0 Votes +0 Votes -

20 vues43 pagesCMM

Feb 07, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

CMM

© All Rights Reserved

20 vues

CMM

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Fault Lines
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses
- A Jazzi Zanders Mystery
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- The 6th Extinction
- The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Right Stuff
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 43

technology. Basically, they consist of a platform on which the workpiece being measured is

placed and moved linearly or rotated. A probe attached to a head capable of lateral and vertical

movements records all measurements. Coordinate measuring machines are also called measuring

machines. They are versatile in their capability to record measurement of complex profiles with

high sensitivity (0.25 Micro-m) and speed.

In coordinate measuring machine(CMM) research, there is often a need to measure the same

feature repeatedly using multiple settings. The goal of this research is to determine of what

effects the selection of the measurement plane, adaptor style, stylus length, and stylus size would

have on the CMMs ability to repeatedly measure a single diameter. An analysis of variance

(ANOVA) study was conducted using a CMM. Three measurement planes (XZ, and YZ) were

selected for the study. Four measurements were taken on a sphere for each variable combination.

The results of this study indicate that if the measurement plane, stylus length, or stylus size were

changed, the CMM would not repeatedly result in the same measurement reading. However, the

user would be able to alter the adaptor style without affecting the resulting measurement As

future research is done on CMMs, care will be needed with the assumptions that are made when

researching a specific effect. Based on this study, future researchers will have to determine

whether observed changes are due to the probe head configuration or the changes they are

studying.

CHAPTER 1

COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE

INTRODUCTION

Reductions in product life-cycle durations are driving companies to develop and produce

products at an ever-increasing rate. Industry experts are predicting the arrival of rapid

manufacturing through the use of flexible manufacturing systems. Even a brief examination of

industry periodicals such as Manufacturing Engineering, Technometrics, Production, Quality or

Supply Chain Systems, would reveal discussions about highly integrated systems that are

flexible, agile and lean. One result of these trends is the incorporation of coordinate measuring

machines (CMMs), which allow companies to perform data collection and process verification

within the manufacturing cell. Research on various coordinate metrology issues have paralleled

the increased usage of CMMs in industry as inadequacies are uncovered and new needs develop.

Research topics have covered such areas as the development of new probe compensation

algorithms, sampling strategies, part orientation optimization, and computer generated inspection

paths. As is often the case in research, assumptions have to be made in the interest of ensuring

study feasibility. One such assumption is that the part orientation will not affect the

measurements made by the CMM.

With the advent of numerically controlled machine tools, the demand has grown for some means

to support these equipment. There has been growing need to have an apparatus that can do faster

first piece inspection and many times, 100% dimensional inspection. The Coordinate Measuring

Machine (CMM) plays a vital role in the mechanization of the inspection process. Some of the

CMMs can even be used as layout machines before machining and for checking feature locations

after machining.

A coordinate measuring machine is a 3D device for measuring the physical geometrical

characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may

be computer controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis

of this machine. Probes may be mechanical, optical, laser, or white light, amongst others. A

machine which takes readings in six degrees of freedom and displays these readings in

mathematical form is known as a CMM.

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

The specifications of the machine itself are important for correctly accommodating a workpiece and

meeting required measuring capabilities.

Measuring length: It is the total distance a probe can move for measuring in the x, y, or z

direction.

1. X-axis Measuring Length: The total travel, or measuring length that can be

performed in the x-direction. This is not necessarily the same as the measuring capacity,

which is the maximum size of the object in the x-direction that the machine can

accommodate.

2. Y-axis Measuring Length: The total travel, or measuring length that can be performed

in the y-direction. This is not necessarily the same as the measuring capacity, which is

the maximum size of the object in the y-direction that the machine can accommodate.

3. Z-axis Measuring Length: The total travel, or measuring length that can be performed

in the z-direction. This is not necessarily the same as the measuring capacity, which is

the maximum size of the object in the z-direction that the machine can accommodate.

Capacity is the maximum size of the object or work piece that the machine can

accommodate. A CMM must have a capacity sufficient to fit the size of objects the user

needs to measure.

Resolution is the smallest increment that the device can measure to. A higher resolution

denotes a more specific measurement.

MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

CMMs can be designed to perform different types of measurement. These include dimensional, profile,

angularity, depth mapping, digitizing/imaging, and shaft measurements.

Profile measurements are made to capture information about the form or profile of an

object. These measurements may be 2-D or 3-D, depending on the machine capabilities.

points on an object.

Depth mapping is constructed by measuring the difference between two stereo images.

Stereo images are successive images of the same scene taken at slightly different angles.

The objects further away will move relatively little from one image to the next, whereas

objects closer to the viewer will move by a greater degree. A depth map is then created,

resulting in a single image using different intensities to represent the different depths.

geometry of the work piece from the measurements made by the CMM.

CMMs designed specifically for inspecting shafts.

MOUNTING OPTIONS

Manufacturers use many of these terms interchangeably. Keeping this in mind, the options have

been delineated as follows to help locate the ideal item(s) for your needs.

