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DESIGN AND FABRICATION

OF SHEET ROLLING
MACHINE
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by

K.FEROZE ALI

950612114030

S.ABDUL RHAMAN

950612114301

V.BALA SANKAR

950612114305

A.GURUVARAN

950612114306

In partial fulfilment of the award of the degree


Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TIRUNELVELI

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025


APRIL-2015

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF
SHEET METAL ROLLING MACHINE is the bonafide work of
K.FEROZE ALI (950612114030), S.ABDUL RHAMAN (950612114301),
V.BALA SANKAR (950612114305),A.GURUVARAN (950612114306) who
carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

SUPERVISOR

Mr. K. Arul Raj, M.E., (Ph.D.),

Mr. R. Karthikeyan, M.E.,

Professor,

Assistant Professor,

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Einstein College of Engineering,

Einstein College of Engineering,

Tirunelveli 627 012

Tirunelveli 627 012


Submitted Viva Voce Examination held at

EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, Tirunelveli,


On

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

DEDICATED TO OUR FOUNDER


It is honour to be the ninth batch of student of Einstein College of
Engineering K. Feroze Ali, S. Abdul Rhaman, V. BalaSankar, A. Guruvaran,of
Third year of Mechanical Engineering takes this opportunity as a privilege to
dedicate our project to ThiruAladiAruna M.A., B.L.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is our great privilege to express hearty thanks to our Managing
Trustee Prof. A. Ezhilvanan MBA or kind encouragement throughout this
project.
My sincere thanks to our Principal Prof.Dr. K. Ramar Ph.D., F.I.E.,
for kind encouragement in carrying out this project.
We sincerely and whole heartedly thank our Head of the Department,
Mechanical Mr. K. Arul Raj M.E., (Ph.D.), for his effective support for our
project.
We gratefully thank our co-ordinator Mr.M.BALA RAMA
MOORTHY, M.E., who guided us to make a special contribution to the
project.
We gratefully thank our guide Mr.R. Karthikeyan,M.E., who gave us
the opportunity to make a useful contribution to our project and to set a worthy
present for the students community.
We sincerely thank all the faculty members of our department and our
lab in-charges for their immense help during the course of the project.
We also thank God and our Parents for their immense help an support
to make this project.

INSTITUTIOIN PROFILE
An adobe of excellence, a pinnacle of glory, a name that deserves
mention whenever there initiates a discussion about the world of Engineering;
Einstein College of Engineering. The institution was found by Late
Mr.AladiAruna, former Tamil Nadu Law Minister in 2004, with the sole
purpose of providing cutting edge technical education that is both accessible
and affordable. From the year 2004, The College embarked on programs of the
college offers 5 B.E. degree courses. The College also offers 6 M.E. courses in
Engineering and Master of Business Management. About 15 km away from
Tirunelveli towards the well-known Courtralam, the college is situated in Sir.
C.V. Raman Nagar. The Institution is spread over an area of about 30 acres. The
College maintains a royal existence with its marvelou infrastructure and widely
acclaimed for its meticulous planning, resource scheduling and institutional
management.
Our founder son of the soil Thiru. AladiAruna M.A., B.L., a prolific
reader and great orator, was one of the senior most politician of Tamil Nadu
with a great vision for providing high quality technical education to the rural
and the weaker section. He was a Member of Parliament and MLA for more
than a decade and was also the Minister of Law, Govt. of Tamil Nadu 19962001.

ABSTRACT

This project work titled SHEET ROLLING MACHINE has been


conceived having studied the difficulties in making bending in sheet metal. This
project facilitates in making bending accurate in sheet metal with easy. The
project employee by using the roller for bending purpose by manual.
This machine can be used in various fields. Our project the sheet metal
rolling is very simple in operation by using roller which is coupled with handle.
In Sheet Metal working industry a wide range of power and hand operated
machines are used. This machine is simple in construction and working.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE
To implement the skills acquired in previous semester to practical
problems

as prescribed in ME-68 DESING AND FABRICATION

PROJECT,MECHANICAL
curriculum

to

fulfil

the

ENGINEERING
above,

we

are

ANNA
focused

UNIVERSITY
in

the

area

of

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY subject which we have studied in


previous semester by getting basic ideas from it. We have designed and
fabricated SHEET METAL ROLLING MACHINE and calculated the
experimental results theoretically

LIST OF FIGURE
PAGE NO
1.1 Stress in bending

12

3.1: Process of rolling

14

4.1 Stress induced in sheet metal

15

5.1 Steps in rolling

16

6.1 Sheet rolling machine

17

8.1Shape rolling mechanism

19

8.2 Stress and Strain Curve for Steel20


8.3 Plastic Theory of Bending

21

8.4 Geometrical analysis

22

LIST OF CONTENT
Page No

1. Introduction

11

2. Bending

12

2.1 Roll bending

13

3. Process of rolling

13

4. Stress induced in sheet metal

15

5. Steps in rolling

16

6. Description of the machine

17

7. Working principle

18

8. Design

19

8.1 General design principles19


8.2 Stress and strain in steel

20

8.3 Plastic theory of bending

21

8.4 Design calculation

22

9. Synopsis

28

10. Application

29

11. Advantages

30

12. Disadvantage

31

13. Estimation of cost analysis

32

10

1. INTRODUCTION
Sheet Metal industry is a large and growing industry. There are many special
purposes machines used in this industry to-day. The proper selection of the
machines depends upon the type of the work under-taken by the particular
industry. There are many examples of Sheet Metal work, which can be seen in
our everyday lives. The metals generally used for Sheet Metal work include
black iron sheet, copper sheet, tin plate, aluminium plate, stainless sheet and
brass sheet.

