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A GI]IDT TO THT

RTADII\G OT'ANOITI\IT
INDIAI{ COII{LTGTNDS
by John S. Deyell,
PART IIT .

M a d - i s o n ,W i s c o n s i n , N I # I 2 I 9

MEDIEVA].,DEVANAGARI

period
The conclud-ing article in this series covers the transition
600-1300 A.D., d-uring which tine the ancient Brahmi script evolved
l-oca1 alphabets throughout fnd.ia. Perhaps
into a number of distinct
of these frorn a. numismatic point of view is the
the most significant
variations,
m e d - i e v a 1D e v a n a g a r i , o r N a g a r i , w h i c h w i t h m a n y s t y l i s t i c
phase of
w a s t h e c o m m o ns c r i p t o f m u c h o f N o r t h I n d i a . T h e " c l a s s i c a l "
Devagagari extend"ed. from the florid,
effusive style of the emperor
H a r s a v a r d - h a n a( 6 0 6 - 5 4 2 A . D . ) , a n a c c o m p l i s h e d c a l ] i g r a p h i s t ,
to the
elegant script of the Chand-ell-asof Khajuraho (tZtnl3tn
centuries),
patrons of the arts. Coinage series using the early
famed"as liberal
Nagari script include those of t.he Rajput d-ynastles of the Gangetic
basin, Kashmir, Gujarat, Ohinda and- the succeed-ing Sultanates of
'
Delhi and Bensal.
T hr ough o u t th i s l o n g p e ri o d " , N agari ,
as the d.i rect successor of B rahmi ,
was t he o rth o d .o x m e a n s o f e xpressi ng
i n w ri tten
S anskri t
form. W hi l e
had- long since ceased to be a "living"
Sanskrit
languege, it renained
t he lan g u a g e o f s a c re d . w ri ti n gs
and courtl y
l i terature.
In thi s i t ful f illed.
a ro l e n o t u n l i k e
th a t of Latl n i n contenporary
med-i eval E urope.
T hus w h i l e th e D ra v i d i a n
c u l tures
of S outh Ind.i a devel oped i ndependent
systems, d.ue to its greaL prestige
writing
as the "proper"
script
for
S ans k r lt
l e g e n d -s , D e v { fi a g a rl
often appeared on the coi ns of S outh
T ndian k i n g d .o m s . T h e p h e n o m enon of forrnal coi nage i nscri pti ons
not
readily
decipherable
or understood by indi genous populations
is wel_l
known to nunismatists.
One has only to think of the survi-val of Latin
legends o n m o d .e rn w o rl d c o i n s to appreci ate
thl s.
between medleval
The boundary-line
and- mod-ern Nagar:i 1s rather
arbit r ar ily
d ra w n . T h e ru l e o f conveni ence w hi ch has been fol l ow ed
i n thi s
work 1s to d.istinguish
(ot
on the basis of sty1e. The earlier
letters
are capped- by serifs
aksharas as they are known to Ind-ians)
whlch vary
similar
from small "ticks"
to this typeface,
to longer strokes.
The
ind. iv id. u a l
separate;
l e tte rs
h o w e v e r are sti l l
w hen they j oi n together
as on the coins of Mewar and. Vijayanagar,
they have been exclud-ed. as
m od. er n . Wh e re th e e a rl i e r
s tyl e
has been conservati vel y
retai ned. by a
later
d.ynasty, such as Kangra, the coins have been included- here.

The Script
---_-.-_-------dP
F1
bO

P
S,

c)

a
P
g

r--J
11 cd
cd
k.n

olrd
.-l Ct
-Ptrl
sdc)

oc

).i

.r_)

d
i

rl
rl

d
n-.

-c

F]
c)
-q
P

. ,

oo
OE

-c

U,t

++
$1 {

$ fl,a

*305

!
.-

-C

t -

lr

OC

-c

ft4

r')
Ut

oo

\,.1

? \
U H

a.

\g

.T
1\'

OO

\c

rrt

{e

ta

6
B E5

rS

eq R $tct

tha

Y\

't

na
pa

"3

a(!e

ba

::

bha

cL_Ul

q.,

ah

ka l\f,fl{,h66{fr

kha q e({( N
sa qil$.rtsL

sha Q 4q
eE
fia g
ca $ ( qqa,
cha { (qa
ja fGrg\h
jha

{t
r0

T qq

ha

.4

)u)
SOcd

\-/

rr1
w f

-J_r

5t
m r{

frl

a 77 5
q
aal
{ {

a..

