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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF

EDUCATION SYSTEM

ATHIRAH ISMAIL@YOP
HAYATI MAT AMIN
NURUL SHAFIAH MUSTAFA KAMAL
Education System
 Education systems are established to
provide education and training, in most
cases for children and the young.
 Education systems can be used to promote
doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge,
which is known as social engineering. This
can lead to political abuse of the system,
particularly in totalitarian states and
government.
COMPARATIVE
EDUCATION
Definition of Comparative
Education
 Comparative education is a fully established
academic field of study that examines education in
one country (or group of countries) by using data
and insights drawn from the practices and situation
in another country, or countries.
 Rationality:
 Many important educational questions can best
be examined from an international-comparative
perspective.
According to Harold J Noah(1985),
comparative education has four purposes:

1)To describe educational systems,


processes, or outcomes.
2)To assist in the development of educational
institutions and practices.
3)To highlight the relationships between
education and society.
4)To establish generalized statements about
education that are valid in more than one
country.

 One of the most fruitful kinds of
comparisons is one that is made in order to
understand a country through its schools.
 In this course comparisons will be made
with several countries in order to
understand:

1)The relationship of schools to the culture


within which they are embedded,
2)The commonalties and differences across
national borders today, especially how
cultures deal with minorities, and
3)The influence the student’s own schooling
experiences have had on his or her
perspective.
SCOPES OF STUDY
 History
 Philosophy of education
 Types of school
 Level of education
 School culture
 Co-curriculum implementation
 Exam
 Language as medium of instruction
 Curriculum development

Education in Philippine
Athirah bt Ismail @ Yop
Country profile
QUICK GLANCE:
Official Name : Republic of the
Philippines
Location : Southeastern Asia,
archipelago
between the Philippine Sea
and
South China Sea, east of
Vietnam
Islands : 7,107
Capital : Manila
Climate : Tropical Marine/Monsoon
Population : 88.5 Million
Literacy : 92.6%
Basic Ed Cycle : 10 years
Sch.Participation : 85% (2007-2008)
Medium of Inst. : English except for
Filipino Subject
COUNTRY PROFILE
 Philippines is an archipelago composed of
more than 7, 100 islands located in
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between
the Philippine Sea and South China Sea,
east of Vietnam.
 The official name is Republic of the
Philippines with Manila as the Capital.
 Total population is around 88.5 Million,
literacy rate is 92.6% with 10 years of
basic education cycle.
 Medium of instruction is English except for
Filipino subject. Philippines is
COUNTRY PROFILE
HISTORY
PRE - MAGELLANIC TIMES

 E d u ca tio n w a s in fo rm a l, u n stru ctu re d , a n d


d e vo id o f m e th o d s.
 C h ild re n w e re p ro vid e d m o re vo ca tio n a l
tra in in g a n d le ss a ca d e m ics ( 3 R s) b y th e ir
p a re n ts a n d in th e h o u se s o f trib a ltu to rs.

R

EADING ,
WRITING
RITHMETIC
PRE-SPANISH SYSTEM
T h e trib a ltu to rs w e re re p la ce d b y th e S p a n ish
M issio n a rie s.
re lig io n - o rie n te d .

It w a s fo r th e e lite

E d u ca tio n a lD e cre e o f 1 8 6 3

 m u n icip a lg o ve rn m e n t- o n e p rim a ry sch o o lfo r

b o ys a n d g irls in e a ch to w n
 Je su its - n o rm a lsch o o lfo r m a le te a ch e rs .

 Prim a ry in stru ctio n : fre e a n d co m p u lso ry.

 E d u ca tio n i n a d e q u a te , su p p re sse d , a n d
co n tro lle d
JAPANESE REGIME
M ilita ry O rd e r N o . 2 in 1 9 4 2 - Ja p a n e se
e d u ca tio n a lp o licie s.
O n O cto b e r 1 4 , 1 9 4 3 , th e Ja p a n e se - sp o n so re d

R e p u b lic cre a te d th e M in istry o f E d u ca tio n .


Ta g a lo g , P h ilip p in e H isto ry , a n d C h a ra cte r

E d u ca tio n w a s re se rve d fo r Filip in o s.


 Love for work and dignity of labor was
emphasized .

Overview of Philippine
Educational System
Mandate
 1987 1994 2001

1987 Philippine Constitution


®DECS is the principal government agency
responsible for education and manpower
development.
®“The State shall protect and promote the right of all
citizens to quality education at all levels and shall
take appropriate steps to make such education
accessible to all." (Art. XIV, Sec. 1)
Cont..
• Furthermore, Article XIV (Education, Science and Technology,
Arts, Culture and Sports) spelled out the State’s policy on
education. This includes, among others, the following:
• Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the
right of all citizens to quality educaiton at all levels and
shall take appropriate steps to make such education
accessible to all.
• Section 2. The State shall: (1) Establish maintain and
support a complete, adequate, and integrated
system of education relevant to the needs of the
people and society;
• (2) Establish and maintain a system of free public
education in the elementary and high school levels.
Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their
children, elementary education is compulsory for all
children of school, age;
• (3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants,
student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives
which shall be available to deserving students in both
public, especially to the underprivileged;
• (4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous
learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent,
and out-of-school study programs particularly those that
respond to community needs and
Cont..
• Section 3 (1) All educational institutions shall
include the study of the Constitution as part
of the curricula.
• (2) They shall inculcate patriotism and
nationalism, foster love of humanity,
respect for human rights, appreciation of
the role of national heroes in the historical
development of the country, teach the
rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen
ethical and spiritual values, develop moral
character and personal discipline
encourage critical and creative thinking,
broaden scientific and technological
knowledge, and promote vocational
efficiency.
• Section 4 (1) The state recognized the
complementary roles of public and private
institutions in the educational system and
shall exercise reasonable supervision and
regulation of all educational institutions.
Overview of Philippine
Educational System
Mandate
1987 1994 2001

Tri-focalization of Education Management


®RA 7722 and RA 7796 created:
®DECS for basic education
®CHED for higher education
®TESDA for post-secondary, middle-level manpower
training and development

DECS
Overview of Philippine
Educational System
Mandate 1994 2001
1987

“Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001”


®RA 9155:
®Formally renamed DECS as the Department of
Education and transferred “culture” and “sports” to the
National Commission for the Culture and the Arts and
the Philippine Sports Commission

DECS

PHILOSOPHY
The State shall promote the right of every individual
to relevant quality education regardless of sex, age,
breed, socio-economic status, physical and mental
condition, social or ethnic origin, political and other
affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and
maintain equality of access to education as well as
the enjoyment of benefits of education by all its citizens
(BP Blg. 232).
 Every child with special needs has a right to an
educational program that is suitable to his needs.
Special Education shares with regular education basic
responsibilities of the educational system to fulfill the
• ICT in Education Vision: Functionally Literate Filipinos
• Partnerships with Private
Sector/Industry
• Increase spending Teacher Development
for Basic Education • RBEC and Supply
• Tech Voc
• Hiring and • Food for
school • English,

Curr
deployment

Students
ol s
Science, Math

Teachers
• SBM • Every Child a

iculu
• Training • NAT

Scho
• Critical Reader
• Certification • NCAE

m
learning
resources Program • Multi-Grade • A&E CHED
• Teachers • Distance and
benefits and alternative Special Education
• Pre- school
Welfare learning College/
• Feeding University
B A S I C E D U C AT I O N ?
Elementary High School Technical
Grade 1
ECE Public Schools NCAE + Vocational
Readiness
Private Schools Counselling
Test
Drop-outs TESDA
DSWD
DOH E
LGUs STP
GA
Labor Force

Alternative Learning Accreditation & Equivalency


INDUS-
TRY
Basic Education Framework
Basic Education Framework
The Basic Education Framework in a snapshot,
with the vision of “Functionally Literate
Filipinos.” It shows the scope of the sector and
the extent of coordination we do with other
partner government institutions, the academe
and the industry.
From the provision of Early Childhood Education

at age 5 (of which DepED is an active player


alongside DSWD, the LGUs and the private
sector), we start caring for the child when he or
she enters the formal school at age 6.
Basic Education Framework
Prior to formal instruction, we check on
his/her readiness for formal instruction
through the Grade 1 Readiness Assessment
Tool.
If found ready, the child immediately

proceeds to formal Grade 1 work;


Otherwise, the child undergoes the 8-week

preschool education course.


