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Republic of the Philippines

CAMARINES SUR POLYTECHNIC COLLEGES


4434, Nabua Camarines Sur

COLLEGE OF HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGY


ISO 9001:2008

CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
This chapter present a discussion of related literature and studies,
synthesis of the art and theoretical paradigm. It emphasizes to discuss
perceptible similarities and differences of related literature.

Review of Related Studies and Literature


This section review some studies and literature that are related to the
present study. Local studies and foreign studies and literature are presented
according to topic.
According to the K to 12 Deped Primer (2011) the aims of the enhanced
K12 or K -6-4-2 have positive implications to improve the education that every
Filipino student should get. College educators could attest to the fact of the lack
of preparation that high school graduates receive when they enter college.
Because basic education is free in the Philippines, this should not actually harm
the many poor families in the country. What should everyone be aware about is
the implementation of those aims to assure quality education.
To manage the initial implementation of the K to 12 Program and mitigate
the expected multi-year low enrolment turnout for colleges, universities, and
Technical-Vocational Institutions (TVI) starting SY 2016-2017, DepEd shall

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engage in partnerships with them to use their existing facilities and teaching sta.
This ensures that during the transition period, the reduction in enrollment in these
colleges and universities may be onset. The college General Education
Curriculum is being revised. It will have fewer units with the removal of
unnecessary remediation as K to 12 graduates adhere to the College Readiness
Standards. With K to 12, the college curriculum will comprise of a years worth of
General Education subjects and at least two years of major subjects. (www.
pcdspo.gov.ph)
The government will require completion of the 12 year basic education
cycle on entry to college by AY 2018-2019. The urgent challenge then should be
an opportunity for colleges and universities to innovate and reinvent while
addressing the impact on student enrolment. Since, the rationale for
implementing the K12 system cycle is to align our standards of education to that
of what is globally accepted, then higher education institutions will have to take a
proactive stance to this change. This is a situation that should also be addressed,
and this becomes an opportunity for colleges and universities to offer
prebaccalaureate programs to provide students additional years of education.
These programs that will be offered should guarantee students employable
competencies or entrepreneurial know-how that can ensure them livelihood if
they wish not to pursue a college degree. A proactive strategy that private
colleges and universities will have to do is to give the last three batches of

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graduates from the old education cycle options to take a pre-baccalaureate,


international baccalaureate, or associate degrees for two years before they take
the four-year degree course. In this attempt, general education teachers will have
to design academic programs and reengineer their existing programs for the
change.(www. rodrigo75.wordpress.com)
DepED, CHED, and TESDA are crafting a strategy to ensure the smooth
transition from the existing 10 year education cycle to the Kto12 basic education
cycle. This will cover aspects such as physical infrastructure, manpower,
organizational, and structural changes. First public private partnerships with
higher education institutions (HEIs) and private schools are being explored to
manage the SY 2016-2018 period wherein there will be low enrollment for HEIs.
Second modeling for senior high school will also be implemented in selected
schools to simulate the transition process and provide concrete data for the
transition plan. Third the modeling activity will also generate insights on the
potential needed changes in the organizational structure of DepED as well other
affected agencies like CHED and TESDA. (www.rexpublishing.com.ph)
According to University of Sto. Tomas, the Universitys preparation is said
to follow the Commission on High Educations (CHED) academic track
curriculum rather than the technical vocations offered by Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority (TESDA)-accredited schools for the K-12 transition
period. One of the advantages of these strands is that it is undecided-student

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friendly, Ad Hoc committee member of the UST Senior High School Department
Atty. Gezzez Giezi Granado said. As the student progresses through [] senior
high he will be able to understand more what course he really wants to take in
the future.Granado added that the programs are ready and facilities are being
prepared like the newly built Blessed Buenaventura Garcia Paredes, O.P
(BGPOP) building.The newly adapted curriculum, K to 12 requires two more
years of secondary education to supposedly meet international standards
proposed and implemented by CHED. B.K.M.
Transitions are key times where children face new and challenging tasks
as they move from familiar to unknown and more complex surroundings.
Educators recognize that transitions have opportunities to promote positive
development for students, but, if unmanaged, can result in anxiety or stress that
affects learning and relationships (Turner, 2008)
Bangser (2008) Implementation of school transition strategies or
programs may face challenges related to clarifying terminology, establishing and
maintaining partnerships, recruiting students, involving parents and the
community, coordinating various transition activities, addressing the needs of
minority populations, securing financial and human resources, and ensuring
supporting policies are in place. Several authors have identified or recommended
approaches to implementation that minimize the negative impacts of these
challenges.

