

was a burglary.
night.

It

was a

A shot was

heard in the eastern quarter,

The chaukidar ran

in that

^c

v

(v)

:i

"

'^^^

'^^^

_

JU

^Jji

^.

.

.

^^^

^

--

H

C^l)

i

•?

"

••

^

,

^.,..

(0

jcliii

jcaU« JCr^

j.^ji

J^ J^"^

^.

^
"

^^"^

••

^.^

*^

'^
'

^

^,

'...

'

f-."^

l5^"

Sr^jr^^
»

^

(*'^

^

* ^^'^

aj>^

^

''^^.

'^-S^'^

^i.

aJ

^

-^

(a)

s>

^^.^ ^^.y<jL

^

i_^/;^

^'^ ^

^^^

ii^

.

,

^^^

ls"*

sj

.^'o

<k1

,

H

b^-"

.

o^P

village.

Two nights ago there

direction.

^ ^d

n^L

"^

there.

still

^_c5^y

rail ?

have been committed

cold

'St^jT^
^

,

"^

How

By

offences

(10)

' '-5'^*^
i

the

for his

the road?

Why

(9)

^5^*

:

^ a:i aii*

get there?

river, or

of

~i

^

^.•.

?

want

(8) I

is

known

Is he

hospitality

name

the

is

(i)"

<K"jila

^ib^ r ^J'^ u^

grouse are to be found.

(7)

^..

i/

i

<!^L

••

later on

in.

bustard

raaira,

;

?

Xw

S .xli,

<kj

...

.-.c

'

^
y^i y.

^^^

'>^"

k-^'^ JiU-^^^j _

J^^j^^.j^
"

^s>,

'j^^

^

^

»^

,^^\^
.

219

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

been broken into

made

The

who fired

Who
been

Jj^'^i-

^,y J

\d tj .
.

,

^ sj

u/j^ Ji

.

-^

man went up

the stairs, reached the top
of the

the

house,

lane,

and

jumped

into

to

the

fled

.^

..^

<jJ

\x-

^^y

i

>

i

iJ^^^j

<xj

^

/

'^

^_$y>-< ^_J

L_^i'Je

\

SP ^

-

-'

Jcis ((t~)

^

,

^
*

T^

^JT"

-^

* ij*

The

.-.

.

(ir)

,

V

^

knowledge.

(13)

_ 5 j ^Jyi;-

,

alter

,

j

"

^,

,

He must

seeker

a

i

^

^-

{n)

'

.>

at the thief.

was the thief?

I can't well say.

have

hole
wall.

had roused the

noise

master,

a

;

south

the

in

(12)

.^ i^.^^ ^^.^j^=^ S

The khan's house had

(11)

^

'-^^'^^ y

mosque.
(14)

came

He

to

fs

The deputy inspector

make

the inquiries.

a very

He

fellow.

long-headed

immediately

re-

ported that the thief came

^Ijjs^JU

ci^'.JijJisr
%

.

.^mi

"

^J^-^^s^*^

yp

_

j^ 3 (Jx

^_ct)

A=^

^

-i

''

J-

from across the border.

(ii«)

^^-^

'^>^j^^

i

-^

this ?

But why did he do
Because

bring in

the

once

you

trans-border

J

f'^^'^
J <^- jJ^

^-^'j

^

r^

'"'

St'^'
<K:>-

.x^

(y

* Sj

(15)

^

^

^XJ'iU

^"''^

^
-m

J^,

PUSHTU MANUAL.

220
the

people,
f erred

case

trans-

is

to the political

J^a:;;o j ^<jJL<i Ijo

file.

^,

,

(16) In crossing that river

^Jj^^

J^i

xiob

y

^^J^\
/

..

(n)

J^:>^

"

look out for the bridge.

If

there is no bridge'/ examine

the ford or go to the boat,

which

is

(17) I rode

my horse down

the right bank.
full of quicksand

It

8.^

I found it

^i'o ^^j-.lc

will in-

»|

"*

(iv)

"'

~

...

'

(*^

***

-^^ ^-^

•••

^^

^^^ ^

8^ ^s)

^

The General

-

,4,

aJ

.

,

"

>^

ous.

(18)

4_^j

,.,

.

and quag-

was very danger-

J J

^^

J',s-

.

<jo

-^ ^JJi-JJi

'^'^

~ -^^

^^

rope.

mires.

Ij

pulled from bank

bank by a

to

*^

J ^^U

'T/i.

L^^^r^UJjJ^

^

Uc

ao

I

(ia)

spect the regiment to-morrow.

See that everything
all

is

ready,

the tents repaired, and

the bunnias' accounts settled.

(^
J

j.a»

ajs-

,^_5^-=^
-i^i

s^y - t^/^r
c;*^v

i^y
-^

«

The regiment

starts

jo ^=r^

Black Mountainf at

Supplies must be
got at every station. Warn
the bunnias of this.

6 a.m.

t The " Black Mountain "is
the name given to a transfrontier tract near the Hazara
It is
di^trict of Peshawar.
called "Agror" by the tribeHmen.

s^-

- l5^ y;^

J;s^ fj (m)

^af
"

1

^^JJ^\^J x3
"^

i?

<^ Jl=

^/^

(19)
for the

;'

\

j^^\ ^^j

'

cj'*^'^ "

S:!^

>'

"^ '^^J - iJk^J^

*

%

J

(
.>v

<^

rs

xx
»

221

COt/LOQUIATi SENTENCES.

A boat full of pilgrims

(20)

went down the

came

to

river.

a whirlpool.

the

men were drowned.

»

LESSON
H.
(1)

Take the

S.

Pushtu.

recruits to

the range at 5 o'clock and

»^

-

^j^

oars and rudders were broken,
"All

^

'•'

a

i

..

^^s: <ks^

Take down with you ten

Jo

founds for each man.

Subadar, I have sent

you about

these

riflys.

I

man who was
week.

J;he

i^^^

enlisted last

•.•

L-j^^iJ

f

i

>

^^

\^'

\

\~

id

!

xj

^

-

\

\/

\

^S

.'uo'

\

/

ajibb

\

.'jo»as

-^

.

s^

.

^ /~^ib

^p

^_^

'

"

(p)

TT^o u?

<xii

(i)

^J'

Lj^s^'wc
^.

^^

j.

\

Jj-

,

^.Ij.^J.

.

j3i

"

theft of

suspect that

j_^

^

October, 1891.

^
^-^ T' ^

(2)

••

XII.

have everything ready there.

for

y

.

<xlcl^

(r.)

»^

/

v.

»

The

^^

3

y'oii-'o^

It

\

4

222
(3)

PUSHTU MANUAT,.
I

have made inquiries

and have found out that his
uncle,

well-known

a

was

character,

yesterday

;

bad

in the city

but I do not be-

lieve the rifles hav/j crossed

the border yet.

.1

8iS

,

22H

COLLOQUlAIi SENTENCES.

(7)

have

I

^

heard that

^ji

there are plenty of chikoor

and Wack partridge

don't

down from
The truth is you

want me

to come.

<0 *~

am

I

willing myself

to take yon

all

^^^^

Aj

jj"

^

gj j^,^^^

is

a bad

business about this raid.

^j

3

.Lu j

Ij

t

in order.

have
.to

to take other

member, until

Ee-

this is satis-

factorily settled, the tribal

are stopped.

(10)

do?

Sahib,

what can

They won't obey me

«

'^^^ '^

cXi.< (0

!

*

^'i

jj

"

i

^

-

^S J

{^s--

--

.

,

..i

lt^"^

&L Jo ^^'^
...
^
"
^
,

'

--

a_5.

\,\

^

i

,

H ^f^

\^^^\.^
/

aV

,jj^

^

^''^

-^

'^^

/

j^^

j^j

^

^-^

i_5-^^ ij^

1

(^)

*i<L« J

••

allowances as well as your

own

<)Cr»-

^

will

measures

atop their raiding.

ifJ

/i

w>

keep your people

Government

it)

''^^

^^

^'

T^^^^*

If

«

js^

l^i

^a^ t«^

i

you can

S «wj

-

^

Malik, this

iJ

-^-'^

jsj

jc>.

'

<ti

^V-^'-^' >'

i^Mj

^'

'

CI

"^

^

^K

^''*^>'

your safety.

(9)

^

^^

••

i

''"^^

^^'^

over the

country and be responsible
for

..,

/•

i

'^^y^

*

(8)

(''^

^\f^^

•-markhor come
hills.

i^^|..'

^^^ ^'^/'

there,

and that occasionally some

the

'>^

-'-^.n'

.-.

*

s/*^

(i.)
.^

r

(

224
The

PUSHTU MANUAT,.
way

best

reprisals

is

to

make

^li

bring their families

down

in

the winter.

may

try and

^

.

^-^

^

(11) Raiders

c_5:j

sjj

(

This year the locusts

(12)

much damage

did

to

the

This

is

'

this

the

third

blood-feud.

This

one was committed in broad
daylight.
for a

heavy

village.

It is a clear case
fine

on the whole

cU.?

'^.^

ij^:^^

^

i-

i

>

S?/

^

^ J3 j'^

<

'•

t

ti

^s^ J^

\-

l-^

(ii)

>^^"
)

('O
•»

••

.

»

^
^

(.4^^ J

j^^

village due

^
.

^1

^

^

1-

^1

<>^

5 ^JxJ ^^K

^j^

y^ ^^^^)
^

:^

J - ^jL,
j

(^^'^
'j>j

^^

(ir)

fj
^

.

.

^^

J^i oKii>i

yo

^^

-Tf^' J

murder in that
to

l5^

3

•\^'

crop

escaped.

(13)

J;-^|;

^^

^^

also to the wild grapes,

and

The wheat and barley

>

J-^^

fruit trees, especially to the

orange, peach, and pear trees,

v
(_^^

d..xJ:^

J

_

"

'

*

J»^

..

Try and arrange an ambush

^

d^,

- ^

••

drive off the cattle to-night.

for them.

J^

Ij

on them when they

'^r^H''^^^'
'^^

^i^' ,^^

1^

^j
_

^
,.

^_J^^

^-^
-

^

^

'^^

^1}

i^ Jy

'^r:

jl

2

225

COLLOQ,[TIAL SENTENCES.

(14)

Was

covered in

(15) Well,
tvas

no clue

tliat last

Sahib,

no evidence

dis-

jtUU*

^^

''?-

^

case ?

there

"^

r

same night, so no doubt he

J

is guilty.

/

H.
(1)

What

Who
is

is

S.

^

I

What

(^

By
He

His name

trade he

is

.

is

Ahmad.

a fisherman.

lives at Tangi,

and is the

owner of one boat.

-

^

^^J ij;^

^"^^

Swat river. These he brings

^

He catches fish

^

^^-^

J

(r)

^^

-i

^

<

'

y KS^y

'^ H ^l^^
,.'^. 5^.1

^

(.--^*>*^

^_5J

^

,

>-'

in the

(3)

/-

^'^

>^

^

i\a--i

'^

y

<;>

^cO ^^

^><...

*
,

^^

*^^

C^^

-

his occupation ?

(2)

-7

/-

.

i

'^^

^^

''y**'

?^^ '—^ oi^
'

•-'

.

April, 1892.

man?

(lo)

-^

''^r*"

Pushtu.

does he come from ?
is

'V-^^^ j
\

XIII.

Where

/

.

-^

LESSON

that

he doing ?

'«-

^

"^-^ -S^

the villagers absconded the

(ii*)

/ ^

U^ Id-^^-U

j_^jjji'vi

but one of

;

<o

JcAa
.

_

'^

(^'

^;

Q

^
^'^j"

226

PUSHTU MANUAL.

to sell in the city of Pesha-

His trade

war.

_

LSxi\

is flourisli-

^

^jV:*^

i

^

A^y*"

^^

'^

^

^

i

,

ly

mg.
^(_> ;„

(4)
is

Where is Ab-xzai?

It

5

^

^5

^

^p\

iiUj)

T^

(^)

about 30 miles from Pesha-

war

The Swat canal

city.

commences in that quarter,
In 1876 a

lot of coolies

(5)

What

^i^

aJ

occurred then

?

,is.«j

fine of

J«*^

ci.?!..^

^

sent troops to

Sy:

S

A^

c

\

>'^^::

3 _ »3

V^ ^

~\
\

'^

'jo

,

c

!

^^'^

(c)

T"^

"

Utman Khels

The Guides seized Sap
Sapri.
The Utman Khels had to
pay a

^.

'^
-?^-

^.^

"

''^-

\

punish the

LT/^-^

were

killed there.

The Sarkar

^^

5000 rupees

(^;Aj

M

'^^^ - J^^'j ^^^:^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
I had

(7j

my gun,
six

snipe,

five

and got

The cattle were

three geese.

inthejheel, and they fright'

^^.^

sj jtir^!^

ducks, and

227

.

"9

,

..

'

,.

..,

,

^

^o>^ r^5^ (•y U^^'

(*^

.

l

(8)

it

What

season of the

In two months

is it ?

The quail
Have your

will be spring.

will

then be

in.

,

-

w

^^J

What

grows

here?

are very fond

In the autumn

What land have you

Ten jaribs

^ ^:

irrigated land I plough

^

*

.i"

<Kljksr,

pay 'Government

ten rupees a year for
lands.

my

This as

revenue; and two rupees a

[^H*; sj^ ^
^^^

/

^,

"'

^^"^

^

^y

a^

.

^

.1

^

J

-

^^
^^

'

^

^^

.

.

"

^'''
t)

^,T_^

iji^

(1.)
1

j^j'*'

^''

^

-^^"^

'

-^^

T-^^-'

f^j^

j^

''

>;
»

.

,

- \,^.ji

.j-

7

^/

-^

,

to cultivators.

irrigated

^

>

..

''

^

c.^',

!

^"^^

(1)

..

;

^

myself, but the other I give

(11) I

^

^^^^ ji^

-

<*:-;

of irrigated,

and»fifty of unirrigated land.

The

.

^

-

^

j;1L!j

.

~ ^j*^

^c

^

c^

.

'J^^

- -^

"

have sugar-cane.

(10)

>

^^^. ^^^

^

t^jJ^

^

mustard.

wheat,

of mustard.

got?

«

i^jj^ ^"^

^.

^

The bustard
we

v

••

"

^^
(9)

^

..

v^-"

call birds ready.

Barley,

.

.

^
S?^ -^ ~ '^ ^
^j JU - ^jUU;j
^Jaj ^.J
J ^

^

ened the birds.

year

("')

u-l^

.

^

'

Jo J

year revenue for the rest.

^t

Q 3

S

J^

^

\^,ij
(

PUSHTU MANUAL.

228
(12)

rain?

My

Has

there been any

Yes, but very

little,

S^j
^

lands

canal.

lie

On

close to

this

manage very

tlie

account I

^^.i,

/

^r ^

'^

^^

^i

^^l.'j

'

-'s-,.

t

^^

" / ^"^

*>'

^i

.^

^

(tp)

_

i_^(J

-

It is famous for thieves.

.

^^S

^K

o J

J^li

(ir)

I

Last
'

j"

-f

^

I

^'^

-.O

year a hundred cases were

committed here.

Only ten

aj^'ij^lj

were proved.

t

How was this? The

lumbardars keep a number of
thieves.

across

They have
the

border.

come and commit

(

15)

What

u/'^"^'

well.

(13) This is a bad village.

(14)

^*

iriends

These

^

^-Sj^t
.

ii

S (<x^i^

y

'^i

J

^"

^.

^

*

J^

!-.

..,

Ss^'

^j^

j^iJi^

u^irt

j^-

,

.

(-

.

follows then

/

*^

x>

^»d S J
.

^

?

JU

^^_^

diXA*

.1

^il=m

,J^->'

,

..o

i

^*i.

.
i

^
'.

S

'•J^

'•J

;i v

^

'

o)

...

-

A.;

.

^

('t^)

''i
i/\

offences.

The property is taken to
Akhor and kept there. Other
men are charged, who escape.
The police all take bribes.

-^

^

i

-^

229

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

when

(46) Last night,

was

all

^j

Sj

a:«..i,

'.^ (n)

xs>-

was

a burglary

still,

committed in Ahmad's house.

