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January 26,2016
Tiyemerenaset Ma'at El

33'53',N

24',38"W
At-sik-hata, Atlan / Turtle lsland
C/o ffi3A Mozart Drive
Riverdale, Georgia [30296], usA
330

840

Law Offices
MCCALLA RAYMER, LLC
1544 Old Alabama Road

Roswell, Georgia 30076

Re: Your File #: 5524815,Laan#: I 77 48, Property Address: 6330 Morart Drive, Riverdale,
Georgia 30296

I am Tiyemerenaset Ma'at ElOrM, Secured Party, Creditor-Iin-Fact with Recording No: 0432015-000971 in the County of Dekalb, an Autochthonous / Indigenous, Living, Flesh and Blood,
Sound of Mind, Three Dimensional, Melaninite, Woman of Cherokee ascento Who is \Mhite,
Sui Juris, Hoider In Due Course. I have a security interest in all matters of the Debtor and
Corporate Fiction, Brenda BryantOru, BRENDA JOYCE BRYANTQTM. I am in dispute of the
validity of this said debt and any portion thereof and I ask to be provided with the original
mofigage Note, the CUSIP number and the name of the Indentured Trustee of this
accour$ing/loan and the Title. Was G.A.P followed and if so, I want to be provided with the
breakdown of the details.

I have tendered to Default Department-STATE HOME MORTGAGE of Atlantao Georgia, an


Acseptance and Discharge presentment for full settlement and closure of the accounting
(0000017748). Registered Mail # 384 001 754 US, November 18,2015. The presentment has
been ignored and has gone unanswered, and therefore, STATE HOME MORTGAGE is now in
breach of their fiduciary duty, under UCC $ 1-103, UCC $ l-202, UCC $ 3-305, UCC $ 3-306
and UCC $ 3-307 UCC $ 9-6}9,House Joint Resolution 192, Public Law 73-10, Title 31 U.S.C.
5118 d(2), U.N.D.R.I.P (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples),
I.D.P.O.A.D. (Decade for People of African Descent), Congressional Record Page A3220 May
11" 1955.

And You, Sir or Ma'am are hereby on notice that I have Accepted for Value and Consideration,
the instrument you have sent regarding Your File # 5524815, Loan # 17748, dated January 6,
2A16, and il is Accepted for Full Discharge, Settlement, and Closure of the Accouuting in
accord with HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION 192 (HJR 192), PUBLIC LAW 73-10, TITLE 31
U.S.C. 5118 d(2), UCC $ 1-103, UCC $ L-202,UCC $ 3-305, UCC $ 3-306 and UCC $ 3-307
UCC $ 9-60g,Congressional Record Page A3220 May 1i, 1955, U.N.D.R.I.P (United Nations
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples), I.D.P.O.A.D. (Deeade for People of African
Descent).

Under the laws of the LINITED STATES, legal tender, i.e., lawful money is described in 31
USCA Sec, 5103 as coins and currency. Checks, draffs, m$ney orders, afid bank notes (includes
Federal Reserve Notes) is not lawfrrl money ofthe {.INITED STATES ..." State v. Neil on,73
Pac 324, 43 Ore 168. There is NO lawful money in circulation. According to HJR 192
(included with this notice), it is against Public Policy to attempt to Execute obligations as an
obligor. This being the case clearly shows that your age&cy is in violation cf 18 U.S.C. $ 1962
(ai, &), (c), (d), l8 U.S.C. $ 872 and 18 U.S.C. $ 1091.

The'lnortgage" was conveyed, wi&out the conseat of the "debtor" and if the *debtot''had been
loaned legal tender (other depositors' money) to obtain the mortgage note, the alleged lender could
never have obtained the lien on the property for free and are in direct violation of any signed
agreement. l l U-S. Code $ 54S, O.C.G.A 18-2-75. (2St0). Therefore, where is the debt? The Note
has to have been duly negotiated, transferred or delivered withoul o'debtor's'o authorization,
making the *debtori'the depositor aad therefore rightful owner ofthe referenced property. This
was a fraudulent conversion and also amounts to Identity Theft under 18 U.S.C. $ 1001, $ 2028
and 2028A: O.C.G.A. 16-19-121 (2010). And for there to be a valid contract, there has to be a
valid remedy. It is esseatial to the creation of a contract that there is a mutual or reciprocal
assent, Without, ameeting of the minds on each and every essential element of a contract, fuIl
disclosure, a distinct understanding cofilmon to both without doubt and agreement and signed by
all parties there can be no enforceable contraat. The alleged debtor is the sole signer of the
contract; therefore there is no contract between the alleged o'creditor" and the alleged 'odebtor".
Freud voids a contract ab initio, under 18 U.S.C. Chapter 47.
Be advised, this notice will be published across all social media platforms.

THE FOLLOMNGARE INCLUDED WITH THIS NOTICE:


Your instnrme*t dated January 6,2A16 (Accepted for Value), UCC FINANCING
STATEMENT, Standard Form 181, Statutory Declaration to GovernorNathan Deal, HJR 194,
HJR 192, 20 C.J,S. $ 1785, Title 3l $ 5118(d)2, Congressional Record Page 43220 of May l l,
1955, Public Debt News January 15, 2004, Pope Francis Apology, Apostolic Letter of 1l July
2013 and Apostolic Letter of I January 2015.

Honorably,

U.C.C. $ t-308, without prejudice All Riehts Reserved Eternally,


Representative, of Brenda Bryanlgru

Cc

:Nanya-Shaabu:Eil@TM Nanya Shaabu Eil@TM, Chief of :At-sik-hata :Nation of :Yarnassee :Moors


and Plenipotentiary of AtlanlTurtle lsland/Land of the Frogs/Amexem/Mu LanlEeypft of the West. See:

http:#www.scrjhd.cpm/doc/1S00566781Na

nvaEill RsstatDeclaration

Cc: Default Departmen! STATE HOME MORTGACE, Atlanta, Georgia


Cc: Nathan Deal, Govemor, GEORGIA COMMUNITY AFFAIRS
Cc, Cami la Knowles, Commissioner, GEORGIA COMMT INITY AFFAIRS
Cc: The Supreme Pontiff, Francis, THE YATICAN

LAWOFFICES

MCCALLA RAYMER, LLC


I544 OLD ALABAMA ROAD
RoslvELL. GEoRCTA 10176

TELEPHONE (770) 643-21"18


TELEFAX: {770) 643-4062
1-800-845-8613

January 6,2416
Brcnda Bryant
6330 Moza( Dr
Riverdale, GA 30296

Our File #:

552481 5

Loan #:
Properfy Address:

17748
6330 Mozart Drive
Riverdale, GA 30296

Dear Borrower:

EXCEPT AS MAY BE I{OTED HEREII{, TTIIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO COLLECT A DEBT. ANY


INFORMATTON OBTAIN.ED WILL BE USED FOR THAT PURPOSE.
The above-referenced loan has been refen'ed to this larv firm for handling.

As of tlie date of this letter, the amount of debt is $38,602.68. Because additional interest, late charges and other
charges may accrue, the amount to reinstate or pay offyotr loan changes daily. Piease call our office for complete reinstatement
or payofffigures.
The debt is owed to STATE HOME MORTGAGE. rvho is authorized to receive payment on your loan, but who may
not be the recorded holder of the Securitl' Deed.
Be advised that unless you dispute the validity of the debt or any portion thereofrvithin thirty days after receipt ofthis
notice, we rvill assutne that the debt is valid. If you notifu us in rvriting at tlre above address rvithin the thirry-day period that the
debt, or any portion thereof is dispute{ rve rvill obft)n y..lfliTi:n of the.debt and a copy.of:u"rlr.*-t*:.]1T.::11}.:"i:lf*

Please be arlvised that if vou h4&trev


liability on this loan ma5, have beengrff[uislSt

the foreclosure of the above-referenled


granted to your lender, please fax 1.our
immediately.

a discharge in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy case, your personal


rt, the action r.ve have been requested to take wouici be iimited to
are currently under bankruptcy protection aud no relief has beel
infonnation to us at (8SS) 371-.1980. We may be able to close our file

the creditor's lien on real estate and will not be seeking a personal money
This law finn is seeking solely to
judgmerrt egainst you on its orvn behalf, rvhich rvill not affect the creditor's right to do so as allowed by larv.

ffior.

Sincerely,

McCalla Raymer, LLC*

By;
*Licensed in Georgia

043 Received:Thursday'. August 05, 2Sl{ l:57:25 PS{ Page I of2

FILED & RECORDED


Friday, August 07, 2015 9:04:32 AM
Irile Number: 043-201 5-000971
Cecilia Willis
Decatur CounQ Clerk of Superior Coufi

UCC FINANCING STATEIIENT


FOLLOW INSTRUCNOI{S

A, NAME A PHONE OF CONTACT AT FILER

c. SEND

ACKT,'OVIR-EDGMENT

TO:

(OPIiONAI)

{Narne and address}

24'38"]v

Ma'af El 33o 33' 53'840


'fl-fiyuro**naset
:At-sik-hatr,:AtlanlUttalHexianlTurtle Islend
c/o 6330 Mozert Drive

l_Rivedalc, Georgia t302961

UgEONLY

THE ABOVE

NAI'E: ProridaonlygltDabtornametlaorlb)(uBsexacl.tullnametdDndornit modrtr.orAbbts{ialean}pattoltheDebttrsnE$a)lifanypartolthe{ndividualObtols


1,. OgGANI2A
,b. INO'VIDUAL'S SURNAilE

BRYANT
!c.

r,lAlLlNG

US

6330 Mozart Drive

es.