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Chicago Public Schools (2007), after adapting resources provided by the


UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools, recommended considering the
following key points when establishing transition supports: Use a comprehensive
approach. Involve parents in the transition process. Establish connections with
community resources. Promote information sharing. Provide ongoing, continuous
transition supports. Encourage social development. Maintain high expectations
and a challenging curriculum.
Although somewhat dated, Charner (2007) offers several suggestions for
the successful implementation of high school to post-secondary education and
work initiatives as follows: Provide executive-level leadership that includes
developing a shared vision, clear goals, and a comprehensive strategy; enlisting
support and involvement of all stakeholders; continuous and consistent
communication; advocacy and a tolerance for risk; and empowering leaders
among those delivering the program (e.g., educators, counselors). Provide
professional development for teachers and other staff. Nurture positive crosssector collaboration. Support the development of student self-determination.
Integrate demanding academic work with current vocational instruction and workreadiness preparation. Provide an integrated career information and guidance
system. Encourage a commitment to lifelong learning by ensuring career
awareness programs are progressive and sequential, begin as early as
elementary or middle school, articulate with post-secondary Successful

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implementation of transition strategies requires leadership at all levels, family and


community involvement, information sharing as well as ongoing professional
development and financial support. Programs that encourage lifelong learning
and are founded on research have been shown to be successful.
Collins (2009) captured the following recommendations from several
educators and policy makers involved in implementing a range of school based
and extended learning services: Construct programs that complement school
goals and academic standards. Implement evidence-based, but non-traditional
methods of youth development. Ensure programs are engaging and diverse. Use
a variety of recruitment and retention strategies to engage students. Provide
ongoing training and professional development for educators and other support
personnel. Establish and maintain positive relationships with all stakeholders.
Share relevant research results.
Jonhson (2010) call for new standards for student achievement and the
consistent use of the district level consequences when standards have not been
met. This policy strategy has emerged as the standards movement, and was
initiated to overcome challenges created by Americas fragmented governance
system where a centralized governmental approach to educational reform would
create a more consistent set of school improvements across the 50 states.
Standards-based reforms seek to: (a) establish challenging academic standards
for what students should know and be able to do; (b) align policies such as

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teacher licensure/certification and professional development, testing, and


accountability to those standards; (c) restructure governance in schools, districts,
and local communities; and (d) create specific curricula and instructional
approaches to meet state standards (Consortium for 5 Public Policy and School
Reform, 2010).

STUDIES
Martson (2011) conducted a related study about the perception of the
students and parents involved in Primary to Secondary school transition
programs. Transition programs, of different formats and complexities, based on
both Australian and international research, have been introduces in some
schools to facilitate transition. The aim of the research were to investigate and
compare the perceptions of students, parents and teachers involved in several of
these programs can alleviate issues associated with transition between primary
and secondary schools. Although executive staff and teachers also provided
valuable information and perception.
This study is related to the researchers study for this also focuses the
extent of to which transition programs will be used in order to alleviate issues
regarding how transition will happen in a certain school.

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Naratates (2011) studied about the effects of broken homes among early
teenagers to their academic performance this study cited by the researchers
have also shown that the countrys education program is equivalent to the 12
year education cycle followed abroad except that it is being completed in only 10
years. These researchers analyze and study what will be the effects of the K to
12 educational systems in the country, parents and students.
Manalos (2012) study entitled "Enhanced K to 12 Programs as Perceived
by the Parents of Grade Six Pupils at Baao District, Baao, Camarines Sur,
School year 2011-2012, this study is about the perception of the parents and the
perceived problem regarding the new program or the Department of Education.
Zellman (2012) -The implementation of the K to 12 Education Reform in
Qatars Schools; this study is a reform of education for the new era, because it
views education as the key to the nations economic and social progress. This
study, one of the numbers of RAND studies that trace and document the reform
process in Qatar, was designed to assess progress made in the first years of the
K to 12 reforms implementation in Qatars schools and the perception of the
parents on the implementation of the K to 12 program.
Tan (2011) -Most Perceived Problems on the K to 12 Implementation of
the Students Luzon Elementary School, Tagkawayan, Quezon. This study is also
focused on the problems perceived about the K to 12 program which affects the
students performance and parents perception.