1. Bench top: The machine mounts on a bench top or desk.

2. Free Standing: The machine does not need to be mounted. It can stand on its own.

3. Handheld: The device may be operated while being held in the hand.

4. Portable: The device may be moved freely; it is not meant to be bolted or hardwired in place.

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

Equipment design includes a CMM system's control mechanism, method of operation, mounting

style, and probe type.

Control

CMM probes are designed to be controlled either manually or via CNC. Selection is largely a

function of part quantity, complexity, and cost.

system built in the CMM to control probe movement. CNC- CMMs are best-suited for

production environments requiring a higher volume of measurements, and also in

applications requiring complex and small measurements with fine features. They tend to

be more expensive than manually controlled machines.

probe along the axis to make contact and record measurements. Manual CMMs generally

cost less than CNC-CMMs of the same size, and are better suited for prototype shops

with smaller quantities of measurements.

FEATURES

1.Crash Protection: Machine has provisions to protect sensitive components in the event of an

unanticipated crash.

2. Offline Programming: Software supports offline programming using a CAD model.

3. Reverse Engineering: Machine software capable of performing reversed engineering. Reverse

engineering captures the geometry of existing physical objects and uses this data as a foundation for

designing something new as in a CAD file.

4. Shop Floor Suitable: Equipment is suitable for operation on the shop floor as opposed to a clean

inspection area.

5. SPC Software: Machine has integrated SPC software for statistical analysis.

6. Temperature Compensation: Machine automatically compensates for a change in the environmental

temperature.

COORDINATE SYSTEM

The Machine Coordinate System: There are two types of coordinate systems in the world of

measurement. The first is called the Machine Coordinate System. Here, the X, Y, and Z axes

(Figure) refer to the machines motions. When viewed from the front of the machine, the X axis

runs from left to right, the Y axis runs from front to back, and the Z axis runs up and down,

vertically perpendicular to the other two.

The Part Coordinate System: The second coordinate system is called the Part Coordinate

System where the 3 axes relate to the datums or features of the workpiece. Before the

introduction of computer software to coordinate measurement, parts were physically aligned

parallel to the machines axes so that the Machine and Part Coordinate Systems were parallel to

one another. This was very time consuming and not very accurate. When the part was round or

contoured, rather than square or rectangular, the measurement task was nearly impossible.

OVERVIEW OF CMM

(i) Description of Working Plane

There are 6 working plane in this machine such as, Z+,Z-,Y+,Y-,X+,X-.

directions of X+ and Y- planes, respectively.

(ii) Orientation Concept of Probe

When probe is rotated about X-axis it is then called as angle A and when probe is rotated about

Z-axis, then it is called as angle B.

The probe can rotate in two directions viz A & B

A0B0:- Angle A=0, and Angle B=0

TYPES OF CMM

The machine incorporates the basic concept of three coordinate axes so that precise movement in x, y, and

z directions is possible. Each axis is fitted with a linear measurement transducer. The transducers sense

the direction of movement and gives digital display. Accordingly, there may be four types of arrangement

Cantilever

The cantilever construction combines easy access and relatively small floor space requirements. It is

typically limited to small and medium sized machines. Parts larger than the machine table can be inserted

into the open side without inhibiting full machine travel. Figure shows a cantilever structure.

Column Type

The column type machine is commonly referred to as a universal measuring machine rather than a CMM.

These machines are usually considered gage room instruments rather than production floor machine. The

direction of movements of the arms is as shown in Figure. The constructional difference in column type

with the cantilever type is with x and y-axes movements.

Gantry

In a gantry type arrangement, arms are held by two fixed supports as shown in Figure Other two arms are

capable of sliding over the supports. Movements of the x, y and z-axes are also as shown in Figure 8.4.

The gantry type construction is particularly suited for very large components and allows the operator to

remain close to the area of inspection.

Horizontal

Figure shows the construction of a horizontal structure. The open structure of this arrangement provides

optimum accessibility for large objects such as dies, models, and car bodies. Some horizontal arm

machines are referred to as layout machines. There are some horizontal machines where the probe arm

can rotate like a spindle to perform tramming operations. Tramming refers to accurate mechanical

adjustment of instrument or machine with the help of tram.

PROBING SYSTEM

There are many probes available for CMMs. One of the more prevalent CMM probes currently

in use is the touch trigger probe (TTP). TTPs work by sensing the impact of the stylus tip with

the work piece. Studies have shown that touch trigger probes, similar to the one used for this

research, have inherent errors (Wozniak & Dobosz, 2003; Hocken, Raja, & Babu,1993; Shen &

Zhang, 1999; Shen & Springer, 1998). However, due to the proliferation of touch trigger probes

in both industry and academia, a common assumption made in CMM usage is that probe head

configuration errors are negligible. Currently, much of the research being done makes

assumptions about the CMMs ability to probe parts from multiple directions (Corrigall & Bell,

1991; Ziemian, 1996; Osawa, Busch, Franke & Schwenke, 2005; Piratelli-Filho &Di Giacomo,

2003). Because a features measurement plane will have a significant impact on the probe

configuration, an understanding of probe head configuration induced errors is necessary. For the

purposes of this study, the probe head configuration is comprised of the required probe head

rotational orientation (the selected measurement plane), whether or not a star adaptor or an

indexable head is used (the selected adaptor style), the stylus tip size and the stylus length.

