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Carib Studies Module 2

Ah bad man we name A.L.L.


Expected Learning
1. Analysis of the Concepts of Development
2. Grasp of the interrelationships among the
different approaches to development (human,
economic, sustainable)
3. Grasp of the different indicators of development
4. Grasp of the different factors that promote and
hinder development
5. Evaluation of how development has been
influenced by political, social, cultural,
environmental and technological factors

Concepts of Development

Development has been understood to have 3 different


1. Development as an enactment of human values: This

concept essentially says for anything to develop, improvement
must be based on some values which are being implemented. For
example one may argue that for an economy to develop there
must be an implementation of values which raise the standard of
2. Development as increasing differentiation or complexity:
This concept essentially means that for anything to develop it
must become more complex and differentiated where the
component parts will interrelate with deeper linkages. Pretty self
3. Development as liberation or human freedom: This states
that for people to be developed there must be an accompanied
growth in autonomy, the options they can pursue and the selfefficacy (the significance of their actions). For example people
see education and its ability to empower people to rise in their

Approaches to development
There are three main approaches to
1. Economic Development
2. Human Development
3. Sustainable Development

Economic Development
The specific goal of development in the
decolonization era was economic
development through economic growth
This referred to an increase in the value of
goods and services produced by a country
within a specific time period
It was expected that the problems of
poverty and backwardness would be solved
once Caribbean countries experienced
improvements in economic growth

Economic Growth Indicators

There were various indicators measure this development
however they only measured accurately economic growth.
These included:
1. Gross National Product (GNP): Value of goods and services from a
country plus any foreign revenue. GNP per capita is = GNP
2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total market value of the goods
and services of a country in a given year. GDP per capita = GDP
3. Population Growth Rate: calculated by considering birth and death
rates and migration statistics therefore if one has a smaller
population then GDP & GNP per Capita should rise
4. Age dependency ratio: the ratio of people under 15 and over 65
(dependents) to the working age population (those between 15-64).
The theory is if there are more working aged people to take care of
dependents the government would spend less taking care of them.

Economic Development

The traditional emphasis was to implement measures

which solely increased production while limiting
population growth
This formed the basis of economic policies in the
Caribbean from the 60s to the 80s and these
ethnocentric approaches modelled in a uniform way
not addressing the problems faced by citizens.
While production did increase to some extent the
citizen has by large part not benefitted from this
Economic development has evolved since then to
focus not only on economic growth on welfare of the
people and poverty reduction

Economic Development

The economic and non economic indicators of

development are collectively used to assess the
level of development among countries.
Some Economic Indicators of Development include:

Levels of Industrialization
Employment Levels
Economic structures (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Industries)
The Levels of local and foreign debt
Levels of foreign aid receipts
National Resource Accounting
How natural resources are depleted to drive productivity

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP):

Assesses the impacts of inflation, shortages and dislocation of the

Human Development
The Human Development Paradigm (HDP) in the
90s brought together ideas from economic development
and sustainable development to find a more holistic way
of describing development but putting humans at the
The HDP has three basic views
1. That people are the end means of development: so if our
quality of life increases we observe development
2. That development is largely about broadening peoples
choices so theyll have more opportunities to improve
themselves in ways thatll make them happy and bring
3. That poverty and income inequality are the major problems in
human societies which prevent good quality of life

Human Development
Therefore human development as envisaged
by the HDP includes improving the quality of
life of people through the four areas of:
empowerment, equity, productivity and
The notion comes not from ethnocentric views
as empowerment i.e. broadening human
choices differ considerably among countries.
In one country it may be through education,
another may be through opening crown lands

Sustainable Development
A concept of advancing a peoples quality
of life, through both economic growth and
development and human without
compromising future generations and their
capacity to meet their own needs.
In this type of development if human
development needs are compromised
imporvents will be unsustainable
So yeah all types of development are
connected here

Sustainable Development
If equity is compromised so will the environment be. In
severely unequal places like Haiti where daily survival is
more of priority than the well being of future
generations the environment will be exploited i.e.
cutting of forests which lead to soil erosion
Hence measures must be implemented to reduce
inequality and poverty.
Big companies often exploit the environments to make a
profit like destroying forests, overfishing and polluting.
Therefore measures to increase the empowerment of
citizens to raise issues against the interests of big
business is critical to ensue sustainability.

Sustainable Development
Refers to the commitment on the part of the people
and government of a country to enable all social
groups to access the opportunities that the country
offers and be fair to all groups as they grasp these

Productivity (Based on equity)

Refers to an understanding that if people have equal
access to educational and job opportunities then
their productivity will probably increase. So if one
has adequate job qualifications they probably wont
be in a dead end job where there is no challenge.

Sustainable Development
Empowerment (Based on equity)
Refers to the degree to which individuals
have a feeling of self-efficacy, meaning
that they have a knowledge that they
are capable of doing things to improve
their lives. If people have equal
opportunities to be productive citizens
theyll probably be happy and will have
a high esteem making them make broad
decisions in their best interest

Non Economic indicators of


Life Expectancy
Levels of Education
Ratio of Doctors to the Population
Labour Productivity
Distribution of Income
Improved institutions and attitudes
Birth and Death Rates
A nationally coordinated system of policy

Indicators and examples of them

associated with the paradigm


A nationally
system of

Development Plan


institutions and

Increase in Literacy
Gender Equity at the

GDP per Capita

GNP per Capita
Increase in

Energy efficiency
Internet Usage


Levels of income Child malnutrition

Social and

Factors that influence development:

Political Ideologies
These are systems of belief about governance
and power that reflect the needs and
aspirations of particular social groups ex.
Capitalism, communism and socialism.
Capitalism is the prevailing ideology in the
During the post colonial era since the emphasis
was economic growth under Capitalism and yet
poverty was still a problem some believed to
increase the way of life of the people alternative
ideologies should be implemented.

Factors that influence development:

Political Ideologies
These people were influenced by the
Dependency theorists of Latin America who
stated that the colonial condition encouraged
dependency, underdevelopment and poverty
through an imbalance in the trading
relationships and the indoctrination of the
superiority of the mother country.
So the attempt was to focus on decreasing
poverty rather than on economic growth
which came into direct contravention with the
moneyed classes which ruled at the time.

Factors that influence development:

Political Ideologies
Ideologies can foster fragmentation and makes countries
vulnerable to external interference in domestic affairs of the
countries e.g. Cuba and also limits the extent to which countries
are able to forge a coordinated foreign policy. On the other hand
the region has been able to maintain stable and democratic
governments, which have provided opportunities for economic
stability and favourable investment climate
The Marxist type revolutions which took place in Cuba (1959) and
Grenada (1979) and the attempts to establish such principles in
Guyana (1960s & 1970s) were focused on increasing human
development through increasing Equality.
Cubas economy became centrally planned, with the state owning
all productive enterprises and property. The population gained in
exchange goods and services at cheap prices, free health care
and housing. However productivity decreased due to corruption.

Factors that influence

development: Social Factors
These include poverty and inequality
(distribution of wealth and stagnant
Distribution of wealth and resources can
either hinder or promote development.
Caribbean society has always been one
characterized by social stratification
where the elites owned the capital, the
middle owned some property while the
lower classes only had their labour to sell.

Factors that influence

development: Social Factors
If wealth is unevenly distributed then this can hinder
development. When concentrated in the hands of a few it
can lead to low level of investment, high unemployment,
high level of unskilled labour force as there is low
expenditure on education. It can also result in corruption.
As a consequence there is low productivity among highincome earners, capital flight and brain drain. It leaves
government with a high borrowing from international
sources, which results in higher taxation rate and rising
inflation. To solve this, incentives for production have to
be offered to attract investors and government has to
increase its involvement in areas such as infrastructure!
development, education, minimum wage, high tax on
luxury items, harsh penalties for offenders, better
auditing and accountability.