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Andrea Alviola (2012) - K to 12 starts with universal kindergarten which


mandates all public elementary schools to offer kindergarten classes and accept
5 year old learners beginning 2011.
Isagani Cruz (2012) - both the K to 12 curriculum and the new general
education curriculum which builds on the College Readiness Standards (CRS)
recognize that students today are digital natives. As the century progresses more
and more teachers will also have been after 1985 and will also be digital natives,
at that time, the generational digital gaps should disappear.
Lyn Igliane-Villenes (2012) K to 12 was crafted to plug the shortcomings
of the 10 year basic education cycle in which students had less time to
understand their lessons, and had to compete with better prepared gradually
from other countries.
Competing with the international standards challenges the Philippine
government to innovate the former curriculum.
David Michael San Juan (2012) - in his studies K to 12 has been criticizes
and opposed by a broad array of forces. In his studies, he found out and
conducted a tokenistic consultations right there and hue to make it appear that
the scheme is not a trim down imposition, but never really engaging in genuinely
democratic bottom-up dialogue prior to K to 12s inception, adoption and
implementation.

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Synthesis of the State-of-the art


The review of related studies had similar learnings and differences in the
present study. The researchers come up with a perceptible comparison that helps
to broaden the present study.
The study of Martson had found related to the researchers study in the
sense that both focuses about how the parents, students and teachers deals with
the school transition programs from primary to secondary school but also found
different in terms of the investigation and comparison of the perceptions of
students, parents and teachers involved in several of those programs .Similarly,
Naratates, analyze and study the effect of the curriculum to the country, parents
and students. Manalo, the study was found to be related because both have the
same topic about the preparation on the problems seen on new school program
transition and but differ in considering that the research is about the
preparedness of parents not exactly about the school.
The study is also related to present study as it tackles about the progress
of the K to 12 Education Reform in Qatars Schools in the first years of the
implementation but the topic was just an assessment of the schools progress
and perception of the parents about the program (Zellman) . Like the recently
mentioned study, it is also about the perceived problems that affect the students
performance and parents perception except that if focused more on the
efficiency of the program to the students (Tan).

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Study on K to 12 was crafted to plug the shortcomings the 10 year basic


education cycle which student had less time to understand their lessons. Present
study has the same concern, but goes beyond more recommendations, for the
years in school which will be proposed in this study. (Villenes)
David Michael San Juans research is related in the thought of K to 12s
inception, adaptation and implementation but dissimilar in the fact that he
conducted a tokenistic consultation.
Among all of the related studies, this study is much more alike on the
researcher's study because it also talks about the college readiness about the
new general education curriculum and the recognition that students today are
digital natives but differs in concentrating around gap between teacher and
students knowledge about gadgets. (Isagani Cruz).

Theoretical Framework
This study made use of the Lewins Change Theory by Kurt Lewin which is
based around a 3-step process (Unfreeze-Change-Freeze) that provides a highlevel approach to change. Kurt Lewin theorized a three-stage model of change
that has come to be known as the unfreezing-change-refreeze model that
requires prior learning to be rejected and replaced. Edgar Schein provided further
detail for a more comprehensive model of change calling this approach cognitive
redefinition.