 Next is the 6 years of elementary education
and the 4 years of high school education.
 Learning assessment takes place at Grade 6
and at Year 2.
 And at Year 4, the student is administered
the National Career Assessment
Examination (NCAE) to guide him/her and
the parents in the career choices to make
– of whether proceeding to post-secondary
education under TESDA or to higher
education under CHED, or join the world of
work.

Basic Education Framework
 Students who cannot be accommodated in
public high schools are awarded
scholarship subsidies known as GASTPE to
enable them to continue education in
participating private high schools.
 Those who leave the system in between are
offered alternative learning and we assess
and certify them through the Accreditation
& Equivalency Test
Levels of educations
Structure of the Formal Public Educational System
Age 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20, 21 AND ABOVE

Grade/
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 I II III IV

PRE – ELEMENTARY SECONDARY TERTIARY GRADUATE POST


GRADUATE
Level SCHOOL (Compulsory) (Optional)
General General, Humanities,
Educ/Teacher Trng, Masteral Doctoral
Secondary Courses Courses
School Social/Beh. Sci.
Business Ad.,
Natural Science
Mathematics
Vocational
Secondary
School Trades, Crafts
Home Econ.
Service Traders

Special Schools Mass Com, Other Dis.,


Fine Arts, Architectural,
Religious/Theology,
Law & Jurisprudence,
Non-Formal Education Medical, Engineering,
Veterinary, Medicine
AGE LEVEL
15-24 – Out of School Youth` Basic Literacy Level Post Secondary
25 above-Adults Elementary Level 2-3 Yr. Technical or
Secondary Level Technician
Levels of Education
Effective SY 1995-1996, the new entry age
for elementary education is 6yrs; 12-15
years for secondary education and 16-19 for
higher education. (preschool is optional).
The number of years of formal schooling in
the Philippines is one of the shortest in the
world
• It has a 6-4-4 structure
• 6 years of elementary:
• 4 years of secondary
• 4 years for higher education for a degree
program except for some courses like
Engineering, Law, medical services which
require 5 or more years of schoolings
Cont..
 Higher Education
 The tertiary education level is

comprised of degree and non


degree programs
 The higher education non-degree

programs normally require at least


4 years of schooling
Post-secondary and technical/vocational
courses are non-creditable to degree
programs and these covers one month to
three years of schooling
Non-formal education is an alternative
delivery system. Its clienteles are chiefly
out-of-school youth and adults. It focuses
on the development of literacy and
employable/productive skills coupled with
citizenship training.
PRIMARY SCHOOL
is also called Elementary school 
(Filipino: Mababang Paaralan).

consists of six levels, with some schools

adding an additional level (level 7).


The levels are grouped into two primary

subdivisions, 
 Primary-level-the first four
levels,
 Intermediate-level-the last two
or three levels.

SECONDARY SCHOOL
Secondary education in the Philippines is
largely based on the American schooling
system.
The Philippines high school system
(Filipino: Mataas na Paaralan) has not
moved much from where it was when the
Philippines achieved independence from
the US in 1946.
It still consists of only four levels with
each level partially compartmentalized,
focusing on a particular theme or
content.
SECONDARY SCHOOL
4 years of secondary( 12-15 years old)
 There are two types of secondary

schools according to curriculum


offerings
 General academic secondary

course
 Vocational HS (offer the same

secondary curriculum with


additional vocational courses)
 A regional science high

school is established in each of


the regions of the country
 They offer an enriched science,

math and English curriculum


TERTIARY EDUCATION
A years of tertiary education –( 16-19 years

old)

A continuing decline in the quality of


education in Philippine due to four main


factors:
 a) mismanagement of the educational

system,
 b) not investing wisely in education,
 c) lack of management competencies,

and,
 d) systemic corruption'.

Another reason why the Philippines is not a


major supplier of tertiary education for


overseas students in the region is because
3 semesters of each 8 semester
bachelor degree are required to be
TERTIARY EDUCATION
These mandated subjects include the
- life and works of Filipino national hero Dr

Jose Rizal,
-three subjects of Filipino language,

- basic mathematics, science, and Filipino

cultural subjects [3]


More appropriate for senior high school than

at tertiary level.

CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
CURRICULUM OF PRIMARY SCHOOL
The core subjects (major subjects)

Mathematics, Sciences, English, Filipino (the


Filipino language), and Makabayan (Social
Studies, Livelihood Education, Values).
Other subjects include Music, Arts, and
Physical Education.
Starting at the third level, Science
becomes an integral part of the core
subjects.
CURRICULUM FOR SECONDARY
SCHOOL
 1ST Year-  five core subjects: Algebra I,
Integrated Science, English I, Filipino I,
and Philippine History I. 
 2nd Year- Algebra II, Biology, English II,
Filipino II, and Asian History.
 3rd Year- Geometry, Chemistry, Filipino
III, and World History and Geography
 4th Year- Calculus, Trigonometry,
Physics, Filipino IV, Literature, and
Economics.
 Minor subject includes Health, Music,
Arts, Technology and Home Economics,
and Physical Education.
SCHOOL
CULTURE
LANGUAGE
 PRIMARY SCHOOL:
DECS Bilingual Policy is for the medium of

instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino,


Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyong
Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and
English for: English, Science and
Technology, Home Economics and Livelihood
Education
 English as medium of instruction for
secondary and tertiary educations.
 Except for subject Filipino,

SCHOOL UNIFORM

Philippino school children commonly wear


school uniforms, especially at the
secondary level and in private schools.
The situation is more varied at state

elementary schools because many families


can not buy uniforms for their children.
SCHOOL UNIFORM-Elementary
school
 The elementary schools
which are known as
grammar schools in the
Philippines have a variety
of different school
uniforms.
Public schools: Most of
the public elementary
schools don't require the
kids to wear uniforms,
in part because not all
families can afford to
buy them. Some do,
SCHOOL UNIFORM-Elementary
school
 Elementary schools usually only
have uniform shirts,
generally the shirts have a
badge of some kind, for both
girls and boys. Some public
schools have the girls wear a
skirt to match their shirts.
The colors most commonly
used are blue for the skirts
and white for the shirts. Some
school use light green on their
skirts.
Private schools: Uniforms
are much more common at
SCHOOL UNIFORM-Secondary school
 Most high schools, both public and
private, require school uniforms.
The primary reason offered is to
keep prices for school clothing
low.
 The colors are generally the
same as used for the
elemantary pupils, although
there is often a slight difference
to identify the older high school
students.
 Some schools requires the girls to
wear a school tie with a seal
on it.
 The boys wear long pants
coordinating the color of the
girls skirts.
SCHOOL UNIFORM-Tertiary
Education
The situation in colleges vary. Some colleges
require uniforms and some do not. This is
true both in private or public schools.
Some do, especially if the are a medical

students and that's a must.


The rest are regular school uniforms.

Universities and some college are often not

very particular about uniform.


SCHOOL UNIFORM- Teacher

Philippine teachers are required to


wear their uniforms at school.
Public school teachers have four sets of

uniform for each day of the week


except either Wednesday or Friday
which is referred to as a free-day.
EXAMINATIONS
EXAMINATIONS-PRIMARY SCHOOL
Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat
for the National Elementary Achievement
Test (NEAT) 
The scores obtained by students in the NEAT

were not used as a basis for their admission


into Secondary school.
Once NEAT change to to National

Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department


of Education (DepEd), both the public and
private elementary schools take this exam
to measure a school's competency.
As of 2006, only private schools have
EXAMINATIONS-SECONDARY
SCHOOL
Secondary students used to sit for
the National Secondary Achievement
Test (NSAT), which was administered by
DepEd. Like its primary school counterpart,
NSAT was phased-out after major
reorganizations in the education
department.
Now there is no government-sponsored
entrance examination for tertiary
education.
Higher education institutions, both public
and private, administer their
own College Entrance Examinations
Why UK?
 The United Kingdom - or Great Britain
as it is also known is full of contrasts;
whichever direction that we travel we
will find a wide variety of landscapes
and diverse cultures to explore.
 England, Wales, Scotland and Northern
Ireland are all unique countries with
their own customs, cultures and
traditions.
 With its rich history, the United Kingdom
is also home to some of the first
universities and institutions of
higher education in the world.
Cont .. Why UK?
 With schools such as Oxford, Cambridge
and St. Andrews, the United Kingdom
can be found at the top of most ranking
lists of higher education around the
world.
 Beyond being home to some of the best
universities around the world, Great
Britain is also a world leader in English
language teaching.
 Over 600,000 learners a year come to
the UK to help achieve their ambitions,
to experience modern UK life, and to
use the language in its natural home.
Cont .. Why UK?
 As with all the UK, qualifications from
England are recognized and
respected throughout the world.
 The qualification will be a solid
foundation for building the future,
boosting the career and prospects for a
higher salary.
 Quality standards for all English
institutions are among the best in the
world.