Factors that influence

development: Social Factors
Most countries of the Caribbean ex. Jamaica
display an inequitable distribution of wealth. In
Jamaica it is skewed in favour of the ruling class,
which consists of large landowning families, local
capitalists, international capitalist and a small
number of strategically placed professional
managers. These classes of people in Jamaica
control the commanding heights of the economy
(in 1970s less than 1% of the population
controlled 70% of the wealth in the economy.
Majority of the wealth concentrated in the hands
of 21 families

Factors that influence

development: Social Factors
Changing class boundaries
If within society there are no avenues or
scope for social mobility then this can lead to
antagonism as people will see themselves as
inferior as or less important than those who
occupy higher status. A rigid class structure
breeds insecurity/ mistrust and this can have
a negative impact on development. Some
avenue for upward social mobility must exist
to reward people who are industrious,
visionary and productive

Factors that influence development:

Economic Factors
These factors dictate how limited resources
are used to satisfy needs and unlimited wants
Since resources are limited it is essential to
allocate them in the most efficient way
possible for the benefit of most people.
Resources can be divided into Land, Labour,
Capital and visionary Leadership.
Leadership ensures stability and is what will
envision for the future whats needed and
have that available when the time comes.

Factors that influence development:

Economic Factors
So factors are:
The maximum use of resources
Efficient usage of time, money and energy
Reducing the effects of external events (war, crime)

A country can increase resources this through

Discovery of natural resources
Increasing foreign investments
Expanding the skilled labour force
Technological Advances

When these resources are properly allocated

Goods and services in the local market will become more
Economic benefits will accrue, facilitating higher employment
Social benefits will accrue increasing employment also and when
this increased revenue is well spent human development will

Factors that influence development:

Technological Factors
These relate to the use of mechanical and
electric instruments to solve practical problem
of production
When used properly there can be increases in:
Management Effectiveness and Performance
Organized functions and intelligent workforce
New products and services

However competition from outside forces can

reduce the demand in traditional goods and
actually reduce development and growth

Environmental Factors
These relate directly to nature but
indirectly to economics because we
need raw materials as well as land to
dump our waste.
If the environment is sustainably
taken care of the carrying capacity of
the land can increase leading to
boosts in the productive sectors
(primary, secondary and tertiary
industries) as well as through tourism


Contextualising Development:
Globalization and Regionalism
Expected Learning Outcomes
Define Globalisation
Compare Globalisation and Internationalisation
Present a critique of the work of organizations that
attempt to facilitate globalisation.
Assess the ways in which Globalisation affects
development in the region
Describe the evolution of the integration movement
in the Caribbean
Explain the ways in which the integration
movement has affected development in the region

Defining Globalization
Globalization : the process whereby
flows of trade, finance and
information between countries are
broadened and deepened so that
they function as one global market,
as if they had no borders.
For example a Singapore University
in Jamaica would have the same
privileges in Jamaica as in Singapore.

Defining Globalization
Globalization has been derived by the ICT
(Information and Communication Technologies)
sector in recent times
For example the internet exists without borders
to some extent (except VEVO).
This is the logical meaning of globalization
where when applied to trade, finance or
communication where a commodity is available
to all everywhere, as if the nation state didnt
exist. For example The universality of Cell
Phone usage

Defining Globalization
A truly globalized world only exists when there
is a level playing field for all where everyone
can benefit from trade in technology.
For example Cell phones in the Sahara to the
Caribbean are used touching all income
groups and backgrounds
Information access has been able to allow
ordinary citizens to access the prices globally
of produce and services to challenge old

Defining Globalization
Monopolies are therefore no longer as
profitable as they were so there is a question as
to how Capitalist Organizations can function in
a globalized world
Globalization is therefore a process which
erodes distinctions between various
places removing advantages that certain
groups enjoy
Globalization produces in knowledge an area
where all parts of the world are able
disseminate their own cultural knowledge

Defining Internationalization
Internationalization is a more
accurate term to describe world now
concerning the institution of the
World Bank or IMF in finance or
Internationalization of flows in trade,
capital and finance refers to
increasing interactions among the
countries of world as their markets
become more integrated and as their

Defining Internationalization
Internationalization is more accurate
because it recognizes the nation-state. It
conceives interactions between nations
and conceives the nations not as equal.
There is no deepening or broadening of
linkages in capital, trade and finance as is
the case for globalization
Since there is a distinction which needs to
be addressed between internationalization
and globalization


This is a business organization/corporation /enterprise

that has its headquarters (parent company) in one
country (usually advanced capitalist/industrialized
countries) and has branches/subsidiaries/franchises and
plants in many countries.
They seek out the best profit opportunities and are
largely unconcerned with issues such as poverty,
inequality and unemployment alleviation. Such
organizations carry out substantial amounts of
financing, production sales research and development
in their foreign operations. They have great economic
power (large capital base such as cash, stocks bonds
and technology).
They are usually based on manufacturing or mineral
industries (extractive and primary industries) and


They then train workers in foreign plants to use these skills.

Some MNCs grant foreign companies licenses to use their
methods and processes instead of setting up plants of their
own. A MNC may have fewer plants in one country that
produces complete products to be sold in several countries
while in other cases the plants in many countries may produce
components or parts of the finished products. This gives MNCs
a larger area from which to choose the most economical
locations for specialized plants. The companies can then sell
products at lower prices than would otherwise be possible.
Plants imply that there are countries outside the 1 st World Area
that can produce parts and components of the finished product.
While trade and technology individually and collectively are
facilitators of globalization, they are driven primarily by the
functions and operations of the TNOs. The presence of TNOs in
the Caribbean increased with industrialization by invitation.

Purpose of MNC/TNC
These are set up to take advantage
of the lower cost of foreign labour
and material.
To avoid to pay tariffs and taxes on
imported goods.
Obtain control over the supply of
Eg of TNC in the Caribbean are:
Scotia Bank, Digicel, LIME, KFC,
Burger King, Nestle, Pepsico

Reason why MNC / TNC invest in 3 rd

World Countries
Cheap labour
Tax holiday
Freedom to repatriate profits

Challenges that the 3rd World

Countries go through
If the developing countries refuse to meet the
demand of the TNO, they in turn complain to
there home country who will apply pressure to
the countries. Eg. withholding foreign aid,
withholding loans and terminating of contracts
Exploit natural resources
Poses a threat to local industries

Benefits of the TNO to the

developing countries
Provides jobs
Introduce new technologies to
improve production
Diverse business practices
Improve standard of living (social
benefits such as scholarships and
health facilities)
Earn foreign exchange

Technology (Media & Telecommunication)

Technological globalization impacts on all aspects of life on the
planet. It is through technology and communication that the
world shrank in the global village.
Technology allows information to be transmitted in real time
via the Internet, telephone, television and radio. This means
that information or communication is been carried out 24hrs a
day and you can view the events happening in other countries
at the same time.
Mobile communication and the Internet have irrevocably
changed human relations both negatively and positively.
Exposure of the World Wide Web on the communication
industry, along with mobile technology, is responsible for the
speed at which globalization has been facilitated. Developing
countries in the Caribbean are web integrated in the 3G/4G
world of technology.
This means that real time video stream can be done on