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Change is a common thread that runs through all businesses regardless


of size, industry and age. Our world is changing fast and, as such, organizations
must change quickly too. Organizations that handle change well thrive, whilst
those that do not may struggle to survive. The concept of "change management"
is a familiar one in most businesses today. But, how businesses manage change
(and how successful they are at it) varies enormously depending on the nature of
the business, the change and the people involved. And a key part of this depends
on how far people within it understand the change process. Stage 1 becoming
motivated to change (unfreezing) This phase of change is built on the theory that
human behavior is established by past observational learning and cultural
influences. Change requires adding new forces for change or removal of some of
the existing factors that are at play in perpetuating the behavior. This unfreezing
process has three sub-processes that relate to a readiness and motivation to
change. Disconfirmation where present conditions lead to dissatisfaction, such as
not meeting personal goals. However, the larger the gap between what is
believed and what needs to be believed for change to occur, the more likely the
new information will be ignored. Previous beliefs now being seen as invalid
creates survival anxiety. However, this may not be sufficient to prompt change if
learning anxiety is present. Learning anxiety triggers defensiveness and
resistance due to the pain of having to unlearn what had been previously
accepted. Three stages occur in response to learning anxiety: denial;

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scapegoating & passing the buck; and maneuvering & bargaining. It is necessary
to move past the possible anxieties for change to progress. This can be
accomplished by either having the survival anxiety be greater than the learning
anxiety or, preferably, learning anxiety could be reduced.
Stage 2 change what needs to be changed (unfrozen and moving to a
new state) Once there is sufficient dissatisfaction with the current conditions and
a real desire to make some change exists, it is necessary to identify exactly what
needs to be changed. Three possible impacts from processing new information
are: words take on new or expanded meaning, concepts are interpreted within a
broader context, and there is an adjustment in the scale used in evaluating new
input. A concise view of the new state is required to clearly identify the gap
between the present state and that being proposed. Activities that aid in making
the change include imitation of role models and looking for personalized solutions
through trial-and-error learning.
Stage 3 making the change permanent (refreezing) Refreezing is the
final stage where new behavior becomes habitual, which includes developing a
new self-concept & identity and establishing new interpersonal relationships.

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Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm

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Figure 1. Shows the Lewins Change Management Model in relation to K


to 12 Transition we chose this theory for our study because Lewins concern is
due to the K to 12 transition the different college schools should find ways on
how to cope with the new scheme that was implemented for the new curriculum.
Since Lewin's change model is a simple and easy-to-understand framework for
managing change.
By recognizing these three distinct stages of change, you can plan to
implement the change required. You start by creating the motivation to change
(unfreeze). You move through the change process by promoting effective
communications and empowering people to embrace new ways of working
(change). And the process ends when you return the organization to a sense of
stability (refreeze), which is so necessary for creating the confidence from which
to embark on the next, inevitable change. This theory will be helpful for the
Camarines Sur Polytechnic College in stepping up preparations that will ensure
that the students will be ready and be competitive enough for the new basic
education scheme not just the students should be ready but most importantly the
school itself. In order to offer a quality education and to produce a competitive
students within their chosen career.

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Conceptual Framework
This study adopts the systems approach in the conceptualization of the
research which focuses on the Preparedness of CSPC towards K to 12
transition. As shown in figure 2.
INPUT consists of the profile of the respondents in terms of: the age, sex,
civil status, administrative position, profession, length of service and the key
result areas assigned. It also include the level of preparedness of CSPC in the K
to 12 transition in terms of faculty, physical plants/facilities, and curriculum &
instruction. The factors that affect the level of preparedness of CSPC towards K
to 12 transition; and the perception of CSPC key personnel on the level of
preparedness to K to 12 transition.
PROCESS consists of the collection of data through questionnaires,
documentary analysis and interpretation of the data gathered and the test for
significance; it also includes the formulation of proposed plan to enhance the
level of preparedness of CSPC towards K to 12 transition.
OUTPUT is consist of Plan to enhance the level of preparedness of
Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges to K to 12 transition
FEEDBACK mechanism represented by broken arrow will be adopted to
monitor the implementations of the recommendations.