Another reasons ..
 The UK is a developed country, with the
world's sixth largest economy by
nominal GDP (gross domestic product
(GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI) is a
basic measure of a country's overall
economic output).
 It was the world's first industrialized
country and the world's foremost power
during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
 The UK nevertheless remains a major
power with strong economic, cultural,
military, scientific and political influence.
erent countries in United

 1.) England
 2.) Northern
Scotland
 3.) Wales
 4.) Scotland


for all the countries of UK is

t same with Malaysia education


Education in the United Kingdom
vEducation in the United Kingdom is a
devolved matter with each of the
countries of the United Kingdom having
separate systems under separate
governments:-
üthe UK Government is responsible for
England
üthe Scottish Government is responsible
for Scotland
üthe Welsh Assembly Government is
responsible for Wales
üthe Northern Ireland Executive is
responsible for Northern Ireland
vThe systems in England, Wales and
Northern Ireland are more similar, the
w of history of education in
 During the Middle Ages schools were
established to teach Latin grammar,
while apprenticeship was the main way
to enter practical occupations.
 Two universities were established: the
University of Oxford, followed by the
University of Cambridge. A reformed
system of "free grammar schools" was
established in the reign of Edward VI of
England.

iew of history of education i

 In the 19th century the Church of


England was responsible for most
schools until the establishment of
free, compulsory education towards
the end of that century.
 University College London was
established, followed by King's
College London; the two colleges
forming the University of London.

iew of history of education i

 Durham University was also established in


the early 19th century.
 Towards the end of the century the "redbrick“
universities (refer to six particular British
universities founded in the major industrial
cities of England, all of which achieved
university status before World War I) were
founded.


Overview of education in Englan
vThe six Red Bricks are:
 The University of Birmingham - royal charter
granted in 1900.
 The University of Liverpool - royal charter
granted in 1903.
 The University of Leeds - royal charter granted in
1904.
 The University of Sheffield - royal charter
granted in 1905.
 The University of Bristol - royal charter granted in
1909.
 The University of Manchester - formed in 2004 with
the merger of Victoria University (1880) and
UMIST (1956).
iew of history of education i
 The 1944 Education Act established the
Tripartite System (arrangement of state
funded secondary education) of grammar
schools, secondary modern schools
and Secondary Technical Schools.
 Pupils were allocated to their respective
types of school according to their
performance in the Eleven Plus
examination.
 Tripartite System was formally abolished in
England and Wales in 1976, giving way
to the Comprehensive System.
Overview of education in Englan
 Education in England is overseen by the
Department for Children, Schools and
Families and the Department for
Business, Innovation and Skills.
 At a local level, the local authorities take
responsibility for implementing policy for
public education and state schools.

Cont..Overview of education in England

 Full-time education is compulsory for


all children aged between 5 and 16
(inclusive).
 Students may then continue their
secondary studies for a further two
years (sixth form), leading most
typically to an A level qualification,
although other qualifications and
courses exist, including GNVQ and the
International Baccalaureate.
t..Overview of education in Eng
 The leaving age for compulsory education
was raised to 18 by the Education and
Skills Act 2008. The change will take
effect in 2013 for 17 year olds and
2015 for 18 year olds.
 State-provided schools are free of charge
to students, and there is also a tradition of
independent schooling, but parents
may choose to educate their children by
any suitable means.
t..Overview of education in Eng
 Higher education typically begins with a
3-year Bachelor's Degree.
 Postgraduate degrees include Master's
Degrees, either taught or by research,
and Doctor of Philosophy, a research
degree that usually takes at least 3
years.
 Universities require a Royal charter in
order to issue degrees, and all but one are
financed by the state with a low level of
fees for students.

imary and secondary educati
vThe state-funded school system
 State-run schools and colleges are
financed through national taxation, and
take pupils free of charge between the
ages of 3 and 18.
 The schools may levy charges for
activities such as swimming, theatre
visits and field trips, provided the
charges are voluntary, thus ensuring
that those who cannot afford to pay are
allowed to participate in such events.
 Approximately 93% of English
vThe state-funded school system
 A significant minority of state-funded schools
are faith schools, which are attached to
religious groups, most often the Church of
England or the Roman Catholic Church.
There are also a small number of state-
funded boarding schools, which typically
charge for board but not tuition.
 Nearly 90% of state-funded secondary schools
are specialist schools, receiving extra
funding to develop one or more subjects in
which the school specializes.

Age on 1st Year Curriculum Schools
Sept stage
3 Nursery Foundation Nursery school
Stage
4 Reception Infant Primary First school
school school
5 Year 1 Key Stage 1
6 Year 2
7 Year 3 Key Stage 2 Junior
school
8 Year 4
9 Year 5 Middle
school
10 Year 6
11 Year 7 Key Stage 3 Secondary Secondary
school school
12 Year 8
with sixth
13 Year 9 form Upper
school or
14 Year 10 Key Stage 4 /
High school
GCSE
15 Year 11
16 Year 12 Sixth form / Sixth form
A level college
17
Curriculum
 The Qualifications and Curriculum
Development Agency (QCDA) will be at
the heart of England's education system.
 The job is to develop the curriculum,
improve and deliver assessments, and
review and reform qualifications.
 Follow the National Curriculum, which is
made up of twelve subjects. The core
subjects—English, Mathematics and
Science—are compulsory for all students
aged 5 to 16.

Cont .. Curriculum
 The other foundation subjects are
compulsory at one or more Key Stages:
 - Art & Design, Citizenship, Design &
Technology, Geography, History, Information
& Communication Technology, Modern
Foreign Languages, Music, and Physical
Education.
 In addition, other statutory subjects are not
covered by the National Curriculum,
including Religious Education in all
year groups, and Career education,
Sex education and Work-related
School governance

 Almost all state-funded


schools in England are
maintained schools, which
receive their funding from
Local Authorities (Las), and
are required to follow the
national curriculum.

Cont .. School governance
 Since 1998, there have been 4 main types
of maintained school in England:
1.) Community schools (formerly county
schools), in which the LA employs the
schools' staff, owns the schools' lands
and buildings and has primary
responsibility for admissions.
2.) Voluntary controlled schools, which
are almost always church schools, with
the lands and buildings often owned by a
charitable foundation. However, the LA
employs the schools' staff and has
3.) Voluntary aided schools, linked to a
variety of organizations. They can be faith
schools (often the Church of England or the
Roman Catholic Church), or non-
denominational schools, such as those
linked to London Livery Companies.
4.) Foundation schools, in which the
governing body employs the staff and has
primary responsibility for admissions. The
school land and buildings are owned by the
governing body or by a charitable
foundation.

Secondary schools by intake
 English secondary schools are mostly
comprehensive (a state school that does
not select its intake on the basis of academic
achievement or aptitude), except in a few
areas that retain a form of the previous
selective system (the Tripartite System),
with students selected for grammar school
by the eleven plus exam.
Cont..Secondary schools by intake

 There are also a number of


isolated fully selective
grammar schools, and a few
dozen partially selective
schools.
 Specialist schools may also
select up to 10% of their intake
for aptitude in the specialism.