Critiquing Globalization and

Internationalization processes
This section seeks to analyse the process of
internationalization of markets not only the economic
dimensions of impacts but the cultural and political
responses as well.
Developmental agencies such as the World Bank have
used this process as a path to development for use by
developing countries
Internationalization occurs between unequal partners
i.e. superpowers, TNCs, industrialized countries,
developing countries and poorer ones. There is no
super government to administer so in many cases
richer countries take advantage of the process more
than others

Critiquing Globalization and

Internationalization processes
The processes are illustrated below
1. Expansion of Free Trade: Trade liberalization requires countries to
remove tariffs placed on imports to protect their own industries. Calls
to do so when ignored can lead to restrictions from lager free trade
2. Measures to tighten efficiency: Increases output while educing costs
leading to increased mechanization and some times laying off workers.
This is done to increase competitiveness in industrial counties looking
to take advantage of trade liberalization with low production costs.
3. The persistence of tariffs: This often subsidises production costs in
developed countries to remain competitive i.e. flooding foreign markets
(protectionism) while maintaining their own.
4. Market integration: Integration of trade markets between developing
and developed countries increasing the volume of trade in recent
times. Opening markets to capital flow has always been seen as the
main way of increasing

Critiquing Globalization and

Internationalization processes
6. Dominance of TNCs: These firms operate as large
internationally integrated production systems with for
example, headquarters in Europe but Factories in
Guyana and Mines in Trinidad. They are driven more by
the profit motive than the needs of the country and its
people often generating little employment due to high
modernization and capital focus
7. Homogenization of Institutions: Multilateral
Organizations such as the World Bank and the IMF lend
money to assist the internationalization of markets as a
key factor of development. They coerce governments to
accept recommendations regarding Capital and finance.
As a result these countries have similar institutions.

Multilateral Agencies
These are agencies or institutions where many
members are able to participate on even footing,
dedicated to achieving certain goals and have devised
procedures for all to follow in pursuit of these goals
and has devised procedures for all to follow in pursuit
of these goals ex. The World Bank, IMF, WTO
All these had a genesis after WWII and were formed
after a special UN meeting at Bretton Woods in New
Hampshire in 1945 and are known as Bretton Woods
Institutions. The goal was to ensure economic
development of all countries to prevent recurrences of
catastrophes like the World Wars and the Great

The World Bank

This was established after WWII and initially called
the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD). It has its HQ in Washington
DC and has 187 member countries.
Countries which fund the World Bank are Western
Europe, North America and the rich oil countries.
The Presidents are customarily US nationals
The Bank is involved in providing Capital for
projects to promote development.
It once had sole focus on economic growth but
switched to poverty reduction based on the new
definitions of development

The World Bank

Long term focus is to promote equity and productivity in
education, health and industry. The bank makes loans
conditional to improve aspects of social life which go against
freedom, equity and human rights.
The bank has been accused of western imperialism as it
endorses internationalization of markets through trade
liberalization policies giving impetus for richer countries to profit
from developing free market trade.
The Bank has also been accused of US biased market
liberalization. As the Bank supports TNCs in oil & other sectors
which have been shown not to decrease poverty
The World Bank today focuses its activities on developing
countries and privileges to developed ones but has helped to
boost economic growth in some countries but has gained less
from where human development is concerned

The World Bank

In its early years it was to help in financing the
reconstruction of world war affected countries.
Nowadays its main role is to channel capital from
the rich countries to the poor and developing
Otley et al quotes While IMF is a last resource for
many countries especially for shock and emergency,
the World Bank is more available to generally help
with poverty alleviation and sustainable
development. Low interest and no interest loans and
grants are used primarily for the structural and
capital development of: education, health,
infrastructure, public sector restructuring and
natural resources management, among other
development needs.

Benefits of the World Bank

Low interest
Poverty alleviation
Financial and technical services

As a Bretton Woods Institution the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) works closely with the World
Bank having the same membership and HQ but
instead having a customary European president. They
balance each other via the Washington Consensus
The IMF focuses on fostering global monetary
cooperation and ensuring financial stability worldwide
extending loans and technical assistance to expand
trade and help countries balance payments and be
stable fiscally. Reducing debt is likely to boost
economic growth. Globally the IMF is responsible for
overseeing the entire international financial system

IMF industries are based solely on austerity and are the
same for all developing countries including:
1. Keeping interest rates high to balance currency
2. Devalue the currency to boost exports
3. Reducing Government spending in non-productive sectors
(health and education)
4. Privatization of state owned enterprises

These austerity measures (structural adjustment policies)

had to be agreed upon by the respective governments
before giving assistance. Implementation of SAPs has
resulted in widespread unemployment before giving
assistance, and increased poverty while simultaneously
ensuring a profit to the debtor nations in ALL CASES.


The World Trade Organization was formed in 1995 with the

demise of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT). Its HQ is in Geneva (Switzerland) and has 148
members. It not only regulates trade in goods like GATT but
services in telecommunication and banking. It is more
modern than the IMF or World Bank and clearly speaks of
Its function is to remove all barriers or encumbrances of any
kind to trade within the world. Its activities have the
potential to facilitate globalization in its logical sense
The WTO is the only international body established to
oversee the rules of international trade and to make rules
there has to widespread consensus which is far more
advanced than the Bretton Woods institutions however
there are accusations of subverting the democratic process.

Main Functions of WTO

Administrating WTO trade
Handling trade disputes
Providing technical assistance and
training for developing countries.

The US, TNCs, Japan and the EU are said to exert
undue pressure on developing countries in the
decision making process
Recently WTO meetings all over the world have been
met with protests, demonstrations and criticisms.
Talks have even broken down as consensus becomes
even more difficult and developing countries refuse
to accept some decisions.
Here we see when developed countries are faced
with the prospect of globalization they back down in
favour of internationalization of fair trade where
they only benefit.

EPA (Economic Partnership

This is a preferred trade agreement
between countries and facilitate free
In 2008, members of CARICOM
signed an EPA with the European
Union (EU)

Benefits of EPA
Free flow of goods
Exemption from high taxes and quota
limits would be higher
Opens up market beyond WTO
especially in service sectors such as
entertainment industries.

Impact and Response to Globalization

The impact that globalization has on the
Caribbean is characterised by the small size of
Caribbean States, the regions financial
dependency on the industrialised world and its
history of fragmentation both as insula island
states and historic and cultural fragmentation of
colonial powers.

Industry and Commerce (see info on WTO,

- Industrialisation by invitation facilitated the
development of infrastructure and created jobs
for thousands in the Caribbean countries.

Impact and Response to


Distributional Sector (eg. supermarkets

and department stores)
- For commerce to compete, the distribution and
retail centre must satisfy the demand for
foreign goods while competing with the giants
of commerce (foreign consumer products have
become more dominant than locally made

Impact and Response to



- As labour is a major factor of production, it is one of the

first elements to be affected by Globalization and the
last to benefit from any short term and long term fix.
- Modernization and public sector reform or a response to
globalization; private sector downsizing, cooperate
mergers and buy outs have all contributed to massive
lay offs.
- The economies of the Caribbean have not been able to
buffer unemployment and the results have been
- One approach the governments have taken is to give
scholarships and bonds students to work in the region.
- Gives incentives to UWI students who work in public

Impact and Response to Globalization

Technology (read on your own)
Ideology and Popular Movements
- Giving the varied and complex impact that globalization
has on individual countries, economic, social and
environmental processes, the responses have come from
varied groups within society.
- Globalization heralded the growth of movements within
civil society; social groups that represent the interests
and issues of people, especially those at risk. (eg. NGOs
(Non Government Organizations social movement that
is legally constituted for the purpose of carrying out social
functions primarily through advocacy), Caribbean
Association for Feminist Research and Action (CAFRA),
Womens Action for New Direction (WAND), Environmental
and Social Justice (ESJ), Jamaica For Justice (JFJ).