0RGANIZATi0N'S l{Ai4E

BRENDAJOYCE BRYANT
OR

.iKi I TE5IVIYAL

Ib, IIIDTVIDUAUS SURN&ME

itOlTiOlIAL NAirt{Siiltr$TtAL{S)

'IAME

ll'r

F.O. Box 17087


$.

STATE

'OSTAL

CODE

USA

MD 2t2W

Baltimore
NAi,E o'ASSIGNEE oTASSIGNOR SECURED PARTY}:

SECURED
TION'S NAME

3b.

EI
3c. MAILTNGADDRESS

c/o 6350 Mozart Drive


RAL:

Thie frnafiong slalomeot coverq tha tolloring coltetert

Debtors: BRENDA JOYCE BRYANT, BRYANT BREIIIDA JOYCE {Tracking Number: RE }84 Olf SEl US} arc
Tranrmitting Utititiec ntitized in commerc* for the bencfit of the Seured Party. The Secured party is a 3-dimension*l liviug
soul, flesh and blood Melaninite FemaleAiloman Who is Autochthonous, Indige*ous ard Descendant of the orlgin*l peoples
of: Turtle Island, Muu-Lan, Altan, Arncrem, Land of the Frogsl MISNOMER: North Amerlcal. The Secured Party- Secures
Atl R.ight\ Tltles htcrests to All Collateral as reedved by Corpomte l Covernment Registricso rtlrtcd Corporations and
Pledge represented by the same but not limitcd to: Pignus, Hypotheica, Hereditaments. res and The Energ,'and the ALL
CAP$ names of Dehtars/Transmltting Utilities es well *s any and all derivatives and variationr of nn all capitals name.
Seeured Party Accepts for Value, Honor & Consitleration ALL endorscmen& front and back of ALL Adhcsions eontmcts'
tr$ts snd instruments attributed to the debtoru(Ucc 3401).This Licn is NOT dischargmble in Bankruptcy Court' ALL
amerrdmetrts to this liling *ill be by: the Red lYet Ink Signature sf tle Se$rd psrry in aecortl with Commereial Su:urity
Agrcement- 091lf 19502015. Thlrd-Party Intervenors are hereby BARRED fitm involvement with this transactlon.
Tiyemerenaset Ma'at El, Secured Party, OCGA
5. Ch6sk oolv ri

ll-l-308 Alt Rights Reserved.


administeted

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DEFII{ITII3il OT CATEGORY

A person hatkq stg*ts in any of tle oil&ind PeoFk ot Nry*! and Stdt Anerica
ti*rhdirlg C+rSrEl A$Eri,ca), and trho rnaintalns tihd affillalion sr cd*ffilt$ity

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*sia" sr the lndiar srfuontircrt irx&ttk6, br ectrynp*E, Can&edia, Ghim, tndia'
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Amended
S:tahrtpnlDe,clpfadon
In the matter of Indiana State Board of Healtlr, Division of Vital Records, Local No.9000 ,No, 065882
One, Brenda |oyce Bryant ilow to be knawn as Tiyemerenaset-Maht gl, c/o 5330 Mozart Ilrive Riverdale, Georgia, do solemnly
declare in accord with: the 1931 Satute of Wesuninster
1,1778 Articles of Contbderation antl Perpetual Union - Article XI, 1812 Treaty of Ghent; 1794
fay Treaty; 1836 Treaty of lr{arrakesh {Maxxco} all recognized and ralid treaties, tronstitution for the united states of
American, the 1948 Charter of the United Nations, the 1.975 Inter-American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
and the United Nations 2d Decade ofthe lforldt Indigenous People, rhatupon dtscoverlng thatthe registration ofa live Bi*h
uf September 21, 1950, in the STATE OF INDIANA/IN DIANA REPUBLIC called Indiana Republic ra'as a contract bctween nry
mother and the u" s. Covernment Corporation who did not tell her that shc was selling me, a flesh and blaod child, to the
STATE OF lNDLAltiA CORPORATION as the Chattel Properry/Slavg which is a violanon of Human Rights, I hereby void the
contract, ab inihb for fraud. Since I am Flesh And Blood: Wea-Cherokee woman of Turtle Island and of this pianet in accord
wi& the United Nations Declaration on tlre Rights of lndigenous Peoples, HrR 194 -

(1,

-us'coffi:fflxxH:Yl1,T;,i;ixl#"

2;-

Slavery; u.sS.apolop,To Natiue Arnericans [Sec811lt of H.R3325 Separtmentof DefenseAppropriations ActJ

,..:.

i-:.

.' .,,

-UpondiscoveringthatElizabethAlexandraMaryWindsor

Mountbatten Battenberg []llSNOMEk Queen Elizabet]r III violated her coronation Oath [a legally binding contract) of ]une 2,
1953" On May 14,2011 at Southward Crown Court [1 English Crcunds in Southward, London, England] Defendan* ]ohn
Anthony Hill in the Unit*d Kingdom proved trefore an English iury that Elizabeth Alexandra Mary tYindsor-Mountbatten was
nstthe rightful monarch and r:ever was: queen! Elizabeth is notthe rightful monarch and never was. This was a two point
aryurnent Firsdy, Elizabeth knew- both then and now-tlratshe was crowned on a hke coronation stsne i*stead of thc real
Stone of Destiny/Coronation Stone, which meam nor only was she never pmpe.rty crorvned, but she hnowingly and
frauduientlywas conning the public and that is why she did not want her coronation televised. REGII{A v.ltH {case Ref,
numben ?281077216|
}. I declare that the name BREHDA fOyCE BRYANT on the
live
is
a
registmtion of
Birrh
corporation and Brenda foyce Brlpaut, is an Original, Indigenous Autochthonous, Flesh & Blood
Wornan. I am Not a rorporation, artifirial person, natural person, fictitious entigror vessel of the United States as defined
uader 18 U.S.C. S. 9 and I give notice Internationally, Domestirally and Universally ria this Declaration that I deny corpcute
existence. Under reservation of All My Rights Urnlienable and otherwise. And I make this solemn declararion conscientiously
believing it to be true, and knowing that this is the same force and eftbct as made under earh.

{See

lsrll

Albion, Atlan, Amexem, Turtle'tsland, I"and of the Frogg, Egypt of the West
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

tl

United Narions Convention on Econo&ic, Social & Cultural Rights, United Nations CharterArticles 55 & 56;
Article 10&Cesfiri Que Vie Trust, Ilresidential Pmclpmatisr 7500, HJ.R 194 S. Con Res" 26 S. 1200, HIR-3.

By;

&rrl30&u.c.c.1-103

Afhrmed to andsubscrlbedbefiore

me&i*

day

ofAprll 2015.

,l

i\ia

t.
'+.,+,,;,,

, -,lC t-/ _
f,,tl.
MyComntsslou Explres

H. Res.1,'94

In the House of Repreeentatiaes, f/. S,


Juty 29, 2008.
Whereas millions
enslaved

of Afrieans and their

deseendants were

in the Ilnited States and the 13 Ameriean colo-

nies from 1619 through 1865;

Whereas slavery in Ameriea resembled no other form of invol-

untary servihrde knourn in history, as Af,rieans were eaptured and sold at auction like inanimate objects or animals;
Whereas Afrieans forced into slavery were brrrtalized, humili-

ated, dehumanized, and subjeeted to the indignity of


being Snpped of their names and heritage;
(

Whereas enLhl,ed families were torn apart after having been


sold separately foom one another;
Whereas the system of slavery and the'r.,isceral racism against

persons

of African descent upon which

eame entrenehed

it

depended be-

in the Nation's social fabrie;

Whereas slavery was not officialty abolished until the passage


of the 13th Amendment to the Ilnited States Constitu-

tion in 1865 affer the end of the Civil War;


Whereas after emancipation from 246 years of slavery, African-Americans soon saw the fleeting political, social, and
eeonomic gains they made during Reeonstruetion eviscerated by virulent racism, lynchings, disenfranchisement,

Blaek Codes, and raeial segregation }aws that imposed a


rigid system of offrcially sanetioned raeial segregation in
virtually all areas of life;

of de jure raeial segregation known as


"Jim Cro\v," which arose in eertain parts of the lrlation
tbllowing the Civil War to ereate separate and unequal
societies for whites and Afbican-Americans? was a direct
result of the racism against persons of Afriean descent

Whereas the system

engendered by slavery;

Whereas a eentury after the offreial end of slavery in Amer-

iea, Federal aetion was required during the 1960s to


eliminate the dejwe and defaeto system of Jirn Crow
throughout parts of the l.[ation, though its vestiges still
Iinger to this day;
'Whereas

Afriean-Amerieans eontinue to suffer from the complex interplay between slavery and Jim Crow-long after

both s;ntems \Mere formally abolished-through enormous


damage and loss, both tangible and intangible, ineluding

the loss of human dignity, the frustration of careers and


professional lives, and the long-term loss of income and
opportunity;
Whereas the story of the

$nslavement

and de jure segregation

of African-Anerief and the

dehumaniaing atroeities
comrnitted against them should not he purged from or
minimized in the telling of American history;

Whereas on July B, 2003, during a trip to Goree Island, Senegal, a former slave port, President George'W. Bush acknowledged slaver/s continuing legacy in American life
and the need to eonfront that legacy when he stated that

...