Independent schools
 Approximately 7% of English
schoolchildren attend privately run
independent schools, which are called
public schools.
 Education at independent schools is
usually chargeable. Such schools,
some of which are boarding schools,
cover primary and secondary
education.
 Some schools offer scholarships for
those with particular skills or aptitudes
or bursaries to allow less well-off
students to attend.
Cont..Independent schools
 Some schools are single sex, however a
growing number are co-educational.
 Independent schools usually take children
between age 3-11 transferring to 11-18.
 Many students must pass the Common
Entrance Exam at 11 or 13 to gain entry
into highly selective schools.

Further education
 Students at both state schools and
independent schools take the GCSE
examinations, which mark the end of
compulsory education.
 Above school leaving age, the
independent and state sectors are
similarly structured, which in the 16-18
age group, "sixth-form" education is
not compulsory.
 Students will typically study in either the
Sixth Form of a School, a Sixth form
college, or a further education college.
 These courses can also be studied by adults
over 18.
Higher education
 Students normally enter University from 18
onwards and study for an Academic
Degree.
 All undergraduate education outside the
private University of Buckingham is
largely state financed, with a small
contribution from top-up fees.
 The state does not control syllabuses,
but it does influence admission
procedures, but the state still has
control over teacher training courses,
and uses Ofsted inspectors to maintain
standards.
Cont..Higher education
 The typical first degree offered at British
universities is the Bachelor's degree
(typically three years).
 Many institutions now offer an
undergraduate Master's degree as a
first degree, typically lasting four years.
During a first degree students are known
as undergraduates.
 Some universities offer a vocationally-
based Foundation degree, typically two
years in length for those students who
hope to continue to take a first degree
but wish to remain in employment.

Postgraduate education
 Students who have completed a first
degree are eligible to undertake a
postgraduate degree, which
includes:
1.) Master's degree (typically taken in

one year)
2.) Doctorate degree (typically taken in

three years)
 Postgraduate education is not
automatically financed by the
State, and so admission is in practice
Adult education
 Adult education, Continuing education
or Lifelong learning is offered to
students of all ages.
 These can include the vocational
qualifications :
1.) One or two year access courses to allow

adults access to university.



2.) The Open University runs a distance

learning program which can result in a


Degree.

3.) The Workers' Educational Association


offers large number of semi-recreational


courses, with or without qualifications,
are made available by Local Education
Authorities under the guise of Adult
Education, such as holiday languages,
crafts and yacht navigation.

verview of education in Northern Ireland

 Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from


systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom,
though it is more similar to that used in
England and Wales than it is to Scotland.
 A child's age on 1 July determines the point of
entry into the relevant stage of education unlike
England and Wales where it is the 1
September.
 Northern Ireland's results at GCSE and A-Level
are consistently top in the UK (one third achieved
A grades compared with England and Wales).
Central administration
 The Northern Ireland
Executive's Department of
Education (DE) is responsible for
the country's education policy
except for the higher and
further education sector for
which the Department for
Employment and Learning
(DEL) retains responsibility.

Cont..Central administration

 The Department of Education's main areas of


responsibility cover pre-school, primary, post-
primary and special education; the youth
service; the promotion of community
relations within and between schools; and
teacher education and salaries.
 Its primary statutory duty is to promote the
education of the people of Northern Ireland and
to ensure the effective implementation of
education policy.

Local administration
 Education at a local level in
Northern Ireland is administered
by five education and library
boards covering different
geographical areas.
 The role of the boards is to
ensure that high quality
education, youth and library
support services exist
throughout their areas.

Cont..Local administration
 These boards are as follows:
1.) Belfast Education and Library Board

2.) North Eastern Education and Library

Board
3.) South Eastern Education and Library

Board
4.) Southern Education and Library
Board
5.) Western Education and Library Board


Curriculum
 The majority of examinations sat, and
education plans followed, in Northern Irish
schools are set by the Council for the
Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment
(CCEA).
 All schools in Northern Ireland follow the
Northern Ireland Curriculum which is
based on the National Curriculum used in
England and Wales.

Cont..Curriculum

 At age 11, on entering secondary


education, all pupils study a broad base
of subjects which include geography,
English, mathematics, science, physical
education, music and modern languages.
 Currently there are proposals to reform the
curriculum to make its emphasis more
skills-based under which, in addition to
those mentioned, home economics, local
and global citizenship and personal, social
and health education would become
compulsory subjects.

Cont..Curriculum
 At age 14, pupils select which subjects to
continue to study for General Certificate of
Secondary Education (GCSE)
examinations.
 Currently it is compulsory to study English,
mathematics, science, a modern
language and religious studies, although
a full GCSE course does not have to be
studied for the latter.
 In addition, pupils usually elect to continue
with other subjects and many study for eight
or nine GCSEs but possibly up to ten or
eleven.
 GCSEs mark the end of compulsory
Cont..Curriculum
 At age 16, some pupils stay at school and
choose to study Advanced Level AS and A2
level subjects or more vocational
qualifications such as Applied Advanced
Levels.
 Those choosing AS and A2 levels normally pick
three or four subjects and success in these
can determine acceptance into higher
education courses at university.

Age Year Curriculum School
Stage
4–5 Primary 1 Foundation
5–6 Primary 2 Stage Primary school Primary
education
6–7 Primary 3 Key Stage 1
7–8 Primary 4
8–9 Primary 5
9 – 10 Primary 6 Key Stage 2

10 – 11 Primary 7
11 – 12 Year 8
12 – 13 Year 9 Key Stage 3 Secondary Secondary
school or education
13 – 14 Year 10 grammar
14 – 15 Year 11 Key Stage school
15 – 16 Year 12 4/GCSE

16 – 17 Year 13 Secondary
17 – 18 Year 14 Sixth Form/A school,
level grammar
school, or
further
education
college
Eleven plus
 Northern Ireland remains the largest area
in the UK which still operates
grammar schools. In the last year of
primary school, children sit the
eleven plus transfer test, and the
results determine which school they
will go to.
 In 2001, a decision was made to abolish
the system, and to replace it with
separate exams each grammar
school will set prospective primary
students but this will not take effect
until 2009.
Cont..Eleven plus
 Northern Ireland ministers of
education have chosen not to
turn grammar schools into
comprehensive schools, as
once thought, due to other UK
government systems failing to
meet expectations with their
decision of comprehensive
schools.

Controlled schools
 Controlled schools (nursery, primary,
special, secondary modern and
grammar schools) are under the
management of the school's board
of governors and the employing
authorities are the five education and
library boards.
 Many of these schools were originally
church schools, whose control was
transferred to the state in the first
half of the twentieth century.
Cont..Controlled schools
 The three largest Protestant churches
(Presbyterian, Church of Ireland and
Methodist), known as the transferors,
maintain a link with the schools through
church representation on controlled
school boards of governors.
 The Review of Public Administration
(RPA) has proposed the removal of this
statutory role for transferors on the
ground that it purportedly contravenes
the equality requirements of the
Northern Ireland Act 1998.
Catholic education
 There are 547 Roman-Catholic-managed
schools in Northern Ireland. According to
figures from the Department of Education
for 2006/2007, 45% of children in
Northern Ireland are educated in Catholic-
managed schools.
 The Council for Catholic Maintained
Schools (CCMS) is the advocate for the
Catholic maintained schools sector in
Northern Ireland, such as raising and
maintaining standards, the school estate
and teacher employment (welfare
Integrated education
 The Integrated Education Fund (IEF) is a
financial foundation for the development
and growth of integrated education in
Northern Ireland in response to parental
demand.
 The Fund financially supports the
establishment of new schools, the growth
of existing schools and those schools seeking
to become integrated through the
transformation process.

The Educational Company of Ireland
 The Educational Company of Ireland,
(Edco) was founded in 1910 and is
Ireland’s leading publisher and
distributor of school textbooks, exam
papers and resources for the Irish
Curriculum.
 Edco aim to provide their customers with
quality schoolbooks and ancillary
materials, which satisfy their needs and
expectations, while facilitating the
learning process.

Further Education
 Further education in Northern Ireland is
provided through six multi-campus
colleges. Northern Ireland's Department
for Employment and Learning has the
responsibility for providing FE in the province.
1.) Belfast Metropolitan College

2.) North West Regional College

3.) Northern Regional College

4.) South Eastern Regional College

5.) South West College

6.) Southern Regional College


ont .. Further Education
 Most secondary schools also
provide a Sixth Form scheme
whereby a student can choose
to attend said school for 2
additional years to
complete their AS and A-
levels.