The Context of
Caribbean Exports have decreased for a variety of
reasons including:
The removal of trade preferences
The underselling of local products by cheaper foreign
goods and services
The closure of both large and small firms who cannot
compete with the technological efficiencies of foreign

This means that the context of (unbalanced)

development for Caribbean countries has been one
of spiralling debt and decreasing productivity and
output due to reliance on free trade ideologies

Regional Integration
The Caribbean is divided among European
languages and traditions and any form of
regional integration was relatively unthinkable
until 1994 and the formation of the
Association of Caribbean States (ACS).
The English speaking Caribbean with their
similarities have long founded different
associations including: The West Indies
Federation, CARIFTA and CARICOM. At the Sub
regional level the Organization of Eastern
Caribbean states were formed.

Regionalism and
Under systems of increasing globalization smaller nation
states have found it more advantageous to integrate
some parts of their operations so that they can better
deal with the threat posed by the free market ideology.
In the Caribbean we tried political integration using the
federation model, which was not successful then began
anew via CARIFTA. This was aimed at using the freemarket ideas to reap benefits through functional
cooperation of trade.
This limited amount of cooperation led Caribbean
countries to seek deeper associations, especially in the
free market, as a strategy for development endorsed by
world bodies. This effort was CARICOM

The West Indies Federation


This was an early attempt at developing a

political union among the British Territories
except: Guyana, Belize, the Bahamas and the
Virgin Islands.
Members of the WIF are: Antigua, Barbados,
British Guiana, Dominica, Jamaica, Montserrat,
St. Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, St. Vincent, St.
Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago.
A federation is group of self governing
territories which are states or nations in their
own right but the overarching authority for all of
them is under a centralized federal government.

The West Indies Federation

The West Indian Federation came into being January 1958 following
Montego Bay Conference in 1947 and subsequent meetings in 1953, 1956,
Legislatures of all British colonies in region, except Bahamas, met and a
regional economic committee
Committees were set up to investigate means of achieving economic
unity. A Standing Closer association Committee was also set up to devise a
federal constitution. Final agreement was reached in 1957 where Imperial
government retained responsibility for defence, external affairs and
financial stability. There would be a senate of 19 nominated members and
a House of Representative of 45 elected members. There would be a
Governor General, Prime Minister and 10 ministers. The federal seat of
government would be in Trinidad. Elections were held in March 1958 with
the West Indies Federal Labour Party (WIFLP) supported by N.W. Manley,
Eric Williams and Grantley Adams defeating the Democratic Labour Party
(DLP) supported by Bustamante and Gomes WIFLP 26 to 19 seats. This
integration step was mainly a political one but lasted only four years

The West Indies Federation

This was due to Eric Williams of
Trinidad and his refusal to accept
unrestricted freedom of movement
into his territory and Alexander
Bustamantes referendum in 1961 to
come out of the federation which
he won.

The West Indies Federation

The Federal government was headed
by an Executive Governor-General,
appointed by Britain and included:
A Prime Minister, elected from among and
by the members of the House of
A Cabinet, comprising the Prime Minister
and ten other elected Members chosen
by him.

The West Indies Federation

A Council of State presided over by the Governor
General. The Council included the Prime Minister and
Members of the Cabinet as well as three senators
and three civil servants. The senators and civil
servants were chosen by the Governor General. (The
Council of State was the principal policy (decision)making body at the start of the Federation. In 1960
Britain agreed to abolish this Council and allow the
Cabinet to take over the powers of the Council)
A forty five-member House of Representatives, with
Members elected from among the Territories; and
A nineteen-member Senate, nominated by the
Governor General following consultation with the
Prime Minister

The West Indies Federation

The Governor General was Lord Hailes of Britain and the
Prime Minister was Sir Grantley Adams, (Premier of
Barbados). The Federal capital was located in Trinidad
and Tobago.
During its brief existence (1958-62), a number of
fundamental issues were debated with a view to
strengthening the Federation. Among these were direct
taxation by the Federal Government, Central planning for
development, Establishment of a Regional Customs Union
and Reform of the Federal Constitution. The issue of
direct taxation was particularly controversial. The
Federation was not permitted to levy (impose) income tax
for at least the first five years of its life. Added to this,
were the greatly differing positions among the Territories
with respect to how other federal taxes should be levied.

The West Indies Federation

In addition, the Federation began quickly to seek to
establish federal institutions and supporting structures. It
created a federal civil service; established the West
Indies Shipping Service (in 1962) to operate two
multipurpose ships - the Federal Maple and the Federal
Palm - donated to it by the Government of Canada. It had
embarked also on negotiations to acquire the subsidiary
of the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC),
namely British West Indies Airways (BWIA).
Cooperation in tertiary education was consolidated and
expanded during this period. The then University College
of the West Indies (UCWI), which was established in 1948
with one campus at Mona, Jamaica, opened its second
campus at St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, in 1960.

The West Indies Federation

The Federation however faced several
problems. These included: the
governance and administrative structures
imposed by the British; disagreements
among the territories over policies,
particularly with respect to taxation and
central planning; an unwillingness on the
part of most Territorial Governments to
give up power to the Federal
Government; and the location of the
Federal Capital.

The West Indies Federation

The decisive development, which led to the demise of
the Federation was the withdrawal of Jamaica - the
largest member - after conducting a national
referendum in 1961 on its continued participation in
the arrangement. The results of the referendum
showed majority support in favour of withdrawing
from the Federation. This was to lead to a movement
within Jamaica for national independence from
Britain. It also led to the now famous statement of Dr
Eric Williams, the then Premier of Trinidad and Tobago
that, one from ten leaves nought, referring to the
withdrawal of Jamaica and signifying and justifying his
decision to withdraw Trinidad and Tobago from the
Federal arrangement a short while later.

The West Indies Federation

The Federation collapsed in January 1962.

To strengthen the movement for self government
To promote economic development
To safeguard the democratic system of government vis a vis dictatorship and
Federation facilitated the movement from colonialism to independence
through a united voice
The coming together of small states strengthened their effectiveness in
dealing with international bodies such as the United Nations
The masses were not educated on the importance of Federation
Communication among the islands including shipping, telephone and postal
services was inefficient
Envy and jealously among member states from their varying levels of
economic prosperity
Distrust by the smaller states of the larger members (Trinidad and Tobago,
Jamaica) proposal to prematurely change the constitution of the Federation

CARIFTA (1956 1973)

The Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) was
founded by Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Guyana,
and Trinidad and Tobago on 15 December 1965, with
the signing of the Dickenson Bay Agreement (the
Agreement establishing the Caribbean Free Trade
Association). They were joined on 1 July, 1968 by
Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, Saint
Lucia and St Vincent and the Grenadines; and on 1
August, 1968 by Montserrat and Jamaica. In 1971
Belize (then British Honduras) joined the Association.
These Caribbean countries had recently become
independent, and CARIFTA was intended to unite their
economies and to give them a joint presence on the
international scene.