"was

one of the greatest erimes of history


The racial bigotry fed by slavery did not end'with

slavery

TIIBES t94 EII

slavery or with segregation. And many of the issues that

still trouble America have roots in the bitter orperienee


of other times. But however long the journey, our destiny
is set: Iiberty and justiee for all.";
Whereas President

BilI Clinton

also acknowledged the deep-

seated problems eaused by the eontinuing legaey

of rae-

ism against Afriean-Americans that began with slavery


wtren he initiated a national dialogue about raee;

Whereas

a genuine apolory is an important and

necessary

first step in the process of raeial reeonciliation;


Whereas an apology for centuries of brutal dehumanization
and injustiees cannot erase the past, but confession of

the wrongs eommitted can speed raeial healing and reconeiliation and help Americans eonfront the ghosts of
their past;
Whereas the legislature of the Commonwealth of Yiiginia has

in adopting a resolution offreially


elryressing appropriate remorse for slavery and other
recentl,v taken the lead

State legislatures have adopted or are considering similar


resolutions; fl,nd
Whereasy't is important for this eountr-r,, which legally recog-

dda

slavery through

its Constitution and its laws, to

make a formal apology for slavery and for its successor,


Jim Crow, so that it ean move forward and seek reconeiliation, justice, and harmony
Now, therefore, be it
Resolued,,

(1)

for all of its

citizens:

That the House of Representatives-

aeknow-ledges

that slavery is ineompatible with

the basic founding prineiples reeognized in the Declara-

tion of Independenee that all rnen are created equal;


rHRtsS 194 E:H

--ry2'

(2) acknowledges the fundamental injustice, cruellr,


brutality, snd inhumanity of slavery and Jim Crorv;
(3) apologrzes to African Amerieans on behalf of the
people of the United States,

for the $rongs eommitted

against them and their ancestort who suffered under


slavery and Jim Crow; and

(4) elpresses its commitment to reeti$r the lingering consequences of the misdeeds committed against
African Amcricans undcr slavcry and Jim Crow and tn
stop thc occun'cnce of human rights violations in thc fu-

turc.
Attest:

Clerk.

rIIRE$

1C4

ffi

LI

R\RY OF

C O.\GRES5
[)t-6cc of Business Enterpriscs
I)uplication Scrvices Section

THIS IS TO CERTIFY thatthe collections of the Library of Congress contain apublication


CNtitICd TIIE STATUTES AT LARGE OF TIIE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ANd thAt
the attached photocopies (frorn PART 1, VOL. XLVID - the title page and pages 112 and 113
on which appears H.J. Res. 192, a.IOINT RESOLUTION To assure uniforrn value to the coins
and currencies of the United States, June 5, 1933 - are a tme representation from that work.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the seal of the Library of Congress is affixed hereto on


May 2,2412.

T.
Office of Business Enterprises
Library of Congtess

101 Indcpcrrdcnce '\r-enue, SE \x/ashi*gton,

DC 20540-491?

ll-l

202'10?'5650

*rv*''lt'qErv: duplicatiooseniccs@loc'gov

- /- '- -/. '<-

THE

STATT]TES AT TARGE
OF

IEE

STAT: OFAMERICA

UNITED

MARC"H 1933 to JUIYE 1934


CONCUNREIT AHIOI,IrrION$
RECENT IBEATrES AIID @IWEFilTONS ErECUrrsE PnOCr.f,lilATrONS
ar{D aGBEEtilEDIT$ Turyt1Y-nnsf, .AMEI'IDMENT
fi} lEE CONSTIflrrION

rD@tcrr@,

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T'!TE EI D'NEIB(II.

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Penr

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ad

Reedutbns

AstE ard Rmlutiom, Comrwt Reludoss


Tmatiee aad Conventior+ Brscutive Prodamarions
ad Agreemots, Tbeuty-frst Antodmat to the

Costitudm.

PAAT

os 330 'D
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sEss.

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gHg.46-43. JI,NE 3,5,

1933'

AlT ACT

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rhc Serwfe aad- Eoua

ol

Eevreeentatiaet

1933'

113

ol fna r;flffi*fu"ffi

4nqr?rt aiuitblad, Th* (a)


"ygry hr
orovision conteiired in c mrdo vtth rcapect to 8ny oorrgBtnon wtrlcll
^ourporte to civs ths ohligpo r right to trquim pcymeot h gold or

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.t tU Uuitea- $46 -(igcludiry.I'ed
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nts*n, in some iurisdictisn$, a corporatioa, a majoritg cf w&ose rmcli is bend by aliees, is, for sonne
p[rposes- deerred io be a. -"*reign ccrporatioo-S

tfte cnrporatioB is a f*reiga olle ia aa]l $tate s tcr*

riiory otLer thsa t&at i* xhiclr it urs.s created.s


Ilader a siatrite defiaiag a foreigri corgroratiom es
one creaied n:rder ibe Larqs of enother sbte er otlrer
gotitlca1 srbdirisi+n of tle {Jrlittd states or A-:r
tor*ign coaatrt or aalioo, a federal co4ror.atiotr has
be*a lreid a*ither a {orcigr$ sar a domestic$s rcf,poratianr aitheugh ia ssone jurisdictiolru, s$mefirues
srder statutprv proYisicns defiaiog a fclr{iB:a sorFeratiorl as one cre*ted uad*r the lerrs oi a:ryr odr*r
strte" gsve::lr6e*t $r ouyriry, a iederal c[rrF6retis;r has bera &eld te be * t-oreigvl corpo:ada* with
respect to 6. s13is.u lJader sose stfuteE fs{ieml

doalestic corpsr4lirla 'does :rot i:ec<yse *. fr:rmerrlf tr13- acceptieg frrom ea'r'.hcr
stlrte a grant of &C riget t* or',-e pr.]ilrnty arrl to
traasaet br:giaees :a sndl othrr siarcr6 aad rice r-ersa, a f*reiga *orporatioa docs r*rt bccm,e a damestic corporatioa hy accep*:tg asd rrerclqing IiLe
rig&ts *nthie t?e *atq as shrxr'* inEra S $9-t -U-qS.
:\ state ma5 honr*r'ar, adopt a ioreiga corgorat-ron
b3r creatia;; ii a dcarestic eorp*raatmo al:d a corpcratio*. cr-eated by tle c{rrfirrdcat a*r-oe of sere:el
slates is a &mesric c$ipora{isa, ia cach ol such
eig::. co4mration

stets, as slrclino

irdie $ 1795"

$ 1?85"

FederalCorporadoas

$ :?86

ar.'r.osyations locatcd. vithia th.c s*at* &a.re brcrr


dcraled dtrcesl,ic curpnratioms.rs

T* i!.dtri

lfl tks sbseflee {f, statates to tire ccrtr:ar1r. a corpsrati6a ffeated bE a.r act of asEgfss with ps:rrErs ece?teFsirae eritEr tla Uaier -r geleralty *!std rE a f6reig:1

$ 17EA

grxrwrsexi is a for*gc cs!?c-

?erritorial Ccalxxatia=s

tarritortrl l*6t-sdatlrre h*s


-Of, a forai&r corporatior
i'| ethnr 6tate; arIlf

.A cor$oratioB cr?at*d by a

trrFora'J9n *litbir! irrr/ sta:re of the lrtrf6a-

the siatut

A corporation seaicd by aa act o{ ccrag":.,ess tritft


IlGtg'ers cosxteEsire nri.l1 rhe L*nitxt, assuraiag cf
e*;rtse tiat !a ceafing it cang:css arrs sit}rin the
s{:opg of its powcrs, is rlot a ioreigc {srp}!;Ltio!,
eithin aay srate of the i&lioa, aay !&ore than a:a
act of congrcss is a lorcign latlr withia a:qr si&te sf
the Udcar;? txt rrhere ccilgres$ cfi:ater a corporatioo raereiy by virrue of its anthority to t*gislate
ior a p*rticular territo{F, a*d ::et by a geaer:rl act,
E' I! Eal!&ilrgtsr a*{er CEr$st" ari
3 ? * rrrrhitrritiag foreiga darltorrlrio,lBs frori': acqui.-{n6i f$a6.. ln stat4
aItd pra\.irlitg tkat fa!. aurposes of
s:iel1 Frehibitior a csFrrlstlrB, a. yBejoritlr o, a'Aose sto{*< is beld trt
aller6, =ball b* eleeeed ts be fareiga,
eorEoratio!} organi=eii aride. la$s
"r'f st ;t{" brrt e. Baiorily of, rrhose
s1{rek !s h*ld by alie*s, i$ do:?Iescc
co{Ileafura a a1l rl-st*sts r:tr-tr}t aE
?s 6B$ffisli1 o! l?B{L---:Efasii{gs ?.
-tn*d{rrtes LacE:lg Ca" f5 ?. ?1f, :9

Staies

tasitories"

,& ro:poration creeled by or under an art cf, a


teritorial legislat*rrc is noi a federal ,oorporation
bet a corporarot of ',}rc lerritcry, aild it has ihe
siatr.rs oi a foreiga rorporario:l in e'yerf otheF $tatr:
and territery;l+ aad. on ile a&ni*sioa of a tei'ritor3r inta lhe Uaion as a siatL., corpcrations rrndet
tha krvs of t.l:e territorg kc{Ese dprtr}erntioil$ of tb*
sPtte-15