+,fl. qtsq

d.l q

TA

1a

q{

Tr

va

et

6a

fl

f i .il] prE

Y
a:3

l=

,\

ma {{ q. qfl6,q u &

ft

ya

tl

.1

(.. ( (

Pq\
EE q

pha

o.t)

.rl

,'t
ru

, 'r .\ r !

D{J q
fl- tfr a 4 n aTA {{
at Q q q q . . r { q

d.ha (

ai

{d

q ?. qsq
t q (qq

da

vd,

'l

ksa

{nt

q
q,qdnq
1(1 I { \.t {d\

Jq'q;afl ,ie c6cil i{ rrr


s.(qaq
qq
q

d6

e-ul_
flrls
q q a.q\
9a
qQq
sa \ q Eqq
ha

Sht

"6

o\9

CE

$a

;s

a---.\---1

tha
\9

A.HF]
C

rt
w )

{4

H gsf

O()

*a J .53

cd

raJ

---L-i

Fr
c)
-c

5-r

cd
cdbd
.rl
,rJ

'r)
cd

cd
dri
Crt
cd
C)
.(f
_L;

+rtrl

{r {t+

o.

H.n

.-u

AH
cd
J-)lr
J-\

ho
c

a
P-'{
g

r--.l cd
cd

lr
C{

L{EHIU

cd
b4

d
.rl
-d

cd

g
c)

{\

q{l

g f, t qc)]
31..
f Qt t'
a R9

The reader may wish to refer


to the pironetic notes in Part I of this
with the peculiarlties
seri-es (Irlfl Vol. 10, ttto.9) to become familiar
T h e consonants i n the tabl e above have a.n
of t he T n d i a n a l p h a b e t.
fra rf s o u n d . T h u s th e character
q
for exampl e sta.nds for " pa"
inher en t
rr(trr
and- " Fa" both represent
and no t fo r " p " . T h e c h a ra c ters
the soundthe English "cha" as
"sha" as in shut. The character
"ca" represents
rrhrr aspi rati on
in c hu c k . " c Eff i s " c a " w l th an a.d-d-ed.
fol l ow i ng.
T he lnh e re n t
v o w e l b e tw e e n consonants w as dropped by formi ng
l-etter,
Commonexamples are _i{{.{ ("r Ia), ld.l-- (tr v"), U ]-

qJ

(6a ra); but $1 (=y'),b

\\<)?d\

(tv") ,

(p"") and.g (6ra)'.

a conj unct
(p" ri),

Most other consonants lost the med_i


al v o w e l s i m p l y by stacking the
letters . For exampte i[l (="") ,
(tr'a) ,
( a a n a ), { ( c c h a ).
[

(rl

(;fi"),1

The vowel forms given in the table above are for initial
vowels only,
j- . e. those stand-ing at, the start of a wor:dor phrase. As in Brahmi,
nedial vowels other than rrarr were ind.icated. by mod-ifying the consonant
by various strokes. These lrere subject to consid-erable Jtyf:_stic
variation
between coin series of d.ifferent d.ynasties and. over time.
,)

a {- r gr r.n u T- (
hd
pd
16"

-t '=raCfu
iJ
(q,
rt,gf l
ri
bi
si
li
rn-a

o\s\

iffTnlfl
srr_

pu
Like

ei

srI

tL

11

du

uq

bhu

ku

ge
6-Y

ru

tai

F. oRr ril rfl ffi


ko
mo
co
1o

bhfr

4u

""'!hrThAl
sau rau rrau bhau

.vT

pT

il

q
14
d.e
de

ajilrr(q

rq

ah e: g:

flrs
me

ai'\$rn: t

Brahmi-, the Nagari script

Guide-Ligt,

du

trai

qe

ue

bhai ttrai

was r^rritten left

gamN

vab

to right,

slm
S
IM

jah

top to bottom.