He

complained against his

enemy Akbar.
thief

In truth the

was a searcher

'^^

-

j:>

'jut

after

A

'^V

;^

r'-

knowledge.

(17)

the

The

thief got

He

court-yard.

into

broke

The noise roused
The man then
the owner.
fled to the mosque which
the door.

lies in

the eastern quarter

of the village.

(18)

Have

any

orders

been received for the regi,me:at ?

inspected

Yes,

and

to-morrow,

march on Friday

X*^«Ki>-

for Cherat.
'

(19) -Ask

the

and warn

tjie

stage.

must be fresh and

t)

*
3'

^J i ^/

i^*- J
'^"

^!r^

VJ

'^v

J^'i-^

^^

^-

tents

bun-

nias to have supplies ready
at every

? aJ Jc^ t_c J ^_^lil^

quarter-

master to ha^e the
repaired,

_ ^»

be

will

it

The milk
o-ood.

ja>

-

x>

^}

c<s^

J-^'^

-ij

t^i

^J
i^iii

^ ^''

5lfJ

230

PUSHTU MANUAti.

On

(20)

warn the

arrival at

police

have

chaukidars round the camp,
Sentries should be watchful

and on the

J

^

}j^

(•"•)'

"
.

^

^ -^

~

.

,

,

^

jSiX;!^

.

v

.

L/"^^

^

<J^ t_cO
^

^l..;

uy

"

alert.

^

15^;^

and head-

must

They

men.

Taru

^ia

i6

,

,

>••

-

•.•

y

•.•

^>V

•••

J1J.J

LESSON XIV.
H.

(1)

The

S.

Pushtu.

I want to see Toru.

Octoher, 1892.

_

Ij

village lies close to the

Kalpani

ravine.

Do you

know the place?

-

^^^ Ju>>J
....
-

^ i_?'

^

^

^

.,

-^

^^

r*^**

(1)

^^y

w

^

••

^ j'^ ^'^

^'^'
I.

(2)
is

Yes, I do.

The khan

_ ^^S ^^.^

Ai'

1^

_ y&

named Mahabat khan. He

(r)

,li^.>

has a brother and two sons.

He

is

famous

(3)

places,
all

He

for his hospi-

has

two

guest

and a mosque, where

the people come to say

^-^^j

^J ^A y jiji yj

J

^

^i

^^JT

^j^ J
"

O^i^ ^^,

^

^^^^

^..

ir)

^

^^- <j:^^a^

231

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
prayers

mulla

on

is

His

Friday.

a

friend

of

(4)

What

lands has

1.

J/^

i

.^

«Xj

<l*.-«o^

j

the

Two thousand

jaribs of unirrigated

and one

thousand of irrigated lands,

The Swat

^Ks-''^

the

Manki mulla.

khan got?

jj

river canal flows

c^'l.^.c

,^..

- -

i-?'^
Z

^_c^'

"

\\\

^J

y^.

y

232

PUSHTU MANUAL.

(8)

What

are those hills?

People call them the Pajja
mountains.

Beyond this lies

the Bimer country.
Ali

Khan

Hashim

^

jj,^ ^^^

^j*
^.

.

~ '^^

,

^^^

*

<tOi
-

Xujfc

y^.;

^^

3I

..

^ "^

J^

iJS^k jjS^ j li

is there.

aC

(^'^

&j

*^ Jt

^

o.«J

233

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
Does

(J2)

prisonment ?

he

like

im-

lie

says

Yes,

the supermtendent is very

and he obtains

kind,
*

medicine and food

his

The

free.

has a tender regard

jailor

Sometimes a

thief

days; keep

my corner

ready

....

,^->

was

all still in

All the people and

dogs were sleeping.

was

the

fired

in

A

'^'^^j^.

*-'"^

,

V ^I'i^

'^•i^j

^

H

[**"

_

^

m

.•&»

^'^ij'^ - (^*^*

^

.3^^

(ir)
^1

^

i

J

,

.

yJ^

^

,

L/^l5''^
^

^

^^
,

,

^

^

>c'-

'

,^

''^v

,

'

i

ur:?. j'

^x

,,.

..

i-

'^

^

aj

jlis.^J!L

j:/i

^/''^

;'

''

Jl I.Uj

^

*

Jx

<xi.,'j

shot

the southern

f/i-.

^

-'

,j-^.j^< j-.'^

,

villaoe.

V

••

forme."

(14) It

("*)

,,"

^

tellsthe jailor/' I willbe free

to-morrow and return in ten

"^

u*'j^ tj

^J^^.Ji^ y-^

for thieves.

(13)

^j

ai
j j,)

,^>^ J-:M^

a^S

Jiss^^

(^

quarter of the village.
(15),

The chaukidar came

running

along.,the alley.

»d Xj

He

man

fled

Hearing steps this
towards the river.

y

•:Ojl;j'^
.

(
i

o)
-r.

,

,

saw a man standing near the
mosque.

au

1

'^

w

j-

^j,

''^ - '^Jj^j
.

T

,

/"

>

'"^^^

i

f

234
(16)

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Being a moonliglit

night, tlie

man jumped

into

a boat, seized the oar, and

way reached

this

in

other bank.
(

17)

The

the

^

«.

t-<j^ (n)/

sf

^1

'',

cJ^

'^^yljyi

l»^^s-'.a5
^

'^

<-;^'^

J.jJ^

^
>

^4,^ _j^o

by Taru, Nowshera, Akora,

y^.")

* <^^

Have all tents quickly
repaired. The bunnias must
Ten
lav in food of all sorts.

H

seers of milk are

wanted

at

each stage.

^

The force has crossed

and there

,

is

water in the country.

little

- i^j^

^1

-

^^

i

-^

^ -rP

7i'

i? '^•'^

^

yjij^

^

'

jli^V

i^j^

^ ^^^ ^

^'"'^

\''

.,

^^

^.

"

^y'

^ji^

^ xf

.

^

\jf^

^

tXLj^

^-

^'""^

"

^^

\

•>-^^

^j ^^^^ 1^

_

'

j^^ ^^^

^^ ^

The heat

"

T

^"

^,^^^

^^^^^

It has taken seven

day's cooked food.

t^^

^^^ ^^
"

H

v)

(u)

Tt

j-^ "^j

jj

i

<<

<icj

'

^,

(

i^j;;).^

*^

be ready at every stage.

(19)

j:j

..

.

toKhyrabad. Supplies must

is great,

*

H^^ ^

'

-^^

*

The regiment goes

the river.

H

'ju?

a;j

ready.

(20)

••^"

^
regiment, will be

general. See that everything

(18)

*

••

>'>^

^

•••

*

>

\J-

t

v"

inspected to-morrow by the

is

-

^^
^|

*

"^^

U"*"

,; ^^-^

iJ^

'^

i^

^^ j

^J

^*^

235

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

LESSON XV.
H.
»

S.

Pushtu.

The new settlement

(1)

to begin in

is

Peshawar.

Yes,

What is

first

I hear so.

thing to be done

the

f^

field,

^

The

and boundary noted.

y

village accountant should be

a good man.

How

(3)

o"-^-^ ~
t
.

the revenue

is

fixed ?

At

one, rate on irrigated

and

J^

another on unirrigated lands.
fields at

the head of

the cut are charged most

"

^

'^,!»

dXL

<Ujij

<<-;
^-'

j;JU

^

'*•:'.

^

^'*^
'"^.•J

J
yy

(4)

How

is

the boundary

^^ ^,^ ^
^

dent border? There has been

»^'J'

no regular arrangement. All

^.1^. ^^\^

this

has led

quarrels

for

to

y^^

^-^

^'

^..

^^

T-y
i^j3

^j^^

^l. ^j^

^

,

><"

•"

*

fixed towards the Indepen-

,

(r)

,

>^

t_^^ - J^

>!

\

^

.

^

'

" l5*v ^. j^

.-.

^

(r)

c

"'

•'

ls

'

3

^

'

,

^JJ<i^.»,^
""
^"

(V-J

^

i

"

'"

calculated and

Those

*i

^^

V^""

^!^J ^J^

^J^J

^

...

"^^

'

>

ravine, hillock,

(i)

^

,

^^

'

must be carefully surveyed.

Every

^yi

j^^-^. '^^^-v^^'^Jo

^^?^ ^^ ^ ur ~

?

All the village lands

(2)

April, 1893.

(^)

W/^^J-^*

j

_

,,^;^

incessant

over

twenty

s>i^

j*''^"

^"^

H

lj-'!;

236

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Something must be

years.

done now.

Yesterday I went out

(5)

I got to the river,

shooting.

but

could

no

find

ford.

Luckily there was a boat,
with one oar and a broken
rudder.

down

got in and floated

I

stream.

*

A

(6)

duck rose up on

which

bank,

the right

80

S^

the

left

two snipe on

A

bank.

geese

were

Owing

to

too

flock of

far

away.

bad luck I secured

merely four birds.

(7)

Why

this year ?
little,

is

sport so bad

The

and now

all

are dry, and the

rain

was

the jheels
birds are

leaving for Kussian territory.

They have a long journey
before them.

^^^

J^

J

^J^

(l)

I
_ Aa^^o .

I missed

shot.

^J^

1*^'*'

^

i)C5»-

84^

<)i"

.

».i

()uu

237

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
(^)

The

fields are

sugar-cane has

The
'

quail

:

wio.^l

^1

the

coming

call birds.

in.

-'

In the autumn they

"

\^jx^ -

k-^*^

(_

r-

.

('^)

^

-^

Sr-

You

should get sixty birds in the
fields.

^e^J ^j~j'

aJ

v

.

,

been cut.

all

are

Send out the

now full

wheat

of barley and

^

<J,y^

>'J^\'-r>J

^'^^ t^^

Sr^X^^/v

,,

,,

y^.i

.

^. >

^

^t

••/

i^jyi

y^^

are found in cotton.

(9)

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan
There was a hue and

It

came

western quarter.

_

from

the

The chau-

..

'^
Ai.^>

a.>

Hoti.

,his .pistol at

(10)

Has

The

-

^^j-^

J

;

fired

the

regiment

the general will inspect them.
lads to shodt well

the credit of the corps de-

pends on them.
lads, the

^

Well done,

regiment will head

^^

<.

.

^

<jcj'

^

"

~

u^ ^^y^ H

^^

,^. jj^

^

^A;;3.j (i .)

^
"

i

-^

j'^'^

l/^^
sj

(0

&; <xi»-

(

]

:^

^c,UJol;^^ <xl^

No, two days remain, when

tiie

j'-^ji"^ _

them.

finishedits annual musketry?

Tell

^

'

^.:;

-T

^^^^

^

said a burglary had been

khan was roused and

K

,

^

kidar ran along the lane and

committed in

^,.."'

^i^

jjy:

All was

cry in the village.
still.

Jo»^

,..,,/'

238
the

PUSHTO MANUAL.
list.

You

have

shall

,^UCl;

^'JL.

j;.,

your two months' furlough

^

j

j^A^Jl.-

''\

-

.

,

,

after the parade.

LESSON XVI.
H.
(1)

iug

I

am going

out shoot-

to-morrow.

Shikari

to

be

Nisatta, with

Pushtu.

S.

Tell

present

at

six coolies, at

At

this

geese are
river,

had

may

season

and snipe are

find

^.^

-i

.

to be

fields.

^>'

v-'';^'^*

'^

5;:;^'^

^ij^^ ^;^6'

j^-^

^.

c

^"^

t

j'^^

>

^.

^

lS^^"_ff
i,.

<;

"
'

^'-''-^

"

^

JO
J

,

Li^l'

'

H ^5^

^'^

^^ ^<j^

some bustard

too in the mustard

iy^

..

•-'

'•

the

in the jheel close by.

You may

i^ji

(i)

'ju?
.

''

duck and
in

^

,1^
;

^''^

?

I expect?

plentiful

jJ

Is

there a ford there, or ferry
sport

^—

_

the

7 o'clock in the morning.

What

Odobn-, 1893.

^-

^i

^

t/j-^ '^

^>

')

J^:^^

^^ ^^^
'^

H i^^ U^
_?*-:

^>»'-;*

^p-*^*

^'

(**

J^-

240

PUSHTU MANUAL.

dently enmity at the bottom
village

must

regiment

will

and the

of this,

be fined.

The

(4)

march next month for Eawal-

How many men are
on leave ? How long has Jan

Pindi.

Mohamad been
out leave?

absent with-

To-day

it is fifth

It is said that

day.

he

is

suspected of murder in his

and therefore cannot

village

return.

(5)

There has been a great
of cholera this

deal

year.

The men should be warned
to drink river water,

which

is clearer than that in the

wells.

Be

careful too that

the supplies at each stage
are quite fresh.

the

men must

their

rifles,

At Akora

be careful of

as several thefts

have occurred there.

j-J

J

J

:

Lp

241

cor.roQUiAi, sentences.

What

is

the revenue

of this village ?

Is the land

(^)

irrigated or not

the land
'the

is rice

Much

?

<^^

.0.1'.,:

J^

o-^ ^

(l)

of

Since

land.

Swat canal was opened

both rice and sugar-cane have

been cultivated
extent, but

'
•>

to a great

the country

is

much more unhealthy than
it

was formerly.

(7). Are

there no hospitals?

^

j;jl-io

xiSSx^jJn

Yes, there are two, and the
L_^.%2-'.Ar

doctor sahib

the

is

patients,

,:ji''s)

(v)

c<L

J jcJ S.J

.JD

very kind to

who

receive

food and clothing free from

Government.

(8)

What

fresh

news

there to-day from Swat

is

«;'J

^

..

.1

It

?

1,

is

^

o

i.

said that, owing to faction

feeling

and

figliting

among

themselves, the country

being ruined.
not go that

is

Travellers do

way now,

roads being unsafe.

all

the

U">

>t)'0_^

cJ

a

-«.'

242

PUSHTU MANUA1-.

salt

hear a great deal of

I

(9)

Cabul

from

o'oes

to

Peshbolak in the Jalalabad

Are there no

district.

the

carried?

salt

salt-

How

mines in Cabul?

jj

is

,

J,.*^ ^J

T^T

.

^

''

(Jj^

f;'.

donkeys and mules are also

,^C~:^

used in great number

Kagan

two sharp men

valley.

state of the road,

on

villages

the

and

How

'

''^^**'

v;'>

tlie

and espe-

;'

.

1

How many

(' '^

k-^j^ ^jf^ ^3^
,

^ ^j^.
'

-

'

'^
.

^s

u>,^

^
Jo'o

^

jj^

^

^ia>

^^ J ^

J^

^

3

j

3

^

s/'^'^

J

j

Ic.^^

^^

y

'^'

^^^j.

.\

d^

.K

,

c jJ>

"'
''^

<d^ J

men can the neigh-

bouring tribes turn out?

((>^^^)

'^

j^ ^ ^^ ^,

of

supplies

-?/"

j'

ij"^

far is Chillas

from Balakot?
fighting

~

visit

number

the

Sr^ij

x^

{^^^ *

They

ylhich can be obtained from
tl/em.

^J^'^H J^^

'^'^

must report carefully on

cia^ly

(<

.

<?

by

carriers.

from your regiment to
the

'

s^^J ^JjJ

<xxj-s)

,

.

'

Chiefly

H

(10) Select

m

..

^

•,.

c

,^y

'

'

- ^^^^

(i)

s;

>^I

iTT"

*

by Powindahs on camels, but

Khattak

*

<xr^-

^

^l:^ ^
^

^

JLo

^^

^^i^^^^-^.
..

ixi».<;'j'

'^

.

'^^

>

••

^

-

f

^

-

(^^t^^^^ o)

24'^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

H.

XVII.

Pushtu.

April, 1894.

What day of the month

(1)
is

S.