Inductive and optical transmission probes have been developed for automatic tool changing.

Power is transmitted using inductive linking between modules fitted to the machine structure and

attached to the probe. Figure 8.6 shows a schematic of the inductive transmission probe. The

hard-wired transmission probe shown is primarily for tool setting and is mounted in a fixed

position on the machine structure.

The optical transmission probe shown in Figure allows probe rotation between gaging moves,

making it particularly useful for datuming the probe. The wide-angle system allows greater axial

movement of the probe and is suitable for the majority of installation.

Motorized

Probe

With the motorized probe, 48 positions in the horizontal axis, 15 in the vertical axis can be

programmed for a total of 720 distinct probe orientations. Figure shows some typical

applications for motorized probe. It shows that with a range of light weight extensions, the head

can reach into deep holes and recesses. The second diagram shows that head of the probe is

sufficiently compact to be regarded as an extension of the machine quill. This enables the

inspection of complex components that would otherwise be impossible or involve complex

setups.

Wide ranges of styli have been developed to suit many different gaging applications. Some of the

different styli available are shown mounted on a multiple gaging head in Figure 8.9. The

selection of stylus is done based on the application for which the probe is to be used.

STYLUS SELECTION

When assessing how accurate a CMM measurement needs to be, it is common practice to use a

ratio of CMM uncertainty to feature tolerance of at least 1:5 (1:10 is ideal, but is unrealistic in

many cases). This ratio provides a safety margin that ensures the results have a relatively small

uncertainty compared to the expected range of variation of the component. As long as a 1:5 ratio

can be maintained on the tightest tolerance, this should be the end of the accuracy argument.

Unfortunately something as innocuous as changing the stylus on a probe can have a surprisingly

large influence on the real measuring accuracy that can be achieved and also causing appreciable

variation in the measurement results. It is not enough to rely on the CMMs annual calibration to

check its accuracy as this will only confirm the result with the stylus being used for the test

(usually a very short one). This is likely to be the best-case accuracy. To get a fuller

understanding of the likely precision of a wider range of measurements an appreciation of how

the stylus contributes to measurement uncertainty is required.

Ball sphericity

The measuring tips of most styli feature a ball, most commonly made of synthetic ruby. Any

error in the sphericity (roundness) of these balls will be a factor in the CMMs measurement

uncertainty, and it is easy to lose as much as 10% of a CMMs accuracy in this way.

Ruby balls are manufactured to various levels of precision defined by their grade, which is

related to the maximum deviation of the ball from a perfect sphere. The two most common ball

specifications used are grade 5 and grade 10 (the lower the grade the better the ball).

Downgrading from a grade 5 to a grade 10 ball saves a little in terms of the cost of the stylus,

but may be enough to threaten the 1:5 ratio.

The concern is that the ball grade is impossible to detect visually and is not obviously evident in

measurement results, making it difficult to calculate if this is significant. One solution is to

specify grade 5 balls as standard: they cost a little more, but this is a minor cost when compared

with the potential of scrapping a good part, or worse, passing a non-conforming one. Perversely,

the more accurate the CMM, the more significant the effect of ball grade is. On the highest

specification CMMs, as much as 10% of accuracy can be lost in this way.

Lets look at an example

A typical probing error according to ISO 10360-2 (MPEP), established using a stylus with a grade

5 ball:

MPEP = 1.70 m

This figure is determined by measuring 25 discrete points that are each evaluated as 25 separate

radii. The range of radii variation is the MPEP value. Stylus ball roundness contributes to this

directly, and so swapping from a grade 5 to a grade 10 ball increases this value by 0.12 m and

degrades the probing error by 7% in this instance:

MPEP = 1.82 m

Note that stylus ball roundness also impacts on MPETHP, which uses four scanning paths across a

sphere to evaluate scanning probe performance.

Notes:

For the most demanding applications a range of styli employing grade 3 balls, which feature a

sphericity of just 0.08 m are available.

Stylus bending

When using touch-trigger probes such as the TP20, it is common practice to swap between stylus

modules to take advantage of different styli, each optimised for a measurement task. The reason

one long stylus isnt used for all features is that there is an accuracy penalty that increases with

longer stylus lengths. It is good practice to keep stylus as short and as stiff as possible but why?

this particular error, it does magnify it with stylus length. The error originates from the variable

force required to trigger the probe in different directions. Most probes do not trigger the instant

contact is made between the stylus and the component; they require a force to be built up to

overcome the spring-loading within the sensor mechanism. This force elastically deforms the

stylus. This bending allows the probe to move a short distance relative to the part after physical

contact is made and prior to the trigger being generated. This movement is known as pre-travel.

The triangular kinematic arrangement of most probes results in differing forces being required to

generate a trigger. In the stiffer directions the probe will resist triggering until more stylus

bending has occurred. This also means the CMM will travel further, so the pre-travel will vary

with the approach angle (see diagram right). This pre-travel variation is further complicated

when compound approach angles are used (X, Y and Z-axes).