Compulsory Schooling
vPrimary education
 Primary Education in Wales has a similar
structure to Primary Education in England,
but teaching of the Welsh language is
compulsory.
 The introduction of the Foundation Phase for
3-7 year olds is also creating increasing
divergence between Wales and England.
vCont…Primary education
 Between the ages of 3 and 11 a child's education
is divided into three main stages:
1.) Early Years - pre-compulsory education (ages 3-

5)
2.) Key Stage 1 - the first phase of compulsory

primary education (ages 5-7)


3.) Key Stage 2 - the second phase of compulsory

primary education (ages 7-11).


 Pupils are statutorily assessed to establish their
starting point when they first enter school in the
Reception Year or Year 1, and there are further
statutory assessments in the core subjects at the
end of Key Stages 1 and 2.

vCont…Primary education
 Teach the basic curriculum and the National
Curriculum (religious education (RE) and
personal and social education (PSE)).
 Primary schools are also required to have a policy
on sex education.
 At Key Stages 1 and 2, the National Curriculum
consists of "core subjects" (English, Welsh,
mathematics and science) and non-core
subjects - Welsh second language, design and
technology, information technology, history,
geography, art, music, physical education and
religious education.
 There is no statutory requirement to teach
English at Key Stage 1 in Welsh-medium
schools.
Cont..Compulsory Schooling

vSecondary education
 Secondary Education in Wales covers the
period between the ages of 11 and 16.
In this period a child's education is divided
into two main stages of the National
Curriculum: Key Stages 3 and 4.

vCont..Secondary education
 Key Stage 3 includes years 7,8, and 9
- Year 7, old First Form, age 11 to 12

- Year 8, old Second Form, age 12 to 13

- Year 9, old Third Form, age 13 to 14 (End of Key

Stage Three Tests and Tasks)


 Key Stage 4 includes years 10 and 11
- Year 10, old Fourth Form, age 14 to 15

- Year 11, old Fifth Form, age 15 to 16 (old O

Level examinations, modern GCSE


examinations)

vCont..Secondary education
 Secondary schools in Wales must teach the
basic and the National Curriculum to their
pupils.
 The basic curriculum consists of religious
education, sex education, personal and
social education, and for 14-16 year olds,
work-related education, the Welsh
Baccalaureate is now online for pupils at Key
Stage 4.
 Schools must also provide careers education
and guidance for all 13-16-year-olds.
vCont..Secondary education
 At Key Stage 3, the National Curriculum
consists of the "core subjects" of English
and Welsh, mathematics and science, and
the "non-core subjects" of Welsh second
language, modern foreign languages,
design and technology, information
technology, history, geography, art, music,
physical education and religious
education.
 At Key Stage 4, only five National
Curriculum subjects are mandatory
(English, Welsh or Welsh second language,
mathematics, science, and physical
education) and schools have greater
flexibility to provide optional subjects
that meet the needs and interests of their
Age Year Curriculum School
Stage
3– 5 Pre-compulsory education Early years

Key Stage 1 Primary


5–7 The first phase of compulsory
education
primary education

7 – 11 The second phase of Key Stage 2


compulsory primary education

11 – 12 Years 7
Key Stage 3
Secondary
12 – 13 Years 8
education

13 – 14 Years 9

14 – 15 Years 10
Key Stage 4
15 – 16 Year 11 (O Level/GSCE)
Further Education
 Further education (FE) includes full- and part-
time learning for people over compulsory
school age, excluding higher education.
 FE and publicly-funded training in Wales is
provided by 24 FE institutions and a range
of public, private and voluntary sector
training providers, such as the Workers'
Educational Association.
Cont .. Further Education
 Colleges vary in size and mission,
tertiary and specialist institutions,
including one Roman Catholic Sixth Form
College and a residential adult education
college.
 Many colleges offer leisure learning and
training programmes designed to meet
the needs of business.
 In 2008/09 there were 236,780 FE
students in Wales.

Adult Community Learning
 Adult Community learning is a form of
adult education or lifelong learning
delivered and supported by local
authorities in Wales.
 Programmes can be formal or
informal, non-accredited or
accredited, and vocational,
academic or leisure orientated.
 In 2008/09 there were 57,170 learners
in Community Learning.
Higher Education
 Students normally enter higher
education (HE) from 18 onwards.
 All undergraduate education is largely
state-financed and students are
generally entitled to student loans for
maintenance.
 The state does not control syllabi, but
it does influence admission
procedures and monitors standards
through the Higher Education
Funding Council for Wales.
Cont .. Higher Education
 The typical first degree offered at Welsh
universities is the Bachelor's degree,
typically taking three years to complete
full-time.
 Some institutions offer an undergraduate
Master's degree as a first degree,
typically lasting four years. During a first
degree students are known as
undergraduates.
 Some universities offer a vocationally-
based Foundation degree, typically
two years in length.
Cont .. Higher Education
 Within Wales, medical undergraduate
education is provided by only Cardiff
University, while graduate fast track route
training in provided at Swansea University.
 Overall there are 11 HE institutions in Wales
including one music conservatoire, the Royal
Welsh College of Music and Drama in Cardiff.
 In 2008/09 there were 146,465 enrolments at
HE institutions in Wales, including 66,645
undergraduates and 23,260 postgraduates.
Welsh HE institutions had a total of 8,840
academic staff.

Overview of education in Scotland
 The Scottish system has emphasized breadth
across a range of subjects, while the English,
Welsh and Northern Irish systems have
emphasized greater depth of education over
a smaller range of subjects at secondary
school level.

 Following this, Scottish universities generally
have courses a year longer (typically 4 years)
than their counterparts elsewhere in the UK,
though it is often possible for students to take
more advanced specialized exams and join the
courses at the second year.

Cont..Overview of education in Scotland


 The majority of schools are non-
denominational, but as a result of the
Education Act 1918, separate Roman
Catholic state schools were also
established.
 Catholic schools are fully funded by the
Scottish Government and
administered by the Education and
Lifelong Learning Directorate.

Cont..Overview of education in Scotland

 Qualifications at the secondary school


and post-secondary (further education)
level are provided by the Scottish
Qualifications Authority, which is the
national awarding and accrediting body in
Scotland, and delivered through various
schools, colleges and other centers.
 Political responsibility for education at all
levels is vested in the Scottish
Parliament and the Scottish Education
and Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong
Learning Departments.

verview of education in Sc
 State schools are owned and operated by
the local authorities which act as
Education Authorities, and the
compulsory phase is divided into
primary school and secondary school
(often called high school).

 Schools are supported in delivering the
National Guidelines and National
Priorities by Learning and Teaching
Scotland.

 Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS or
LT Scotland) is a non-departmental
public body and is the main organization
for the development and support of the
School years
 Pupils remain at primary school for
seven years. Then aged eleven or
twelve, they start secondary school for a
compulsory four years with the
following two years being optional.

 Pupils sit Standard Grade or
Intermediate exams at the age of
fifteen/sixteen, for normally eight
subjects including compulsory exams in
English, Mathematics, a Science
subject (Physics, Biology or Chemistry)
and a Social Subject (Geography, History
Cont..School years
 It is now required by the Scottish Parliament
for students to have two hours of physical
education a week.

 The school leaving age is generally
sixteen (after completion of Standard
Grades), after which students may choose
to remain at school and study for Higher
Grade and Advanced Higher exams.

 Increasingly, students in Secondary 3 and
Secondary 4 are able to take
Intermediate courses, as these have
become more popular and are more
closely linked to Highers.
Cont..School years
 In Scotland, there is no equivalent of the
Sixth form colleges; S5 and S6 are
always a part of Scottish secondary
schools as Scotland has 1 less year
than the English, Welsh and Northern Irish
system.

 S5/6 are optional, and in the Scottish
system are a chance to study additional
Intermediate, Higher or Advanced
Higher courses, further helping
teenagers access university education.