LESSON

Very

well,

my

still

I

me
am

and

tell

bearer to wake

seven exactly,

at

(i)
^

I shall go out

shooting on the twentieth.
Tell

^jLi'^^ i ^'

Jokj*^

It is the sixteenth.

it?

asleep then

;

if

^

"

^

*

'*

j^

^^ ^

-

j^y

<o

Jvi,

-t

'-

••

,

'^^

'

"'

'

,^

^iay

c:^i>^

the Shikari I shall want two

^j

3b

^jK^

of ghee, some butter, and ten

b'^

^ ^J) ^ jj;^'v

and a half seers of atta on

jj^nj

jl

-

^_^^ ^^>^

<)C3

.vj^t

|^_

^^^,

fowls, twelve eggs, half a seer

^

^j

f'.l'j

^.

ray arrival at Baboozai.

^

U^j'

(*^

''^ '^^ -

^h'^

t_>J^'

^^y j-^

^-

4-

^) Last time

I shot at

a;]

.

;o'j

Baboozai, I shot a markhar,

J^

.^;

.

.

^^

three black partridges, a hare,

^^

four chikoors, and would per-

^^^jji^^^

'

haps have shgt some duck,
but

my

cartridges were be-

ginning to get wet and would
not go

off.

J^

"(*

i6^-^yaj<^
\

\

.:

^
i''

^
^^

w

\

\

;

ij%j^

•••••

\

'

/

.

[*J

%

't?^

'

f>

^

^.y^ ^^. -

i

'

.,

.

^.

(i*)

;:^j

^

-v

»

^"^^^C
i_5^.-j

244

PUSHTU MANUAL.

(3)

Are yon keeping the

last or not ?

All true

hammadans should keep the
fast

and pray five times daily.

Come with me

you can.

if

Is the border quite quiet?

Last

and

year

before

several

^ ^yi

the

year

raids

took

''^'

^^^

•"'

ls^3 ^

t>

.

.

thfi
the

in
111

ant.nmn
autumn and

(4)

When

going to Mar-

&^

Be careful you cross

by the ford
the water

;

is

in other places

,^yJi ^li s^j>^ a^ .

very deep.

J^

in the hills.

The

steep cliff

north of the village

independent

is

territory}

^^ H

j'

i^

Jidj^

jJ

.

->^v>v

••

j^y f^

-

so

~^~v

,

^^j^_Jyi^

,\
"

.

'^^

^Jf^..

^

.

'^^

y

.

•.

>*

..

^

i.^

(

-T-

^

tJ°

(h=)

v_?>

c

-iS


i

*

tt-

^-j}

e.'-*

^ ^^^l (^ ^^

"

s^'^

^^1)'

"

in

do not go there without an

%jm

ifJL\j

i

I^

will probably fall

;

S^^.:^

,

^'

^j

u>**^

jy ^^

cloudy and cold to-day,

and snow

•>>

O"^'

I

c

is

C

' '^'^

dan you cross the Kalpanni
stream.

(V'^^i;

.

....

^^ '^

^^

winter.

*'^=^- ^^

t3>*»

,.

^

"

^

(r),

•.,.,(

,

l^^l

place
nlflp.fi

x^ ^^^ nj^

^.xi

Mu-

'

'^^

S^^
^^ ^ (•-^iaj'
"

^f/;; ^ t^''^yj»>

j;,

^K 3

^ ,^

escort from the village.

^^ J

(5)

My uncle's

broken into

house was

last night,

^-Ji ^jjJ iih. -yc

ySl^

^^^^^S

(e)

''

and

some cash and jewels were

ixl

y

'^^^'J

'^^
t-^'^^'*'

-?

^^

^T^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

A thief was arrested

stolen.

me.

I do not believe

The complainant

evidence.

has blamed you.
accuses

your

me

^r

owing

'

an old enmity.

^

* S:^/

(6)

The

march
There

at

regiment
nine

will

will be a night attack

Take some spare

on Sapri.

^.

mules for the ammunition,

is

no smoke, nor are

the dogs barking, so I expect

(7)

There

is

a great deal

cholera

will

spread to
careful

year,

most

Peshawar.

the lines

are

Be

e;y

^^J

j

-

-

'^

thatno unripe peaches, water

('')

^Uli ^^J

<?^

,

.

i

'

^^' '^

/

^

-'z
'

^i.^i.^ ^.y}
»

\

-^

/|
v

1

i^-'?'^^*-'^

'

1

^

^y'x^) X:^^yi

"*^

(v)

Jl^ y^
"

>

'"^

..

ssy^j

,

^•^'°
T^*^

-

-

'uJj^lj

y.

3

'^^

'^ ^

»'

^y^.

^^

}

-^f..^

<tj

,

\

^

..

-^1/

=^-^

<f

J-^^

.

^!£ ^j^

_

r"

••
^
*^ l5^ '^ ^^

" \J^)

-

^__,j

kept

quite clean, and give order

^ u^

-^

.c

''

and

likely

Av^

.''

•"'

-

of sickness this

J L_.o-

jj ^^^j

H lt^

^>

sT

if

>^

^

"

the village has been aban-

doned by the tribesmen.

^

^-'^'v 4'>'^'^

as the road is very difficult.

There

|..

,

••

i_?

a:.>'^uj <jd.l.

""

to-nieht.

"!

<Jy^' '^'^

••'^^

^^^^

Jl^

<Kj

i.

.^lj^^j,-jjb'Ji

-

to

'i

"

-^O^xj

''^-;

_ Jji iU

y>
'^,.

.,

^^

Sahib, he

lalsely,

Ji;

^i>

a.;

onthespot. Bring himbefore

245

i.j^^^a^

^

J^ *^

246
melons or other
allowed to

PUSHTU

iMANUAr,.

are

yljjt'a^

fruits

be sold to the

(8)

A

chestnut mare was

last night

Kuki Khel

S:^^

If

^^ -

suspected.

are

thieves

,

.

trace of the stolen property

can be found, the tribe will

.,

^L

H.

Have you

Pushtu.

ever

a suit against anyone

do you act?
petition

filed

How

?

I go to

writer;

the

he brings

out some stamped paper and
writes

then

my name
pay

him,

on

and

it

;

give

'

>.

^

'^•^.
-

"j^

j^

^^
j,.

-^^

"

^J

J ^J"^

XVIII.
October, 1894.

^fr ^^'
^ ^ ^3 ^y
j^ j ^^^
^ ^^
'>^

^jiJ'o

-^

<^

^i

-

-^

'

V

V/

^i^,

_

^

-^^

^^
,

^

jj.

3 J

Uj

^

fJ >^

,

^

^

^'^0
-^^

/jJ

(J

jj

"

M-)^"

'

"'V\

^^-

-J

which has power to hear
case.

i^

I

the petition into the Court

my

^^

\j

*

S.

.

•'

S5^

-^

'

I

('^

t

*

be heavily fined.

LESSON

^

^ ^ ^
^
^

..

^

.

,,

.,

.

"

<3^i^ ^

s^

jjo

from the

y

i_5'

.

.

^'

cantonments.

(1)

i^^-*

.

sepoys.

stolen

t)

jc.-

'^

t

f*^'^
:

j 15^!;
\

/^

tJ

*

\^

^

••

S:?y>

^y

*

^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
(^)

The reader of tlie court

examines

my

pay

the

for

Defendant

day

is

our

I

:

'v.^ .ljAlLi.«j ^^ ,s/

then

sent for on a

,,

the

and decided,

case is heard

^^ -

^li'—dX*

•*-:

^_^y.

.,

.

,

Sometimes these

/'' V.^^^''"

,•

Sr^yj

^^.

_

,

\

witnesses;

(r)

^

,

,

V

both appear

j

'5-

.,

process -fees.

We

fixed.

with

paper

247

'"'^ t>"S:>V>'^*

y'^i^-^ yo^^-ai- j

-ij^^

!$j^j

suits last

for years.

What troops are there
this station ?
Two resri-

(3)

in

^ ^ o^^ V o
^

^ '^i

('^)

.

9

\

I'

ments of European cavalry

' l5'"^>'

and two companies of sappers

_ 'JLyc,iu« j

-J

.

"^^

dA-Ki"

(*>-

^.-^

!$.t) .1

^>'-^«^

>_3

There will be

and miners.

a grand parade to-morrow.

The General
'

^

* i^jS

inspect

will

<Xj

thein.

(4)
so

Why

the General

is

particular

We

about

these

?

frontier

and must always be

The men

fight.

are daily at musketry.

men

^'^

?

y^S

are near the

parades

ready for a

"'

^

,

^

J'T^^

^"

''

The

they

must

fired

at.

hit

If

the
the

thing

soldiers

^

"

^

^

_^^,

'

^^

^Xa

(..^

j^

^

-

^l^y L}^ji'^

^^

..

i!^ ^^li

j^^^

,^^

are repeatedly told that

.

Jd^

J.cJc'.3

V*^*^

"'-...

(-L^is-

^""^

'-r-^^''-^^>

^ ^J

^ ^*^ ^, ^^^

\J)
^.j

^r^
*
^-

PUSHTU MANUAL.

248

cannot shoot well, they are

^

J-J^^^

no good.

^^) ^^^ ^^^J^

-

,^

.

^diJ
(5)

Who

is

chaukidar

the

AVhat

village.

is

Some

here for ?

man

th^t

is

?

He

of

the

coming along running

he coming
affair

aI.j J
j"'

J

<x

.'

.

^^

-

^

j_^^ acia

As^

.

j^-yjj ^^aJ..< JCxil«

station.

he says.
fhair

is

This

is

the police-

Come and hear what
The man on that

the deputy-inspector,

Well,

Ahmad Khan,

^vllat is it?

Last night at

(6)

11

p.m.

I

was going

my

^,

^

-

^)^
^^^s^

A^

^^^^^
'"'

i^

I ran there, and learnt this

A^i

^^^^

a

dagger

in

jo.

^

<::^^

!^,

J^

^;, ^^^
\

^

-

^
^

'=^j^
i!^]^

.

^

o

^^

^>j^\^

^ ^C

^j

\/

*

sT

*"

^ -

ji.

J*^

A^

"

^
.

\\

'

jJct

(i)'

k^)

,^

;,

^^^

s^

^j^^

^ ^^

J^>^'

Jamal Khan was
by

^^
"

'

^

and was

^ ,^_

-xAa <t>.

Q^

'•

east quarter of the village.

gtabbed

4_^.

,

'

^|

sitting on his cot,

jl

^

i^;^^j

^^

were overhead and rain was

account.

iiJjJ

.,..

_^3

^f^

I heard a cry in the

ij\0

^J^\;

rounds. It was dark, as clouds

falling.

<ki^y> X)

vil-

and he has come to

reportit.

^ i^d -^^

must

have taken place in his
lage,

.

^

^

'

^.^i^jii^

^j

(o

-

^

^

\

\

^

ic>"-''^'l;^^ Jrp-'^.- (j'^

^

j^

t^AXi*
\-

t ^^

J-'^

249

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
the^

Please come

stomach.

quickly.

(7)

What

doing?

are those

They

men

looking

are

at the lands of the village

With what

of Jamal Garhi.
object ?

Because the

settle-

^j/l^J ^Ji^'-'^'^^'y*^
«X^ A^
J <J^
>.i\AJ

J AjJ',
J-.

ment

is

about to commence.

^'

j^ L5^"^^ t^r"
*

The revenue on

it

is

JSJ JoOUw 8

y.^

very

light.
(8)

what

The

Can you tell me in
way this is done ?
settlement officer

^^

^^

^^^j

(-)

^J•>.:

first

of all finds everything re-

garding the village lands
these

may

:

consist of hills

and lands that can never be
cultivated

;

some

entirely on rain

ar* irrigated
a

separate

;

fields.

rate

depend

and a few

He fixes
on

each.

Therevenueis collected halfyearly by the headmen, and

paid into the Tahsil.

(9)

much

Is there

in this country

?

sport

Yes, there

are chikoor, seesi, duck and

cOJU -\^y^ ^ji

iJ-i-J

J^ i^y>.

PUSHTU MANUAL.

250

In the forest there

cool an.

found

are

These

hares, deer.

very hard to find

Jio.a. Xj _ ^_^^ i_>^^

jackals,

foxes,

;

Last are

shikaris

have driven them away.

.

1

^-^

'

a^u.^.=

^^

"

_^^

^^^^^

^^H^

^Jl/^^^r^.^

^J^->v

*

How

(10)

do you arrange
I ask a certain

for quails ?

khan

to assist

men with

He sends

me.

call-birds to the

cotton and wheat fields: these
call,

and the quails come

ward them.

my gun

^^

U)

I

to-

go there with

before the sun is up,

and in this way can shoot

^

^.'^

i^is. ojjj-o

^

\:.

\

LS-lr"^
('•)
\

..--*>•

^

^Ai)-*ji^i OiXo
'

.'

.

\

lJj^

^

^^^^
^

\

^j^

i^^ <w

^

>

(_5*j

Jc;

\\

••

^

^'^^

forty or fifty birds.

,

^

'^

J ^i-

^J^J

^,^^^^

a

^^'^

;^

^^^J ^'

-^

''^

k-^^:^' '^

^)-^\
••"

"-^ii^

^^i

•}*:.

r*^

^)x<'^}

^

<^&

^ ""r J*^

^'

LESSON XIX.
H.
(])

Who are

the son of a
village?

S.

Pushtu.

you?

I

headman

am

fatlier's

i-o

j

ij

S

^_^j

"-^^^ (•)

of a

My name is Ahmad

Khan, and my

April, 1805.

Fatih

Sy*^»-l

^ ••>

"^i*-

i*^.

lJ^^

->-L^V f^^t^J^i ^^'

'-ISx^

^' J^

251

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

We live in the village

Jang.
of

Jamal

land which

of

eighty-five
*

.

;

of irrigated and

fifty jaribs

depends upon rain for
crops.

Does

enough

to live

this give

upon

its

p

^

.

gated lands produce about

^ j

hundred rupees a year,

and unirrigated some two

large lamily,

Ours

is

a

We

"•

•><

have therefore

'^

J^

- *^ ^'^

^^

-^

.

^

^j

.-:

My

^

brother

is

my

second

a

is

jam^dar in a cavalry

ment;

third

Border

Militia. I

inspector in

^ ^i'^j

^'^',

^^^j

L/**>

^" jj.^^ jo

I

am

in charge of
It is

miles froln ^lardan.

twenty

...

i

.

H

f^J"^

^/y

-

H

(JJJJ

^^j'j

.

^S

"^[^

^

_

"

brother

am deputy-

(")

>.

.

^

jh

j>

.

,.

^

;1'^*^S^

the

i^^-.-

i^-J^'^i^ U^^ U=^.

^<^ ^^^.; i^A*---.

——
I

^

Police.

'

^f^

••'^

the Peshawar

RustamThana.

^X

^ Jj Cl^\^ (_jjJ|g^j_jiyj

regi-

naik in

is

_j>^

',

j^-j^^

'^)j--- >

a havildar in the IstP.I.

the

-sj

-^^^

^,

"

sion of five rupees a month.

My

.C<:

"

father has a pen-

eldest

^

.,
.^

r ^J^

- Jh^j)

\

\

'^

'^=r

to take to service.

(3)

Ujl

^

^-

and we require

about a hundred rupees every

month.

;.

^^

^.^;J^^

i

>*'

^^^

hundred rupees.

^oJi
^

you

J'^^*^
..

-y

^<j

_^^i

fj

irri-

five

^

^

'

l>/

-

t

,

?

No, because the

(2)

^^ i^)

^^^

-

^Ve hold

Garlii.

f^J'^'^J^L^U^r.jy^-'V
aJ

Ij _

*.>

^viJ' xJ'J

Ju,. j
:r.

-',
,

,

,^

PUS"HTU MANUAL.

252
(4)

How

the

is

village

watchman appointed ?
is

He

selected by the headmen.

He

is

then sent to the police

is

very

5

^.

-

<-// ^>^ o-^

U

.Lp

His pay comes

for approval.

from the

S5->

village.

JThe pay

The

small.

vil-

upon him as a

lagers look

spy of the police, and put

no

trust

upon

him.

On

this account his reports are

usually false.

(5)

Why

He

running ?

that

is
is

man

b'

report some case.

the matter,

What

Akram ?
I

\j^

Last

had got

J^

^--'

c:^^'^

^^

when an alarm was

^

».>»»-

i»i. (ij'ls-

.y

,

,

'r/

^

''"•:•

to

the south of Mahabat Khan's
masjid,

[c]

is

night I was going my rounds
at 10 o'clock.

