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AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

4WorksheetonAnalysingStatistics
Text: "Fans flock to New Zealand's Tolkien trail", from: Martin Arndt/Karl Sassenberg,
AustraliaandNewZealand, ViewfinderTopics(Mnchen:Langenscheidt,2010),pp.63f.

TourismisanimportantpartofNewZealand'seconomy.Atpresentoneintenjobsisrelated
to this industry which contributes $ 15 billion to the Gross Domestic Product (almost ten
percent).EveryyeartheMinistryofTourismcollectsalargeamountofdataoninternational
visitors which are analysed, interpreted and evaluated (data mining). The tourist industry
wantstoknowindetailhowforeignvisitorscontributetoNewZealand'seconomyinorder
toimproveitsmarketingstrategiesandincreaseitsprofit.

Thetablesbelowcontainsomeofthesedatacollectedin2009bytheNewZealandMinistry
of Tourism. Imagine yourself as a secretary who has to present and explain them to the
MinisterofTourism.

Inapresentationinclassorinanoralexaminationyouwillfrequentlyhavetoexplainand
interpretstatisticaldata.Thisworksheetmayhelpyoutoimproveyourskills.

A HOWTODEALWITHSTATISTICS

Oncedatahavebeencollectedtheymustbecompiledandarrangedforinterpretation.The
most basic form of arranging data is a table. The following example shows how visitors
spendtheirmoneyinNewZealand.

TableA:

ItemsofVisitorExpenditure

Items

Australia UK

US

China

Food/Meals*

372

673

540

Sightseeing/Attractions*

291

573

Gifts/Souvenirs*

195

315

Japan

Germany

790

354

638

345

377

326

379

261

969

478

264

OtherShopping*
283
522
317
678
453
*inNZ$

Thetableshowshowmucheachtouristspendsontheseitemsduringhistrip.

297

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AnalysingStatistics

Task1:

AustraliaandNewZealand

Examinethefiguresinthetableandfindout:

a)WhichtouristsspendmostinNewZealand?
_________________________________________________________________________

b)Whichcountryspendsleastineachcategory?
Food/Meals*

Sightseeing/Attractions*
Gifts/Souvenirs*
OtherShopping*

c)HowdotheGermansrankineachcategory?
Food/Meals*
Sightseeing/Attractions*
Gifts/Souvenirs*
OtherShopping*

d)HowdotheJapanesedifferfromalltheothervisitors?
_____________________________________________________________________________

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AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

e)Calculatehowmuchmoneyeachcountryspendsandshowhowtheyrank.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Tablesarejustrowsandcolumnsofinformationandittakestimetofindoutwhatismost
important.Graphsandchartsarewaysofpresentinginformationvisually.Theyarepictures
whichillustratenumbersorfigures.

Themostcommonformisthatofabarchart.Thefollowingchartillustratesthefiguresof
TableA.

DiagramA:BarChart
Expenditure:Howvisitorsspendtheirmoney
1200

NZD (value axis)

1000
800
600
400
200
0
Aus tralia

UK

US

China

Japan

Ge rm any

Country (category axis)


Food/ Meals*

Sightseeing/Attractions*

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Gifts/ Souvenirs*

Other Shopping*

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

Youcanalsopresentfiguresliketheseintheformoflinegraphs.Thesegraphsaremostly
usedtoillustrateadevelopmentoveracertainperiodoftime,inthiscasethenumbersof
touristsvisitingNewZealandfrom20032008.

DiagramB:LineGraph

International Tourists
350,000
300,000

Numbers

250,000

GER
USA

200,000

CHN
GBR

150,000

JPN
100,000
50,000
0
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Year

Theyhelptovisualisetrendsindatabyvisiblyshowinghowonevariableisaffectedbythe
otherasitincreasesordecreases.

Task2:

Youcanseeatfirstglancethattherearetwolinegraphswhichshowan
especiallyinterestingdevelopment.Whicharetheyandwhatdotheyshow?

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

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AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

Piecharts(orcirclegraphs)areusedtoshowhowthewholeofsomethingisdividedinto
parts.Theydisplaypercentagesandaremostlyusedtocomparedifferentpartsofthesame
whole.Thecircleofapiegraphrepresents100%.Eachsectionwithinthecirclestandsfora
partofthese100%.

TableA:Ifyouwanttoshowhowmuchmoneythetouristsofeachcountryspendonfood
andmeals,youmayusethisformofpresentation.