Ilo*e Orners Lo.ea 1 ?gg. gi" 1gS *drrk, 4SS, quotlmjf C*3it, 18{l tms tBrls, aed afrrf,Fd EE S.CL
okl {n6. eitlls cc=p4s ,rnria | ?05, 3r5 I-7-S- 333" ?9 LEffi- !409. ro.
1*a, C-J. F 13r'i not. 1*| he."-rirg deiled $5 s-cL s3g, *s5
Slatioual baak see tta title BerEksl Tr,s- ?se ?? LF:d, ,.?ss_
and liaEkicg a 55:f Ctio,-ffa:rirman Ir-;cL :F,ank af *i1y
L rna--rra:y v. ssti**a! io rusl
&k1"-nay*rscu y-

C{r"Fo:a.tioa" SS P"Zd S44"

Co.. 6it IEd- 11'.. C.J. t 1314 Reee 36,

:e'

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6ii8,

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lra
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Forari.rr y- str.lri8. ta ;i-it-zd slal rla cJ. p 11t{ ]lote 3g
t$ Ohis Ail!. i$?, apppa-i alisIlies*dl:a ]f.E,__!a re 3f,ecrias, gs }f.B
6 C.S*-F-bi:!pfrire Ss#an }*L }a]r:Iorse Os:r"r1s' fffi t'.!r9ora-jon r- I jos, 14I y-lf. 4?*, afirmed t6 S.
Cu- T. 1.7- S- 3C CI.CL 335.
1i-elsh, 1? .\Ji.:d +?A 134 {}Diri S; I c"r_ :ir?S. tffi Ir,S" SBE, 4L I*frA{}bis.--d-a!!drr v- IftIrtq t:i 5-IA, 65"
Ste:;a
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G'C-Co!os$?," 39? -tra t$0, *iiin:i Gtl:trs
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Idaho.---EtBan OBD!:;' ira!*I: {kr$s- i rlir*Arrs. l:3 ,S-'F.:d +15
:i s.. ;r (-'r.('1. :::t"'i"
na.ai6ls 'f- $tootr:*y- S1 r...d luri:, I
(:oF
;g1r1q2.-gp:,!g
&x.r:+rs.' Laalt
Cnr:li0n uf coryur"alioa hg *oogrees
ltr,t" 5f f,iiis4 trsa qu(itiElt cor:r*,s '
6*

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i in .*a*,!Irer Ftr:ra tlr irrrii{rrs i::*_i.r'a1 i'n*;r1rr-:triqp v. | ltuI}m t Ii::stioeL ?- Ea!sa+, 3$8 lt-t"-$- 5:t1, ;;!+, I Hmr
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of f{rlumbi.E. S.t"" I6f S-b] iS?. 65S" iau ,.-r*-redemr r.axi r-sank of
3{}* -a-.C. 151, eitine C+r?ss it{*Ir
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Publbhcd on Sep 70,2012


h

trn:','n u n'.hloqtaikradio.contidinodcan...

:Mahl:Chief:Nanya-Shaabu:El:00TM is Internationally Recognized as an Indigsnous


Melaniaite, of the :et-slt-lata :Nation of :Yamassee-Moors-, BIr Intrnationally recogrized
Nation
|dUeuous
. The :At-sik-hata Nation of :Yamassee-Mocrs is on file
Branch of the Uoited Nations Deprtnut of
NGO
;;Ci"il S*i.ry, .,hi"h itprrt of the
Economic & So;id Affairs; :Makr/:Chief:Nanya-Shaabu:El:@OTM has attended the Urdted
Natioas Permaoent Fonrm orlndigmous Issues since 2005. He has spoken and delivEred
iaterveutions at tk Urited NatiorsPernraoent Forum on Indigenous issues in 2005 & 2006. He
has cr6atd Ow-Story (Mysteq!,) [HistoryJ by: having a commercial lien filed on the White
Housg, signed by former U.S- Secr*ry of Stare Condoleza Rice, :Mah/:Chief:NaayaShaabu:Ei:@TM had givenNotice aad Knowledge toPope Bensdict XVI that
:Makg/:Chief,Nanya-Shaabu:EkCIOTM and the :At-sik*hata :Nation of :Yama$see-Moors are
NOT under the Roman Catholic Church as tleir Chattel Property ,:Makr:/:Chief:NanyaShaabu:E*@@TM has Exported The Uuited States, Canada & MexicoColporations to the
Middle of ffrg Ailaotic Od*r :hup:lisites.goosle.com/sitelauthenti... ,the fact which has been
adnittsd to by U.S,Senator and Congressmeq p&tished on line via youhrbe and csparu He is the
:Plenipotentiaryof :Atlan, :Albion,:Amexem, :Turtte-Islan4:Land of ttre Frogs, :Egypt-of-&e-

bftpr/sites.gooqle.c

West

u&ich rquires there corporations to get his permission to contiru,re to operate here
they do NOT HAVE HIS Permission aor anthority &orn him; :Maku/:Chief:l'{anyaStraabu:EL@@TM has attended tk fotlowing events on behalf of the :At-sik-hata :Nation of
:Yamassee-Moors: H,rman Rigtrts Workshpe on Treaty 6 Terilory on :Atlan / :Turtle-Islaa4
Feb. 25 2W f,corporately c{tea &huontorf AIbreaJ ;tlre North American Indigarous Peoples
fapcus to tt6 i:*teO Natilns Permanent Fomm ou Indigenous issues(UNPFII) at the Nakota
Siorx Natioa ldarch 6 & ? 2010; Sub-Regional Meeting of kdigenous Feoples From North
Amedca md the Cmibbem, Ottarr4 [ Ommio, Canada( Alss Atteaded by :MatiatchSianiNqizuBey-El@OTM :Ar-sik-hara :Nation of :Yanrassee-Moors). The :At-sik-hata :Nation of,
:Yamassee-Moors is on the list of&E 103 SAkeholders of the United SAt6
United Nations Uaiversal Periodic Revis$/ 2010 :At-sik-hate :Nation of :Yamassee-Moors is
recognized and acknowledgd as an Indiganous Government by: Canada, the United States and
orer190 cmmuies *,orld wide. :fUakul:ChiefNanya-Shaabu:El is on facebook and twitter, he has
vidasposted on youtube worldwide; some of his videos are in the millions ulhen searched on
Googli or yaboo. :Malil/:Chief:Nanya-shaabu:El:@OTM currently has commsrsial liens oa
Ek;beth AlexaadraMary W rpcogrized and acknowledged as an Indigenous Cmvernment by:
Canadaindsor Mounthtten Battenburg I MI$NOMER: Queen Elizabeth II.]

]
Paee

till

TI'T'LE 28_JUDIC1ARY NNI] JUDICIAL FROCEDURE

(4) "Debt,or" !]Jeans a por'col] rvho is liaillc for


e tlebt o:'again$i lvi1om thele is a clalrr for a

(rlrirlcd lrul;, ]., 101-6,i?, title XXXVL $3ti11. Nov,


2$, 1390, 104

$tat.

4933.)

iii t [c.ltti: D.r1i:


Se(rllon i1631 of lltll XXXI': o:' Pulr. i.. llii-$]?
f idcd

debt,

(5) "Dlspo.salrle eaurims" mealls 'uhar' l)ai'l oi


ear'ni!lg.s lelnail}irig aile:' all tietilit:tir:ns l'pqnired by lan'hare 'oesn rvithlielti.
(6) "Eatnings" means coml)ellsnlior !)aid tll'
pay{llle for persotral sslvioes, li'hoilre} detrotninared as Trages, salary, commlssior1, i.)ot1us, ot'

j)r{)-

tlat:

pl'oril(ierl llr srrr:rctiou (l)), thi$ -{r,l


silsrll( ilii "titlc", nlearlilrg titlr XXXYI cf

"{el }ixcept as

[$rah?.]]ili

Iruir. L. 101-s{?, rvhich qnEeted ';hls cbaDte} aBd secttoD


or this tltle, anlended seutiollri 550. 1962, 1983. and
2410 oi ahls iille. ssction 5?3 ot fitlo 11, BanklBptcy,

20.1,1

oth8nvlse, and inaludes pgtiodic ltaymellts

a}lrl sectiohs 3U2 Rud 3552 oi fitle 18, Ct.imeri ftrd Crimil)a1 Prooe{irlr's, aad enacted ])roYisioDs sat out as a. note
r,illdrr's3r)tioa l. ol thts titicl and lire arnerdnrcnts na(le
br l:hts Act {titlcl shail take eit'eot 180 days afte!' thu
dare of 1be etrasrnlett o{ rhi6 Aet []iov.29,10901.
"(hX1) The *mon{lm{:!1ts firarl+ bv titl{r I of !i1ls A(:.
{pr"otxtrlf s}roufuI be "subtltlc A fJl thls tltl$' . me?:!l}l&
sui):itls A (q$3611, t302 l36ul) oi title xxxvl nf Puir. I..
i01-6i?. \'r'ilioi:. c$&oted rlriE abapterJ -chali ?,i$il'l.,'!th resllesi ao ?.ctlons pendltrg on th8 effective rlatc r)f thiri
Aoi ipl,ollabl:r' sliould be tltle XX:iVI Df Pul). L. ltlL-0+?l

in

?,ny

collr(

pur'su&nt to * pen$ion or' !6iil'ement prog}am.


(?) "6araishee" means a pol'sot1 lother tlrar
ihe rlebtor') who hRs, or is l'ea$ouabl-v ihougili
to hF.rF. posse$sion. cnstody, or contt'ol of at:}'
ploperty itr $hLch the debtgr'has a suil$tantiai

notrxelnpt intel'e$t, inelutiing at:y oirligaiiolr


tiue the debbor or' to becorne riue tlre tlebtor"
and ageill$t $'holn a galnlshment ullder' section 310{ or'3205 is issued b}, a {.}ourL.
(B) "Ju{igmeat" rttoe,ns a judgment, otrler', or
rlecree eriDered in fevor oi the United St'ate$ i)'l
a colu't anrl arlslng llorlr a r:ivil ol r:titrti:tal

on-

"(AJ a claim fo} a delrt; or


"f B) a jlirigmcni lol a rlcbt.

proceedins rcgal.ding a rlelri.