^kS)

J^ ^'X

•C5^J

coming to

1

L5^'

o>-

y

i-/*"^

:'^.c

J
Ai

/'^:6

raised in the eastern quarter.

(6)

that

I

the

stabbed.

went and

airs-

^yli jXs- ^I

Khan had been

Who

A^y^

("1 )

^J

^j

did this?

It is difficult to say.
is

learnt

There

great enmity in the place.

Joj^^lj ^^.'^
V.
J^»-4,ti

^yJ^

(^> ^-vi

-l^b

(_jt)

*j

253

COLLOQ,UTAr SENTENCES.
Thi^ settlement has caused
bitter feuds in the families.

One cousin
other
'

is hostile to

the

{^y*j ''^r!

1$^'^ Ut^

k-^*^

Land and

cousin.

wealth are the cause of

all

murders.

y

(7)

What

have

orders

L.j'i

/

J^

—^

(^

''^.)

^

"^

'^

yy-'^

^

A^ X^lO ^^y^J J

(v)

been received regarding the

regiment?
5

at

a.m.

will

It

They

bank

^yf. ^^^^

H

^'^'^

L5^|;

hour on

the

of

by

cross

7=^

Chamkani,

for

halt for half an
this

march

Bara.

fords

and

L;^)

^

<*:.«

.

^ki

JC<t> kXjo sJ>c

boats to the other bank.

(8)

Attack

the

village.

The men should take cooked
bread and water with them.
It

is

long march there

a,

and back.

How many carts,
:>

camels, mules will be wanted
for the

them

to

regiment ?

Ask

for

be here to-morrow.

Examine the

The road

is

carts carefully.

bad, and

has

.

^^ j^ ^y

jii-1^ j)

254

PtISHTtI

not been repaired for years,

Order wheat,

barley,

MANUAL.
J xj

j;!

-

rice,

Indian corn and grain to be

The

collected at every stage.

^

_

,'i

s .»i^.

-

""

"

s.K'J

,

'^^

*^*

-'-^••

-^

X>

iJ\.

^ Jxz x».

^JLiJ^

^Jj^

.^

.

bunnias are very trouble
some.

(9)

What game is there

this district?

in

.

S^-^

Deer have

_

Now

disappeared.

and then you

see

I

t/
*

i

L^

^jx"^

u/-/"^

have only seen

twenty in twenty-five years,

l^'^

^i',

^

- ^_5^

^

L^ji Jy^ J'^r^

j^

^i.

^l^

^^
(10)

A

in that the

report has

this

come

How

did

happen ?r He was out

hunting,

j

j:^..

when

his

step-

''^

"

,K^

Is

there any reason for this?

the last claimed the

throne.

The affairs in Chitral

are in a disturbed state.

[i]

s^^

^^'^
^

^,j

X^

'^^i-^

j^

,

^

i.

.

^

..

j^Ja'

^W

^.»Jij&'^JJL

_(,,

< '^

"•'

^^ S—^ Ma c

^^

(i«)

.Ul. ^^i-

u^'V;-^ Jj'^V^

'
.

brother murdered him.

Yes,

^j

Mehtar of Chitral

has been killed.

^

f
i

a
•'^

hare.

(0

<)^

/

""^ >

i^'

^^^

^

c

during spring and autumn.
all

^^

^^i ^^^

Quail come in

^^"^
l^:

\

-^

X

u. ^
"*

~>l"t{"'
s

v
^,

"
^

* uJ' '^^•^

O'^ Jir^

"^

255

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

a

LESSON XX.
H.

(1)

They

Who
are

settlement

S. PiTSHTLT.

are those

members

men?

their business here

?

^

^<^

CS^

^_sj^ i^ii

(i)

of the

What

office.

Octoher, 1895.

is

^jr

They

are measuring the lands of

the village of Landi.

new

settlement

has

The
been

started,

afraid
will be greatly increased.

*

t^ ^

-i.j

PUSHTU MANUAL.

256
(3)

What are you going to
I am going to the
?

J

JOi

'i.i;.

i^y

ir\

U".,1

do now

I will pur-

petition writer.

chase some stamped paper

He

from him.

then

will

^dSr^

ei^t).

write out

my

claim* against

Saadat Khan.
produce

it

I will then

before the Civil

Judge, and ask him to

day

fix

hearing of

for the

e

OuIl)

i) -

<XJ

,

'Ji

J-J^»

r>*i

&>

a

my

»>.\i

'Ji

'

^

^^ d J l>«^^

^^J

claim.

(4)

the claim by

Settle

'o)

y'va.^Lc

fj

J^^^J

(f)

Friends of both

arbitration.

parties can do this easily.

If you go into the court the

You

matter will never end.

will be ruined by the pleaders.

Eemember what

a Sikh said

about the courts in the Punjab,

"Do

not go near them."

.

(5)

that?
of

What
It is

building

on

J

2Sti'o

2

J ^^.^

j^^oJ"

^->'j

is

the police post

Khazana; three

further

JCr^^ 8

is

miles

the Daudzai

JtH^

j);.*^

-^

(>^ ^< ^ Ji

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

A

Talisil,

collected

large crowd

by

is

'^>i

^i^^

^y^_

'^>J

257

gateway.

the

,

Let us go and see what

the grey beard

He

[/

U„

^,j'/j_jl
*te-^^\ [^^
*^ ^^yj ^i j^.^ Jcsw^^*'
>

hand at taking bribes. Keep

'^

silent,

and

is

me

let

do the

'

.

a capital

inspector.

i

the deputy

is

.f_^S

^

is

That man with

the matter.

^J'jd
\

.

'-^

;jy=^

"^
\

^-^

>•

;^

-^i

-

(-^^^''^V'^

r

talkino-.

(6)
1

Peace be on you, Khan!

hope you are well and

What is

this

fresh.

crowd collected

here for? Fatteh

Khan lam-

man

of seventy

bard ar

is

a

years of age.

He

a pretty

of

girl

married
fourteen.

Her, parents forced her

to
.<.;

do

so.

She

is in

jh

,

Ahmad Khan. Last night,
as the old man slept, the
young man entered in the
courtyai'd.

of the
killed

The chaukidar

house

Ahmad

^K

,

J-2-

J

- XiJ

r

love wath

'fired

at

••

-

(;$, jcj

1

--

CI/

.'j

iA>«>i^'

and

Khan..

8

258

PUSHTU MANUAL.
The regiment

(7)

will

jcMi

parade at 5 a.m. on Friday.

Why

has this order been

issued

?

Because the

regi-

'

Three brigades are

service.

assemble at Dargai on

to

the

1st April.

They

^^^

punish

^y^
m

'^

.

Five

Three parts

collected.

at

^^

S

'

\,

"

l^>>

.K»~

>^

'

^'^

u^/ ^h- ^^
1^^

^

^

?

^

b^ JJ

^„a=>-

^ ^S

(^)

^^^^

^3

^

^

J^'

->

J- 1^

v::—r'^'J^o:;''^;^^-'^ ^
j)

^-'i

\

""

fifteen

thousand donkeys have been

".,
-

:;'

>•• ,",. .1

r >.

^ ^^^^

carriage ?

lJ'

^

''^

^^^^

^j^ ^,

orders.

the

_

_

Umra Khan, who has

thousand camels and

^^,

\^2i H

"V

for


i

^ J^

is to

Have you arranged

1

••

SP

-^ iSlyi*

invaded Chitral contrary to

(8)

&'

Ss^ j

^1^

'

1

^»' ^

^

^-

i

^^

obiect of this advance

,

^^ ^ J^"^ '^

^^^

/

-

(v)

<!UtA,s^ j>

-

..

^ i_^^

^,.

will

ascend the Malakand Pass
and descend into Swat. The

.

^^^ "^

ment has been ordered on

x^

^j*

a;j

^

\J^^^--

^jd

^

.d

^

u'*^;'

.S

^JL

"^

Nowshera and the fourth
What
part at Mardan.

^j9^i^ ^i

have you done about sup-

J^Loj^.. j. ^_^ .Ij^aj

At each

plies?

bazar

Food

has
of

been

every

stage

"

\

a

formed.

description

<,

"

4^/

^
\

-

'^''
'

"^

^

u^ ji^^ H
,

-

'

^

j^ ^IjU y

^^

.

'^

"^

'

oJ'-* ^\^j

~

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

men aud

fo?:

cattle

has been

s.Ljt)

stored up.

How am

shootina;.

and where

it,

5

a.m.

down

.

JU^I^

w^

-s

,i

^

I want to have a day's

\9)

r

up

Gret

^.,1^
>,

.

,^^

.%

^

\t

across in a boat.

j heel

duck, and geese.

'(10)

?

Here is another plan.

You

might, get

fifty

morning.

Tbpu walk over

.

quail in a

maira for hare, sand-

grouse, and bustard.
skirt

At the

of hills you will see

urial,

andmarkhor

i

U^

<»:j

.t

-

^^i -

^lU^a:^ j

- ^J}

i^JJ-"

y 32;^
y}^jz

;'

jlj^jj,

^)

^J b J^

^ yn
ao

^L.

Jo o

-^

L^
w

^ j^ ^
^"i^.

_

(i.^

^^y ^

^j^-:.j

K

^X

_s^ly: j

^jai

" 3^T^

^

..<^^i ;ija.;

i^jj i^jj'^

^

_

^Xi-^ ^:^' ^.

^j)
<i,

'^

o*" LT^OJ^^;!
^ -/

^

^-

^

'*^'*^j'vj^

.-.

-

-

.

"^

^

partridge, chikoor, and seesi.

.The deer,

^^

^

.1

^:ajb

for call birds to the

cotton fislds near Regi.

the

'^

Will this

be sufficient for you

Send

..^

,

the ferry.

''^

^s^'i^^


V
You can get snipe,

.

.,

The

^.

»

"'

about half a mile from

lies

(0

a^j

..

''^s:^

no ford, but you can get

- (_^J ^c,.
•AW

- x

-.

^

^^^^

It has

3

..

at

Walk

to-morrow.

to the river.

\

Jij

I to get

2'59

r^;^^!

t-f/T^*

'^

^^^i»y

^ u*^
s 2

^-^

"^i

260

PUSHTU 5IANUAL.

have alldisappeared from the
country.

wish you every

I

jj^yti

"^

^'^^ - Ljhi j

.\/,

'^

.

.

*

.

J

J

^^

success.

iJ'^'^:!^

.

J

:

LESSON XXI.
H.

S.

Pushtu.

(1) I desire to bring in a
civil suit.

managed?

How can

this be

on

it,

it

The Judge

to the

it

will read

and see what he can

(2)

.

wished to
fendants

him.

summon
for

The

the

^.

^
.

^

/

\

&J:^

_^

_^,

ih

Kj^l^^^r

j;^ ^^

^
u^ ^ff ^ y
,

^

1

I

I

*

^ L_^^lc

'^'r^

^

plaintiff

.

^^

',^
^'

-

j j-

^

i?

^

^'i

;,

j^^/

'

(r

He

the de-

5th

'

P*
-

^.

(')

f^^f- *J

-^V

do.

The Judge had the

petition read to

April.

/

Write your petition

and then hand

court.

^'^•'.<^ ^^.

/

Gro to the petition

writer, buy a piece of stamped

paper.

Ainll, 1896.

of

said

*

f^"^-

..x'r-^x^>

^

H
-

v

'•^'^*

^

i-

261

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
was

day

this

the

Id-i-

j

^^Uj

^^,^

^i.! ^''^^ j

Ramzan, and another day
should

be

Judge

said, "

is

The

fixed.

Your opinion

^/i^-r-^'^^"^ -iS^
,u^ j (J^'olO,

J^^

'^j/-''

^rJ<^

'-'^^

quite correct."

(3)

A new

beinsr

carried

settlement
out.

irrigated from wells, or from

rivers?

the

What

Who

water-tax

?

And

whom

to

appeal go?

I

is

hope

it

^

-

<

\

\

",^

J

Lp

"^^

f"^'

'

l5^

lA*^

^.^j ^ ^^^

^.^^; ^^)
"

the

fixes it ?

does

lS^'^

(-)

^_cy

,

i

"^

"

^

,

in

Are the lands

this village?

(*::^«^.'.l>Jo

^_fJ:^^

What

of lands have you

sort

is

_

,

"

^;-

the
will

be rejected.

(1)

,

an
IS

There

appeal.

a bad

lot.

does not

is

no hope for

know

and the Patwari
bad.

sxj

The Tahsildar
The Qanungo

Our hope

<^

his duties,
is

equally

lies in

the

i.L
^

.

.

'-'i/i

>

^^

^

^'> >

.

,

^

(i^)

..

.

.

-

..

.

>
,^ J.>i- Xi

tO

,a5,.j

^jj.j} .o

-

^

JiUSi
,

r

y>

^

-

^

262

fUSHTtJ MANtJAt.

What is
Khan ? What

your name,

(5)

you

belong

do

—T77

"

came

^ -^

^

village

to?

I

from Khazana.

It lies be-

yond Daudzai.

You must

come over by a
There

boats.

help

(6)

all

this is

ley, millet

and

of this

&c.

*

»-'

there

,

b

y

is fruit

of

sorts.

Last

of

all

^-^ j^ ^

1

[*^.

,

>>*•••

•••

_ ^a^^

The chaukidar ran to see
what was the matter. A
man jumped down into the
from thence he ran

^^j..

"

jU^'^'

'^v'^
^1^^^

^-

l5^ U^: A^

^.^.^^. xi^jj^L^^^A^
^

""

,

fired.

- t/-'

^j^i ^j^' ^

-

'J>:'

^L

^^ ^K
'''.^

..

.

.

^j I^j^j (v)

,

.

--A

,.

Jj Jj

was in the eastern
a shot was

(^

<j'^;3^

.

^f,

a disturbance in the village.

street,

a^ J

^ '^ ^^ ^L J

dUit

quarter:

"

-

'^

^^d 3 d)

^^K

j\^^^_

Last night there was

noise

i-*

Jo

^J^^'

Cotton also erows well.

The

r-'

a;Aa jj
^j^ J

-'-»•••
^ Sr-^

'*''

-

bar-

indian-corn and sugar-cane.

[1)

^

^-

'

^

1/

^

y
Aj

in the

Later on we have melons,
grapes,

^

^

mis-

a

Wheat,

vegetables

'^j^ W)

Iju.

!

come out

Then

spring.

oO

-

'"'

,

no ford to

The produce

village is this.

J

bi*idge of

What

you.

fortune

is

^-t^J^y a*.

^

i^^< XjysXS^-L.tHjL^j^^
".

'

y

'

(-^^'^

t

\

"

*

"

J 7

af

v

'

l/^ '^^^

^^^^^^ Ji

Jcj

.

"
''^

^^JT

J-I5. JcAa

Jtl^l

COLLOQUIAri SENTENCES.

mosque and

into the

was a seeker

said be

after

^

L^'^ V

268

.

i

l^

J^ ^'^

) i'

knowr-

ledge.

The

(8)

Thanadar

He

ceived the news.

matter

the

sidered

He

said, "

This is

If I say

case.

may end

re-

well.

made up

a

man who

is in

J 3 J^ ^ J u^

/

x^jjj^

^

^.^.^^j

Ij

^- j'

f-^

^Ij^

j j

dci»

The Regiment
See that

have

collected.

must
require

(10)
to

be

bunnias

^

_

.

~

y
cX^, j»^ a^s-

J

\

do

)

o^ -

(i)
i

jca.'U

^"

.

-^

C.*^'^J:^^/^i?cJ^:^V-^^^;'•:^j'

.^ ..b,.^^;^''.

thing

hand.

^

^
!^

uc

"

sj

"

!

"

'^

>

^y'^j'-J''-

H*^

" s/>'

vou

^

l''^'
^

l

-

i

Carts

Jamrud.

from

here

d^^^^

How many?

200.

•nany camels?

Then

how

About 500.