To minimise this effect all styli are calibrated on a reference sphere of known size before they are

used. In an ideal world this process would map the errors at every combination of stylus and

approach angle. In practice, a sample of angles is often taken to save time, some averaging takes

place, and a small proportion of the error can remain.

measurement uncertainty without carrying out empirical tests. The key fact to note is that any

residual pre-travel variation errors will be magnified by the flexibility of the stylus that is

selected. This emphasises the importance of materials choice in stylus design, weighing up the

flexural rigidity of the stem against other characteristics such as its weight and cost. Whilst steel

is suitable for many shorter styli, featuring a Youngs modulus E = 210 kN/mm2, the stiffest

material commonly used in is tungsten carbide (E = 620 kN/mm2), but this is also dense and is

therefore rarely used on long styli. In these instances, carbon fibre provides an excellent

combination of stiffness (E 450 kN/mm2) and light weight. Meanwhile, ceramic stems (E =

300 400 kN/mm2) are often used in applications where their light weight and thermal stability

are valued.

Stylus stiffness is also affected by joints in stylus assemblies. As a general rule of thumb, it is

best to avoid joints wherever possible as they can introduce hysteresis, although this may not be

possible when using a fixed sensor to measure complex parts. In these cases, a configuration

built up from a range of styli, extensions, connectors and knuckles may be needed. Once again, it

is important to consider the materials chosen for each element, as this will impact on the

stiffness, weight and robustness of the configuration.

Thermal stability

Fluctuations in temperature can cause serious measurement errors. Choosing the right material

for stylus extensions can provide greater stability under changing conditions, yielding more

consistent measurement results. Materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion are

preferable, especially where long styli are being used as thermal growth is length-dependent.

As stated previously, carbon fibre is the material most commonly used for long styli and

extensions as it is stiff, light and does not change its length as temperature varies. Where metals

are needed for joints, knuckles etc. titanium provides the best combination of strength,

stability and density. Renishaw provides probe and stylus extensions that feature both these

materials.

Ball material

For most applications, ruby balls are the default choice for stylus tips. However, there are some

circumstances where other materials provide a better alternative.

With touch-trigger measurements, the stylus tip only comes into contact with the surface for

short periods and there is no relative movement. Scanning is different as the ball slides over the

surface of the component, resulting in frictional wear. This prolonged contact can, in extreme

circumstances, cause removal or deposition of materials on the stylus ball that affect its

sphericity. These effects are magnified if one region of the ball is in constant contact with the

part. Extensive research into these effects, highlighting two different wear mechanisms:

Abrasive wear

Abrasive wear is caused when scanning a surface such as cast iron, where tiny particles of

residue cause minute scratches on the stylus and workpiece, resulting in a small flat on the

stylus tip. Tough zirconia stylus tips are the optimum choice for these applications.

Adhesive wear

Adhesive wear results when the stylus ball and the component material have an chemical affinity

for one another. This may be seen when scanning aluminium parts with a ruby (aluminium

oxide) ball. Material passes from the relatively soft component to the stylus, resulting in a

coating of aluminium on the stylus tip, once again affecting its roundness. In this instance,

silicon nitride is the best choice, as it is shows good wear resistance and is not attracted to

aluminium.

Material adhesion is permanent and cannot be removed through normal cleaning techniques.

Thus, as the surface material from the workpiece adheres to the ball and contacts with the

surface, like materials attract and build up can occur. Such build up will eventually degrade the

form of the stylus ball and compromise any measuring results. Factors affecting adhesive wear

include:

contact force

distance scanned

hardness of surfaces (if stylus is much harder than surface being measured)

Other considerations

further considerations when selecting a stylus include:

Stylus tip size to minimize the impact of surface roughness on measurement accuracy.

CHAPTER 2

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY FOR CMM

1. Uncertainty contributors for CMM measurements

To evaluate the measurement uncertainty of CMM measurements, a lot of uncertainty

contributors need to be taken into account. There are several ways to classify all uncertainty

contributors. One possible classification is given in fig.

Following five classes can be identified :

Hardware This category contains the errors related to the hardware components of the CMM

like probe errors, CMM geometric errors including scale errors.

Environment Environmental conditions will have an important influence on the measurement

uncertainty. Temperature is here of extreme importance. Not only temperature deviations (from

20 _C) but also temperature gradients, in time and space, will influence the measurement

uncertainty [15]. Other environmental influences like vibrations, non-constant air supply (in case

of air bearings) and lighting conditions (in case of optical probing systems [16, 17]) can also

influence the measurement uncertainty.

Workpiece The workpiece itself also has an important influence on the measurement

uncertainty. A common source of measurement uncertainty are form deviations, but also surface

imperfections like roughness and local defects (e.g. burrs and scratches) can be important.

Sometimes also deformations due to probing forces or clamping play a role.

Probing strategy The probing strategy determines the number of measurement points and their

location. Furthermore, the measuring sequence and settings like measurement velocity can be

important. The more complex the probing system that is used, the more parameters will influence

the measurement uncertainty.