{9) "Nonexempt disposable eat'nin[is'' n]enns
2i percent of dispusabie earnir8s. sui)jeci, 1o
Be{.rtlon 303 of the Consumel Credit Proteclion

"(21 All flollces, 1,;rits, orders, and judgmeElr iJl efiect


iu $uch actlon-q shal: contil1ui: ir elleci tl}rtil iiutlel'se(1e(:
or rro{iifie{ ln an acIlDR t}rdsr chapter' iT6 of tit:e 28 oi
:he United lit?.te$ Co{lc, as ..r1derl try tit}e I of thlsi Act
iilll]tir]e A ol tlris titlel.
"(3) Fol frl1rI]o-es ol tilitr subsection*
"(A) !hr| leIrn 'cfillrt' means a F{.rlaral, sta!t:, or
iocirl sourt. and
"(li, afte terr, 'alelrt' has rhc fileanifig giver sudh
rerln in scctiolr and [sjcJ 3002(3t oi such rhap!e!'. "

Act.

(10) ''Perilon'' includes a

ment or au lBdian tl'ibE,

for tlre UrdLerl Slate$"

(11) "Ptejudgment remetly" meals 'rile :'eni-

e(y oI aitachment,

me&Ila---

{12) "Froperty" 1ncludeg any ?resent o}' 1'ut:r1ttitable. lrt


t'e41. Iler'sonal (incluilitrg ohoses 1n aotionl' o,'
mixeti }roperty. tanqitlle or intangible, r'esletl
ol' contingent, wherevcr locate{i rittrl ltol"'evct
held (lllcludlng communlty proDelty and pl'op"

eBd

el'ty Ileld

Stares for t?re ben$fit ot an Indl*n tlil){.} or


indivitlual Inrlian; aurl
{B) Inrlian iands 3u}rJact to leslrictlons
agalnst aiienatlon lmpose(i b$' the L*nitetl

(3) "Debt" mcang*

lA) an amount rhai is o$'ing co the u"nlieri


{ttates otl accou:rt of a rlll'cc[ ]oan. or' loan
lnerueri oI gual'alteed. lry the Unitd Statesl

SLates.

(i3) "Security ag!'eement" mesns &u ag|ee-

rneDl tlrat o!-eates or Dr<]r'irles for a ]icn.


(i4) "$tate" means any of ihe sgl'crai Statr:s,
tbe Disirrct of Columbia, tbo Oommanrvealth
of Puerto Ries, r.he Cornmonrcealth ttf the
Notlhern }Ial.ianBs, ol any tel't'ito!'y 01' possiession of the Unttsd Stams.

or

(E) an amount thai is o11'tng to the United


$tates otr a,ocount, of a fee, duty. iease, r'onl,

ser\.iue. sale of }eal ol pe]sona: plopel'ty,


overpaymBllt, fine, assessmelt. penait y. r.e*-

inr:un'cd

by tbe U:rited

bond

forfelture, r'etmbglsement, r'acoverF of a cost

Srates.

sonrce ol inoel)te0ness to the

or

{15)

"Usitd States" mean$-

(A) a Pedet'al co!'poritior;

othel

(R) an agency, ,lspatbmsl1t. {]oml]li3sion,

1lilted States.

iroard. o!. other


or

lrut tba[ is nct owing un{u the lerm$ of

a
contr'&oi ol'igin&ltry entered lnto }:y only lrer'sons othar bhan the Unite{ Stfttes;
drr(l jncrudes rilly arrouBt otyjnF' [(, tlle uxjred
Sta.tos for'the beneflt of a}l Indian utbe o! in-

sniily of tbe IIBited

(C) an instrumerrtaltty of

Sletes,

"he

titl1tos;

United

(1S) "Unite(i States n:arshal" me el1s a


unlteri states nrarshal' a depnl'1t nitt'shiri' o:

tilvidual Irdian, i:ut exslurlec &ny arnount ro


\uilich th* Unlted Statss i$ entitlcd undcr soc3011(e).

br'ust (luclu<ling $peltdbilxift ar(I

(A) prcperi.l' heid in ti'u!it. l,y tire llttlterl

(2) "Coul't" Inean$ ani.' corlrr croate(i by the


of the Unite(l StateF. exclurilng the
United StateB Tax Cou]'t.
L-onEress

tax, haii

ir

pension ttlrsts)), but exclu{e$-

Staress.

damages, inrel.est,

gatnishrnent'

tule interest, r.:hsiher Segal or

rB) any private F.ttor[e]' autho]'ized by


(ronlra{.,t matle in egeo!{an{je lvith seutlon
3'l1B of rlile 31 to condrqt lttigation lcr eollection of rleirts on llehalf of the UnlrBd

titilrlon,

r'ecei1'e1'sbip,

oI' s?questr'&tian autlrol'lzeri by this ebaptet' to


t)e f;r'axted beforB judqlrlenl o$ the mer'its cri fl
clalm for a debt.

(A) a Unlied smtes atbor'Bey, ar assistsB[


Unite(i Stales atior'ne:i, designated lo act on
behali r:f th(} tinit*ri Staies attorrley. or' an
{.ttofilsy \ylth the urllted states Dspartment
of Jusiiee or with a Ferleral RgeDcy rviro has

tlon

peIiJoD (ln-

paltnerohlp, an unlltco{.Do}*tsd associatlon. a


irusi, oI an est&tte, 0!'any other puilii{) ol lr'.iltate entity. inciudlnB a State ot' loeal to\tel'n-

Derbttions
A.,i use{ in thls chapten

lltisa.tion authorityj

]laiul'{l

clurl1ng an indlviduftl Inriian), a corporailon, a

$8002.

{1) "Coun$e1

t,il{m,;

an 0iflclfti of the Uuite(i,$iares llar;iial.s '>prt'ice (iesicnated undet' section 56{,

31 USC

5il8

NB: This waSicial campilation of the U.S. Code is current as of Jan. 4, 2012 {see http:/htww.law.carilell.edty'wcode/uscprint.html).

TITLE 31 . MONEY AND FINANCE


SUBTITLE IV. MONEY
CHAPTER 5{ . COIN$ AND CURRENCY
SUBCHAPTER II - GENERAL AUTHORITY
S 5{

{8. Gold clauses and consent to sue


(a) In this section-.-

(l)

"gold clause" mails

right to require payment


{A) gold;

provision in or related to an obligation alleging to give the obligee a

in-*

(B) a particular United States coin or currency; or


(C) United States money measured in gold or a particular United States coin or curency.
(2) "public

debt obligationo'means a domestic obligation issued or guaranteed by the United States

Covernment to rcpay money or interest.

(b)

The United Slates Govemment may not pay out any gold coin. A person lawfully holding United
States coins and currency may present the coins and currency to the Secretary of the Treasury for
exchange (dollar for dollar) for other United States coins aud currency (other than gold and silver coins)
that may be lawftlly held. The Secretary shatl make the exchange under regulations prescribed by the
Secretary.

{c) 1t1 The Government

withdraws its consent given to anyone to asserl against the Government, its
agencies, or its officers, employees, or agents, a claim-

(A) on a gold clause public debt obligation or interest on the obligation;


{B) for United States coiffi or currency; or
(C) arising out ofthe surrender, requisition, seizure, or acquisition of United States coins or
curency, gold, or silver involving the effect or validity of a change in the metallic content of
the dollar or in a regulation about the value of money.

(2)

Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not apply to a proceeding in which no claim is made
for payment or credit in an amount greater than the face or nominal value in dollars of public debt
obligations or United States coins or curreocy involved in the proceeding.
(3) Except when consent is not withdrawn under this subsection, an amou[t appropriated for
payment on public debt obligations and for United States coins and currency may be expended
only dollar for dollar.

(tl)

1 In this subsection,'bbligation" means any obligation (except United States currency) payable
in United States money.
(2) An cbligation issued containiilg a gold clause or govemed by a gold clause is discharged on
payment (dollar for dollar) in United States coin or currency that is legal tender at the time of
payment. This paragraph does not apply to an obligation issued after October 77, 1977.
1f

(Pub. L. 97-258, Sept. I 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 985; Pub. L. 99*l 85, $ 2(d), Dec. I ?, I 985, 99 Stat. I I 78; Pub.
L. 104-208, div. A, title II, $ 2609, Sept. 30, 1996,110 Stat. 3009*475; Pub. L. 105-61, title VI, $ 641,
Oct. 10, 1997,lll Stat. 1318,)

Historical and Revision Notes


Revi*d

5r18{s)
5118(b)

$ectlon

Sourc {U.8.

Code}

31:77N.
31:315b.

$ource {Statube at Large)


AW-27,1S35, dr. 780.49 $tat.938.

ji[. *,

-1-

1e34,

$.

B,

$5,48 stat.

U.S. Constitutlon

in favor of the
is no longer bou
delegated powers. It.s only
pronote human rights in t
economic, social and cul
f appear
Congress

of the Charter of the U


They are being promotedlin

Nations.