^la. ^>J J

sj,

^
'

About

^

\\

"^3;^*^ iji^i 'O

.

carriage
at

carriage

will

Jam-

supplies

every

Their

also

What

all

The

ready.

must

for

^5j

"
,
''^--'^

i'

''

march to-morrow
aro

^

-9^

"*

^>y

'^^*'-*-*

jc=^

\

i.

this calamity."

(9)

(.)

i

,

it

God

ruin.

^j^ . L^^^lj,^;

con-

any more

my

in

help the poor

rud.

'^

'^^

c

''^^

^-

^))i ^)^

(i."*

if<

-'--^^'^^)^.

^^^

^u'*^'>*'

'^5^

264

PUSHTU MANUAL.

What

weight

carry?

About

for

each

this

may

can
five

camel.

be

they

"

*

all correct.

LESSON
H.

do vou

mean

I see

?

man

fat

with

ekka,
beard.

long

a

His name

Khan, and he

is

is

has

been

lie is

held in

twice

Has he any
very rich, he

<lS.L
,

^

'i)

csA:&

c-"^^

i^j^.j

>

"-^i^^

y

^

i

c

.

^

-^

r

'''

>

''^
^

J^ J^V ^^'
_
^j ^j. ^^^
^-^

to

^^

^

*(l^^'

?

S^
.

'*

-

good qualities

J;j

<*^

'

ls^^'^'^

^

Zaman

Mecca.

(2)

^
''^

^:

''

grey

great respect by the people.

He

\

^y

many

seated in the

i

'

October, 180G.

people going along the road.

That

^

''

i^::^-^^ i^

^:

.•.•.,

.

"

XXII.

S. Pltshtu.

Who is that? Which

(1)

^

..

trust

I

^_c;j ^_c.ii)^,'j^,,:^.^

^ ^^/i,

»i>

maunds

Yes,

other

<<..

^

^^/^
c:,^^'

"^

j

j^^ y

J^ ^j^ '^

^
J.>

-J'^

^>"^

<xi

^^*

'-^-^

(.-)

/"

first

is hbei-al

^ l3^

^'^

^

^

j

j-

j

..

^

c/^

205

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
the

to

He

gars.

famous

is

house

always

is

for

His guest

his hospitality.

seekers

to

priests,

knowledge, and beg-

after

May

full.

^' 'j^

the Almighty protect him

always

So be

!

<L1j.aA

it

.<i3)

J
*

Akbar, where are you

(3)

going

I have a

?

see

rupees.

the

When

^^^

C.'tS*' - ^5^-^-5

Ji^sw ii j^^\ (r)

civil suit

He

against Ibrahim.

me 165

^

Ij^

(c-'«*J

I

want

J-

>

••

>•

\

to

writer.

petition

the petition

Lp J-

owes

ready,

is

and process fees purchased,
1 will

go to the Judge.

Ibrahim's property
attached,

he

is

If

not

escape

will

JUw.~>-U JJ ~Ui3

L5*" L5

iS

-J'^J'^

-^Ls^

'across the border.

Li,

(4)

What is

a settlement,

and w^hat does

mean

it

The measurement

of land,

very utmost revenue.

affliction.

are

This

in

>

(-5

...o.jJio

>••

H

?

the fixing of rates and the

land-owners

The
great

calamitv

^.

^<-5^'*^O^V-^^

266

PUSHTU MANUAL.
every twenty

comes

after

years.

There are separate

^^

,^j-vj

i

..».

That

chaukidar.

the police

is

the 'village

He

is

occurred

hfis

What

He

?

was

going his rounds last night,

was about 10

It

was

everything

p.m.,

and

still.

As

he reached

the masjid,

disturbance

arose

m

He

eastern quarter.

a

the

,,

what had occurred.
The headman, Ashraf, had

^^^^-^

(6)

The

inspector

police

He

to inquire.

asked

Ashraf who had wounded

him

Whom

?

pect?
cot, a

I

man jumped

court-yard,

roused

The

do you sus-

was asleep on my
and

me.

I

thief fired

at me.

Mv

into

my

noise

the
stood

y

c^',.k^

-xi'

,^

^-

•••

* ^j

J ja^.:

•"«'.,
•••

>r-/

uST" l^-^^-J L^^ l1'^

c^'jLxJisc
,

.

^^^

^^

^

^_5J

*j;1

^ J^
"

^^^<

;''^V''^

..

.

u*'^

^

,j^ ,^j^^ J^

r~;T

'^^

^^,,j^^X

^

..• !'

.-'

"

^-^'

^^

^3 ^l^J

'"'

^

-

^J3^^^^J'^y-^^^'^y

>^]^jj^

cousin QAdir

,

^^

^^;)li'^)Ii'

j6'o- ,J

S:?7^^

^.^TIl

'«>-

^

^5

.

^

^^

"

^^

f-j

^

^jji;

--5.

<)j

-i-

>^

j^ ^^^ ^ ^ _^j^|^^,

^^

up.

his pistol

*

(J-jy=-

^

»-$^

(e)

"'

"

been shot in the court-vard.

went

•]

l)^ ;^J

JT^r

%

\

(^,^-^

--'

"

ran to

see

j^f

_

'"

.^^^)^>^ ^'^ti^

going to

station.

^"

-^

* l^^

irrigated lands.

(5)

^'

and

well,

Il>

>

v

i

]

on maira,

rates

L

^Li, ^ j&

p

'^ -

*.
'

^^:^^'v!

tj ^\

L^<id*^^j
.

'-^^^ih''

(^r-

267

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

my sole enemy.
also my heir.
If I

Klian

He

is

is

T

1

-

everything

die,

goes

Arrest him quickly.

him.

Wliat

(7)

your

Tell

What

?

name

colonel's

me something about

Our

station

came

proceed

to

Chitral.

came by

rail

to

April

in

mules,

been
rcctdy.

camels,

We

^j.\^ JyA^

by

wheat, barley,,

'^U

i,

,^

.

wood were

The Cabul

river

chopped

all

ready.

'^

regiment

gone.

crossed

in

.

f

w

>

- 3^
J'-^

,^

^

y
1^^

.

^j

S:^;'^

^

^j^^
(a)

'T"^ "^^
jliJjI^
-

.jJj

>

n

t

^

jJu^
*^'

.,-

/

^UL ^>

,

^

'^J

^u

^^

.^_j^).^j^ .^y^^ j

was in flood.

The bridge of boats was
The

"^

^

l^!^

[y

L^-'

-<x.}}^^

,^j^s- ./^j^iiJbi

t

straw,

^j

^ J^^ " Ls'^l' (^^^v'^/

'^

dliall, (clari-

fied) butter, grass^

^'^

?

^

* ..^
rice,

^

^^

were

of

"•'r*

^''^

J jT^^^ jZi

the Cabul river.

(8) ..Supplies

"^

-'

u^ ^'-i ij^ H

JUs^

to

had

encamped

LiJ"*" J'^-'

^ l^^^^'.^ Jjo^ j

it.

Tents,

and

prepared

t^

We

carts

(

^'___i,

^^ ^^'^k

j-^"*^

^;^

Nowshera.

We got down there.

L-r*^'^
'-'

?

was Jhelum.

Orders

^'
^

rr.

j

o" VvtJ^'^ii^''^>"^'"*'*^us^''"^

the number

is

of your regiment
is

to

^

-

^

'^ '"*

-^ij^ lt^'^

15^'^?.

'

<ij

j _sj

,

\-j

^^
|^L<

^
_

s^j

'i^r^ ">

J^

.'ooj^^..
m
"

^^j

^-'^^*^

^_5>

J-^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

268
It

boats.

was

difficult

work,

Mar-

and took six hours.

dan was reached at sunset.

We

halted there two days.

(9)

now

What

?

sport

Quail

there

is

are just

Shall you want call birds

me two

Yes, send
cotton

got

Go

quails

Shoot

and don't

straight,

far.

-

(10) Snipe can be found

duck, geese,

by the

banks

of

the river; partridge, black
partridge, hare, deer in the

jungle and high grass
chikor,

in

whilst

urial

stony

;

sesi,

ravines

and markhor

can only be discovered with
great trouble on the difficult
cliffs.

(0

After

away

;

&^

yesterday.

very very early.

coolan,

lOwui

the

to

sunrise they fly

in the jheel

c-^

?

miss.

,

.

So-and-so

fields.

fifty

in.

^J^^3

^} ^} ^^

^'^y^i

269

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
>

LESSON
H.

xxiir.

Pushtu.

S.

April, 1897.
*

Where are you going
Aslam? To the kaclieri.

(1)
to,

What

IS

your

My

rupees.

extended

has
years,

the

claim

over

three

and he has not up

me

date paid

,/

^
-

-

j%j\

to

m

^

\,j^l^^j~

SJ-^.J

~^^

-^

^-'^ ) ^" ^J^,[*>r^

d ji^ ^^^j

^ji
^o
7J"
J

^^

y

V.

a single pice.

.

'

^^^ Jjol

^'^' "^

(i)

''''

-

,

Akbar owes

petition writer.

me 300

^

business

I wish to see

there?

?^d6\>.^ui

^-,:J

^j<^

.

'^•

^d

^ ^j

*xAa

Sr^J^V^'^V
What

(2)

can the petition

writer do for you

I will

?

^ 3^^

buy stamp paper from him.

HS

will

then write out

him the

claim, I will give

process
will

fees.

then

judge.

He

My

go
will

complaint, and

my

Vi«.

s^'-.;;-?

^^jJ^^^c

j^^,

':^^

_ J^J^^^^^

,^.

papers
the

'^

read

my

.

^.

^^
J
"'

j^j
^

'^'.

^^
XiL

-

Hf

l^-

^^^ '^

-^

-

-jfj:

'^'"^

J l_,^'.^^
^

'^

.o^.i^^

^

defendant to appear before

'

him by a

j,;'j

certain date.

^S

"'

the

.

_
../

'i^ -

^.

^^ ^

before

summon

;,

^

"

(r)

l^v-J

o

^sff'

'^*^

.oj_^.tf'i-^*;

-•

jjJOJylc'x J^«

270

PUSHTU MANUAL.

What is a

(3)

What

settlement ?

benefit does it confer

on the people

and

rights

share

the

Is this

Not

always the same

?

I*

^1.1)

of

revenue paid to Government.

»i Xi •iui

'^•-^'^

{^y^j

It fixes all

?

LS^ ^5'^:^V^ ^jlS^.

so.
* <o

There

(4)

lands

well

lands that

i^^

one rate on

is

on

another

;

flooded

are

;

a

separate one on maira crops.

Then

sugar-cane

gives

a

larger profit than mustard.

Cotton

A

is

also

taxed

less.

separate charge falls

yi Jb

<Xj

_

^J)

iXjJU

8 J

<LU.^ Xj

on
*{j! T'f

l-^:* l-^:^^

'^-'"^

;'^'^t^.-!

each produce.

Who

(5)

are you,

Khan?
^J

I

am

the lieadman of

What

zana.

is

-^5^.

^^

-ci^

Kha-

your busi•'s-

ness

now?

the

police

I

am

going to

station.

house was broken into
night.

away

The

thieves

took

2,000

rupees.

Do

you expect
thing

?

My
last

to recover any-

(*)•

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

The Thauadar

(6)

is

loved by the people.

say he

is

a friend of thieves

bad

and

not

They

He

characters.

shuts his eyes to their bad

They

deeds.

him

give

share of the plunder.

a

It is

no wonder then that crime
daily

increases

^i^

{j^y=^

^

3

^ou ^ia j^i
^

- L^yji tr=^.
is.>

^j jCj^,

in.

Snipe

Duck
the

,

'^1

J'Jl'^i^
,-

\/

>^>V

It ^

u*^ J'<

JS

^,

^r'

lt^

^ ij^

What game is procurable now ? Do you want
(7)

on

>

^..

-^-

,

t'^ ^"^

abundant

j_^j

.

"^

(Xj-

,,_
^^

••

district.

have come

^

^

(i)

i&^

^o

^!-XJ^

k

this

in

partridge or chikoor?

j^'ji^^o

j^ 3

,

^ ^

'

271

are

Oabul

.

H

xj^

...

^.

^-^'^^^^-^'^- ^^'^

(v)

.

...j

^

'sTc^^';^^
-

^J^j lj^'^

"<,.

^j^

xj^

&L ^^^1

i^L

,

H

/

.

^

i^^jj

1/ '

,

.

"

river.

"'

Geese can be found

Fish either at

near Pabbi.

Abazai or Nausatta.

-^^
TT

»-^::

^1

Tell

the

Shikari

take you to Mathra.
will find quail there.
j

in

to

^'ou

Hare

the open plain.

Sand-

the

water,

grouse

near

^J^
i

*

(8)

"

.

-

'

-

i^^'^

^

1***^ iXAwjJ

f-^j-'A

-.f

,

JCj

l,>

,-'f >

^j:j^^'^f^.l' '^'l^^'^ (^)

^.^^ ^ ^iU _ ^j^^ j
"'
"

jj

^

-L/^V^'^L^^.r^^'-i^r*'^
v^

ri

^^^Z -^c^^^J ^^J^

272

PUSHTU MANUAL.

Bustard close to the

hills.

Markhor just below Lakka

jijJ

^

and

Shoot straight,

Sar.

r
'

do not miss.

(9)

Your

ordered

to

will

march

Malakand,

It

Saturday.

inspects

Be

Friday.

very

everything

What

you

hundred

hundred mules,

(10) Tell
all

.^lU

your bunuias to

^jU

It

is

the

season, so lots of

be wanted.

winter

wood

will

yJl

.

^

r

^^

;,

,^

'^

^

"

fii '^'

^j.<.L .

-

l^/

^^^^U

'^'

<)G'

^.^

^^

^

,

••

(J•:^-^ ~ ^^j^

^ ^J:>^^J^,
"s-

^

Sr'

"

o'*'^^

-'

-

.^^ ^,

^
i?

.

"^

^-^^-^

supplies ready at

Taru, Nowshera, and other
stages.

n
''

^j^iy^Kx^ (0

i^

.

^^

r

hundred camels.

have

•^L^ ^

ready.

do

One

five

carts,

on

it

careful

is

transport

require?

six

is

on

The General
that

regiment

- S:^^'^

y'-^Uio

J-

J-^i-

^^j^i

(i.)

273

COLLOQUIAL SKNTENCES.

LESSON XXIV.
H.

is

S.

Pushtu.

(1)

Who are you? What

the

name

How

of your villap-e

from here

far is it

You

(2)

villaoe

is

goes to

it,

^

\

?

CSyL

'

r

,

^^^
..

the right or the

*

J

-'

-

r

It climbs the

is

straight.

stones

You

will find

trees.

an ambush of

Mohmands, 394 men;

the

sj

jG ^^uili^l

..^

ridge; there

and big

are

(^

,

t

j^

^

i-

o

"Sr^*^

;

a;i-KJ

yi

(r)
-

.,/

....

-

^Jt

^-

^

- ^^"^ ji

,•

^,

i*
^

^i

"

-

v.

('')

.•

j^ ^ ^j

,

"''

-

^

»J \S^JiJ
^

The road

C^

^^j r-

\

t^

'^.

J^^^>)^^'^
••

•,

road

^

left-hand one ?

(3)

0)

i^

'

^ ^

?

say that your

Which

j

J^
''

lOi kos from here

to the north.

October, 1897.

,

...

night will be dark.

(4)

them?

,How can we escape

Can we go through

the fields
steep

No, there

?

cliff

is

find ravines.

/

^
^

a

in front of you.

2| kos in front you

^Jcls- ^i^^XL^i

-j*

Jcc

i-

/-

^^
<^'^j<^

(i*)

c

.

-?*-•

\j^
(

-

^^

1

?^
^ *>

\ 1c

>\

^

^
* ja,^

J

^

^

(w^^^:'.

will

^

jcj

j^«

J .i- Aids.) 1/4*^

274

PDSHTU
Praise Grod

(5)

!

we have

were wounded, and no one

They

.

•"'^

was

killed.

not

-

good

shots, but fine swords-

'

are

,,

^^

^

.

^

-^

heaamen

The

(6)

will

to give hostages,

stopped.