Evaluation Strategy The evaluation strategy covers: the type of fitting criteria (least squares,

minimum zone, . . . ), the algorithm accuracy, the possible filters used, the alignment strategy, the

selected reference surfaces, the used compensations etc.

2. Task-specific measurement uncertainties

The multiplicity of uncertainty contributors and their strong interaction make that measurement

uncertainties will depend a lot on the specific measurement task. That is why uncertainties that

take all (or most of) the uncertainty contributors and their interactions into account, are often

called task-specific uncertainties.

Interaction of form deviations and sampling strategy: circular features

The best known example of form deviations interacting with sampling strategy is the

measurement of a 3-lobed circular form deviation with six equally distributed points. If the

measurement points are taken in the tops and valleys of the 3-lobed contour, the complete out-ofroundness of the circle can be identified from the measurement, however if the start point is

rotated with 30 _ none of the out-of-roundness of the circle will appear in the measurement.

Contrary to popular belief, this is not only of importance for the roundness and diameter

uncertainty but also for position uncertainty. This is illustrated in Figure (b) for a four points

measurement of a 3-lobed circle (i.e. circle with a 3-lobed form deviation).

Measurement point distribution in combination with feature form deviations can have an

important influence on the measurement uncertainty. Figure 1.10 represents a cut plate with a

large opening that is somewhat curved (exaggerated in the figure). Suppose this plate is

measured twice: once with only 6 points (Figure (a)) and once scanned (e.g. with a laser scanner)

resulting in a very large set of measurement points (Figure (b)).

When the orientation of the least squares planes is considered, there will be a large difference in

orientation for the two measuring methods (the difference in orientation is somewhat

exaggerated in Figure (b)). Since there are more points on the left side of the plane, the

orientation of the least squares plane will be determined mainly by the orientation of this part of

the plane. If the minimum

zone fitting criterion is used instead of least squares, the difference in orientation of the

associated planes will be much smaller. This illustrates how also the evaluation strategy can

influence the measurement uncertainty.

Interaction of temperature with sampling strategy and clamping

Although most accurate CMM measurements are done in a temperature controlled room,

temperature will still have an influence on the measurement uncertainty. Consider the workpiece

of Figure . The most narrow tolerance applies to the distance between the first and last step of the

shaft (450 mm). This should be kept in mind when measuring the part. Instead of measuring all

steps sequentially one should measure the first and last step immediately after each other. This

will reduce the influence of thermal effects (of machine and workpiece) significantly. For

measurements that take quite some time it can be important where the workpiece is clamped. The

error due to thermal expansion (or shrinkage) of the workpiece can be reduced by 50% just by

clamping the workpiece of Figure in the middle instead of at the side.

Measurements that are ill conditioned: measuring a circle segment

A well known example of ill conditioned measurements is the measurement of a circle segment

[18]. The measurement of a small circle segment will always result in very high measurement

uncertainties on both diameter and position. A small measurement error will have a large

influence on the measurement results. This is illustrated in Figure where both circles seem to fit

to the measured points quite well.

Figure (a) shows another example of an ill conditioned measurement. The coaxiality tolerance is

given with respect to datum A, which is a very short cylinder. This means that a small

measurement error can result in a large error on orientation of the datum axis. It is very likely

that the measured coaxiality value is dominated by the measurement error on the datum axis.

This kind of measurements will result in high measurement uncertainties.

Figure (b) shows the same part but now the datum feature and the tolerance feature are

interchanged. Since the datum feature is much larger in this case, the errors on the orientation of

the datum axis will be much smaller. As a consequence the measurement uncertainty on the

coaxiality value will also be much smaller. Some people argue that Figure 1.13(a) is rather an

example of a badly designed part than it is an example of a part that will result in high

measurement uncertainties.

It is true that the represented part also suffers from an ill conditioned design, but this does not

necessarily mean that it is a bad design. It regularly occurs that these types of tolerances are

inevitable. The designs in Figure (a) and (b) are completely different, and should thus also fulfil

another function.

3.Influence of form deviations on measurement uncertainty

Feature form deviations (shortly form deviations) are deviations from the perfect form of the

feature. A circle will never be perfectly round, a line never perfectly straight and a plane never

perfectly flat, whatever manufacturing process is used. The type of form deviation is usually

related to the manufacturing process that is used, therefore it is also called the manufacturing

signature. Chapter 3 discusses typical form deviations for several types of features. That chapter

also illustrates that

form deviations are often the most important source of measurement uncertainty. People who

tried to determine task-specific measurement uncertainties for CMMs focussed until now almost

only on CMM hardware uncertainties (see Chapter 2). To obtain reliable uncertainty statements,

all uncertainty contributors should be incorporated, including feature form deviations.

CHAPTER 3

ANOVA (ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE)

In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their

associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into

components attributable to different sources of variation. In its simplest form, ANOVA provides

a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are all equal, and therefore

generalizes t-test to more than two groups. Doing multiple two-sample t-tests would result in an

increased chance of committing a type I error. For this reason, ANOVAs are useful in comparing

two, three, or more means.