Consress ma
of deleqated
overnment of de
svstem of und

United SLate

tion.
ress

shackfes
slem of a

Ou

ha

'*\uta#*"nts is

The aut

ith no

inhibited

eoa
unde

cha

the

edtoa

1e of the

1n a z{zolume entitled
Anno ted, issued in

cl-

chai

lst

Committ,ee

of the

nship of Frof .

Edrlrard

f of the Library of

f the Annotations l I'In


nd the Constitution by
owers, but having acted,
provided Congress with an
pendently of a treaty,
estion that can be raised as
are necessaxy
g of the treaty in question inLo
azt

e principal cases clted is that of


e

of

also of a committee of the New York


h former Attorney General Mitchell and

in\dnt

members

illustration of new-found powers under


for s
s may do:
treaties of what C
rehensj-ve education hill, providing for
1. It may enact a
education in any State which does not provlde it. In fact, it may take
over all public education nor,r provided by States and municipalities.
2. It may enact a prohibition act without an amendment of the
Now,

Constitution.

3. It
4. It

may enact a uniform divorce acL.


may take over aII social and welfare services rendered by or
through the States or their agencies.
5. It may take over aI1 commerce, all utility rates and service,
all Labor. The list may be multiplied extensively at your will.
The new test of constitutionality will apply to all legislatton by
Congress since 1945, rrhich deals with any of the five fields of

endeavor. Any judge decidinq on the

validity of legislation must

have

two books before him -- one, the Cr:nstitution of the United States,
and the other, the Charter of the United Nations. If he does find
authority for the act in the Constitutien, he wilL find it in the
Charter. That is the exact situation in which Justice Holmes found
himself and the other members of the Supreme Court when they decided
the MigraLory Bird case. The authority was not found in the
Constitution **-it was found in the treaty with Great Britain.
The question to be answered is this: Under which form of government
do the people of the United States prefer to live? Manifestly, we
cannot operate under bolh.
Senator$, the people of the United States have given up their sonsi
they have given up biJ"lions of their substance. They should not be the
only Nation in the world to gj-ve up their form of government -- the
nonder of the world -- to discharge their obligations to the people of
the world.

B" Rix of
SoJ:rce Congress-ional Recgfd. P+99,43220, Statement of
Milwaukee For{aer President of thp Americpn Bar.Fssociatj,oq. Ent?red
into lhe House Rpcord by the t{onorable Lawrence H, Smith of Wigc?nsin
on May 1l-, 1955,
QaI----------------1

PUBLIC DEBT NEWS


Department of the Treasury
20239

'

Bureau of the Public Debt ' Washingtono DC

FORIMMEDIATE RELEASE
January 15,?404

TREASURY CALLS 9.1/8 PERCENT BONDS OF 2OO4.O9


The Treasuy today arurounced the call for redemption at par on May 1.5,2A04, of the 9-1/8% Treasury
Bonds of 2004-09, originally issued May 15, 1979, due May 15, 2009 (CUSIP No. 912810CG1).
There are $4,606 million ofthese bonds oubtanding of which $3,109 million are held byprivate
investors. Securities not redeemed on May 15, 2004 will stop eaming interesr
Thsse bonds are being called to reduce the cost of debt financing. The 9-1/8o/o intierest rate is

si$ificar*ly above the crxrertt cost of securing financing for the five

years remaining to fheir maturity.

currentmarket conditions, Treasury e$timafesthat intrcst savings &omthe call andrefinancing


about $5,14

wil

In

be

million

will be made automatically by the Treasuy for bonds in book-etrry forrn, \,&sther held on the
books ofthe Federal Reserve Banks or in TreasuryDirect a$cormts. Bonds held in coupon or
Payment

registercd fomr strould be presented for redemptionto financial institutions or mailed directly to tlre

fublic Debt Definitives Sectio4 P.O. Box 426, Parkersburg, WV 26106-0426. For
more information conceming catled corryon orregistered bonds, youmay contactthe Definitives Section

Bureau of tlre

at (30a) 480-7936.

oOo

PA-636

Published an lndian Country Taday Media Netwrk.com


[ttp {ind i,an cou n t Mqd av q ej ia n etworE. com )

Home > Fope Francb Apologhes to hdigenou$ Peoples for 'Grave Sins' o{ Colonialism

7t1At15

x ,r7,$"
Peoples for 'Grave

r_$angis Apblogizr
tEf

$biNdlism'-t
$
.sI,.
lmark s$ch, Popefirincis
lnd

igenous Peopla$f

Tit

nav riohttv
="r.i[n"n ]tred(
the church,'" the Pope
Many grave sins were

ina

rsday for the "grave sins" of colonialisrn


to grassroots groups in Bolivia,
of colonialism, he overlooks certain actions of
NewYork lrmes. "l say this to you with regret:
ive people of America in the name of God."

He didn't stop there.

"l humbly ask forgiveness, not only for the offense of the church herself, but also for crimes
committed against the native peoples during the so-called conquest of Arerica," Thq New ,Yo*
Tirygs reported"
He spoke to a crowd of more than 1,500 at the World Meeting of Popular Mouements, standing
side-by-side with Bolivian President Evo Morales, the Andean nation's first indigenous president.

Although Latin American church leaders have issued apologies in the past, this one went further
and was much more targeted, the Aqsogiated Press reported. Previous apologies had not been

directed at lndigenous Peoples of the Americas, AP said.


The Catholic Church wa$ one of many Christian denominations that ran boarding schools in
Canada and the U.S, designed to "kill the lndian in the child" by taking kids from their families,
cutting them off from their culture and educating them in the ways of the European-minded
settlers. The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission on June 2 came out with a report
calling such practiceg "cultural genocide" and recommending that Prime Minister Stephen
Harper ask the Pope for an apology. Though Harper met with Pope Francis and mentioned the
report, he did not specifically request the apology, and the Pontiffs words in Bolivia did not
reference the TRC document.
RELATED: Pope Francis and Prime Ministet Stephen HFrpqr Talk Truth qnd Fecongiliatlon,at
Vatican
Many have called for him to outright rescind the Doctrine of Discovery which paved the way for
centuries of oppression against lndigenous Peoples.
RELATED: Nuns Urqe Pope to Resgiqd Doctrine of Discpvery

The Pontiff is touring South America for eight days, with stops in Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay.
He has come out strongly against the environmental ravages and social injustice of climate
change, and in Thursday's speech he continued in that vein, by calling leaders who do not
defend Mother Earth "cowards." He also said they are committing "a grave sin," AP said.
REI.ATED: Pope Francis: Protgcti[rg Mother E.arth lq Our Dlrtv, Not an.Oqtion

Pope Frarlcis: lnd.igelrous,Peoples.'Should Be tle.Pincjpal Dialog-ue Partners' qn P.roiects

Full Name:
ICTMN Staff
$ource URL: http:/lindiancountrytdaymedianotwork.cont'20lSl0T nAtpope-frarcis-apologizes-irdigerous-peoptesgraw-sirs-colonialism- 1 6 t 030

#iL

.ffie

rxffia
U

The Holy See

APOSTOLIC LETTER
IS$UED MOTU PROPRIO
OF THE SUPREME PONTIFF
FRANCIS

ON THE JURISDICTION OF JUDICIAL AUTHORITIES OF VATICAN CITY $TATE


IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

ln our times, the common good is increasingly threatened by transnational organized crime, the
improper use of the markets and of the economy, as well as by terrorism.
It is therefore necessary for the international community to adopt adeguate legal instruments to
prevent and counter miminal actiyities, by promoting intemationaljudicial cooperation on criminal
matters.

ln ratifying numerous international conventions in these areas, and acting also on behalf of
Vatican City State, the Holy See has constantly maintained that such agreements are effective
means to prevent criminalactivities that threaten human dignity, the common good and peace.
With a view to renewing the Apostolic See's commitment to cooperate to these ends, by means of

this Apostolic Letter issued Motu Propria,l establish that:


1. The competent Judicial Authorities of Vatican City State shall also exercise penal jurisdiction

over:
a) crimes committed against the securig, the fundamental interests or the patrimony of the Holy
See;

b) crimes referred to:

- in Vatican City State Law No. Vlll, of '11 July 2013, containing Supplementary Norms an Criminal
Law Matters:

- in Vatican City State Law No. lX, of 11 July 2013, containing Amendmenfs fo tfte Criminal Code

and the Criminal Procedure Code;


when such crirnes are committed by the persons referred to in paragraph 3 below, in the exercise
of their functions;

c) any other crime whose prosecution is required by an international agreement ratifted by the
Holy See, if the perpetrator is physically present in the territory of Vatican City State and has not
been extrad,ted.
2. The crimes referred to in paragraph 1 are to be judged pursuant to the criminal law in force in
Vatiqan City State atthe time of their commission, without preiudice to the general principles of the

legalsystem on the temporal application of criminallaws.


3. For the purposes of Vatican criminal law, the following persons are deemed "public officials":
a) members, sflicials and personnel of the various organs of the Roman Curia and of the

lnstitutions connected to it.


b) papal legates and diplomatic personnel of the Holy See,
c) those persons who serve as representatives, (aanagers or directors, as weti as pereons who

even de factomanage or exercise control ovqr the entities directly dependent on the Holy See and
listed in the registry ol canonicaljuridical persons kept by the Governorate of Vatican City State;
d) any other person holding an administrative or judicial mandate in the Holy See, permanent or
temporary, paid or unpaid, irrespective of that person's seniority.
4, The iurisdiction referred to in paragraph 1 comprises also the administrative liability of juridical
per$ons arising frorn crimes, as regulated by Vatican City State laws.
5. When the same matters are presecuted in other States, the provisions in force in Vatican City
State on concurrent jurisdiction shall apply.
6. The content of article 23 of Law No. CXIX of 21 November 1987, which approves the Judicr'al

Order of Vatican City State remains in force,

This I decide and establish, anything to the contrary notwithstanding,


{

establish thet this Apcstolic Letfer issued Mofu Proprio wi{l be prornulgated by its publication in

L'Osservatore Romano, entering into force on { Septernberz013.