-

.

V'-^*

,•,*/.

i/.

«

»

him

Tell

to

the maize crops.

cut

Place

Break the ploughs,

floors.

^ e;'^

/

,

j5;'^t"

"^

.:

;

my

brought

I

'^
v

''^.Ij;

v..

body.

bare;

I left

home.

I

my

was

he had

leet

were

missed.

the

^

^j?!;

^^-'-^^is

..
-

Ai^
-T

•:

jyj^

^^ ^;^

,

kJ

^-

"'

\^^ j ^^

"-*

(0

xl*

^ ^i

^^^

.l

^

-pj

.

(J>^'

^

J^

'

^J J^

j^'^^^j^u,^.^^.;y"

'^^'^.

^^^^^ ^\^^

/

me, he

and

1-:

...

^i

-

so near that,

guide

\

kJ^^^ -^^ij'^'^vh.j^^

- \^y^..;i

would have hit me; but he
at

*

..

sandals at

fired at

''^^ - ^_5*" '^^.

f

and wore a grey sheet over

My

i

^

'

# ^»

pistol,

i-"

"

,

^^^

^

i

*

and shoot the bullocks.

(7)

»

i

"

sentries over the threshing-

fired

m

.

Cils:!^^! Jju.^J
j

^^;^5 cUi»^,

and

the tribal allowance will be

if

(e)

-'

have

my

.Lt

-'-'

J^<

.

men.

all

^^

^'jo- j

<<»-

Only seven men

'

escaped.

-MANIJAT,.

t^^'-^l;

.. ^^.lioj
-

^

,

275

rOLLOQUIAT, SENTENOES.

The

,(8)

two

village has

quarters, the upper

and the

My

grand-

lower

ones.

father is the

He

man.

at

noon one

year in the

last

head-

senior

He

coming again this year in
His betrothed

autumn.

.

-r../

.

i

"

SP

i-?^j

^

*

ij-^ y

is

{^)

<

uLxLo

i^"^

.

SrP

j^

^

ij;^

^^.

J'^

...

spriiia;

from across the border.
is

/

a grey-beard.

He came

(9)

day

is

j^j ^sJS n^d ^J^ J

_

^"

-

-^

^^^

'^^J^-

^

^^

^^

'^

j^« fj -tJJ J'^**' - ^^'j ^ i^^^
^sS

dciU.

J^AJ^..

,^1.

,^;

there.

(10)

There was a raid on

Shei-pur.

They hid

m the crops.

An

old

woman

saw them and raised

the

The hue and

cry

aHrm.
went
seized.

out.

1

^J^ ^^ jy'jrt^

^^.

('•)

arms

was wrongly

^^

^_J^ _
i

"^

^1

t

,_5^

» ,

>

••

^^^ JJl^

<);5..«

*

••^'rr>
<sj'

>•>••

^

^jl^

^i^

lj-v

'rry

v-s

-

sp

t2

5

Ai^

.1

PUSHTU MANUAL.

276

LESSON XXV.
H.

Pushtu.

S.

May you
What village
not be tired.
May you not beis this?
(l)OPathan!

come poor

It is

!

Whose

(2)

April,

^^j^

?

many

am

sons

have you

Khan,

Zabta

lambardar.

I

?

head

of the

son

the

who was

How

married?

you

killed in the fight

He

grandfather.

man.

celebrated

was
I

a

have

married two wives, and have
three

is in

The

sons.

7^ years

old,

(lS^ J

^

(•)

(

.

* ^_^d r>^(^^juu.

^-

^

j

J

_ ^^'^<

(,)

-j,"

^L^-V/i^
y^^ 3

1

i^ \
^^ ^^^^

/

^

-^j^S^i?

*^l'
^ L^'i

^^-

U"^ '^^^

"

^

j^

t^-^J;

^^^^^^

r'

^^S^jj^^^CJixs^i^JrJ^^^iji^s^

my

was

with the Buners,

ii;;^^!

v
^^
^^ -^^^^^^M

AVho was your grandfather ?
Are

'•

^

Spinkamr.

son are you

1898.

,

^^^d ^_^j^
,

-r

t

eldest is

^

the youngest

*

/

,

.

^"

^^'

^

j,^!^

^

^

^^^
\

i.

^

"^

L>^>i..>

,

.•

i

u^} -s^

.

...

"

^"C"'

»

/

^^t> Jb^>»>^j

^/-^J^^^

arms.

(3)

Are your lands good

Have you

Our he Ids

S ^_^J ^_^4;

unirrigated.

The

locusts

have

done

much

They

come and eat the

.^^

,

,.

^""^

Lf^'V'.
ii/

\

••

^^^
,

t)

>

-

are

mostly

harm.

^

good harvest

a

this year ?

?

.

-

^

i^^"*^

,^-^ ^«
/^

(

^_c*J
i

.

j"^
,

v

constantly
corn.

*

y^J^ '^ i^

ci^l; ''^'^^M^

277

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

To whom do these

•.(4)

belong

nills

hills are

Do

your

there?

The

?

graze

cattle

^^J

country,

and do not belong to

us.

The Alam Khels make us
pay one young goat yearly.

They oppress us much.

Where

(5)

Michni

is

the road to

Do you

?

gap in the

hills

white

?

stone

see that

and that

The

passes to the left of

the black

foot can go along

under

it.

Aurang Zeb Qasmi
Katlang, Mardan.
subject specialist
GHSS NO1 Mardan
Post the

Stand!

(6)

it

road

Horse and

cliif.

sentries on all the hillocks

round

the

Make

camp.

walls to the north and west.

The

tents are white, and can

be seen from afar on a clear
night.

Put

over them.
will

grey

be a moon,

enemy

sheets

To-night there

will shoot.

and

the

U

J

(Jij^yi

J

I

I

'^^Z

within the borders

Alam Khel

of the

S

•S:?>'*'-^

J

(i*)

I"

>Aam

PUSHTU MANUAL.

278

How many

(7)

will

YOU give us

men

old

hostages

— sons

^%}^^J

^

^^

-^-

of

cUi/i y^

L_-^r^U

The

J

Jss

but we must
is

cross

a ford, but

is

strong,

There

and many men may be

lost

Get

in-

if

a

flood

comes.

skins

flated

together

ropes,

and

place them under the bank.

(9)

How many

horses,

camels, donkeys and sheep

arecollected?

Chaff, gram,

^_jo

,

\

"^^

"

>

^'y^^

^^, ^j^^

a .i-

.

,M

,

'"

,

>C

^^

^^_

>

SP

^j^

^-'^s)

j ^^^

j g,^j^

^^^

.<xj^l^ (0

^^'.4,^^
,

^,

ii

/>

o* J^

'''i;^

>
-

,

^

>

jo

(^)

\

-

iyj^^^

j' »-?

^^^ jJo

•^^

j^j^j

^>>v^-

them

tie

;

with

^

dangerous,

it is

^J dJ j ^

y>

*

it.

river

^•••••

-'^-V

ance will be stopped.

(8)

i")

,

If

of influence?

not, the tribal allow-

you do

S

^

l^^^^^^^^^J

f

^^

^^^^

^^

,

^

and every kind of fodder
will be

wanted

(10) This is

for

my betrothed.

did not take place
time,

as

lLX)^.

^

them.

She was given me by her
The wedding feast
uncle.
proper

''•^.^j

at

she

"^

-

^j _

'^'^

^^

'^^

^y]^

^1

tj/^

1/

^^^

^1^

j

'

Jj^

'

^
i

'

the

d.'^

was

bi^^^

S-^^-^*
,1.'

.

'^

(

''^

'^-

wT^^-

v Sr^'^J'*

J-a^^ <x»-<x^

»^

*<)6
j

279

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
enticed

away by her

This will

eive

blood-feud,

lover.

^

See

ing.

If

if

there

is

Look

at

you missed

!

the dog and hit the hen.

She

will not lay

yy

^>)

-i/y

J>

^i

^^

"

^!^<^.^
^")

^5^
,-

"^^

\

\

^ ^

i^fr '^j4-x^i^

.

v(

^^

'•ia*i?

^1

s^y

'

y\--

^

>

"
<

j

It is raining heavily,

Yesterday there was astrong

\

"

^^-^

kJ H"^

^ d^ ^^ ^

^^'^ J^j^. jij^j

y;^/-: •

J^^\i)

_ ^^

'

wind.

snow

It

is

^

probable that

will fall

on the high

l5^

,'<$

*

(12)

\-

"'

any more

eggs, for her leg is broken.

/

^

s^^-cj^

(/^J

a thief.

throw a stone

not,

them.

are bark-

,.

^-'

••

*

The dogs

»^

o)

- {<^^

i^^i)
,

ashamed.
(11)

^j^-Si

'^

am

I

for

a

to

rise

<o

^.

y;/

^-'V

(

I'

8 ^>M
i

"*'

.)^^ ^:i^
..

'j^ *:

^
(*^^

s^-'

LESSON XXVI.
H.
(1)

Is

I

Pushtu.

Where' do you

live ?

from here?

Yes,

it far

live

S.

at

from here.

Nurpm-,

15 kos

October, 1898.

J^i*/ ^ '^/^ ^'^
u
^ ^^ - ^

S^^^l
^
'

r,

^

u^-*- 1_^^^

t

^^L^^/^J^

J

*

'"^

.

')

PUSHTU MANUAL.

280

Ou

(2)

what

business

Have you

have you come ?

What

got any companion?

your tribe

is

that you are a

you look

(3)

am

I

I have

man.

to

l^U.

shall buy that

and this black one.

I

any shooting
Yes, there

are lots of duck

and snipe.

If you go to

the left-hand

road to

the jheel on
side

of

game.

(5)

On

the top of that

hillock there is a large fort.

On
is

the further side
a

village.

It

I

1

^^:>^^
'i

,

.

^'

-'

.

7-

l)^

^^
-

"

'^o'

^

'^'^ "

^^

"

^

^

-

i--,

^

^^>^
.-.<«

"^
"

^'^4'

<>L)

y

j^^ii:

...
'^
-

j^

,.

^d

^

Aib^

..

^

^" <o

*.

"

(h=)

fj

^^"

/-

.

'

T^"^ '^J^

d^Xv, ^li

^^

^"(>i^

*

1

^^,

'•^

>

l5

i*-?.

.

.

jm\A.

W

''^

^

.

^^

j^

_,

^'"'

.

Jcli,

..

,

<r^

S

^

t

there

has four

<J

^

^

^

»j^ (U'^'.V^

the

Mooltan, you will

j

* i/^

Is there

*

'

-^

They

in this country ?

find

'

..

,

are fat.

(4)

.^

^ j_^

^1

the

one

white

tT

('')

^) JJ *^^ j

S

j.

My

bullocks have died.

-

v

,

^

a poor

come

buy bullocks.

city to

own

!

thief,

rifle

.

^

i^

^J^^b-J^"-^ 'f^'^J

an Afridi.

like

No

suspect

I

?

M

^'a-

\^^^^ J^

^c^

^'^

^Aa J
^

(e)

....

"-'

~
;__5i^

i_>'^>J

'^^

y.

'*^

^'
^y*-

281

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
Sarfaraz

q'larters.

tlie

is

headman

of the

southern

quarter.

He

a

He

man.

when he

(6)

is

young-

will be a tyrant

is old.

Why

are

«^b "^.^y^

J; ji^

(l)

There has been

running?

The

a raid.

men

the

have

Afridis

driven off 225 head of cattle.

J'.«

^

(^L

y.

^^L

3

^

They wounded five men with
One man may die.
swords.
The watchman has put him
on a bed and has taten him
His arm is
to the hospital.
cut

off,

and his shoulder

is

wounded.

* 5J

(7)

The road has many

trees on each side.

it

go to?

river at

bridge.

^It

S

(v)

It is a

Where

straight one.

AJ'o .s^^.jl^J-L;^^

^y

cresses

does

the

Sherpur by a boat-

On

bank there

is

the

further

a sandy plain.

You can only go

slowly there.
*L5'^ S^^'

;;.*

>V^ '^'^i Sr/"

282
(8)

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Very

well,

lead

my

mare

after

me.

I will walk.

Tell

the

syce

to

put the

it

will rain.

blanket on, fur

-•

Juu.!
,

^'
'

^

Wind your turban round ray
gun.

It will get wet.«

JJ-i

i^S)
.

^^^
^}»^

^

JC4.

^
-

^"

^

)M^
>

i^)

.

-'>'

.

,

^5

t^j^^^ ^ *^

-;
<^,

283

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
if

>

any guns or property

^

is

stolen.

^;^j
^

\

\

^^-.^'i

^^.

S-''«^*''
f

-

\

^^

LESSON XXVII.
H.
(1)

What

in

Bazar.
I

tribe ?

Your

your

name?

live ?

I live

is

Where do you

PosHTa.

S.

What is your
am a Khusrogi.

people

great

are

April, 1899.

&i.:>.

^

C^
\

i

neither lands nor cattle, and

^

if

we do not

rob,

we must

\

,)

(2)

How

far is

top of the Pass?

and a half kos.
steep?

Yes,

it

to the

It is

but

laden

mules

can -pass

over

When

you get

the

to

can you see Tangi
's

hidden.

two

Is the road

?

it.

it

.c

.^

.-.

{^i

'

j}

^

^

_

^f^

..

/
J ^.J
\

c5**''^

-^

^

^

'

^.J

J^-

^

J^ ^
~— ^
"

^^ Sr>;;^
t"^

^J ^^j

\

-^^^

..

^

<f'lz

J -<

\

&:i.>

. i^

^
\

i-.

.

i

,'

iJ^^

^ ^^>

^r'^-^

^^ «

^^j

s^

,.

-

V*-?^ ^y*"

top

No,

/

,

^

<^ JJ^- '^^

i«--^s-wo _

starve.

->

.

y7

,

,

.awj>-

^

" ^

"

we

Sahib,

T^
o^

*j.

have

robbers.

"'

\^\i d^ d ^^ j)

""'

^

^""^

^^^j

"^
^^^
i^
^^ijJ^i

"-'

^ ^/)

(^^ ^ s^

^

^•

PUSHTU MANUAL.

284

What

(3)

That

is

crops

are

village is that

grown

Indian

!and

all

\j^j

What

Booria.

wheat
the

Is

corn.

.

-j^^-z^

some land depends on

^tj;/

Why

rice ?

^

The water-tax

any shikar

in the neiahbourhood?

{J)

Yes,

you

In the desert you will come

-^

c

••

is

that

man?

Thatisthe Deputy-Inspector
of Police.

What

inghere?

Sahib, there was

is

he do-

a murder in the village last

"

.

^

Was

there a

No,

was

dark.

it

moon ?
Where

was the crime committed

?

In the southern quarter of
the village.

Why

^^ l/^

<lS.^M)

i

have the

j

,

"*
'*'

^^"^ cJyL

i^
S^-^
-^^

usr^ ^

&ia

^j^
-

iji^d

^

')i\j^'^

••

••

J'

^h

y^

^^.y^

-^

^

'


"^

i

,

'^

(o)

^c3 ^

^

Jii »i

,

^

I^w^^^-c

'^^

<^

_i^
i^A*^ '

',<

2S.

night.

(^)

^

i/

•.

^^^ u^^^.^

^^'^'^

H ^Tj^

Who

^i^J
^^^^^^^

lil^ ^^^?.

(^il^'o^

houbara and sand-

grouse.

(5)

y

will

some snipe and duck.

across

J ^^
^:
v

l5-

y ^-i^^

(^^^

^Srlr^

[^^'^ - ^'^^'*^

I

in those rice-fields
find

^J^

is excessive.

Is there

(4)

^^^

^

S:^

^.5

^

-

,/

i

^

[^^-^ -

j^

^. 1^_^

rain,

do you not grow

,

^^

^

(

No,

irrigated?

^

.

,

(r)

J^ ^^i" JcAa

^i_?5

^

the

by

villagers? Sugarcane,

and

?

^ <S^ ^^-^

|»/>\

'

.

,

-

u^^

'-?.

'

lt>

l^ 'n

^

J ^/-T <Ji^

<?