An ANOVA analysis technique was used to evaluate the hypotheses presented. ANOVA was

selected due to its ability to make multiple comparisons without accumulating the effects of

alpha (). In the case of this study, the ANOVA allowed for a simultaneous comparison of each

of the variables, including all interactions. Specific attention was paid to the various interactions,

because they would indicate which combinations of variables either encouraged or discouraged

use.

The tests in an ANOVA are based on the F-ratio: the variation due to an experimental treatment

or effect divided by the variation due to experimental error. The null hypothesis is this ratio

equals 1.0, or the treatment effect is the same as the experimental error. This hypothesis is

rejected if the F-ratio is significantly large enough that the possibility of it equaling 1.0 is smaller

than some pre-assigned criteria such as 0.05 (one in twenty).

CLASSES OF MODELS

There are three classes of models used in the analysis of variance, and these are outlined here.

Fixed-effects models (Model 1)

The fixed-effects model of analysis of variance applies to situations in which the experimenter

applies one or more treatments to the subjects of the experiment to see if the variable values

change. This allows the experimenter to estimate the ranges of response variable values that the

treatment would generate in the population as a whole.

Random-effects models (Model 2)

Random effects models are used when the treatments are not fixed. This occurs when the various

factor levels are sampled from a larger population. Because the levels themselves are random

variables, some assumptions and the method of contrasting the treatments (a multi-variable

generalization of simple differences) differ from the fixed-effects model.

Mixed-effects models (Model 3)

A mixed-effects model contains experimental factors of both fixed and random-effects types,

with appropriately different interpretations and analysis for the two types.

Example: Teaching experiments could be performed by a university department to find a good

introductory textbook, with each text considered a treatment. The fixed-effects model would

compare a list of candidate texts. The random-effects model would determine whether important

differences exist among a list of randomly selected texts. The mixed-effects model would

compare the (fixed) incumbent texts to randomly selected alternatives.

Defining fixed and random effects has proven elusive, with competing definitions arguably

leading toward a linguistic quagmire.

variances, dividing two variances and comparing the ratio to a handbook value to determine

statistical significance. Calculating a treatment effect is then trivial, "the effect of any treatment

is estimated by taking the difference between the mean of the observations which receive the

treatment and the general mean.

ANOVA uses traditional standardized terminology. The definitional equation of sample variance

is

where the divisor is called the degrees of freedom (DF), the summation is called the sum of

squares (SS), the result is called the mean square (MS) and the squared terms are deviations from

the sample mean. ANOVA estimates 3 sample variances: a total variance based on all the

observation deviations from the grand mean, an error variance based on all the observation

deviations from their appropriate treatment means and a treatment variance. The treatment

variance is based on the deviations of treatment means from the grand mean, the result being

multiplied by the number of observations in each treatment to account for the difference between

the variance of observations and the variance of means. If the null hypothesis is true, all three

variance estimates are equal (within sampling error).

The fundamental technique is a partitioning of the total sum of squares SS into components

related to the effects used in the model. For example, the model for a simplified ANOVA with

one type of treatment at different levels.

The number of degrees of freedom DF can be partitioned in a similar way: one of these

components (that for error) specifies a chi-squared distribution which describes the associated

sum of squares, while the same is true for "treatments" if there is no treatment effect.

The F-test

The F-test is used for comparisons of the components of the total deviation. For example, in oneway, or single-factor ANOVA, statistical significance is tested for by comparing the F test

statistic

to the F-distribution with

,

natural candidate because the test statistic is the ratio of two scaled sums of squares each of

which follows a scaled chi-squared distribution.

The expected value of F is

which is 1 for no treatment effect. As values of F increase above 1 the evidence is increasingly

inconsistent with the null hypothesis. Two apparent experimental methods of increasing F are

increasing the sample size and reducing the error variance by tight experimental controls.

The textbook method of concluding the hypothesis test is to compare the observed value of F

with the critical value of F determined from tables. The critical value of F is a function of the

numerator degrees of freedom, the denominator degrees of freedom and the significance level

(). If F FCritical (Numerator DF, Denominator DF, ) then reject the null hypothesis.

The computer method calculates the probability (p-value) of a value of F greater than or equal to

the observed value. The null hypothesis is rejected if this probability is less than or equal to the

significance level (). The two methods produce the same result.

The ANOVA F-test is known to be nearly optimal in the sense of minimizing false negative

errors for a fixed rate of false positive errors (maximizing power for a fixed significance level).

To test the hypothesis that all treatments have exactly the same effect, the F-test's p-values

closely approximate the permutation test's p-values: The approximation is particularly close

when the design is balanced. Such permutation tests characterize tests with maximum

power against all alternative hypotheses, as observed by Rosenbaum. The ANOVA Ftest (of the

null-hypothesis that all treatments have exactly the same effect) is recommended as a practical

test, because of its robustness against many alternative distributions.