Specifically, CARIFTA was intended to
encourage balanced development of the
Region by:
increasing trade - buying and selling more
goods among the Member States
diversifying trade - expanding the variety of
goods and services available for trade
liberalising trade - removing tariffs and quotas
on goods produced and traded within the area
ensuring fair competition - setting up rules for
all members to follow to protect the smaller

In addition to providing for free trade, the
Agreement sought to:
ensure that the benefits of free trade were equitably
promote industrial development in the LDCs
promote the development of the coconut industry
(through an Oils and Fats Agreement) which was
significant in many of the LDCs
rationalise agricultural production but in the interim,
facilitate the marketing of selected agricultural products of
particular interest to the LDCs (through the Agricultural
Marketing Protocol);
provide a longer period to phase out customs duty on
certain products which were more important for the
revenue of the LDCs

In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the
Seventh Heads of Government Conference decided
to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association
(CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the
Caribbean Community, of which the Common
Market would be an integral part.
The signing of the Treaty establishing the
Caribbean Community, Chaguaramas, 4th July
1973, was a defining moment in the history of the
Commonwealth Caribbean. Although a free-trade
area had been established, CARIFTA did not
provide for the free movement of labour and
capital, or the coordination of agricultural,
industrial and foreign policies.

The objectives of the Community, identified in Article 6 of the
Revised Treaty, are:
To improve standards of living and work;
The full employment of labour and other factors of production;
Accelerated, coordinated and sustained economic development
and convergence;
Expansion of trade and economic relations with third States;
enhanced levels of international competitiveness;
Organization for increased production and productivity;
Achievement of a greater measure of economic leverage and
effectiveness of Member States in dealing with third States, groups
of States and entities of any description and the enhanced coordination of Member States foreign and foreign economic policies
and enhanced functional co-operation.
In 1973, CARIFTA became the Caribbean Community

CARICOM came into being with the
signing of the Treaty of Chaguaramas
signed on July 4, 1973 by Jamaica.
Trinidad, Barbados and Guyana. It
began operation on 1st August.
Presently membership includes
CARIFTA members as well as Haiti
and Suriname.


Main objectives
improvement in economic development through trade
liberalization (removal of trade barriers)
functional cooperation in areas such as health, education,
culture, broadcasting, transrx meteorological services,
technical assistance, disaster management
Common policies in dealing with non member states and
transnational companies. Benefits:
services offered by various institutions
economic strength as resources are pooled,
better negotiations with trading partners,
larger market for individual states,
stronger persuasive voice in global matters,
stronger Caribbean identity and better appreciation of
benefits of talents of individual member states,
establishment of CCJ as well as CSME

competition among member states in
air transport,
WISCO plagued by problems
ideals of common currency and
passport still not achieved

The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
came into being on June 18th 1981, when seven
Eastern Caribbean countries signed a treaty agreeing
to cooperate with each other and promote unity and
solidarity among the Members. The Treaty became
known as the Treaty of Basseterre, so named in
honour of the capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis where
it was signed.
The basis of the organization was that following the
collapse of the West Indies Federation, and prior to
the signing of the Treaty of Basseterre, two caretaker
bodies were created: the "West Indies Associated
States Council of Ministers (WISA) in 1966 and the
Eastern Caribbean Common Market (ECCM) in 1968

The OECS is now a nine member grouping
Antigua and Barbuda
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
British Virgin Islands

The mission is to be a major regional
institution contributing to the sustainable
development of the OECS Member States
by assisting them to maximize the
benefits from their collective space, by
facilitating their intelligent integration
with the global economy; by contributing
to policy and program formulation and
execution in respect of regional and
international issues, and by facilitation of
bilateral and multilateral co-operation.

To promote development by the formation of a
common market among member states
To deal more effectively with international
bodies by forming a common foreign policy
To assist each other in defending and
maintaining political independence
OECS member states have a common Eastern
Caribbean Currency, they all belong to the
Lesser Antilles, they are all small, independent
states, share common strategies for
development, a common Central Bank, a
common High Court and a Joint Stock exchange.

Association of Caribbean States

The ACS was established in 1994 among 25 Member
States, 3 Associate States and 14 countries with
observer states together comprising of a
population of 237 million people and form the
worlds fourth largest trading block
The primary aim in setting up this wider Caribbean
body was to promote economic cooperation and to
encourage a coordinated approach to issues of
importance to all the countries in the region trade,
tourism, transportation, health, science etc. It is
often the case that issues of prudence transcend
national borders and even of regional entities like
CARICOM and demand a wider range of cooperation.

Association of Caribbean States

The ACS was inaugurated on July 02, 1995 with its
administrative office in POS, Trinidad. The main objectives
of the Association relate to cooperation, discussion and
action leading to the sustainable development of the entire
Caribbean region. These include:
Incorporating the collective human and physical resources
of the Caribbean for economic, social, cultural and
technological advancement
Maximizing the potential of the Caribbean Sea by working
with member states and other organizations
To encourage increased trade and investment opportunities
through cooperation
To provide new and improved measures to promote the
cultural identities of its members.

Regional Security System (RSS)

This institution was formed as a collective
regional response to security threats
impacting on the political stability of the
region in the 1970s and 80s. It comprises
of small islands. Military and police
personnel of the member territories are
at the disposal of the country should
need arise. The agreement enables the
members to pool scarce man power,
resources and equipment.

Regional Security System (RSS)

1983 during this time the US led
invasion of Grenada and other
Caribbean islands came together and
decided to join the USA armed
1989 Hurricane Hugo hit the
eastern Caribbean islands and coast
guards from RSS rushed to help

Regional Security System (RSS)

The headquarters is in Barbados
which passes a challenge in reaching
out to other Caribbean states.
It is very costly to maintain because
of the constant training

Sports, Leisure and Recreation

Sport has been side-lined in the national dialogue
about development simply because it has not
been recognized as an activity that includes
everyone in the society. The perceptions of sport
have traditionally tended to confine it to the world
of professional athletes and competitive events.
Even in schools that view tends to be dominant.
Today, as discussions about the development,
these narrow ideas about the contribution of sport
to national development, sport, leisure and
recreation are all related and represent an avenue
for people in a country to increase equity,
productivity and empowerment in their lives.

Generation of Income
Sport, income and the mass media
To a large extent profitability of sport is
dependent on its link with information
and communications technologies

Free Trade Area of the

The FTAA is a proposed agreement to
eliminate or reduce trade barriers
among nation states of the western
hemisphere (except Cuba)

Promotion and hindering of

Close proximity to each other through air and sea travel
Shared common history
Shared common culture in terms of dress, language, cuisine, music and
general lifestyle
Similar economic, political and social problems (unemployment, few
physical resources, lack of adequate capital, poor housing, inadequate
health facilities etc.


Different strategies for economic growth
Territorial interests supercede regional interest
Some concessions to foreign investors run contrary to CARICOM objectives
Stifled regional trade due to similarity in products
Separatism and particularism: until recently distrust, self interest and
disunity among Anglophone, francophone and Hispanic nations

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: UWI
Established 1948 on the recommendation of the Irvine Commission
and was affiliated to London university. The first campus was
established at Mona in Jamaica, later expanded with opening of St
Augustine (1960) and Cave Hill(1963) campuses. Became known as
UWI in 1962 (prior to this it was UCWI). More recently 11 centers
have been established in non campus territories. Offers full time,
part time and distance education. Funding comes mainly from
governments of the region and fees.
UWI takes care of tertiary system of education in the region. It
brings regional cooperation through the various courses offered,
from certificate to post graduate level to meet the various needs of
the English speaking Caribbean. Recently the institution embarked
upon an expansion programme as well as programme
diversification in order to serve the needs of the region better and
thus make a bigger contribution toward economic growth and

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: UWI
UWI faces challenges from
Foreign universities which offer degrees by distance teaching
Off shore universities
individual governments which sec need for a local university
expansion to increase percentage of graduates from 10 - 20%
allowing children of poor to acquire tertiary education while governments
insist that students pay a portion of costs