Given in Rome, at the Apostalic Palace, on 11 July 20'13, the first of my Pontificate.

FRANGISCUS

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The Holy See

MESSAGE OF HIS HOLINESS


POPE FRANCIS
FOR THE CELEBRATION OF THE
WORLD DAY OF PEACE
1

JANUARY2Ol5

NO LONGER SLAVES, BUT BROTHERS AT'ID SISTERS

1. At the beginning of this New Year, which we welcome as God's gracious gift to all humanity,

offer heartfelt wishes of peace to every man and woman, to allthe world's peoples and nations, to
heads of state and government, and to religious leaders. ln doing so, I pray for an end to wars,
conflictrs and the great suffering caused by human agency, by epidemics past and present, and by
the devastation wrought by natural disasters. I pray especially that, on the basis of qur common
calling to cooperate with God and all people of good will for the advancement of hannony and
peace in the world, we may resist the ternpiation to act in a manner unworthy of our humanity.
ln my Messaqe folPeace last year, I spoke of "the desire for a full life... which includes a longing
for fraternity which draws us to fellowship with others and enables us to see them not as enemies
or rivals, but as brothers and sisters to be accepted and embraced".$ $ince vve are by nature
relational beings, meant to find fulfilmentthrough interpersonal relationships inspired by justice
and love, it is fundarnental for our human development that our dignity, freedom and autonorny be
acknowledged and respected. Tragically, the growing scourge of man's exploitation by man
gravely damages the life of communion and our calling to forge interpersonal relations marked by
reepect, justice and love. This abominable phenomenon, which leads to contempt for the

fundamental rights of others and to the suppression of their freedom and dignity, takes many
forms. I would like briefly to consider these, so that, in the light of God's word, we can consider all
men and women "no longer slaves, but brothers and sisterd'.
Listening to God's plan for humanity

2. The theme I have chosen for this year's message is drawn from Saint Paul's letter to Philemon,
in which the Apostle asks his co-worker to welcome Onesimus, formerly Philemon's slave, now a
Christian and, therefore, according to Paul, worthy of being considered a brother. The Apostle of
the Gentiles writes: "Perhaps this is why he was parted from you for a while, that you might have
him back for ever, no longer as a slave but more than a slave, ae a beloved brother"

(w.

15-16).

Onesimus became Philemon's brotherwhen he becarne a Christian. Conversion to Christ, the


beginning of a life lived Cftnbtian disciplesfrrp, thus constitutes a new birth (cl. 2 Car 5:17; I Pet
1:3) which generates fraternity as the fundamental bond of family life and the basis of life in

society.
ln the Book of Genesis {c1.1:27-28), we read that God made man male and female, and blessed
them so that they could increase and multiply. He made Adam and Eve parents who, in response

to God's command to be fruitful and multiply, brought about the first katernity, that of Cain and
Abel. Cain and Abelwere brothers because they came forth from the same womb. Conseguently
they had the same origin, nature and dignity as their parents, who were created in the image and
likeness of God.

But fraternifyalso ernbraces variety and differences between brothers and sisters, even though
they are linked by birth and are of the same nature and dignity. As brofhers and slsfers, therefore,
all people are in relation with others, frorn whom they differ, but with whom they share the same
origin, nature and dignity. ln this way, fraternifyconstitutes the network of relations essentialfor

the buitding of the human family created by God.


Tragically, between the first creation recounted in the Book of Genesis and the new birth in Christ
whereby believers become brothers and sisters of the "first-born affiong many brethren" (Ram
8:29), there is the negative reality of sin, which often disrupts human fraternity and constantly
disfigures the beauty and nobility of our being brothers and sisters in the one human family. lt was
not only that Cain could not stand Abel; he killed him out of envy and, in so doing, committed the
first fratricide. "Cain's murder of Abel bears tragic witness to his radical rejection of their vocation

to be brothers. Their story (cf. Gen 4:1-16) brings out the difficult task to which all men and women
are called, to live as one, each taking care of the othe/'.[!l
This was also the case with Noah and his children

(cl Gen 9:18-27).

Ham's disrespect for his

father Noah drove Noah to curse his insolent son and to bless the others, those who honoured
hirn. This created an inequality between brothers born of the same womb.
ln the account of the origins of the human family, the sin of estrangement from God, from the
father figure and from the brother, becomes an expression of the refusal of communion. lt gives
rise to a culture of enslavement (cf. Gen9:25-27), with all its consequences extending from
generation to generation: rejection of others, their mistreatment, violations of their dignity and
fundamental rights, and institutionalized inequality. Hence, the need for constant conversion to the

Covenant, fulfilled by Jesus'sacrifice on the cros$, in the confidence that'\rhere sin increased,
grace abounded all the more... through Jesus Christ" {Rom 5:2A-21}. Christ , the beloved Son (cf.
Mt 3:17r, came to reveal the Father's love for humanity. Whoever hears the Gospel and responds
to the callto conversion becomes Jesus' "brother, srlsfer and mothef' (Mt 12:50), and thus an
adopted son of his Father

(ct Eph 1:5),

One does not become a Christian, a child of the Father and a brother or sister in Christ, as the
result of an authoritative divine decree, without the exercise of personalfreedom: in a word,

without being freely canverted to Christ. Becoming a child of God is necessarily linked to
conversion'. "Repent, and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the
forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy $pirit" (Acfs 2:38). All those who
responded in faith and urith their lives to Peter's preaehing entered into the fratemity af the first
Christian community {cl. I Pet2:17; Acts 1:15-16, 6:3, 15:23): Jews and Greeks, slaves and free
{d. 1 Cor 12:13; Gal 3:28). Differing origins and social status did not dirninish anyone's dignity or
exclude anyone from belonging to the People of God. The Christian community is thus a place of
communion lived in the love shared arnong brothers and sisters (cf. Rom 12:10:

Ihess 4:9: Heb

13:1: I Pet'l:22; 2 Pet t:7).


All of this shows how the Good News of Jesus Christ, in whom God makes "all things new" {Rev
21:Si,lf! is also capable of redeeming human relationships, including those between slaves and
masters, by shedding light on what both have in common: adoptive sonship and the bond of
brotherhood in Christ. Jesus himself said to his disciples: "No longer do I call you servants, for the

servaf does nol know what his rnaster is datng; buf I Jrave called ),ou friends,

fiar ell fhat I

heve

heard frorn my Father I have made known to you" (Jn 15:15),


The many faces af slavery yesterday and today

3. From time immemorial, different societies have known the phenomenon of man's subjugation by
man. There have been periods of human history in which the institution of slavery was generally
accepted and regulated by law. This legislation dictated who was born free and who was born into
slavery, as well as the conditions whereby a freeborn person could lose his or her freedom or

regain it. ln other words, the law itself admitted that some people were able or required to be
considered the property of other people, at their free disposition. A slave could be bought and
sold, given away or acquired, as if he or she were a commercial product.
Today, as the result of a growth in our awareness, slavery, $een as a crime against humanity,$

has been formally abolished throughout the world. The right of each person not to be kept in a
state of slavery or seMtude has been recognized in internationallaw as inviolable.
Yet, even though the international community has adopted numerou$ agreements aimed at ending
slavery in all its forms, and has launched various strategies to combat this phenomenon, millions

of people today

children, women and men of all ages

- are deprived

of freedom and are forced

to live in conditions akin to slavery.


I think of the many men and women labourers, including minors, subjugated in different sectors,

whether formally or informally, in domestic or agricultural workplaces, or in the manufacturing or


mining industry; whether in countries where labour regulations fail to comply with international
norms and minimurn standards, ort equally illegally, in countries which lack legal protection for

workers'rights.
I think also of the living conditions o'f many migrants who, in their dramatic odyssey, experience

hunger, are deprived of freedom, robbed of their possessions, or undergo physical and sexual
abuse. ln a particular way, I think of those among them who, upon arriving at their destination after
a gruelling journey marked by fear and insecurity, are detained in at times inhumane conditions. I
think of those among them, who for different social, political and economic reasons, are forced to
live clandestinely. My thoughts also tum to those who, in order to remain within the law, agree to
disgraceful living and working conditions, especially in those cases where the laws of a nation
create or permit a structural dependency of migrant workers on iheir employers, as, for example,
when the legality of their residency is made dependent on their labour contract. Yes, I am thinking
of "slave labouf'.
I think also

of per$ons farced into prostitution, many of whom are minors, as well as male and

female sex slaves. I think of women forced into marriage, those sold for arranged maniages and
those bequeathed to relatives of their deceased husbands, without any right to give or withhold

their consent.
Nor can I fail to think of all those persons, minors and adults alike, who are made objects of

traffickingtor the sale of organs, for recruitment as satdiers,tar begging, for illegal activities such
as fhe productian and sale of narcotics, or for disguised farms af cross-border adoption.
Finally. I think of alt those kidnapped and held captive by ferronst groups, subiected to their
purposes as combatants, or, above all in the case of young girls and women, to be used as sex
slaves. Many of these disappear, while others are sold several times over, tortured, mutilated or
killed.
Some deeper cause$ of slavery
4. Today, as in the past, slavery is rooted in a notion of the human person which allows him or her

to be treated as an object. Whenever sin corrupts the human heart and distances us from our
Creator and our neighbours, the latter are no longer regarded as beings of equal dignity, as
brothers or sisters sharing a common humanity, but rather as objects. Whether by coercion or
deeeption, or by physicalor psychological duress, human persons created in the image and

likeness of God are deprived of their freedom, sold and reduced to being the property of others.
They are treated a$ means to an end.
Alongside this deeper cause