of Names Found. in Devanagari Col-n Legends

Names in Nagari were generally r^rritten in the nominati-ve, as in English,


so the problem of case-end.ings may be safely ignored. As in part II of
this article,
coin legends have been record-ed- from photographs and.
illustrations.
Where these were not available, or the fegeni is a conjectural reconstruction,
the uncertain portions are bracketed_ (=o).
1.
Strictly
speaki-ng, the Hepthalite invaders used- a. crud.e form of Brahmi
on their coins. However, as they are so closely associated- wi_th the
'l nncr so-r'iaq
of Kashmir coins mad-ein irnitation,
the series is treatedhere for conveni-encer sake.
Harsa

gahi rigin

tJ 1f\
sa ha

Fa hi ti

tsctnE q 1 . J

Jabula

s,A

hi

ir

d
la

(xna) na u d-a ya di

N:rondrr

2,

rlr )

G G,^ I

(tuitri-rtu1a)

mi hi ra

vJd

T \]
ku 1 a

H
\ L fu
sa hva da tya

Trailoka

R J
to ra
J 1./^ +
tra 1o ka

VEsuDeva (t

T4

w
/\
na Ta nd-ra

5 a

(:

vE" su d-e vai:r

Kashmir (Hepth-lltes

AbhimanyaGupta3l G

'l oramana

F
gi na

M\Z.T

(?.)'T

5z

S ahvaCitya

bu la

Lakhana (UOayaai-tya)

Mihr Go1

tt ft^ fi Fl

, Nagas, utpal-s

A TJ )

a bhi ma gu pta

and Lohara" )

Aditya Varma fl (fr)

a (ai)

Ananta 3I T 5

Nambi T fu h $

a nanta

na mbi ha ka

AvantiDevafl(!
a

NandiGupta 'T ft,

vati

Bhrma
Gupta 6] q I

Narend-raditya

bhi na gu pta

Cal<ra Varma .fJ (I_T

E?T 3

rl{
$T {n

du la

g
Pva

Pratapadeva

go pE la va mma

n +
ga ka

Pravarasena

Gulhana

'$_ T
15
gu Ih? na

Raja Deva

Harsa

bh a

J aga Deva

3 A !
pra ta pa
g a {.
pra va ra

Ta Ja

salla +f F
sa iil

\
IPA

N TTC q
ja

J avE"Deva

5 5 q
pra ta pa

Pratapaditya

Gokarna

pa tha

q'
E 15 \
pa \rva gu p t a

bha

G o p E l a v a r m?a* H O I

qE

PErtha Varma q E'


pa tha
Parvva Gupta

Cr]- o-o-a

T {

pa ra ma

Didda Ksema GuptatL


d.i kse ma gu

Durlabha

gu p t a

\
J
na re

Paramana q

c a v a mma

Didd.a Rani

na ndi

sansrama+1 S

g a d e va

\qrt
ja vE.de

Jdya Simha Deva f

-n
S

je

()

Sikara

J{
E,
sa nka va mrna

Varma

(t")

at ft{ h

r\

J ay6" Simha D e v a I I
K
vi

J d'

^ : ha

I-

{q U5

=rf

susand.haRanj- {

>-L

ja ya s u t a

Jayapira

sa ngra rna

A-

su ga ndha

sussala +l t

nI

su ssa la

Toramana n

T Id

ro ra ma
J ay a S ira tn a

Deva

Fafq T 5,
ja ya si ra ta

Kalaa

rribhuvana Gupta t

tri

d_e,rL
Ucchala J

oT q

ksa ma gu

LI

bhu va gu pa

jU nT

Unmatti

Varma \5
u

vigraha

(vi6raur6adeva) e

Fa hi khi ngi I a

K 6 e m a G u pE
ta qg

ucala

ka l_a sa

Khinsila E er' +1 i

-$

vi

{
gta

;{ I^l

vinayad-ltya G

cltl n(

Ya6ovarman

ya 6o va

na ya

vi

YEsaskaraat H,

y-a ska ra

Palas of Bengal

3,

DevaPala

6l

r{\ a

Eq\ il e..\ q\

sr].

ma noe

v d,

a,

I a ha rg a v5,

Pa,

4.