- »;

^J^ ^

x »

-

u

^

..

J>>

'^*^

U^>^

"

^^

'^
S:>;

285

OOLLOCiUlAI) SENTENCES.

pjolice

men

arrested all those old
It is useful to

?

S^j

annoy

l»jJ

J.

'^

'

>,

,

^_jj,

.^juu.

/

rich people.
9

(6)

at

The regiment marches

daybreak to-morrow.

^'^ ^y U^

Is

••

.^

*

jj

there a bridge at Abazai, or

TT

»

.

("i)

(_^;A.-;

/

»

have we to cross in a boat ?

t^^

^^. - ij^lj^l. ^.

There

i.^

:

is

a boat which

worked on a rope.

is

Tell the

.

^

"

lA-J

food for the day with them.

_ ^1^]^.

colonel's horse

this morning,

stumbled

but the sahib

'

'^

'

'•^^^

raiding party

is

hidden in

the hills close by.

They

are

about 50 strong.

How

are

they armed"'?
martinis

A

few have

and sniders, but

and

Tell the

Subadar that the

matchlocks,

>

^ ^}i

^

y,

^ ^^ji^

J^

"'

ji-

^'^J'^Aj

- »t3 ^*.;

a

Sjlj

.

s

^'^

.

''^^^

.•

^

;

<^

\

•^•
"*^^^J
.

f

<^

^

y j"^ <^J^ ^l

^ j^_^

,j^ Ji

^>

^-^

"

^^^i.

(^^

^^

s^.*

ei^^

C/i3JU

^

^ ^

,

S:^/
'*^^^^.
.

i-

..

^ c/';^

the rest have only muzzleloaders

H

,

y^^'..^

It is reported that a

i;-

^-^'•^ J:^^/ '^ j^-'

was not hurt.

(7)

3],-^.

v"*

"_

^

(v^

'^^

rear-guard they must have

The

*

;•:

^

^
../>

{J

-^ '^'^

^^ ^_^^

j^^

POSHTU MANUAr-.

286
must

sentries

be

Make

to-night.

doubled

.

hedge

-

a

J x\j^

may

be

J »^^

'^jo

.v.

*

,

to- ^J.
^

^

,

\

^

^

of thorns near the guard.

After dark no fires

^

J^ ^

^j;^

^_;f

^j-i

;J^'

LESSON xxvin.
H.

(1)

How

Pushtu.

S.

far is it to the

camping -ground?
about
Is

two

It

hours

is

a good spring about

200 paces to the

east,

^^t>

!5..«^^

i_$)

"

is

march.

there plenty of water?

There

October, 1899.

-

,

^^"
^^^^
^

^\

v

.

y

What

obtainable

?

the

above

>•'

There

is

are

a

^

t^^^^

and

the

Ghilzais can supply wood,
grass, sheep, milk, fowls

eggs.

and

^^J^-.'.

'^^

Ay'^
_

-u^i?
«'

^

(r)

^'^

^y^.'^

"

Lr*

.

1*^ ^•

^^

y'tf^

.^^.%],

"^

>

"^^

...,
'

3^

^^^
*

>^^j

.

..

\

v';

i^

••

^

,

"^
;

* ^^

supplies

north,

.

Ghilzai camp about ^ kos
to

.^

^ ^'^j^ ^

the water-mills.

(2)

(i)

^

^

^. \^^-.

^l^j

"^

'^ ^'
<_5^^^^

.

^/l
-

u%^

287

COLLOQUJAL SENTENCES.
„(3)
rlie

The

patrol will go

up

t.d &i

valley as far as the top

Do

of the Pass.

the water-shed,

.

,.

as that

independent

is

is

-^^ ^'« ^J^ljyi

What

is

-^ '.
"

territory.

Tell the Daffadar to be

(4)

back

that firing

?

^ ^_sd

of

them

are very good

j>^

J ^^j

c[s.

H

l/**^

n

!

»

^

.

.

1

v'
-

ls-^ l5^^
j^

'^-:

(t^)

1/ ^

t

shots.

'^

a.^

^ se

" "^

"

s,-^

^

-<

L»^

.^

'*'**

'

^

.

'ii'

,

the village firing at marks.

^j^..f.

'

''^'^

^^

-

^-^

"t

t

^

,

It is only the youns- nien of

Some

^,

not cross

our boundary, and beyond
it

c:^'i*^ (r)

aj

,-,'..;

t^j l5^'
t

1

>

V

Li

(5)

Sahib,

week's leave

My

I

a

u^^'r.

without pay.

1

grandfather died yester-

d^ay evening,

and I

am

his

If I do not go home,

heir.

my

want

I

cousins will

seize,

Why

cultivated

?

*

^^ x^

^ j

'J.

^^J^^C

is

:^'"

v\

-^

'

3

^J

this land not

^,^

••

••

j*«i».^

x^ _

^-

«^>V'>[*
.

the

inheritance.

(6)

'^

^\
r

^'^^'^-^

-''

J^ ^1^ ^^^ Ij

'*^-'

5

|;

^^^^

^i)

Sahib, the land
JO

above the water-channel
barren, because

is

we cannot

,

^is^

'^

Jyc

Xs^

J
"

L ^j

""
b.'w^

'

a^Lcj

sj

PUSHTU MANUAL.

•28S

get water on to

land

the

drouo'ht

the

to

and owing

it,

J
^

been

has

there

water in the

so

river.

^

^y

snowing now

on the tops of the

sLkj

&i

^^i

^

^ ^.J-jx

'

- ^yi c5^'^

hills.

^

J,

great

.^^

di^

s.i:

J>i^

thieves ; besides, the leopards

(9)

off

Why

our goats.

are you throw-

ing stones at him

?

t

He

is

my

^1^

brother-in-law,

^"^

'

^

^

^''

"
.

!*"

^i2i

^/

t
'

^^^

I

a)

,&

'^^'-O^

\

^'^^-

^

'^^

^^

~

uW

^J^

^!j J,^

&

^\-

\

^
.

,^^^

^
^ ''^

j _^^1^I a^jj

1^

-^

^.3

^

^

jc^

j^jj'j^.'^

Sahib,

he abused and struck me.

L^

^^

and wolves are very bold,
and carry

"

^

J

^j

^^

are

u'"'*^

i^ iJJ-i ^^

)^ i"

hills

t<j

"

^r

the

^iiku,

^^ ^;, ^^^ .^^ _

(8)We always send cattleescorts when we send our
The people
cattle to graze.
of

^

^

-

'

'

think we shall have a storm
It is

^'ji

\

little

(7V It is thundering, and
I
the sky is very cloudy.

to-night.

^.y

u/

below the channel has not

been cultivated this year, as

^

y^

_ ^}h>^j

.1

j;^

j'

U'^'ji

j:Aa

(1)

^

,

.

^'^^ |J>Aj

"^
^_^5

289

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
quarrel whenever

ard we

6 meet.

I did not strike

Aim.

(10)

old

One man and one

woman have been

killed
-i.a

two

and

seriously

people

^/i>

t^;-

^y,

-J^s***

The

wounded.

of the

.1

children

little

village

will

have to pay the blood-money

and wound-money and a
of Rs.

fine

The maliks

1000.

will be held responsible for

the payment of the whole

amount within one month.

(11)

A

raid

op.Thursday.

took

place

o)

i^j

fj

ci^ljj 3

(i i)

Two buffaloes

and forty cows were carried
otf.

The

raiders,

said to be the

who

are

Gumatti out-

laws, went off in the direction
of

the Waziri border.

pursuit party from

A

Kanda

village went after the raiders,

but were unable to recover
the cattle, being only armed

with flint-lock guns, while

^}

S/J'"

Li^: u>u'^

^^'

L^

200
the

PUSHTU MAN A L.
[I

raiders

had martiuis

^'

(12)

^^^-^^ i^-**^^

jj

and sniders,

-P

,

Did not the

villagers

warn

the

Post?

They beat a drum,

Border

^je-^

f

\

^^

»^"

/<

^K

_^''*"

t.

t

3 (ir)

Police

•S:^/j^^

man to
men there

but did not send a
the post, and the

did nos hear the noise of the

drum because of the wind.
The cavalry patrol saw the
raiders from a distance, but

J ^^^ 5

could not

^'^:^j

the

attack them, as

paths were

very bad

^^^^

^^

I

j\/\ J^.^

3

^J

^ h^'^

e:^^

j (^^ ^ ^^
i^)

^^^

and their horses could go
only very slowly.

. s^j. aj

••

''

t/J^'"'

"

'•^J^-'^

^} ^ J^

'•rr'jf

291

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
the camels with

on with

and we

the

tents

advance guard,

tlie

out the

ride

will

march, starting about

first

mid-day.

I

will

the

ride

>''j: Lf-!^""-?^;

_

tMJ

,.lU

t

^

^.p-'a^

^

^JT^^Jt^'"

fC

grey mare, and you can take

We will

the bay.

greyhounds with

may

as

us,

OJ

we

possibly see a hare or

two on the

(2)

plain.

Had you

earlier I

told

me

would have come
I could not help

yesterday.
iu.

take the

I sent

a

man

to

you

^hree days ago, but he lost
his way.

He

says that he

met a party of
hid in a cave

raiders,
all

and

night to

escape them, but this

Sj.<

<xi

v^c

<t=^

,-Jl«

_

JcAa

may

V

S

be merely an excuse.
J..

...

>/ V

...

u'-^y^

- [*r^

C^-'r!

y

U^

"02'

••

(.v^

^

292

PUSHTU MANUAL.
Wliile the regiment

(3)

were encamped

l^}jii

Jt..

|^!i^lj^ ^_J^ J (r)

at Pabbi, on

the night of Thursday 2nd

some

instant,

thieves

rifle

cut a hole in the guard tent

and

stole

at,

a

outside

sentries
fired

two Lee-Me^ford

and

rifles

bolt.

The

the

camp

the thieves as they

were running away, and,
is

it

believed, hit one, as blood-

stains

were

nullah

this

found

in

the

On

morning.

the same night two boxes of

ammunition, one of blank

and

one

of

empty

ilA;, "^
Aji^clt)
3^ ^y^'"" y-ix O

cases,

L/^^y

were stolen from the railway
station at Novvshera.

said

the

that

It is

rifles

and

ammunition were smuggled
'

across

the

frontier

hidden

in cofiins.
(X..

i-Jlc

<)L«

^J

^^^

J^

(jj^o'j

^1}^Ju>

M

il

Jy.tjji.^

yj^.
(4)

about
raided

A

raiding

the

party

of
'^"^

seventy

Aka Khels

mills

of

the

t5 n!^

J,-^ .3

8jl

^J^

J^ivl^lyb'

M
io_j)

^

S

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

^

j ^^^

village of Landai a fortnight
(^;J

They carried

ago.

off

293

about

^

^^

^

twenty loads of flour and

V"^

H

i^

^Ji^

which they loaded

^j^

^- Jjj ^^
"

^.^'

wheat,

on

There

donkeys.

''

were

tracks of flour all the

ij

^} J^ H

way

to the border.

^"^

tj-i-

J^

J/j'^

^

^j^i
*

j^ ^

^^,^_,

,^)

^

"

l^'^

^If.

^i O-^vJJ

1-

The

(5)

regiment

will

^'o-^'j,^

jo

11/.
break
sance

Jo

J5,ot^

a

reconnais-

towards

Shabkadar.

lor

J

ci^'i^

^

•'

^.^j^

,'o <!c.i^:;lj

" ^

."

taken

on

regimental

^^*

^

^^^

transport.

No

tents will be

jo ^_cj^

j:j

No

taken.

wheeled trans-

can be taken, as the

port

unmetalled roads are very

<

e;];

heavy, owing to the recent

^

ram.
(6)

How

do you

your tribal subsidy?
are

eleven

section,

elders

portion to

them

^''^*')

^a

^^

^

''^

<^v

is

^'^^

,;;i^ ^-^^ (...ou.
^r'V-'^
^; S5^

^

s^*^

i-Sj^..j)

^^^

"

U^

[j-i^ U*^)--

^^^ ^_,^^£

i,.

(i)

^

'

>

- ic*^

ir

'

^^^^ ^^ ^.

in pro-

.,

^

There

my

.

^
^

L_ .A5v.^«^'i J^vi- j^U

in

,t\ajk*i

7

_^^»i'jcliji

divide

and the subsidy

divided anpong

<)i"

..

^(.5^-?

j

(.ySf^

,,

^^"

<Kj
••

Supplies for two days will

be

(c)

jT.;;!.^.

to-morrow at day-

parade

^^j,*^y>./>

3j'

"l^ J^.3 ^-^'-^
^^^^^^llj 3^i_ &=^ji

"^'^

number of

the

fighting

men

My own

share

a year.

I divide this

of each family.
is

91 rupees

among

'^'^

,

$"

^

..^

-

.

PUSHTU MANUAL.

294

my own

relations, giving $

to

be divided among those

of

my

am on good

I

terms.

small

settling

Tirah

way

of

disputes

in

The usual

the case to

is to refer

some mulla, who

is

supposed

to give his decision accord-

Muhammadan

ing to

is

(8)

j;

to the famine

Punjab,

are

rates

^j

j,^,^,

^^S^j^^J^

district

—wheat

is

8|

seers,

12 seers to the rupee.
crops in

been

the

good

but the

district

J ^^ ^ ^^,
l^

j^^^sl^'

^y

^j (v)

^^

,

^^

^^

"

^
c:^^^ S ^ j ^
-^

f

^

^^-^ ^/fJ^ f

^^^y

^

JT7^

^^

y.

.,

J

'^Jj^ J u^'^

J "-r^^^i ^

las^

-xJ

^*

x

^

Jl«

{^^

^^^

,.^.

*

(0

^;^^

f^ '^^/j-'^

J"^ Tv
^1

^J^

y*

^ ^^Lsj ^^

^^.l.O
f^^'>

have

and plentiful

poorer people

do

down country

^ ^d

&>_

jciyili-^^ly^y^^O ^-^.^^^
"
,^

'^i.

^M J

aj

^'^^j^

^

^^

.

I

grain, instead of being sold

^'^^i-

;

y'3J^J!

The

not benefit by thiSj as surplus

here, is sent

.

^

, ^^
^3 ,^
^^
> r
J

^V W*^ji f-"^

.

*.'.

,

"^

very high in the Peshawar

barleyl3^seers, Indian corn

.

u^

u^!.;

*

Owing

the

.

^'

bribed.

in

^^

^l/lj^
,

•'

^j'i'^

law,

but in most cases the mulla

.

^

*

(7)

.

.,

cousins and nephews

whom

with

^^

^^}^

^1

Ch.j

6 i^J

^^'^

.i

^

^ y A*

-v

O,^,

1^ d J

\J' -J

^

^^ J-^

295

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.

The new

(9)

will

settlement

begin next spring, and

will last through the

summer

and possibly through

A

autumn.

considerable

the revenue

increase in

is

much waste

as

expected,

the

^

<i(LL.

^li ^-c^

.JuJ'-j

;

j>^

and barren land has been
under

brought
by

the

new

cultivation

opening

of

the

Some Pesha-

canal.

war bankers have

^

y*! JJii-Ji

^A_^

&~>>-<j

jyX-ii.

^i'*"

)y^l

y

'^

-

'^

1^^"

5

'^*^

become

wealthy by buying up at a

»jUj-=»-I jcj

jLcI Jet

t>

^jiysXiyi

low rate lands which were
formerly valueless and are

now very

rich.

tions of the
ever,

claim

The

rela-

vendors, howrights

ij--^

^t)

(.^^A.^J

r"

V.)

^^

of pre-

emption, and the cases will

^.'j^/s>~ J

be heard by the Settlement

'^f t>

»i- _ iCii

lkxki*i

u^y u

ti

1^

Officer.

(10)

Owing

to the

rainfall the river

is

heavy

in flood,

and considerable damage

is

done to villages along the
banks.

In one village three

J
^7

^'^

J

s

!

L3' ^J

vc

j:.«

Jts^
s-JO_jl^

PUSHTU MANUAL.