- the rejection

of another person's humanity

there are other causes

which help to explain contemporary forms of slavery. Annong these, lthink in the first place of
povefi, underdevelopment and exclusion, especially when combined with a lack af access to
education or s6arce, even non-es<istent, employment opportunlfi'es. Not infrequently, the victims of
human trafficking and slavery are people who look for a way out of a situation of extreme poverty;

taken in by false promises of employment, they often end up in the hands of criminal networks
which organize human trafficking. These networks are skilled in using modern means of
communication as a way of luring young men and women in various parts of the world.
Another cause of slavery is comsption on the part of people willing to do anything for financial gain.
Slave labour and human trafficking often require the complicity of intermediaries, be they law
enforcement personnel, state officials, or civil and military institutions. "This occurs when money,
and not the human person, is at the centre of an economic system. Yes, the person, made in the
image of God and charged with dominion over all creation, must be at the centre of every social or
economic system. When the person is replaced by mammon, a subversion of values occurs".$i
Further causes of slavery include armed conflicts, violence, criminal activity and tenorism. Many
people are kidnapped in order to be sold, enlisted as combatants, or sexually exploited, while
others are forced to emigrate, leaving everything behind: their country, home, property, and even
members of their family. They are driven to seek an alternative to these terrible conditions even at

the risk of their personal dignity and their very lives; they risk being drawn into that vicious circle
which makes them prey to misery, conuption and their baneful consequences.

A shared commitment to ending slavery


5. Often, when considering the reality of human trafficking, illegaltrafficking of migrants and other
acknowledged or unacknowledged forms of slavery, one has the impression that they occur within
a context of general indifference.
Sadly, this is largely true. Yet I would like to mention the enormous and ofren silent efforts which
have been made for many years by religiqus congregations, especially women's congregations, to
provide support to victims. These institutes work in very difficult situations, dominated at times by
violence, as they work to break the invisible chains binding victims to traffickers and exploiters.
Those chains are made up of a series of links, each composed of clever psychological ploys which
make the victims dependent on their exploiters. This is accomplished by blackmail and threats
made against them and their loved ones, but also by concrete acts such as the confiscation of

iheir identity documents and physical violence. The activity of religious congregations is carried
out in three main areas: in offering assistance to victims, in working for their psychologicaland

educational rehabilitation, and in efforts to reintegrate them into the society where they live or from
which they have come.

This immense task, which calls for courage, patience and perseverance, deserves the
appreciation of the whole Church and society. Yet, of itself, it is not sufficient to end the scourge of
the exploitation of human persons. There is also need for a threefold commitrnent on the
institutional level: ta prevention, to victim protection and to the legal prosecution of perpetrators.
Moreover, since criminal organizations employ global networks to achieve their goals, efforts to
eliminate this phenomenon also demand a common and, indeed, a globaleffori on the pari ui
val tuub Srr\,tuti ur DlrutEty.

Skfes must ensure that their own legislation truly respects the dignity of the human person in the
areas of miqration, employment. adoption, the movement of businesses offshore and the sale of
items produced by slave labour. There is a need for just laws which are centred on the human
person, uphold fundamental rights and restore those rights when they have been violated. $uch
laws should also provide ftrr the rehabititation of victims, ensure their personal safety, and include
effective means of enforcement which leave no room for corruption or impunity. The role of women
in socieiy must aiso be recognizeci, not ieasi through initiaiives in ihe seciors of cuiiure anci sociai
communications.
lntergovernmental organizations, in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity, are called to
coordinate initiatives for combating the transnational networks of organized crime which oversee
the trafficking of persons and the illegal trafficking of migrants. Cooperation is clearly needed at a
number of levels, involving national and international institutions, agencies of civilsociety and the
world of finarice.

Bustnesse{Q} have a duty to ensure dignified working conditions and adequate salaries for their
employees, but they must also be vigilant that forms of subjugation or human trafiicking do not find
their way into the distribution chain. Together with the social responsibility of businesses, there is
also the social responsibility of cansumers. Every person ought to have the awareness that
"purchasing is always a moral - and not simply an economic * act'.[.[
Qrganizations in civil sociaty, for their part, have the task of awakening consciences and
promoting whatever steps are necessary for combating and uprooting the culture of enslavement.

ln recent years, the Holy See, attentive to the pain of the victims of traffrcking and the voice of the
religious congregations which assist them on their path to freedom, has increased its appeals to
the international community for cooperation and collaboration between different agencies in
putting an end to this scourge.[8.[ Meetings have also been organized to draw attention to the
phenomenon of human trafficking and to facilitate cooperation between various agencies,
including experts from the universities and international organizations, police forces from migrants'

countries of origin, transit, or destination, and representatives of ecclesial groups which work with
victims. lt is my hope that these efforts will continue to expand in years to come.
Globalizing fraternity, nat slavery or indifference

6. ln her "proclamation of the truth of Chrisfs love in society",lQ! the Church constantly engages in
charitable activities inspired by the truth of the human person. She is charged with showing to all
the path to conversion, which enables us to change the way we see our neighbours, to recognize
in every other person a brother or sister in our human family, and to acknowledge his or her

intrinsic dignity in truth and freedom. This can be clearly seen from the story of Josephine Bakhita,
the saint originally from the Darfur region in Sudan who was kidnapped by slave-traffickers and
sold to brutal masters when she was nine years old. Subsequently - as a result of painful
experiences - she became a "free daughter of God" thanks to her faith, lived in religious
consecration and in service to others, especially ihe most lowly and helpless. This saint, who lived
at the turn of the twentieth century, is even today an exemplary witness of hopef!-Q] for the many
victims of slavery; she can support the efforts of all those committed to fighting against this "open
wound on the body of contemporary society, a scourge upon the body of Christ". [111
ln the light of allthis, I invite everyone, in accordance with his or her specific role and
responsibilities, to practice acts of fraternity towards those kept in a state of enslavement. Let us
ask ourselves, as individuals and as communities, whether we feel challenged when, in our daily
lives, we meet or dealwith perscns who could be victims of human trafficking, or when we are
tempted to select items which may well have been produced by exploiting others. Some of us, out
of indifference, or financial reasons, or because we are caught up in our daily concerns, clo$e our
eyes to this. Others, however, decide to do something about it, to join civic associations or to
practice small, everyday gestures

- which have

so much merit!

such as offering a kind word, a

greeting or a smile. These cost us nothing but they can ofier hope, open doors, and change the
life of another person who lives clandestinely; they can also change our own lives with respect to

this reality.
We ought to recognize that we are facing a global phenomenon which exceeds the competence of
any one community or country. ln order to eliminate it, we need a mobilization comparable in size
to that of the phenomenon itself. For this reason I urgently appeal to all men and women of good
will, and all those near or far, including the highest levels of civil institutions, who witness the
scourge of contemporary slavery, not to become accomplices to this evil, not to turn away from the
sufferings of our brothers and sisters, our fellow human beings, who are deprived of their freedom
and dignity. lnstead, may we have the courage to touch the suffering flesh of Christ,[12] revealed
in the faces of those countless persons whom he calls "the least of these my brethren" (Mf 25:40,
45).

We know that God will ask each of us: What did you do for your brother? (cf. Gen 4:9'10). The

globalization of indifference, which today burdens the lives of so many of our brothers and sisters,
requires all of us to forge a nerlr, worldwide solidarity and fraternity capable of giving them new
hope and helping them to advance with courage amid the problems of our time and the new
horizons which they disclose and which God praces in our hands.

From the Vatican,

Decernber 2014
FRANCISCUS

IfI

No. 1.

lA

Message for the 2014LVortd Day of peace, Z.

I3I

Cf .

Apostolic Exhortation Eva

no

elii

Gau

di u ry.,

11.

EI cr.

, 23 October 2A14:

L'Osseruatare Romana, 24 October 2O14, p.4.

I5i
L'Osservatore Romano, 2g October 2A14, p.7.

, 28 October 2014:

Igl Cf-PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE, Vacation af theBusrness Leader: A
Reflection,2013.
IZI BENEDICT XVl, Encyclical Letter Caritas in Vgri-tate,66.

Iglcf.
the o-ccasion of the 103rd Session of the ILO, 22 May 2014: L'Osseryatore Romano,2g May
2A14,

p.7.
Igj BENEDICT XVl, Encyclical Letter Caritas in Veritate, S.
Through the knowledge of this hope she was 'redeemed', no longer a slave, but a free child
of God. She understood what Paul meant when he reminded the Ephesians that previously they
[10.I

were without hope and without God in the world


XVl, EncyclicalLetter pe Sa/yr, 3).

- without hope because without God" (BENEDIOT

I1]j
Trafficking: Church and l-qw Enforcement in Partrersfijp, 10 April 2014: L'Osservatore Rofiano,
11 April 2a14, F.7; cf . Apostolic Exhortation Evanoelii Gaudium, zTa.

UA

Cf. Apostolic Exhortation Evanaelii Gaudium,Z4 and 27A.

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