Rajput Dlrnasties

a,/

Cahamanas ("Chauhans") of

of A nahi l aC aul ukyas (S ol anki s)


/^
" \ ]n GuJarat
yar,aKa \Annr_
Lwana
)

c)

S akambari

qna
Aiayars"ja
5 q rq d

L.G

A j a y a p s l aQ . l3 l & q g l J q R

6rT a ja ya d-e va

Sl il -f, R {

Prthvirdja /Hl 1
sri

5rT

ya pa la

j"G. q
dd.harE

d.e va

.n g

\\

'ui"h
q
q
5,r
rHF=fo:'f
f,

16" ja d-e va

pT thvi

a ja

Deva fr h
some6vara

srr

ma

Ja ya sr_ na pr]- ya

so me

Kumar a P aIa D evi


Ca n d -ra tra y a s (" C h a n d e l l a s " )
r ^ :^ 1l J-1
..,,t-ti o r Ma h o b a
.tll.,tr!
rJ EJd,

b)

4|.
B.hn q.\,flRq
Sri ma tku ma ra pa l a de va

of

Java Varma Deva

P5.1a
Deva
saRl.qrq

Ilanr_

qifl
ff
,q
tsa
srl- ma \JJa ya va) ma

r<

51L ma ma hi- il6 la

ila n
41-\{\
ma nma hi ni l-a
a .

Sri
Kirti

Varrna Deva

srr- ma tK\r-l

tt\r-l

q{

Pratbpa.nal-la

*f|.a
H illqn
+r<
Sr1 ma trr^

v a m n a d-e va

vd'

-r-d

Pd'

tttd'

mE,q
de va

]- Ll a

Mad-ana Varrna Deva

srffffldqffRq

-sri

Pararnard.i

Deva

d\R'q\H.tE
ma
ra ma d.d-i

Sri

'(

Prthvi
(Sri)

d)

ma ma d-a na Ya ma d-e va

tpa

-"(dn C andra
q.)
I-q-.1a E (q
R-rf,L
(sr) i ma dgo vim d-a ca.rhd-ra (a" va)

(de va)

Mad-anaPala Deva 31 q

)aa_(q]
)qn
tt ma
ma tpr (thvi)

e\R q rE t{ q
8:te t^ lq.
l a k s a n a v a m m a d-e

5r1 ma tsa

Va rma D e v a

'"fl"fr"il1-qfl
fll R 4
ma dvi

Bappa Rawal

Ta va mma hi

ri

d-e va

1C.'t"t n* r., )
\ v v r r ! v

qcq A q

Bhartlp at|a

bha
,
T,T

'c

./
S noJa

srl bho

" * "

of

de va

Mevrar

SVql IF
ri

\r2

E EHTqE
B trET
t )r\'R
(s)ri
m a . ttra i
l -o k a v a mma d-e va

Sri

Guhilatas

Ya rma D e v a

V T r a Va rma D e v a

;T

rna d-a na p a l a

e)

T r ailok va

) of

Govi nd.a

(Rq)

Varma Deva ^

S allak s a n a

Gahad.avalas (Gahar"ars
K anyakubj a (K anauj )

_8
$

vo ppa
{

q
{

f-

srl_

Ta

ja

NJ
bha tra

of

Jajapellas

f )

f )

Narwar

Intalwa

of

Pararnaras

rq( )

qH
A s a l t a D e v a ( q \ f f a ) . g j a f q ( A ) N a r a v a r * ' r ' - { \ f f H 1 va mmad.e
nna ra
(sri

i")

r"

6ri

ia 1a ae ("")

ma

$n
cahadaDeva
- _ ( ) e ( ) T c e R E S r l m a d - u d . a y a d e V a udava'd'eva
(sri)

s)

m (ccha) ha da de va

j)

q fq A

Pratiharas of Kanauj

("Kachhwahas")
It
Kacchapaghatas
S{
t-t E U el !( ({,
Bhoja Deva $l
of Narwar
.?'
1 Y
sri ma d-6 d-i va ra ha

-81Sinha Dpva ^ .
q (n{)G
EEa
sri ma(d"i'l"i :i'r' r'i aevb

Vira

h)

1q

("")

MalaYa.v1rml
( " ) n (Fl q. E }A RE
(sri) *" (1") ya va mmad-e va

(Hair,ayas ) of T\rmmana

Kalacuris

(Ratnapuri or East cil"ai i ana


ot w""i-cr'"ai)
;;;i;"irrip,-,ri
q R
Gdnsayaa",r,41 F t\ F

:ilh'Ktfr
ja
5r1 ma
ije

(d dl q 6. ql fr A t )
Vindyakapala
- v
;i na ya ki p6 Ia d-e ("t)
k)

romaras of rnd.raprastha (oeriri)

r{
3(
Para
Ananga
d
q
arn nga

}la

;d e v a

(sic)