Diagram3:PieChartDiagram4:PieChart
Moneyspentonfood/meals
(absolutefigures)

Moneyspentonfood/meals
(in%)

AUS; 372

GER
19%

GER; 638

JPN; 354

GBR; 673

AUS
11%
GBR
20%

JPN
11%

USA; 540
CHN; 790

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CHN
23%

USA
16%

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

ANALYSINGANDINTERPRETINGSTATISTICS

Ifyouwanttodescribeandexplainstatisticsyouneedaspecialvocabulary.Herearesome
wordswhichwillhelpyoutodescribeadiagram.

numbers
prices
temperatures

fell
declined
dropped
decrease
sank
wentdown

numbers
prices
temperatures
_____________________

remainedsteady
didnotchange
remainedconstant
remainedstable
stabilized
_____________________

reachedapeak
peaked
reachedtheirhighest
level
felltoalow
reachedabottom

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wentup
increased
grew
rose

slightly
alittle
alot
sharply
suddenly
steeply
gradually
gently
steadily

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

Task3:Completethefollowingsentences.

Lookatdiagram2.

a)From________________________thenumberofGerman
tourists__________________________________________.

b)From2003to2004thenumberofJapanesevisitors_______________
______________but___________________________________untilitreached
__________________in2008.
c)ThenumberofBritishtourists___________________________________in2005.

d)Between2003and2007thenumberofChinesetouristalmost________________.

DiagramE:HorizontalBarChart
Totalvisitorarrivalsin2009

GER

JPN
CHN

USA

62,300
102,482

112,398
212,410

GBR

AUS

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285,094

976,200

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

DiagramF:VerticalBarChart
Averagelengthofstay(days)

45.4

29.6
21.3
19.5
15.7
11.4

AUS

GBR

USA

CHN

JPN

DiagramG:PieChart
TotalVisitorExpenditurein2009
(inmillionNZD)

GER; 270
JPN; 456

AUS; 1,500

CHN; 337

USA; 731

GBR; 890

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GER

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

Howtodealwithdiagrams:
o Findoutwhatthediagramisabout.Thismaynotalwaysbeobviousfromitstitle.
o Findoutthemainidea(whatdoesthediagramshow?)andsummariseitinone
sentence.
o Lookforevidencewhichsupportsthisidea.
o Findthemostsignificantpieceofinformation.
o Donotanalyseandexplaineverydetailinthediagram.Concentrateonthemost
significantdata.

Task4:LookatdiagramsE,FandG.Foreachdiagramanswerthefollowingquestions.
Whatisthediagramabout?
Whatisthemostobviousstatement?
Whatdoesthediagramshowindetail?
Arethereanyconclusionsormessages?
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_____________________________________________________________________________

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AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

Task5:TheMinisterofTourismwantstoknowmoreabouttheindividualvisitor.

a)HowmuchmoneydoeseachvisitorspendonhistripinNewZealandonaverage?

Youcanfindthisoutifyourelatethedatafromdiagram7tothoseofdiagram5.

Averagesumspentper
visitor(NZ$)

AUS

GBR

USA

CHN

JPN

GER

b)Howmuchmoneydoallthevisitorsfromonecountryspendperday?
Youcanfindthisoutifyourelateyournewdatatothoseofdiagram6.

AUS

GBR

USA

CHN

Averagesumspentperday
(NZ$)

JPN

GER

c)Writedownyourdataintheformofatable.Withthehelpofaspreadsheet
applicationsuchasMicrosoftExcelyoucandevelopabarchartwhichillustrates
howmuchavisitorspendsperday.

AUS

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GBR

USA

CHN

JPN

GER

AnalysingStatistics

AustraliaandNewZealand

DiagramH:3DVerticalBarChart

TouristActivities
95%
100%
86%
90%

89%

89%
87%

80%
54%

70%
60%

51%

58%

50%

35%
43% 37%

40%

25%
26%
22%

11%

30%
29%

Germany

8%

23%

20%

Japan

16% 2%

China

18%

10%

15%

11%

0%

UK
6%

NatureMuseum
based
activities

Maori
cultural
tourism

US

Australia

Winery
visits

Thefiguresadduptomorethan100%asmostvisitorsengageinmorethanoneactivity.

Task6:DiagramHshowstouristactivitiesinpercent.Interpretthisdiagramusingthe

advicegivenabove.

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(KarlSassenberg)