UWI enhances regional integration and development by

offering a curriculum which is relevant to the needs of the region
producing skilled personnel in business, government and industry >
producing people who are committed to the region by developing
science and technology
by producing research which contributes to development of private sector
by producing research which helps in solving society's problems
by raising level of innovation and entrepreneurship in the region breaking down barriers and dispelling ignorance and prejudice of and
towards other nationals
forges lasting friendships and family relationships

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: CXC
CXC was established inl972 to serve as regional examining body
for the secondary education system. Caricom members as well as
other English speaking territories have their secondary school
graduates examined by CXC on an annual basis. CXC offers
secondary level certification, advanced proficiency and associate
degrees. It ensures that the education of the Caribbean people is
geared towards the needs of the region thus fostering economic
development; examination by the region, of the region and for
the region; syllabus reflect learning from a Caribbean perspective.
CXC creates employment opportunities: administrators,
curriculum officers, measurement expert, content specialist's
markers, supervisors, examiners. Through CXC foreign exchange
is kept in the region rather than going to England. UWI creates
interaction among peoples of the region. Regional integration,
av/areness of commonality, sense of brotherhood

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: CTO
Caribbean tourism organization CTO
This organization was launched in 1989 with the merger of CTO and CTRC. Its
main aim is
the development of sustainable tourism in the region (economic and social
benefit). This they
have done through
tourism marketing
research and information management
human resource development
product development and technical assistance
consultancy services.
Achievements of CTO include
annual conference on tourism held in the Caribbean
sponsoring trade shows in Europe
CTO chapters in major markets in Europe and North America
maintain tourism information for the public and private sector
maintain up to date websites where information can be accessed
advertise Caribbean as one destination Challenges
getting governments to become more ware of their need to support tourism
changing the perception of the public so that tourism becomes more acceptable as an
economic entity getting a greater share of tourist market
getting local operators to refine their product

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: WICB
This was established in 1925 (makes it one of the oldest
examples of regional cooperation) to establish and sustain
West Indies cricket as the porting symbol of the West Indies as
well as to develop and promote WI cricket for the benefit and
enjoyment of the West Indies people, clients and other
stakeholders. The board controls, regulates and arranges
cricket in the region through competitions (under 15, under 19,
Seniors, setting up of an academy (St. Georges University in
Grenada). It consists of a president, two members from each of
Trinidad, Jamaica, Barbados and Guyana and one from the
other territories.
Its functions include
selecting a cricket team to represent the region in international
arrange inter territorial matches

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: CSME
CSME is a single enlarged economic space created through the
removal of restrictions and resulting in the free movement of
goods, services, persons (artistes, media workers, university
graduates, sportspersons, musicians), capital and technology. It
confers the right on CARICOM nationals to establish business in
any CARICOM member state and to be treated in the same
manner as a national of that state.
The main pillars of CSME are the provision for free movement of
capital; free movement of goods, services and people ( use of
IDs/other form of identification, CARICOM National line at ports of
entry, common passport) within CSME; the establishment of
common trade and economic policy; harmonization of economic,
fiscal and monetary policies (foreign exchange controls abolished
no restrictions on Capital market activity, companies will be able
to operate across border); a common currency.

Institutions in the Integration

Movement: CSME
Under CSME benefits will include goods being traded in free market
conditions, people of approved categories are moving freely, capital
is moving, increase inflow of new capital, entrepreneurship and
technology, larger market opportunities, greater opportunities for
travel, study and work in CARICOM countries, increased
employment opportunities and improved standard of living secure
platform for entry into FTAA, greater economies of scale-pan
Caribbean Brands, strengthened competitiveness, lower consumer
prices, creation of regional companies, increased opportunities to
invest through direct stock ownership or mutual fund investments
CSME tests our capacity as a region to do what is necessary.
Globalization presents harsh reality for small states. The survival of
Caribbean hinges on our preparedness to face open international
competition and to adapt to technological developments


Expected Learning
1. Explain what is meant by an ideology
2. Describe the Values underlying the
following ideologies: pan-Africanism,
negritude, Marxism, Feminism, Capitalism,
Indo-Caribbean and Indigenous
3. Identify the key thinkers in these
intellectual traditions
4. Analyse the Impact of each of these

This is a fairly coherent and comprehensive set
of ideas that explains and evaluates social
conditions, helps people understand their place
in society and provides a program for social and
political actions
Each ideology must be interpreted based on our
experiences within colonialism, exploitation,
ethnocentrism and nationalism
Main ones include: Pan-Africanism, negritude,
Capitalism, Marxism, Indo-Caribbean and
Indigenous perspectives

This is a specific ideology which states
that the survivals of Africa in the diaspora
should be studied and active links made
to Africa as the motherland
It originated in the 18th century by black
people in the US trying to escape slavery
to go back to Africa as they believed they
were wrongfully kidnapped from their
homeland. These ideas eventually
developed into Pan-Africanism

Under Henry Sylvester Williams in 1900 the first
Pan Africa Conference in London took place. The
main objectives were

To promote the universal link black people all share

To raise black consciousness about Africa
Freeing Africa from political and economic contrl from Europe
Repatriation of Blacks to Africa
Seeking unification of the Continent

Individuals from the Caribbean significant to the

movement included: Marcus Garvey, Cybil
Briggs, Claude McKay, George Padmore and
C.L.R. James

Marcus Garvey (hes the only one

Im studying still)
Born in St. Ann, Jamaica in 1887
Had to leave school early to work and became involved in printing, the
newspaper business and politics
He established the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) in
It was formed in Jamaica to improve the lot of the poor, i.e. Black People
He migrated to the US and the UNIA chapter he formed there blossomed
and eventually became the HQ of the movement
He founded other institutions up in the US like the African Communities
League (ACL) and the Universal African Black Cross Nurses to address the
needs of the Black Underclass.
His Black Star Line was an ambitious project to transport people and
goods to Africa and was a symbol of black commercial success.
Through his newspapers the Negro World, the Blackman and the New
Jamaican he attempted to raise the consciousness of Black people and to
preach about the freedom of African countries which were under colonial
rule, and the Unification of Africa.

Marcus Garvey (hes the only one

Im studying still)

His ideas and message came at a time when the US and Caribbean
were at hardship especially among the poor.
His public appearances always proclaimed pride in the African race and
emphasised that Black people should see God in their own image
This stance was heard by those marginalized in white-dominated
Capitalist society
In 1930 this message was also taken up by the Rastafari who translated
his words to mean the existence of a black god. The statements he
made like a king will come out of Africa and the prominence he gave to
Haile Selassies coronation convinced them that the Rastafari
movement should declare Selassie as King of Kings and Lord of Lords
His advocacy for repatriation was also taken up wholeheartedly by the
Rastafari movement
Garvey is a national hero of Jamaica and lives on through music, and in
the inspiration he gave to budding politicians, trade union leaders, the
civil rights movement and the decolonization movement of the
Caribbean and Africa based on nationalism

Pan Africanism in the British

In the interwar years between 1918-1939
there was growing discontent of colonial
control. The newspapers of Garvey found their
way to all Caribbean countries and influenced
the formation of UNIA chapters all over
including Cuba, Trinidad and Jamaica.
In the 1930s there were widespread riots and
the growth of trade unions. The dispossessed
were enchanted by the rhetoric of the black
empowerment they read in Garveys