"ri

q'?]'TH"H'H t I T F F t I
prthvld,eva
H\ K
a ru thvi
-; -"
4\
(5rf )sa 11a kqa (nt) pd Ia de (va)
d.e va
6.ri *" tpl
dl q 5. A B q
Ratnad_eva
5ri madra tna de va

t)

uncertain

sEmaraDeva ill s H fr q (
sd, ma la

6ri

5.

d.e va

Ohinda
q

r{

bhi

ma d-e va

Bhlmad-eva
Khamarayaka

'{ 4 q
Sanantad.eva q T{
s a n a nta de va

14(T

ri{

(:)

{q {,

Spalapatideva

kha ma T a ya ka

Kumara Deva

h Ft T

South India

a)

colas

Rajad.hj-r-aja I

ve nka d.e va

il StrD il5
Ta

t(aJa naJa r

Ja OnL

TI STtsja
rE ja 16"

Rajend,ra

TI fdl
rd

d-e va

4q

Venka Deva

ka ma ra

6,

o{\ft?Aq

\\
s p a Ia pa ti

Ld,

( R a . j e n d . r a :v a r i o u s e p i t h e t s

& titles)

Ja.

(Gangaikond.acolan )

rl{ l

tu't'
l$\l l 4
lrl
Filcs:
h rN
l.l

ga (il) gal ko ++a c o 1a4

(Uttama Cola)

nd.rah
(Yuaaf,a ivlalla)

s 3 & Iills{:
u tta ma co trtl

ge&rq

yu d-dha ma la

b)

Kakatiyas or Gajapatis of Ori-ss:a, e)

PratEparudra
c)

5l ,TT q T {{ir
pra tE pa ru d.ra de va
f)

Kad-ambas of

Goa
\

Jayakesinl q

fi\e\

ma le

Sivacitta perma.dilil
d-)

R .l

kd nha ra

MahEdevaflAR-f
r'1

rna hE d_e va

+v +v a^,

va ci

Rdmacandra rfl

Pand-yas

fl

fl

sri rd, ma

Malg'arman Sund.ara pand.ya fI

qlE
4Sri pE

Yadavas of Devagiri

Ta va

q fA

si

q
90
srt_ om snL
.[<a ra

Krqna d]

e? { (

ge bhai

Temple of OftkEra Mandhata

Siriighana

da\q

ndu va na ra pa

ffi f0 ru
si gha la

Yad.avaBhillamv
ft m fl
7,

bhi

(Ceylon)

lgnha

BhuvENaika BEhu E

ill h

fi il

bha vE nai ka vi

t
hu

Coda Gansa Deva ffl Z f,l ft R a


co da ga ga d-e va

Dharms.6oka
Deva q

sll

q q

-1 a
la

Lildvati

4d

:irka 6va ra

,na.fl
ilS;{l
r-a ia li ld va ti

B.

Muslim Dynasties

a)

Ghaznavid-s, Ghorids,

A 3:1 A

ma y6, tra

ya ma lta

Tl m :q a f*r
ka r_i ga la ki

par5kramaBdhuC 51 tr

tl 6ll [.

pa rA, kra ma vE hu
sghasa Malta -1"11
il
Sri

vi jaYa Bdhu

ill

rna tsd, ha sa ma lla

d.. fl r
:vl_ Ja
* ya vd hu

etc ,

Mahmudof Ghazni (u:-" Lahore issues


of d,irhams were bilingual,
with
the Khalirna rend-ered-in sanskri-t. see
the glossary section following.)
Nasir-ud-din

eubacha

ql S,qrAeBl

sri

ku ba ca ha su ri

al
teni

Ja1e1-ud.-din Mankbarni

il E (rn)Fr rn n (q)
$.f,n
ja
Ie ta d.a (+") ma
ha ma (a")

b)

Sultans

Saif-ud-dln

Al-hasan earlagh

n m a1 fr a
9
ha sa na ka ra Ia ka
Nasir-ud*din

at

Muhanniad Qarlagh

atar6i

EAl

ma ha ma da ka ra

hi

ka

of Bengal

Daud Shah Kararani_

fiEr 3E?nS
Sri dd u d_a 3a

hf.

rna d.e va

May5trayaMalla A A a
Nissanka Matla
(ratinga Lakavara)

$C
dha mniE.
5o ka d e va

LankeSvara

lla

Ghi ye.s-ud -din

qT4?TT
6ri

H2n2drrY.

t I

rywrrwqr

.{Lr

T 3{?r

ba, h6, d.a ra sa nl -

. 4

Sultans of Delhi

c)

Mubari z -ud"-d-i n Muhammad" ' A d i 1

A1a-ud--din Mas'aud

a t

sr_ a l.a Ct]- na

Sri

rn

?nt5on d{l gl { n

srr_ a l-a va ctl_ su rr_ La n a

Muhammad bin

Muhammad-

srt

LE" a 16 va df.