Age range Year
4-6 Primary 1
5-7 Primary 2
6-8 Primary 3
7-9 Primary 4
8 - 10 Primary 5
9 - 11 Primary 6
10 - 12 Primary 7
11 - 13 Secondary 1 (First Year)
12 - 14 Secondary 2 (Second Year)
13 - 15 Secondary 3 (Third Year)
14 - 16 Secondary 4 (Fourth Year)
15 - 17 Secondary 5 (Fifth Year)
16 - 18 Secondary 6 (Sixth Year)
Vocational education
 Vocational education is provided in Further
Education Colleges and through
apprenticeship.
 Vocational education might be classified as
teaching procedural knowledge.
 Up until the end of the twentieth
century, vocational education focused
on specific trades such as for example,
an automobile mechanic or welder, and
was therefore associated with the
activities of lower social classes.
Music education
 Music Education is available at
several levels.
 Formal music education begins at
4½ years and can progress as high
as postgraduate studies.
 Music Education can take place within
a Scottish Music school; through a
music service or privately.

Further education
 Scotland's further education colleges
provide education for those young people
who follow a vocational route after the
end of compulsory education at age
16, involving school-level qualifications
such as Higher Grade exams, as well as
work-based learning.
 They offer a wide range of vocational
qualifications to young people and older
adults, including SVQs, Higher National
Certificates and Higher National
Diplomas.

Cont .. Further education
 Frequently, the first two years of higher
education, usually in the form of an
Higher National Diploma (HND) can be
taken in an FE college, followed by
attendance at university.
 Higher education colleges offer degree-
level courses, such as diplomas.
 Scottish colleges are funded primarily by
the Scottish Funding Council, with
tuition fees paid by individual students or
their sponsors.

England Northern Wales Scotland Malaysia
Ireland
1 September 1 July 1 September August January
UK Northern Welsh Scottish Malaysia
Government Ireland Assembly Government Government
National Executive
National Government
National Curriculum for National
Curriculum Curriculum Curriculum Excellent Curriculum
A level, A level, A level, GCSE Higher Grade, UPSR, PMR, SPM
GCSE GCSE Advanced
Higher
English English English English
Examination Bahasa Malaysia
(primary), (primary), (primary), Gaelic (primary),
Irish Welsh English
Education in Japan
NURUL SHAFIAH MUSTAFA

KAMAL
Introduction
to
Education in Japan
A Glimpse on History of
Japan’s Education….

 When Japan opened herself to the world in 1868,
one of the government's high priority was
catching up with Western standards in science
and education.
 The Japanese education system was reformed
mainly according to the German and French
model which experts regarded as most suitable
and advantageous
 The rise of militarism led to the use of the
education system to prepare the nation for war.
The military even sent its own instructors to
schools.
 After the defeat in World War II, the allied
occupation government set an education
reform as one of its primary goals, to eradicate
militarist teachings and "democratize" Japan.
 The education system was rebuilt after the
American model.
History of Japan’s Education
Formal education in Japan began with the
adoption of Chinese culture in the 6th
century.
Buddhist and Confucian teachings as well as

sciences, calligraphy, divination and literature


were taught at the courts of Asuka, Nara and
Heian.
Scholar officials were chosen through an

Imperial examination system.


The rise of the bushi, the military class, during

the Kamakura period ended the influence of


scholar officials, but Buddhist monasteries
remained influential centres of learning.
Introduction
to
Education in
Japan
Education in Japan
 Monbusho (The Ministry of Education,
Science, Sports and Culture of Japan) is
responsible to set a nationwide standard of
education from kindergarten to upper
secondary school. It is based on the concept
of equal educational opportunities for all.
 A Monbusho ordinance has set the types of
subjects and the number of hours for
teaching them. Fundamental standards, such
as the objectives and content of all subjects,
are stipulated in the National Curriculum
Standards for kindergarten, elementary,
lower secondary and upper secondary
schools.
Japanese School System
Japan has one of the world's best-educated
populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory
grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory,
high school (koukou) enrollment is over 96%
nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities.
High school drop out rate is about 2% and has

been increasing.  
About 46% of all high school graduates go on to

university or junior college.


The Ministry of Education closely supervises

curriculum and textbooks, and classes with much


the same content are taught throughout the
country. As a result, a high standard of education
becomes possible.
Japanese School System
The Japanese educational system was
reformed after World War II.
The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-

3-3-4 system (6 years of elementary


school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years
of senior high school and 4 years of
University) with reference to the American
system.
Gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time

period is 9 years, 6 in shougakkou


(elementary school) and 3 in chuugakkou
(junior high school).

Japanese School System
A school year has three terms: summer, winter
and spring, which are each followed by a
vacation period.
The school year begins in April and ends in

March of the following year.


Japan ’ s Education
Philisophy 

 Japan’s Educational Philosophy state that


education as the vital energy which is the
motive power for advancing by one's self,
exerting one's self in the pursuit of learning,
polishing intellect, and advancing the
civilization of the state that will develop the
national strength and wealth.
 "The reason for supporting education is for the
sake of the state. You must remembert hat
education is not for the sake of the student but
for the sake of the state.“
 (Minister of Education, Mori Arinori)
Education in Japan
TYPES OF SCHOOL IN JAPAN
Educational
Level
Educational establishments Age Grade Remarks

Kindergarten and nursery school 3-6 -


Elementary school 6-7 1 Compulsory
7-8 2
Education
8-9 3
9 -10 4
10 - 11 5
11 - 12 6
Junior High School 12 - 13
13 - 14
1 Lower
14-15 Secondary
Senior High school 15 - 16 12 School
(Compulsory Education)
3
16 - 17 2
17 - 18 3
Part- Time Senior High School 18 - 19 4 Upper Secondary
(4 years) School
 Many private schools, however, offer a six year
programme incorporating both junior high
school and high school.
 Specialised schools may offer a five year
programme comprising high school and two
years of junior college.
 There are two options for tertiary education:
junior college (two years) and university (four
years).
K IN D E R G A R T E N A N D N U R S E R Y
SCH O O L
KINDERGARTEN AND NURSERY
SCHOOL
 Nursery school: age one on up to five
years old
 Kindergarten: children ages 3–5

 The educational approach at
kindergartens varies greatly from
unstructured environments that
emphasize play to highly structured
environments that are focused on having
the child pass the entrance exam at a
private elementary school.

Japan even has them for entering prestigious

private kindergartens. Some Japanese


parents are eager to send their children to
such kindergartens, which are also
associated with prestigious university, and
in most cases guarantee that the
students can go on all the way to
university. 

there are public or privately run preschools.


Together, these two kinds of institutions


enroll well over 90 percent of all preschool-
age children prior to their entrance into the
formal system at first grade.
Kindergarten cont…
predominantly staffed by young female junior
college graduates, are supervised by the
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport,
Science and Technology, but are not part of
the official education system.
The 58 percent of kindergartens that are private

accounted for 77 percent of all children


enrolled. In addition to kindergartens there
exists a well-developed system of government-
supervised day-care centers, supervised by the
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

Elementary school
Elementary school
 More than 99% of children are enrolled in
elementary school. All children enter
first grade at age six.
 Virtually all elementary education takes
place in public schools; less than 1% of
the schools are private. Private
schools tended to be costly.
 Some private elementary schools are
prestigious, and they serve as a first
step to higher-level private schools with
which they are affiliated, and then to a
university.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
 One class one teacher- the teacher are
responsible to teach all subjects for the
class they assigned.

Lower Secondary
School
Lower Secondary School
covers grades seven, eight, and nine, children
between the ages of roughly 12 and 15.
increased focus on academic studies

most lower-secondary schools in the 1980s were

public, but 5% were private.. Private schools


tended to be costly.

Lower Secondary School
Teachers often majored in the subjects they
taught, and more than 80 % graduated from
a four-year college.
Unlike elementary students, lower-secondary

school students have different teachers for


different subjects. The teacher, however,
rather than the students, moves to a new
room for each fifty or forty-five minute
period.