Pan Africanism in the British

The hatred they felt merged into a struggle for the downfall
of colonialism and a growing consciousness of Black Unity
and black nationalism.
The first Rastafari were very much influenced by Garvey who
fused the black nationalist message from the Bible with a
prophecy that princes shall come out of Ethiopia. They
revered Garvey like a second John the Baptist since Haile
Selassie was proclaimed emperor of Ethiopia
In this period there was a surge of nationalist sentiment
which coincided with the return of Caribbean soldiers from
WWI. They had a broader experience of the politics as they
suffered discrimination under the hands of British soldiers.
This Pan-African rhetoric deepened the decolonization

Pan Africanism in the British

This all came to a head when in 1935
Italy attempted to annex Ethiopia,
causing Selassies exile. This was
seen as a naked act of aggression by
many Caribbean people. Where
Trinidadian workers refused to unload
the docks of some Italian ships and
where some Caribbean men
attempted to enlist in the Ethiopian

Pan African Sentiment

These again swept up in the late 1960s and 1970s with the messages of
Malcolm X and Stokley Carmichael on Black Power. This again coincided
with a period of economic downturn.
The industrialisation by invitation policies werent working out for the
newly independent Caribbean countries with rabid unemployment
Black power analysts felt that the government and black intelligentsia
failed the people. The felt British colonial overlords were merely replaced
by a black elite with ethnocentric ideas
This movement had long lasting consequences for the Caribbean as a
lecturer at UWI Mona and Black Power Activist, Walter Rodney was
prevented by authorities from returning to Jamaica to teach in 1968.
Students at the Campus led a mass protest where 3 died and unrest
spread to other campuses. The unrest spread to Trinidads St. Augustine
where the National Joint Action Committee (NJAC) a black empowerment
organization started essentially a revolution joined by indian sugar
workers, the unemployed and trade unions culminating in 1970 in the
mutiny of the Army and a state of emergency

Pan African Sentiment

There were similar incidents in the
Grenada with the National Jewel
Movement took over the government
in 1979

This is a unique brand of Pan-Africanism which
originated in the 60s in French colonies calling for all
people of African Origin to celebrate their blackness and
didnt recognize geographical or regional distinctions
The main thinkers were Frantz Fanon and Aime Cesaire
Martiniquans, Leon Damas of French Guiana and
Leopold Senghor who later became the head of state of
The movement began in Paris where members
published a journal providing a forum to express
sentiments regarding the French policy of total
assimilation of its colonies and the side lining of African
culture and the impossibility of independence there.

Negritude mainly focused on black consciousness and
black bride because as these activists saw it living in a
context where French culture and civilization was
expressed threatened the core of black identity.
In Martinique and Guadeloupe small Marxist groups
sought to mobilize people to overthrow the French with
no success.
Aime Cesaire resigned from the French Communist Party
on the grounds that a race struggle was different from a
class struggle.
In Pan-Africanism there was an urge to move away from
Capitalism so there were experiments with communism
but that too was a European ideology.

Franz Fanon was a more radical pan africanist.
He was a student of Cesaire and worked in
France and Algeria as a psychologist
experiencing first hand the barbarity of the
French police fighting Algerians against their
Fanon saw no other way other than the violent
overthrow of colonial governments through his
documentations of the struggle in the books
The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin

Economic Perspectives:
Industrialization by Invitation
Sir Arthur Lewis is a St. Lucian, distinguished
economist, Vice Chancellor of the University of the
West Indies (UWI) and Nobel Prize Winner for his
strategies to improve economic growth for his
theory later known as Industrialization by Invitation
He was influenced by Operation Bootstrap initiated
by Puerto Rico in the 30s & 40s where cheap
available labour would be used as an incentive to
attract multinational companies to establish
industries alongside tax free concessions.
The result was that Peurto Rico became
industrialized with mixed success.

Economic Perspectives:
Industrialization by Invitation
Lewis theory was only based on the context that the British
West Indies with our mainly agricultural base needed to
stimulate industrial growth
Lewis reasoned that what we had in great abundance was
unskilled labour due to our monocrop economies and among the
unemployed and we didnt have much capital so in the short
term we could invite MNCs with money to set up operations
here earn large profits by employing the cheap labour,
subsidies and tax holidays. In the monocrop industries labour
prices would therefore rise as workers would be absorbed into
The products would the be distributed by the MNCs themselves
in markets MNCs commanded so by using MNCs in this way
Caribbean countries wouldnt need to set up additional
infrastructure as we didnt have any, nether rely on tarrifs.

Economic Perspectives:
Industrialization by Invitation
Lewis envisaged through this a jumpstart in economic
diversification, higher wages in agriculture and higher
wages from the MNCs as well as the gaining of the
knowledge necessary to run our own manufacturing
industries once MNCs left amd rise to emrge out of
Colonialism optimistically.
The strategy however failed, as stated by critics due to the
fact that we invited the MNCs but did not control them.
MNCs were provided infrastructure such as warehouses,
light, water, etc. and tax breaks and subsidies but when
the initial period was up they left with no provision to train
citizens added to the fact that these were mainly Capital
intensive industries left the region with an overall loss.

Marxism and Neo-Marxism

Marxs theory saw society as evolving through various stages of economy
and the relationships of different groups where the economy and the
relationships of different groups within the economy defined the type of
society that evolved.
For example early society developed along lines of equal work i.e.
egalitarian society then as dominant groups began to subjugate others via
slavery a system of social stratification developed.
As the economy developed it became necessary to have workers that had
some type of freedom to make decisions and develop skills. This could not
could not happen in a slave system so the feudal system had to develop.
In each case Marx was able to show that societies underwent change
when contradictions or tensions developed in the economy, bringing about
changes in the social relations between groups.
This happened in the industrial revolution were society had become
organized into workers (with their labour to sell) and capitalists (those who
owned the means of production for example capital, banks and

Marxism and Neo-Marxism

Under this system we saw the capitalist
dedicated to extracting maximum labour for
the lowest wages and where the workers
struggled for better wages and working
It was inevitable given this state of affairs
where the rich grew richer and the poor
poorer that action would come from trade
unions agitating for more wages and
eventually the workers will seek to overthrow
that type of society.

Marxism and Neo-Marxism

The next stage Marx described is socialism to bring about a
classless society which can only come about when all people
share in the means of production
According to Marx only when people see through the false
consciousness of socialism can they be socialized i.e.
recognize the need for socialism.
Communism was next on this stage of development as
stated by Marx that eventually the state will wither away as
people see that no group should exploit to form a truly
democratic society.
Marx criticised capitalism but saw it as a means through
which people would build a communal society hence the
appeal of the ideology in the Caribbean as Marxist society
could free the disenfranchised from oppression

Marxism and Neo-Marxism

Within the Caribbean Michael Manley, Forbes Burnham, Maurice Bishop were influenced by Marxist/Neo-Marxist
ideology and sought to implement policies that would create a just and equal society. (They had attended
universities in Europe-England- where they were introduced to Marxist thoughts, had become disillusioned with the
capitalist path i economic development, was influenced by the success of Cuban revolution)
Democratic Socialism in Jamaica
Michael Manley came to power in Jamaica in 1972 against background of popular social unrest, widespread call for
social reform. Thought was that previous leaders did not do enough to help population who were trampled on by
white middle class domination and exploitation. Manley developed commitment to social justice and equality.
(Inequalities and inequity he saw through his work as a trade unionist). Manley embarked on
nationalization programme with majority shares in the transport sector, electricity and telephone bauxite levy
on bauxite companies ( increase revenue)
Legislation was passed to protect vulnerable in society: family Court Act, Maternity leave Act, Minimum wage Act
Co-operate socialism in Guyana
After independence in 1966, Burnham adopted a socialist type of economic development in Guyana. Constitution was
amended to retlect cooperative socialism. This type of governance opposed all social economic and political systems,
which permitted exploitation of man by man. V/anted to extend socialist democracy to provide citizens with
oprx>rtunity to participate in management and decision making process in the country (people participation)
Burnham nationalized sugar, bauxite and communication sectors. Government then could redistribute wealth
through social programmes (health education). Lack of financial resources made it difficult - had to turn to IMF
Socialism in Grenada
In Grenada Maurice Bishop formed the New jewel Movement to rid the country of colonial political thinking (Eric
Gairy). Society was doniinated by capitalist system of production Bishop nationalized banks, transportation and
media, improved working conditions, health and education. Rejoined with other socialist states such as Cuba (got
technical support to build airport and scholarships to study in Cuba). This proved disastrous including heavy debt
burden, internal conflict (murdered by members of his movement, invaded by