Sher

Farld--ud.-d.in

Shah

*n
a T <rr&
/srt_ se Ta s2 nr

Mu'i zz-ud,-din Bahram

^7\-

-A

?+TSfrT
/

a -

<

A?,nl
nu a Ja ct1

<

s r ] - s e T a s a n r-

Balban
""'nil,EtrT,"i-Tls{

Ghl vas -ud-d-in


-sr1h

Mu'i zz-ud"-din

Kaiqubad- +

T\rghluq n
""-{;-SX ,if'ii
;{l-g fl
/'

Rukn-ud--d-in Firoz

"---r{;SA

Shams-ud--din Iltutnish

Ghiyas-ud-d-in

Jalal-ud--din

Firoz

Srih

t5.

Ia

Is l a n

Sh a h

Ju la

,{\EfimKrT'l
sri

8a ya su ol-

srr_n su La Ia

ru ka la d-i la

g a nh rhrh er
O,l\
(s)ri Ku La t5. li ti ti ml

il fr m4,fi
ja

d-I

}u

fla114(n)

s,R,fimcl
J alal- ud -d -i n

Su rl

sa ma sa dI

td na sri

(na)

3fl.cq
{ent rR ]trrh.T
mu st,aJn sr- r1 a mr- ra li mau-mi n-arn

-g&Ee+FTHr F

Sri i sa la ma sa ha

9,

..,

}tlun v, S$S1l
srI su Ia ta (na) mu i ju di

ga ya su d-i

su l-a ta

S ant

a{\q r\ R R (T) TTIJ1


A5\
ma na ml - ra ma na m a ( d a ) s d m a
H,RRq *I\n
.{rfi..H
5r1 ma ha ma da bi ni s a m a

9\:.q.,4 nTqnila fl

6rttr Eil la

ma ha ma. da s-a ha

flg.Ern7
brf. su ]ta na rna ha

/ + r f

Ala-ud-d-in

T r{ q qrT

q:f

dlq ilrG n

Kangra

Apurvvacandra5{g

el A A a

A v a t E r a C a n d - r a $ A3 I

("t)

a v a L d ra
Dharma Candra

ka rma

ca d-ra d-e va

a pu vva

and DurS{

oal

Karma cand.ra F

) 6 " t I . { M e s h a c a n d r>aT \ q (
dra

)qAq
("

me gha

d.e

d.e va

dra

")

Narendracand.ra{- T q ( ) A
ni re dra ("") d-ra

De-vi

0 a H R n-*- h4

d.h'a rinb cam dt'a d-va rgb. d.e vi

Prthvicanaragl
Gambhira Cand,ra JT (

) I

ga (mbhi- ) tt

G u n a c a n d r aT S m (
gu na ("")

Hari cand.ra 5 f,\ (n)


ha ri

("t)

) q

d-rL. d"e

d.e

tha

Ramacand.ra{}-l(
ra

ka pa c am dra

ma (c" )

AAq
dra

d-e va

{ U

A{

Rupa Cand.ra 3 q
ru pa

VA

Sarnsdra Cand.ra +{ +{

Kapacand-ra
fi.qF

ma ca d-a

vd,

aj E q
dra

R6{R\

pI

safi sa ra
n.

ca dra

sirii g5" ra

ca riid"ra

simsdracandratl1 q' T il qJ

(6I)

suvi-racandraail

su vi

("

Tritoka candra A H
trai

")

fr( ) TJ

1o k a ( " " )

d-ra

L o c a t i n g N a m e so n t h e C o i n s
0n rnost of the coins covered- in this article,
following the legend is
stralghtforward-.
fairly
encountered- is the constant
The major d-ifficulty
bugbear of Indian coinages in general, namely incomplete legend.s d.ue
to use of d-ies too large for the flans. The few instances where other
problems may arise, follow,
Kashmir. AE.
Jaya Siratna

$ ) ' " )( ;A( ,\ :+: ,


( z ) a u\L' l vd'

(1)sri

(l) v"

\ v /

u w

The l egend-s of these


coi ns are general l y
Split by the god.ess'
figure,
and often
conti -nue on the other
face of the coin.
- .