FEEDBACK
Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm
1. Profile of the respondents in terms of
A. Age
B. Sex
C. Civil Status
1. Collection of Data through
D. Administrative position
-checklist
E. Profession
Questionnaires
F. Length of service
- Documentary analysis
G. key result area assigned
e level 2.
of Analysis
preparedness
of CSPC towards
K to 12 transition
and interpretation
of data
2. Level of preparedness of CSPC towards K to 12 transition in terms o
A. Faculty
3. Testing for significance
B.Physical Plants & Facilities
C. Curriculum & instructions
4. Formulation of plan to enhance the level of preparedness of CSPC towards K to 12 transition.
3. factors that affect the level of preparedness of CSPC towards K to 1

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT
30

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ENDNOTES
1. Department of Education (2011) K TO 12 Program Primer Quismundo, T.
Retrieved from: http://www.deped.gov.ph Date Retrieved: March 13, 2015
2. Discussion Paper on the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program.
http://pcdspo.gov.ph/downloads/k-to-12-print-component-FINAL-March-192013.pdf
3. K-12
Challenge
to
Philippine
https://rodrigo75.wordpress.com/category/culture/

Tertiary Education

4. Education agencies will ensure a smooth transition to the Kto12


programhttp://www.rexpublishing.com.ph/basic-education/teacherslounge/basiceducation/k-to-12-Primer/
5. UST cuts programs for K-12 transition, offers academic strands for senior HS
http://tomasinoweb.org/2015/news/ust-cuts-programs-for-k-12-transition-offersacademic-strands-for-senior-hs.tw
6. Turner
http://education.alberta.ca/media/1074988/managingschooltransitionspromisingpracticesinalbertaschoolsapr13-09.pdf
7. Bangser, M.; National High School Center; Preparing High School Students for
Successful Transitions to Postsecondary Education and Employment; August
2008;
http://betterhighschools.org/docs/PreparingHSStudentsforTransition073108.pdf;
Date Retrieved: March 11,2015
8. Building a Better Path from School to College and Careers; 2008; Retrieved
from:
http://betterhighschools.org/docs/PreparingHSStudentsforTransition_073108.pdf;
Date Retrieve: March 5
9. Charner, Ivan; U.S. Department of Education; Study of School-to-Work Initiatives:
Studies
of
Education
Reform;
October
1996;
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ed.gov/pubs/SER/SchoolWork/index.html; Date Retrieved: March 14,
2015
10. Collins et al; Implementing School-based Services: Strategies from New
Mexicos School based Health and Extended Learning Services; January 2009;

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Retrieved From:
http://www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends2009_01_01_PI_NewMexicoServic
es.pdf; Date Retrieved: March 13, 2015
11. David R. Johnson University of Minnesota Issues Influencing the Future of
Transition
Programs
and
Services
in
the
United
Stateshttp://www.ncset.org/publications/related/NTN_Transition_Issues.pdf
12. Martson, Jennifer T. (2011) Perception of Students and Parents in Primary to
Secondary School Transition Program
13. Naratates, Jonathan M. (2011) The Effect of Broken Homes among Teenagers
to their Academic Performance
14. Manalo, Katherine T. (2012) Enhanced K-12 Program as Perceived by the
Parents of the Grade Six Pupils of Baao District, Baao Camarines Sur
15. Zellman, Gail L. (2012) Implementation of the K-12 Education in Qatars
Schools
16. Tan, Jeryl S. (2011) Most Percieved Problems on K -12 program of students in
the Southern Luzon Elementary School, Tagkawayan Quezon
17. Andrea Alviola: The K to 12 Basic Education Program: December 06, 2012
Date retrieve: Jan. 28, 2015 Retrieve From: www.wikipedia.com
18. Isagani Cruz, Digital K to 12; The Philippine Star
19. MalynIgliane-Villenes Course work in School Legislation (May 2013) Date
retrieve: Jan. 29, 2015 Retrieve from: www.wikipedia.com
20. David Michael M. San Juan, Rethinking Educational Policy: Some notes on the K
to 12 in the Philippines: Date retrieve: Jan. 28, 2015: Retrieve from:
www.wikipedia.com
21. Kurt
Lewins
Change
coach.com/kurt_lewin.html

Theory

http://www.change-management-

22. Reading, Reflection, and application in Reality. By Shelley Jones. A


professional
development
activity
proudly
brought
to
you

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by Nursing Review
http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/november2012/change-management-a-classic-theory23. The Kurt Lewin Change Management Model http://www.change-managementcoach.com/kurt_lewin.html
24. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.html