British Capitalism
Capitalism in its simplest terms means free market enterprise. It
is a way of organizing the economy whereby the exchange of
goods and services is done according to the forces of the market
i.e. demand and supply. Modern view is that of free trade.
Under a free trade system government has little say in the
distribution of goods and services. The two major ideal of
capitalism is privately owned capital and investment and profit
making. British capitalism in the New World had one objective profit making (get wealthy). The plantation system of production
used African slave labour thereby making huge profits.. .in no
time they became wealthy as evidenced by the plantation
houses constructed across the region. The large profits accrued
allowed them to live opulent lives in the Caribbean as well as

British Capitalism
According to Walter Rodney (Guyanese) Capitalism was introduced into
the Caribbean with the first transshipment of African slaves across the
Atlantic. This form of capitalism was one-sided, in short this system was
non-negotiable. It was non-negotiable because the Africans had no say
in the system and also the fact that the system was forced upon the
Africans (How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ,) Intellectuals Eric
Williams and CLR James( Trinidadians) in their writings epitomized the
thoughts of Caribbean people on British capitalism.
Williams argued that slavery was purely economic and embodied the
capitalist ideal of the British. Hence when slavery became unprofitable
the British which once embraced this system deemed it savage and
uneconomical and abandoned the system (Capitalism and Slavery).
While Williams was able to recognize the brutality of the system of
slavery he never lost sight of the fact that the system was economical
and slavery was just another means to the economic success of the

British Capitalism

CLR James in the Black Jacobins points out that the system of slavery and
colonialism had to be brutal to ensure that the system of capitalism worked
and worked well. The brutality was not only mental but also psychological.
The Black West Indian was constantly reminded of his/her blackness and
this blackness was closely linked to backwardness and inferiority. Over time
blacks in the West Indies came to believe this myth. Once the myth was
engrained into their psyche the British was ensured of the success of
capitalism. British capitalism only involved the Caribbean to the extent that
the position of the Caribbean performed only to the needs of the British
government. This forced arrangement was that the Caribbean produced and
the British consumed. Whatever benefit was returned to the Caribbean was
only done to ensure that capitalism survived to further enrich Britain.
This concept of development is attributed to St. Lucian economist Sir Arthur
Lewis (Nobel Prize for Economics). This was based on a concept adopted in
Puerto Rico called Operation Bootstrap. This concept became the model on
which economies of the English speaking territories within the region were
fashioned. Following economic systems such as communal, encomienda,
slavery and the plantation system, many economists felt that for the
Caribbean to be economically viable there was a need for the economy to
be reorganized. After all, despite the many economic systems the region
was still experiencing problems of an economic nature.

A Feminist is an advocate of woman's rights; anyone who recognizes female oppression and
fights for the correction of this oppression. To be feminist is to be calling for equality of the
sexes. Part of the feminist agenda is for women and their issues to be on the front burner; on
centre stage. It concerns the celebration of women's achievement as for too long the
contribution women have made to society has gone unnoticed, unrecorded and unrecognized.
The origin of Caribbean feminism is unique due to its long history. Black women of the .
Caribbean have been fighting oppression ever since their sale and capture on the west coast of
Africa. They were constantly in the quest for freedom.
Women used their bodies to attack the system of slavery- infanticide, and acts of infertility were
common. When this was not the option they turned on the master and his property burnt fields,
damaged equipment and animals, killed their masters. Under slavery women out of necessity
became brutal and militant. In order to survive she had to become a feminist. Following
emancipation, women's focus changed. They now had to struggle against the same black men,
with whom they were enslaved, for visibility and equality. They had to find new tools with which
to fight oppression. The new tools became academics and literature. If their voices are to be
heard they had to become qualified like the men or more qualified. The views, issues and
concerns became audible through literature. In the literature the women authors dramatized
the different problems and complexities facing women they also attempted to deconstruct and
reconstruct new ideas about women and femininity.
While doing so the achievements of women are being celebrated eg. Verene Shepherd uses her
knowledge of history to refocus attention away from men in history. She has given women a
voice and a face in history to women.

One of the major inroads into Caribbean feminism has been made
by CAFRA (Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and
Action). Through this group women are able to explore and
celebrate their achievements. It provides a voice for women.
Through the Women and Development Unit (UWI) information
about the status of women is made available to government and
NGO, which can then be used to guide formulation of policy
concerning the welfare of women. These many women's
organization have been created to champion the cause; National
Organisation of Women (Barbados) Sistren (Jam), CARIWA. These
among others highlight role of women in many endeavours such
as labour movement, provide a forum for discussion of issues and
provide an inspiration for young women and urge governments to
implement legislations on women's issues such as rape, sexual

Amerindian Perspectives
Amerindian groups have been targets of European
opinions which saw them as a primitive, inferior,
barbaric, uncivilized to be eliminated, overworked,
enslaved. Caribbean Intellectual perspective seeks to
dispel the view that these people did not have a history.
(Walter Rodney (History of Guyanese working people);
CLR James (Black Jacobins) Hilary Beckles (Black
Rebellion in Barbados). There is the need to view the
indigenous people not only in terms of the labour they
provided (encomienda) but the cultural contribution
they have made. (Kalinago resisted Europeans and
halted the advance of European settlement, left us
architectural styles, foods, craft, farming systems)

Indo-Caribbean Perspectives
Emancipation of slaves led to the introduction of indentured workers from Asia (Indian and
China). Indians came in large numbers to Guyana, Trinidad and Cuba and to a much lesser
extent Jamaica between in 19m century. Influenced by contractual arrangements and
colonialism, they have also produced several writings, which expressed their culture and
responses within the Caribbean. In Caribbean they found harsh conditions (refer to
indentureship; low wages, withholding of pay, overcrowded dilapidated unsanitary
barracks, restricted movements, harsh penalties, poor nutrition, overwork disease. In
response Indians protested, went on strikes, riots; others repatriated others cultivated plots
practiced thrift and industry, complained to immigration gents, created organizations such
as East Indian National Association in Trinidad, staged cultural activities such as Divali,
Pbagwa, Hosay. The coming of the East Indians resulted in increase in East Indian
population; even exceeding African population in Guyana and Trinidad By 20 th century they
have made significant strides: moved from cane fields to education, commerce and health
sectors, reversal in trend of illiteracy, higher paying jobs.
Although they have been associated with labour, the East Indians have showed their
resilience to achieve economic independence and so have been able to influence the
economies of the countries in which they have lived. In addition they have moved into
areas of politics especially Trinidad and Guyana ( Jagan, Panday, Jagdeo etc. Intellectual
writers who have highlighted Indo- Caribbean thoughts include VSNaipaul ( Nobel prize
winner for Literature) and Samuel Selvon