Lower Secondary School
Instruction in lower-secondary schools tends
to rely on the lecture method.
Teachers also use other media, such as

television and radio, and there is some


laboratory work.
UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL
UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL
 It is not compulsory in Japan but 94% of all
lower-secondary school graduates entered
upper secondary schools as of 2005.
 The most common type of upper-secondary
school has a full-time, general program that
offered academic courses for students
preparing for higher education as well as
technical and vocational courses for students
expecting to find employment after
graduation.
 More than 70% of upper-secondary school
students were enrolled in the general
academic program in the late 1980s. A small
Upper Secondary School
The first-year programs for students in both academic
and commercial courses are similar. They include basic
academic courses, such as Japanese language, English,
mathematics, and science.
In upper-secondary school, differences in ability are first

publicly acknowledged, and course content and course


selection are far more individualized in the second
year. However, there is a core of academic material
throughout all programs.
Vocational-technical programs includes several hundred

specialized courses, such as information processing,


navigation, fish farming, business English, and
ceramics. Business and industrial courses are the most
popular, accounting for 72% of all students in full-time
vocational programs in 1989.
Upper Secondary School
Most upper-secondary teachers are university
graduates. Upper-secondary schools are
organized into departments, and teachers
specialize in their major fields although they
teach a variety of courses within their
disciplines.
Teaching depends largely on the lecture system,

with the main goal of covering the very


demanding curriculum in the time allotted.
Approach and subject coverage tends to be

uniform, at least in the public schools.



Upper Secondary School
Senior high schools have overlapping
catchment areas: this means that there
is competition among schools for the
best pupils in a particular area, and
among pupils for places at the best
schools.
Over one-quarter of senior high schools

are private, indicating the extent of the


competition in the higher levels Japanese
schooling: parents will pay substantial
amounts for their children's educations.
H ig h sch o o ls m a y b e cla sse d in to o n e o f
th e fo llo w in g typ e s:
 Elite academic high schools collect the
creme de la creme of the student population
and send the majority of its graduates to top
national universities.
Non-elite academic high schools ostensibly

prepare students for less prestigious


universities or junior colleges, but in reality
send a large number of their students to private
specialist schools (senshuugakko), which teach
subjects such as book-keeping, languages and
computer programming. These schools
constitute mainstream high schooling.
Vocational High Schools that offer courses in

commerce, technical subjects, agriculture,


homescience, nursing and fishery.
Correspondence High Schools offers a

flexible form of schooling for 1.6% of high


school students usually those who missed
out on high schooling for various reasons.

Evening High School which used to offer


classes to poor but ambitious students who


worked while trying to remedy their
educational deficiencies. But in recent
times, such schools tend to be attended by
little-motivated members of the lowest two
percentiles in terms of academic
Part - time Senior High
school
 In some cases, where students are already working
full time, they may attend evening school instead
of normal high school.
 These classes are run in the evening, and instead
of the usual three years, it takes four years to
complete a senior high school education.
 Classes usually run until after 9pm or later, so this
makes for a busy lifestyle for the working
student.
 Compared to the average senior high school
student, students at part-time high school tend to
be far more socially mature and attentive
students - a voluntary action and
commitment is needed to complete the
program, whereas attending Senior High School is
Juku ( Cram schools )
 Approximately 60% of Japanese high school
students go for supplemental lessons.T
 The classes may run until late, and a 12-hour
day is not unusual for the Japanese high
school student (before homework).
 Juku and yobiko are primarily private, for profit
schools that attract students from a wide
geographical area. They often are located
near train stations, enabling students to
transport themselves easily to juku directly
from school.
 Cram school" tuition is expensive, but most
parents are eager to pay in order to ensure
acceptance into a selective junior high
school, high school, or university, and thus, a
Juku ( Cram schools )
Juku for high school students must compete for
enrollment with yobiko, which exist solely to
prepare students for university entrance
examinations.
Some "cram schools" specialize in preparing

students for the examination of a particular


school.
Juku may offer lessons in nonacademic subjects

such as art, swimming, abacus, and calligraphy,


especially for elementary school students, as well
as the academic subjects that are important to
preparation for entrance examinations at all
levels.
Many students enjoy juku and yobiko, where the

teachers often are more animated and more


OTHE Vo offer students the chance to combine
cat
R ion
Senior High School studies with a
SCHO al vocational subject - common ones
Tra include motor mechanics, hairdressing,
OLS ini architecture and the like.
ng These are generally four-year courses, and
Sch
ool start after Junior High School.
Jus
Some Senmon Gakkou are highly

ni competitive.
Junior colleges offer two year
or university-style degrees, but leading
Co to the title of "Associate" as
ll opposed to a bachelor's degree.
eg
The majority of department are those
es ,
related to home economics,
humanities, education and
sociology.
Othe Coll  provide junior high school graduates

eges with five years (five and a half years


r of for merchant shipping courses) of
scho tech education.
ols nolo
gy  There are about 60 colleges of
technology in Japan. They offer
courses related to engineering,
merchant shipping as well as other
fields.
CURRICULUM IN JAPAN
Basic philosophies of the
curriculum reform
a)Encourage the emotional development of the youth,
to make them well equipped to contribute to
society and to have an increased self-awareness
as a member of the international community.

b) Enhance children’s ability to learn and to think
independently.

c) Develop a comfortable educational environment,
which successfully equips children with essential
basic contents as well as develops children’s
individual personalities.
 d) Encourage each school to discover its own special
characteristics and redefine itself as a unique site of
distinctive education.

Curriculum in Japan
 Teaching in Japan is sometimes considered
rigid and unchanging.
 Although the curriculum is set by the State to
the point where content and time to spend
on each subject are clearly laid down, the
actual teaching method itself is completely
up to individual teachers.
 Moral education and special activities continue
to receive attention.
 Most students also participate in one of a
range of school clubs that occupy them until
around 6pm most weekdays (including
weekends and often before school as well),
as part of an effort to address juvenile
delinquency.
Curriculum in Japan
 Each school is supposed to make its own
educational plan in line with the relevant laws
and the National Curriculum Standards,
taking into account the actual circumstances
of each school and each community.
 Schools are required to use textbooks and most
of these textbooks are edited by private
entities, in accordance with the National
Curriculum Standards are authorized by
Monbusho.
 The central government provides the textbooks
free of charge to students in national, public
and private compulsory education schools.
Curriculum for KINDERGARTEN
 Whereas kindergartens
follow educational aims,
preschools are
predominately concerned
with providing care for
infants and toddlers
 The trend to earlier and
earlier education is
increasing with special
subjects for kindergarten
students including
English.

Curriculum for Kindergarten
 The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course
of Study for Preschools, which applies
to both kinds of institutions, covers
such areas as human relationships,
environment, words (language), and
expression.
 Starting from March 2008 the new
revision of curriculum guidelines for
kindergartens as well as for preschools
came into effect.
 Starting from January 2010 preschools
and kindergartens started adopting the
International Preschool Curriculum.
International Preschool Curriculum
 The curriculum aims to
promote cultural diversity
and preschool standard
harmonization where
underlying themes of
internationalism and
bilingualism in all of its
unit modules.


 Each program includes
circle-time, group
activities, arts and craft as
well as self-directed free
play time. Through these
activities, it develop child
independence, creativity,
Curriculum for Elementary
 Elementary School
School Subjects:
 The National  Japanese language
Curricum Standards  Social Studies
for elementary school  Mathematics
has four chapters:
 Science
 Chapter 1- General
guidelines  Life Environment
Studies
 Chapter 2- Teaching
Subjects  Music
 Chapter 3 - Moral  Drawing and
Education Handicraft
 Chapter 4- Special  Homemaking
Activities.  Physical Education
 
Curriculum for Elementary
School
The structure of teaching subjects in elementary

school has been almost the same since the first


grade.

Others, such as foreign-language study, begin at


this level, though from April 2011 English will


become a compulsory part of the elementary
school curriculum.

“Life environment studies” is a new subject


introduced first in the present Standards by


combining social studies and science, which are
taught in the first and the second grades.
Curriculum for Elementary
School
Once-a-week moral education classes seen

as the main task of the elementary school


system. Moral education is also seen as
more effectively carried on through the
school routine and daily interactions that go
on during the class cleaning and school
lunch activities.
Lo w e r S e co n d a ry C u rricu lu m
 All course contents are specified in the Course of
Study for Lower-Secondary Schools. Some
subjects, such as Japanese language and
mathematics, are coordinated with the
elementary curriculum.
 The junior school curriculum covers Japanese
language, social studies, mathematics, science,
music, fine arts, health, and physical education.
All students are also exposed to industrial arts and
homemaking.
 Students now receive instruction from specialist
subject teachers. The pace is quick and instruction
is text-book bound because teachers have to
cover a lot of ground in preparation for high-
school entrance examinations.
Lo w e r S e co n d a ry C u rricu lu m
Moral education and special
activities continue to receive
attention.
Increased emphasis on

Japanese history and culture,


as well as understanding
Japan as a nation and its
relationships with other
nations of the world  main
aim of the reform is to equip
students with the basic
knowledge needed for
citizenship.