The bu1l and. horseman coi ns al most


always have the
naJne Samanta Deva
above the buIl ,
The issuerrs
narne
is above the horse.

SA

ma
nta

Glossary of Commonor fnteresting

3sg{43514

Titles

and Phrases

T q 5 T:Lrtt5\ Bg4

avyakt ameka,muhammad-a T h e o n e , t h e i n v i s i b l - e .
av at,ara nrpa rnahamad.a Muhammad.
the manifest [of God"].
King Mahmud-.(Br)

qFnFN tilloil-:
?

gamgaikond-acotah

The Chol,a who conquered. the


Ganges. (5r)

Eulrbqg

jayatu

Victory to the bull.

gECqNr r{lT
rfrfilrhdi

mustarirsiri amirali maumin-arir

Transliteration
of Arablc "al
mustansir amir-ul momnin" =
The caliph A1-Mustansir. (8")

q *il\

sa'l i nr

Tbanslit.

s[

6ri

lord-

glfhh/t e lr,nI
rt.Rl{taaltn
"Lltr

( ) rtr&d\

fltn( )
{f\AgE q {%

vrsna

/-

of khalifa

(t)

: calinh

( B ;)

SrL h i ti v i
ai rana cha
parame 5 v ar a. d-evanari t a

The fortunate sovereign of fndia


and Persia, son of heaven. (t)

3ri

Lord. of Ceylon (6^)

lankeSvara

/ e

sr].maIt

which, by the rules


A title
of Sanskrlt grammar, often
elides r^rith the first
letter
(tl)
of the name following.

6rimad.Ed.ivarEha

The fortunate primeval boar.


(B-)
A Visnaivite title.

$ t lT $ Lfi 6 n Q 6rrrun vikrama kEkatiya (uncertain) Kakatiya title

(61)

:fi cnaaar.q
gBa

srr_ panouva

gR n

King of the Pand.yas. (6a)

narafa

suluta, surita

<.rrl *:n

G3&till-dt:

ut"l: amac o1ah1

The superior Chola. (6.)

%&5q

yud-d-hamalla

Rn crr crori

/R^ )

\""./

1-r
;&ttJ-e.

/ /

\Oa/

to Part TII

Bibliography

with extensive
The single best work on the medieval Indian scripts;
space
and
time of the
changes
over
evolutionary
the
charts covering
Museum:
Madras
Government
from
the
d.irectly
il&y
be
ordered
l-etterforms r
of the MaCJas_.GovernmentMuseum. No. 4.
Sivaramamurti , C . Bulletin
Ind-ianEpigraphyand.SouthI'@.GovernmentofMad-ras,
ffi
J-

t/Vv

\!

v_L/r

LLt

are currentl y
aval l abl e,
A lt houg h s o m e b o o k s o n th e s e coi nage seri es
med.i
eval
coi
n
g
o
o
d
percentage
of
the
types have
t hey a re v e ry d " a te d -. A
nay
be
i
n
foundthe
and
hal
f
century,
i n th e l a s t
c om e to n o ti c e
the
Ind-i
an
N
uml
srnati
c
Soci
etl
r
Indi
a,
of
J our nal
o f th e _ N u mi s ma ti c
A
si ati c
Journal
of
the
S
uppl
ement
of
the
a n d th e N u n i s m a tic
Chr onic l e ,
t
h
e
i
r
l
i
b
r
a
r
y
,
e
n
l
a
r
g
e
t
ry:
w
i
s
h
w
h
o
t
o
Societlr of Bengal. For those
Cunningham, Sir A. Coj-ns of Medieval
New Delhi,
19

India.

Ori ental

B ooks R el ri nt

C or l.

Smith, V.A. Coins of Sncient Ind-ia. Catalogue of thel9oins in the


I n d i a n M u s e u m ,C a l c u t t a . V o I . I . I n d . o l o g i c a l B o o k H o u s e , D e l h i ,