Balanced experiments (those with an equal sample size for each treatment) are relatively easy to

interpret; unbalanced experiments offer more complexity. For single factor (one way) ANOVA,

the adjustment for unbalanced data is easy, but the unbalanced analysis lacks both robustness and

power. For more complex designs the lack of balance leads to further complications. "The

orthogonality property of main effects and interactions present in balanced data does not carry

over to the unbalanced case. This means that the usual analysis of variance techniques do not

apply. Consequently, the analysis of unbalanced factorials is much more difficult than that for

balanced designs." In the general case, "The analysis of variance can also be applied to

unbalanced data, but then the sums of squares, mean squares, and F-ratios will depend on the

order in which the sources of variation are considered." The simplest techniques for handling

unbalanced data restore balance by either throwing out data or by synthesizing missing data.

More complex techniques use regression.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The experimental procedure for calculating CMM is as follows:

1.Here the software used in LK-DMIS Version-55 & Patch-8

2.Firstly,take a probe of diameter 1.5mm and now calibrate it.

3. Standard sphere of diameter 20mm is taken and achieved value is 19.995 mm.

4.Record the diameter of the sphere.

5. With that sphere check the diameter of the probe.

6. Due to program already present in the software the circle,plane and sphere can be measured

automatically.

7. Repeat the same above procedure forn different lengths such as 50 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm.

X-AXIS- 600

Y-AXIS-500

Z-AXIS-400

9.Reading achieved are as shown below

Probe Dia

Sample Length

Orientation

Reading

Error

1.5

50

50.02

0.02

1.5

60

60.0061

0.0061

1.5

70

70.0292

0.029

50

49.9877

0.0123

60

59.9771

0.0229

70

70.0032

0.0032

50

49.9961

0.0039

60

59.9961

0.0039

70

70.0021

0.0021

1.5

50

50.266

0.0266

1.5

60

60.007

0.007

1.5

70

70.002

0.002

50

49.9671

0.032

60

60.003

0.003

70

69.99

0.01

50

49.9913

0.08

60

60.004

0.004

70

69.997

0.002

10. Now calculate the error for the above readings by ANOVA method.

RESULTS

1.

Prob

e Dia

Sample

Length

Orienta

tion

1.5

50 Y

1.5

60 Y

1.5

70 Y

50 Y

3

3

60 Y

70 Y

50 Y

60 Y

70 Y

ANOVA

TABLE

Readi

ng

50.26

6

60.00

7

70.00

2

49.96

71

60.00

3

69.99

49.99

13

60.00

4

69.99

7

Error

0.026

6

0.007

0.002

0.032

0.003

0.01

0.08

0.004

0.002

SS Total

SS

Probe

SS S.L

SS Error

SS

5229.6

09

478.83

56

3450.0

36

1300.7

38

DO

F

8

2

2

4

MSS

653.701

1

239.417

8

1725.01

8

325.184

4

F

0.7362

52

5.3047

36

2.

Probe

Dia

1.5

1.5

1.5

3

3

3

6

6

6

Sample

Length

50

60

70

50

60

70

50

60

70

Orientati

on

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Readin

g

50.02

60.0061

70.0292

49.9877

59.9771

70.0032

49.9961

59.9961

70.0021

Error

0.02

0.0061

0.029

0.0123

0.0229

0.0032

0.0039

0.0039

0.0021

ANOVA TABLE

SS Total

SS Probe

SS

S.Lenght

SS Error

SS

811.028888

9

348.242222

2

1.82888888

9

460.957777

8

DO

F

8

2

2

4

MSS

101.37

86

174.12

11

0.9144

44

115.23

94

F

1.5109

51

0.0079

35

3.