U p p e r S e co n d a ry C u rricu lu m
High schools adopt

highly divergent high


school curricula, the
content may contain
general or highly
specialized subjects
depending on the
different types of high
schools.
U p p e r S e co n d a ry C u rricu lu m
 In upper-secondary school, differences in ability
are first publicly acknowledged, and course
content and course selection are far more
individualized in the second year. However,
there is a core of academic material
throughout all programs.
 Vocational-technical programs includes several
hundred specialized courses, such as
information processing, navigation, fish
farming, business English, and ceramics.
Business and industrial courses are the most
popular, accounting for 72% of all students in
full-time vocational programs in 1989.
U p p e r S e co n d a ry C u rricu lu m

The upper-secondary curriculum also
underwent thorough revision and among
noteworthy changes is:
üthe requirement that both male and
female students take a course in home
economics.
üthe division of the old social studies course
into history, geography, and civics
courses.
SCHOOL
UNIFORM
SCHOOL UNIFORM IN JAPAN
SCHOOL UNIFORM IN JAPAN
 Each school has a unique
uniform that makes its
students easily
identifiable to the public.

 Modern Japanese school
wear and school uniforms
vary significantly
depending on age- level
of education.

 Many but not all Japanese
schools have seasonal
uniforms are make
Kindergarten School Uniform
In general, students of
kindergarten school do
not wear the uniforms. 
They go to school with

normal clothes, but some


of schools have their own
school uniforms
Elementary School Uniform

 Elementary school
students do not wear
school uniforms, but
they must wear a
yellow cap or hat,
and if it rains, they
must hold a yellow
umbrella when they
are going to school. 
 The reason that they
use the yellow hat
and umbrella is for
road safety.

Elementary School Uniform
 Uniforms are standard
in Japan
 so the small children
with bright yellow
baseball hats, bright
yellow umbrellas,
bright yellow
raincoats, etc.
walking in long lines
around Japanese
towns are all
Elementary School
children.
Junior High School Uniform
 In junior high school, most students
are obliged to wear the school
uniforms.  There are many types of
uniforms in Japan. 
  For boys, there are basically two
types of uniforms.  One is
"Gakuran“ (Japan was the only
major country to outfit its school
children in military uniforms-
Gakuran.), the other is blazer. 
 About girls, they wear a sailor outfits
or blazer.  In addition, students may
put on a necktie, tie a ribbon or
wear scarf around their neck. 
 Summer uniform is usually only white
Senior High School Uniform
 Most schools require shool
uniforms: generally a
summer uniform, winter
uniform, and PE uniform.
 The summer uniform
usually consists of a
short-sleeved shirt
("cutter shirt") and
slacks for boys, and a
pleated skirt and short-
sleeved blouse for girls
(often with the
traditional sailor suit
Extra - curricular activities
in Japanese School
 AIM  at the harmonious development of mind
and body through desirable group activities
and at the development of personality and
practical attitudes for improving life.

 The activities are somewhat different from one
school level to another, but the most
common are "student government". "home-
room activities" "club activities", "class-room
guidance" and "school events".
 These activities play an important role in
deepening human relationships between
Extra - curricular activities in
Japanese School
 Club activities take place after
school every day. Teachers are
assigned as sponsors, but often the
students themselves determine the
club's daily activities.
 Students can join only one club, and
they rarely change clubs from year
to year.
 In most schools, clubs can be divided
into two types: sports clubs
(baseball, soccer, judo, kendo,
track, tennis, swimming, softball,
volleyball, rugby) and culture clubs
(English, broadcasting, calligraphy,
science, mathematics, yearbook).
Extra - curricular activities in
Japanese School
 Clubs meet for two hours after school each
day and many clubs continue to meet
during school vacations. Club activities
provide one of the primary opportunities
for peer group socialization.
 Relationships of "senpai" (senior) and
"kohai" (junior) are established most
solidly. It is the responsibility of the senpai
to teach, initiate, and take care of the
kohai. It is the duty of the kohai to serve
and defer to the senpai.
 The kohai are expected to serve their
senpai and to learn from them by
observing and modeling their behavior.
SCHOOL CULTURE
 Japanese students spend 240 days a year at
school, 60 days more than their American
counterparts
 Students stay in their homeroom classrooms for
most of the school day while the teachers move
from room to room
 Slipper and locker
 Some schools may have a cafeteria, but most do
not- bring food from home, allowed to eat in the
class.
 At the end of the academic day, all students
participate in "o soji," the cleaning of the
school. They sweep the classrooms and the
hallways, empty trash cans, clean restrooms,
clean chalkboards and chalk erasers, and pick
LANGUAGE
 The ministry recognizes a need to improve the
teaching of all foreign languages, especially
English.
 To improve instruction in spoken English, the
government invites many young native
speakers of English to Japan to serve as
assistants to school boards and prefectures
under its Japan Exchange and Teaching
Program.
 Beginning with 848 participants in 1987, the
program grew to a high of 6,273 participants in
2002. However, the program has been on the
decline in recent years due to several factors,
including shrinking local school bud
 gets funding the program, as well as an
EXAMINATION
 A characteristic of the Japanese school system
are entrance exams, and with them a high
competitiveness among students. Most high
schools, universities, as well as a few private
junior high schools and elementary schools
require applicants to write entrance exams.
 In order to pass entrance exams to the best
institutions, many students attend special
preparation schools (juku) besides regular
classes, or for one to two years between
high school and university (yobiko).
 The most prestigious universities are the
TYPES OF EXAMINATION IN
JAPANANESE SCHOOL
Entrance exam for

Ø Junior High School


Ø Senior High School
Ø Higher Education
Ø

Entrance Examination
In Japan the National Center Test for University
Admissions is a nationally standardized
entrance exam for higher education that 3rd
year high school students or high school
graduates take in an attempt to meet
admission requirements of the school or
schools of their choice.
High school students, especially 3rd year

students focus almost solely on preparations


for the exam, in an attempt to enter the most
prestigious universities in the country. Often
students attend a cram school which is also
known as juku in Japan in order to prepare as
ENTER HIGHER EDUCATION
University
■ completion of 12 years of formal school

education.
■ has taken or will take the Exam for Japanese
University Admission for International Students
(Not all universities).
  *  "Japanese" and "Japan and the world" are
required at most universities’ humanities
courses.
  * At public universities and some private
universities, TOEFL score is necessary.
ENTER HIGHER EDUCATION
 A vocational school
■ completion of 12 years of formal school

education.
■ has taken or will take the Exam for

Japanese University Admission for


International Students (Not all schools).
  * If you score more than 200points on the
Exam for Japanese University Admission for
International Students or pass Level 2 or
higher on the Japanese Language Proficiency
Test , an entrance examination is often
ENTER HIGHER EDUCATION
 Master
 ■  bachelor's degree.

 A researcher
 ■ bachelor's degree.
■ approval of application from the
professors
Summary
The Japanese education system is one of the
most influential agents molding Japanese
youth.
Given the large amount of time that Japanese

students spend in schools, it is little wonder


that the education system plays a tremendous
role in determining the fabric of Japanese
society.
An examination of the "typical" high school

experience illuminates the function of the


education system in Japanese society.
SUMMARY
 Student behavior on the way to school is
regulated by school policies. These policies may
prohibit certain activities in public--chewing
gum, consuming snacks, reading books while
walking--anything that might reflect badly on
the reputation of the school.
 Schooling is regarded to be a preparation for
appropriate positions in the workforce and for
adult society. By and large, most Japanese
believe that schooling offers an opportunity for
all children to move up the social ladder if they
are willing to work hard.
 Equal opportunity is thought to exist in Japan
through its educational system. It is widely
thought that selection to higher schools is
based on merit and is therefore fair and that all
who work hard will achieve their goals.