296

houses were washed away

and some of the

Last night,

were drowned.

inhabitants

The

loss

of cattle too has

v\

\
•*--"
^

-''

\

^

Uy" ^"^ ^3jr ^J'^
JLo

joi,

s

^

(

-

L/**^

\^

di-

a

••

t

^

1

been great, and the bodies

cows

of

and

sheep^ have

been washed down in large

Some

numbers.
revenue

will

j

^i^ cj'^-^ J^.^ ^
^yi ^ii lJ^ i^ '^^ <-^;^'^

^'^

-?'

-

part of the

nave

to

"

.^

^^"

be

.,

.

^"

remitted.

LESSON XXX.
SPECIAL
H.

PAPER.

Pushtu.

S.

Ap-il, 1900.

(For Revenue

Occupancy

(1)

are

rare

in

tenants

Officers.)

'j)

the Peshawar

^jlc.J^
^

i

^'^

ij}jy*
"

.

i

t

\

>

v

.-v

^

Mardan,

*-

and mortgages are not heavy

^^^y

except in the Peshawar and

j^^ J^ j^ P C5^

District, except in

""-^^

^

'^J^

} J^-'^ U V*
j'

Hashtnagar Tahsils, which
contain

the

most valuable

lands in the district, and as

^

&c.

The

average

unin-

h"^
,

\

^
1

U^

-

^
jjj

^H^^

^j

^

^Jf^f^

t-^

'

'

'^

usual show the largest proportion ofalienation by sale,

'^

C

i

-

^

^^.^ J,L Jj

^-

^)

(^^J^^

s^'>S'

297

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
c'lmbered area per holding

10

viz.

fore

acres

sufficient,

when the

there-

is

especially

usually high pro-

portion of irrigated area

is

borne in mind.

J - i^j
/

,

••

^J
i

-

^J

duties of Tahsildars in the

^

Punjab

is to

supply

of

carriage to

arrange for the

troops

through their Tahsil

passing
limits.

This task has been rendered

somewhat

difficult

issue of orders

ment

by the

by Govern-

forbidding

;

during the recent

settlement has lightened the

burden of Tahsildars in this
respect,

and

most

of

the

Khattak carriers are always

^

<^

J^

»;ljJl

^

...
.

t_^y ^. <^'y^;^

^

j

^j^i.y

^

..

.

^^
"

i

'>'

JPj^J-^
^,

^

lt>

J^
\

,^

-

-'

'^J

-5^

t/y

^

"'

c:-v.wj^JJo

A ^-^ Joj 5
^^

-

^

c

j^

v

.^

^/•'^-?y C^^LS^
-

- u?^

^»=-

j

^

^

^^

^^

^

system introduced into the
district

^^

^

""i

^

.

^_^

forced

labour; but the "Zaildari"

Ci^a,^*^

^j^

SS ^_^0 J^'^

••

and

rations

».

v-p,

^^, (^,^ y ^V-?^.
"

of the principal

One

^

^

^^* J^*^

lS^)

7

.

v

»

(2)

/

^

v^ >

^)

i_sf..'^

~

^

^.J'^

J/ ;^

.^^Lud

(_^)^«^y

ci^^^jJu J^^\

^

^

^-

^'^J

'•r^r'

"r^J^

'^

\

2l^

<LXj^ j\i\d ^\^>i^^^^

'J'j^^^

uli^;^

Jil J

_

^S

298

PUSHTU MANUAL.

ready to help their " zail-

dars" in procuring

carria2;e.

The general grounds

(3)

oUj^b J

the

of

direction

enhancement of revenue can
be iustified

\--

few years, that cultivation

••

t

^

last settlement,

the

since

pacified

pletely

com-

and

life

"

•"

j^^

and

^^

r

^

v

;

'

^'^'^j

'^J'*'

"

^

!

^^1^

^,

'

•'

u*^ y^

^

^

i/

^

>

^

J-^

'

^^f

v.

•••k'

J*^

't'"^

•-'

^j^ ^^y^ ^^f

opening of new canals, that

\

-^

^-^"

..

''

^ U^:^^

^^^•:.'j

ij^f- ^t

has increased owing to the

the border has been

w

(r)

"

"

^^" "*"

J

"-^

••

are, that prices

have risen during the past

2^

^i^i) iks^ ci^'^Jtys-j
-i---

in

.Ui*bj!,

,

on which revision of assess-

ment

Jc^^^

^oii-

...

l:^w^^.j«jo

-

^

property on the whole are

more

secure,

and that com-

munications have been im-

proved by the opening

p

oi

railways and the construetion

of

roads

and

boat-

cJ^^J

^^-> (JU
^

(4)

The

great

difficulty

of private

L'J"*'
*_^

•.•

d^ ^'^Ij.y'^ ^ ^^^3^-^. y ij^
"^

/

i

^
^-^^

equitable distribution of the

,^

T

^

}^

us"^-?'
"

.

canals has always been the

»

-^

Bara group

''^'

lJ*^
u4*^
../

^

.i

\'

^

w

t

'^ 5

5''r-';
"^

bridges.

in the

^j^'o) ^-ju.)

.

"

\

i

5'

i^^

tJ*'

c;""

Sj^

^^.

\\-\

^

i

^

^^^

-r^,

'^

'•'

^"

»J

^},\

^l^

^

,

'j^.^

^

L/<*^

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
water-supply, which during
the

weather

hot

.

^

~\\
\

scanty.

It

possible

is

to

take out flood channels from
ravines, but they cannot be
solely

depended on

for irri-

The

g.ition purposes.

pro-

sanctioned by the

Govern-

ment of India, and the construction

^^j^

t^J^j

~^ ^

.

^ i>3i^
A),

J^

.

,.."'/

"

"'

t-5y

J^

^y>.

^

"-^^-

*

before long.

The canal has been

an enormous
land-owners,

boon to the

m

.

^ica Xj

i

^^l^

J^j**>
^

^^

'Jj

*

^

^

^^

^

L5^ j>?" ^jJ 3 c5^

/

.

r

\

r

"

many

^
(f

in

/-

^

(vjr^rf-^

.

\(

l))

^

accumulated

who

have

^ -

<J^J ^^^1*

^'^

.

.'*^<^

'^^

"

^j^'Jc\ ij^j ^j] j

be

shortly

will

taken in hand and finished

cases

."

^^^S^^ ^j'^

i^';

^-jui

^J,

new canal has been

ject of a

(5)

^

^^S ^^1

^^^

very

is

299

c:^v^^

(->«^

w;

•:!

\

i_5y

^.-O

^
.{,

I

.v

corsiderable fortunes out of

the profit?

arising from the

irrigation.

The waste and
lands

deserted

completely
irrigated,

have been

cultivated

and now

raise

bution of water
not

is,

distri-

however,

very satisfactory,

people

complain

a

The

large surplus produce.

arrangement for the

and

of

-

V^

]:

C^-

-

J-

^r'*'

.\^*

(_?^'
'

\

••

••

'^

U^3^

S:>;^

^-T- ^3^

JJ

j'

c^Uj ^
^f^ Jj^ ^ i^j
-

"

^-^

^^'^^
^
^

-

.

"

and
the

<Jx

^

^
<p

c

~

w

^J^

fA^*^^-^'**^.^'^^.

/

/

^

,

^

"^

\

lA-.j

^

^\

\

>

^

\

.

>

300

PUSHTU MANUAIj,
by

practised

irregularities

the subordinate officials of

the Irrigation Department.

You have no certificate

(6)

to

Sz^

^

^_5'^l<^

*s-

show that you* are the
representative of the

legal

and you

deceased,

cannot

therefore apply for an order

the

aside

set

to

you,

If

passed.

orders

however,

"

\

I

desire

"

that proceedings be

postponed

have

you

till

produced the required certificate,

if

I will do so

on the day fixed

but

;

for the

hearing of the case you do

..

<Lt

I

••

.

I

J^< J

t)

AiJb

.J

''

j^^

JO (_$ 1^

I
)

not appear before the court,

supposed

you

will

have

failed in obtaining the

be

and

certificate,

which

is

also

limitation,

will

the

Li'

jJLc

^li

k>

o)

^ji

jj_^

suit,

barred

be

to

by

given

8.'..0

,Jo
J^^J'

•^ AJi.^

J

Jis-

against you.

(

301

COLLDQUlAJi SENTENCES.
9

Kemember

(7)

that

when

the attachment has remained
in force for one

you have not
decree,

has

sold,

be bound to

do

I
so,

to dispose of the sale

proceeds

as

I

you to

with

think

decree-holder

and not to allow

the law to take
I give

your case

settle

the

privately,

this,

may

It is therefore better

best.
for

have the

to

property

attached
shall

and

and the decree-holder

applied

and

year,

obeyed the

its

you two months

after

^CU)

JO

<xl

O C^JUu

course.

j_^cXa< ,_5^^

for

which you must

attend the court.

(8)

In

all

cases in which

^^

U)

the police are accused of ex-

tortmg coniessions or maltreating

persons

arrested^

j.<,AJl«

.^

•^•'

;

i.^

,

,

,

^

^"

••

^-^J

J»j

^<)i*-

»Xj

(a)

..

>

^^

d^v<y

••

I

302

rusnTu manual.

the District Superintendent

J yj

sliould immediately proceed

^

to the spot

the

report

inquiry

to

c

the

'

District

Magistrate and the Deputy

-

\
'

^

2S«^'j

j

^j'"^

-^

1

••

.

••(

^
^jU

Ju,

j^ j ^ /j

^'ju^^"

^j

^'

'"^

"

J,

not be present on the spot,

but they should be given
every opportunity

is

^\^ \il^

,

^j^

J.j

C

-,

J

pro-

01

ducing their witnesses.
cross-examination

^^' ^ (^.^s^^jXLaS

No

neces-

^r

i?

'^i

u^A*

^jAii ^^jJ
>>

^.

-

4\;U

^..

.

.....

^Jji ^
^i'^

jo

"

r

(9)

After the

""
i

expiration

of the term of security, a

second security cannot

^^

i>L <t>-

be

demanded, except on some

new proof of bad livelihood,
Where the charge upon

••

cii-o'v*^
1

.

^^^j^ii^ji^'

<xl

,1

x
,

^^^

^O

t

.

..

.

'*

v^^

Jj
^z-

^^^
...

jJ
^-

k
'

U'^^^'''

'

m

^^^-^

^

\

-'-^

^
cuUiAiisr ^_^^U.< j J

Inspector-General of Police.

The accused persons need

^jd
»^

his

of

result

&»-

*

SP

r

ds-

Jj'JJ

w-

'^^

^-^

and thoroughly

investigate the matter, and

b ^-. ^_^S

x.>

^oV^
<[.

'

'j03

COLLOQUIAL SENTENCES.
wkich a person

is

tried is

one of iniiiry to the person,
;i

Magistrate cannot require

security for good behaviour

on

ground

tlie

accused

is

the

./

a person of violent

^

that

or dangerous character.

The

Here fact of a previous conviction

an

of

offence

dishonesty

volving
sufficient

is

justify

to

^^5^=-

^

1^

"

not

^j^

the

^

,^

'

H

^^

This

is

J

day since I 'iegan to learn
Pushto.

The

thieves were

standing on the top

of a

mound and we

upon

them.

fired

I do not understand

^_c/

''

r/^

1^

(

^y^ Oy

^

^

^^^^ ^

'Mr

••

^^cS

{j^

\

,

^
'^^j

^^

y-H

\\;.

*

s

'^

^

*i_f jT j '-^J'^ji/y^

^

^:

^'

-J

,

^

X) XiCa 3'
u?-J <_?:

^^'

the fourth

l^^

'>:>.

(10)'

^JT

"

^^j-

JlxK-o

,

'^''

ls

^

-^

^j^ ^^
'

^ ^;]^j

^

,

^ ^^^

"^

S;^> ^;'>

person.

.

^^ e:..^j.A^ ,.^*^"

^^

i^"^

a

u^y^

j_^.
»

-

^

"

J

in-

taking of security from

-^

'

^

^^.
.,

,

^^'

^j^jX^j^*

^

f^

.

.

^^

^^

^ i^i

»:.

c^*'^

',

^^

-?

-jJ -i

^__^

!/^
\

\j

PUSHTU MANUAL.

304

>
-J.

with

eloped

daughter

His

prophecy.

a

slave

and

^

fighting

men

^

^

disgraced the whole family.

How many

8^ yjf

tjj^-;^^

S ^_^t3

^
^\.<

^

Small-pox has appeared in

"-'

^

V.)

^^y.

have yon

the

Yoke,

city.

plough,

threshing

camel;

wolf,

dung,

locust.

oxen,
-

parrot,

floor,

_

_

Jr

^L j

^

j^

\^

/

%

i

(*

village?

in your

^1^..

J^
j

\

.

^!r

^jJ,

.

^^'^
*

T

i

^

^

^.

i.i

^,

,^-^

- ^'^f- - Ct^ *

^^]

_

y^

^^^^ (^•

cow,

»^U-<xi^a.i-V..>>

1

\
\
\

APPENDICES.

*

i

i

/

J

APPENDICES.
APPENDIX
A

I.

Comparative Table of Intransitive Verba.
(See sbeet.)

APPENDIX
A

II.

Comparative Table of Transitive Verbs.
(See sheet.)

APPENDIX
Regulations

for

III.

Examination in Pushtu

by the

Higher and Lower Standards.
{d.

P.

I.,

vol.

ii.,

see. xxiv.,

part

v., paras.

65 to

77.)

308

PUSHTU MANUAL.

Higher Standard.
Examinations in Pushtu by
are held twice a year

following centres

Higher Standard

tlie

(in April

and October),

at the

:

At Peshawur, by the Central Committee
At Dera Ismail Khan, by a Local Committee.
At Meean Meer,


,,
At Quetta,



At Gilgit,



At Chitral,



The Examinations and Tests are

A

(a)

in

:

written translation of a passage
narrative

or historic

from

style

English into Pushtu.

100

Reading and construing portions of

{b)

the text-books, viz.
i.

ii.

Ic)

MAKK8.

:

The Ganj-i-Pukhto.
The Tarikh-i-Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi.

Translation

viva

voce,

and

100

with

readiness, of a paper of conversational

sentences

read

Examiners.
(d)

....

cut by one

of

the

100

Conversation with a native of the
v;ouutry,with fluency, and such correct-

ness of grammar, idiom, and pronunoiia»:ion

as to be at once intelligible.

100

Total

400

I

309

APPENDICES.

These papers are set by the Central Committee.
(b)
and
Committee the marks

Local Committees examine only in subjects
reporting

id),

the Central

to

The written translations

they award.

renderings of the colloquial sentences

taken down by the Committee in the
at

candidate's

the

dictation,

are

and the

(a),
(c),

which are

Roman

character

forwarded

to

the

who award marks.

Central Committee,

To pass, a candidate must obtain at least SO"/© in
subjects

(c)

pass " with

657o

and

and 50°/o of the total.
a candidate must obtain at

{d),

credit,"

in each of the four subjects,

To
least

and at least 75°/o

of the total.

LowEE Standard.
Exauiinations in

Pushtu by the Lower Standard

are held quarterly, on the
April,

July,

and

first

October,

Wednesday

in

in January,

military stations

all

where there are candidates, and where the services of
qualified officers are available to form a board.

The Examination Committee consists of 3 officers,
whom must have passed in Pushto by the
Higher Standard, and the remainder by the Lower
one of

Standard.

The Examinations and Tests are
(a)

Reading

:

and translating with

ac-

^^^^^*

curacy not less than half a page of
the Ganj-i-Pukhto.

.

.

.

100

PUSHTU MANUATi.

310
{b)

Conversing with the Examiner, or
with a native, on subjects likely to
occur in the

performance

transaction^ of ordinary

business, or

2)ass,

life.

.

100

a candidate must obtain at least 50°/o in

each ^subject.

<6

regi-

duty, in the

in the course of every-day

To

of

mental or professional

PHnted

in Great
BHta,n by
VmVlN BROTHERS.
LIMITED

Lo.vno.v

Asn wokixg

%

I

go.

University of California Library

>

Los Angeles

21

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is

DUE on

the last date

stamped below.

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