Probe

Dia

1.5

Sample

Length

50

Orientat

ion

X

1.5

60

1.5

70

50

60

70

50

60

70

1.5

1.5

1.5

50

60

70

Y

Y

Y

3

3

3

50

60

70

Y

Y

Y

6

6

6

50

60

70

Y

Y

Y

Readi

ng

50.02

60.006

1

70.029

2

49.987

7

59.977

1

70.003

2

49.996

1

59.996

1

70.002

1

50.266

60.007

70.002

49.967

1

60.003

69.99

49.991

3

60.004

69.997

Error

0.02

0.006

1

0.029

0.012

3

0.022

9

0.003

2

0.003

9

0.003

9

0.002

1

0.026

6

0.007

0.002

0.032

0.003

0.01

0.08

0.004

0.002

ANOVA

TABLE

SS Total

SS

DO

F

6262.54

17

MSS

368.38

47

SS S.Lenght

SS

Orientation

13.1433

3

1797.92

3

2357.85

3

SS Error

2093.62

SS Probe

CONCLUSION

2

2

1

12

6.5716

67

898.96

17

2357.8

53

174.46

83

0.0376

67

5.1525

78

13.514

51

REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate-measuring_machine

http://maja.uni-mb.si/files/apem/APEM2-3_127-134.pdf

Literatures of coordinate measuring machine

http://www.mes.p.dendai.ac.jp/papersstock/2011j05.pdf

- Rapid PrototypingTransféré parletter_ashish4444
- Autobiography of Bill GatesTransféré parsanjeevkumar2599
- Sample Mechanical Engineer ResumeTransféré parKen Johnson
- Books marathi Itihas and otherTransféré parapi-3697244
- F and ANOVATransféré parJudd Maverick Rufin Tan
- One-Way Analysis of Variance in SPSSTransféré parMichail
- PrototypeTransféré parSyaa Malyqa
- Welding SeminarTransféré parNageswar Reddy
- Chhatrapati Shivaji - Setumadhavrao PagadiTransféré parDeepak Salunke
- The Aligned Rank Transform for Nonparametric Factorial Analyses Using Only A NOVA ProceduresTransféré parAsura Nephilim
- Under Water Welding TWI PR15283 FinalTransféré parmayav1
- Lecture 25 Rapid PrototypingTransféré pardsathiya
- Literature Survey for Rapid PrototypingTransféré parSantolash
- Rapid PrototypingTransféré parEdlis Lied
- Underwater WeldingTransféré parEr Raghvendra Singh
- Underwater Friction Stir Welding an OverviewTransféré parSabry S. Youssef
- Welding UnderwaterTransféré parAlice
- Underwater Welding Seminar ReportTransféré parRaghu Veer Ycd
- ANDERSON. 2001. a New Method for Non-parametric Multivariate Analysis of VarianceTransféré parIchtus Soluções Ambientais
- Chapter 7Transféré parsupermanedit
- How to Use Minitab 1 BasicsTransféré parserkan_apay
- Math 2Transféré parDa Je
- Minitab Survey Analysis With ANOVA and MoreTransféré parAdnan Mustafić
- EXP2013Fall_Exam3_studyguideTransféré paralinds16
- Chapter 5 (Anova)Transféré parSyakirin Spears
- Martin Hall Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Write UpTransféré parmartin_tim_hall7434
- A5 - One-Way ANOVA.pptTransféré parChristian Daniel
- QMTransféré parGs Abhilash
- 11. Appendix 5 - AnovaTransféré parMaynardMirano

- Creo ParametricTransféré parashishgoel102
- 12th ARC Report 2Transféré parsaritha
- 12th ARC Report 1Transféré parsaritha
- Citizen Centric AdminTransféré parChandra Kant
- Stylus Selection GuidelinesTransféré parsaritha
- Hptv Wp Eqic d2 20120306_wc1Transféré parsaritha
- PTE Answer Short QuestionsTransféré parsaritha
- Answer Short Questions Question BankTransféré parNaMo Praveen
- Cautionary Note on Multifactor ANOVA DesignsTransféré parsaritha339
- Read AloudTransféré parsaritha
- August GKTransféré parMaster
- ISMCTransféré parsaritha
- CounterBore Std.Transféré parsaritha
- air-driven-engine-mechanical-engineering-final-year-project-report-140317065312-phpapp01(1).pdfTransféré parpandu
- Unit 1Transféré parPaul Augustine
- Essential Responsibilities and Duties of Mechanical Design EngineerTransféré parsaritha

- Dicing With DeathTransféré parInga Eskitzi
- Brochure MIT PE SmartManufacturingTransféré parvisa707
- n We a 2011 Norms ReportTransféré parkrem56fjd
- Marshall-Olkin Extended Lindley Distribution and Its ApplicationTransféré parsss
- annotated bibliographyTransféré parapi-203166800
- QP Digital Image ProcessingTransféré parkalpanaa563
- Lower Extremity Bio Mechanics During Weightlifting.6Transféré parTommaso Finadri
- Chapter 4 Part 1Transféré parSyarifuddin Samsuddin
- Review Questions of Midterm Chapters 1-4Transféré parcsmen
- chapter3uncertainty1Transféré parapi-3738694
- Nerzic 2007 Wind:Waves:CurrentTransféré parbrian_dutra
- Research Design and MethodologyTransféré parChandana Mreddy
- 1 Basic ConceptsTransféré parIzzeah Ramos
- Ch 00 - IntroductionTransféré parhydro421
- Solutions06 (1)Transféré parMaisy Amelia
- PID.pdfTransféré parqipztelq
- Z and T Distribution TableTransféré parcelloistic
- Tutorial 4 Chap5 - SolutionTransféré paralkingking
- Logical ReasoningTransféré parvicky7
- Statistics Q&ATransféré parsureshkiran
- Comparing two tests for two rates.pdfTransféré parIsmael Neu
- Aircraft Cost EstimatingTransféré parJoy Ioana
- Face Recognition DemoTransféré parFerroz Miland
- Research MethodsTransféré parJeff D'erique Ozil Tetteh
- Neural Networks_vs_chaid Tree Ctp4 (2)Transféré parÁlvaro González Balaguer
- ENIQ Report 41Transféré parEPC
- ch13Transféré parDwiNovriadi
- Phosphorus Requirements of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus Aurata L.) JuvenilesTransféré parmuratout3447
- GK MATH 2.pdfTransféré parAmol Ramteke
- AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FAMILY BASED FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MACHAKOS SUB-COUNTY, KENYATransféré parAnonymous CwJeBCAXp

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.