Our project the SHET METAL ROLLING MACHINE finds huge


application in Sheet Metal industry. Rolling is the process of bending sheets to
a curved form. The article in the shape of cylinders is made by rolling roller.
Rolling operation can be done on hand or power operated rolling machines. In
forming cylindrical shapes a gradual curve is to be put in the metal rather than
sharp bends. The gap between the rollers can be regulated by hand operated
screws
Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip. Various forming
process in sheet metal include

Punching
Roll forming
Rolling
Spinning
Stamping
Bending
Deep drawing
Expanding
Curling
Press brake forming

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Decambering
Ironing
Laser cutting
Incremental sheet forming etc.

2. BENDING
Bending is one of the most common forming operations. We merely have to
look at the components in an automobile or at a paperclip to see how many parts
shaped by bending. Bending is usually defined as the deforming of the sheet
metal along the straight line around a straight axis called neutral axis, result in
the plane surface at an angle to the original plane. During bending the top layers
are subject to tension and the bottom layer are subjected to compression. The
width of the part in the outer region is smaller and in the inner region it is larger
than the original width because of the poisson ratio as shown in fig 1.1

1.1 Stress in bending


Tyes of bending operation are classified into

U-Die bending
V-Die bending
Roll bending
Bending in the four slide machine
Curling
Dimpling
Flanging
U-Die bending with spring pad

2.1 Roll bending


A continuous form from of three-point bending is roll bending, where plates,
sheet and rolled on each end, one of the support can often be swung clear to
permit the removal of closed shapes from the rollsshapes can be bent to a

12

desired curvature on forming rolls. These machines usually have three roll in the
of a pyramid, with the two lower rolls being driven and the position of the upper
roll being adjustable by a frame

3.PROCESS OF ROLLING
In the first stage the plate is kept between top roller and bottom rollers as shown
in Figure2.1 and the top roller is given vertical displacement to get the required
bend. In next stage the bottom rollers are driven using motors in forward
direction to get the roll bending of the plate. Similarly the rollers are driven
inverse direction to get better dimensional accuracy of the final product. The
bent plate is than unloaded by raising the top roller. For continuous single-pass
four roll thin plate bending a model was proposed considering the equilibrium
of the internal and external bending moment at and about the plate-top roller
contact.
They had considered varying radius of curvature for the plate between the
rollers and proposed mathematical model to simulate the mechanics in a steady
continuous bending mode for four-roll thin plate bending process and also
investigated In sequence of material strain hardening on the mechanics of
steady continuous roll and edge-bending mode in the four-roll plate bending
process For continuous multi-pass bending of cylinder on 3-roller bending
machines (cylindrical) rollers, They incorporated the effect of change of young
modulus during the deformation in the formulation to study the effect on spring
back prediction. For plane strain of sheet metal subjected to strain rate effects
during cyclic bending under tension.

Figure 3.1: Process of rolling

13

The roll bending process is used to be observed from the literature reviewed that
conical bending process is untouched area as far as force prediction is
concerned. Even in the industries the normal practice of plate roller bending still
heavily depends upon the experience and the skill of the operator. Working to
templates, or by trial and error.

4. STRESSES INDUCED IN SHEET METAL


The working by bending of work-pieces creates inner of this in deformed zone
stresses in tangential and radial directions. The metal strata placed to curving
centre are pressed in tangential directions, becoming shorter and in especially
cases are stretchingin transversal direction. The metal strata placed to external

14

piece are stretching in tangential direction and in especially cases are pressed in
transversal direction, making the piece narrowing. Between the stretching and
pressing strata is founded the neutral status. The neutral status with the radius is
founding displaced to the curving centre before the weight centre,

4.1 Stress induced in sheet metal

5.STEPS IN ROLLING

15

5.1 Steps in rolling

6. DESCRIPTION OF THE MACHINE


16

The Sheet Metal Rolling Machine works according to the principle of


three point bending. The rotation of the driven rolls being utilized to feed the
metal through the rolls by means of the frictional forces present between the
surface of the rolls and sheet. No lubricant is used at its presence interference
with the ability to grip. Sheet Metal Rolling Machine essentially consists of
three rollers, used to manufacture circular components like cylinders. Sheet
Metal Rolling Machine is classified into two types based on the arrangement of
the rollers. They are as follows.
1. Pinch type machine
2. Pyramidal type machine
This machine is of pinch type here only the top roll serves as a driven, bottom
roller are idler and rotates on friction with the work metal blank.

6.1 Sheet rolling machine

17

7. WORKING PRINCIPLE
The Sheet Metal, which is to be formed in cylindrical shape, is present at
the edge by hammering. To start the operation easily and to avoid flats at the
beginning and at the ends of the rolled form. In rolling cylindrical shapes a
gradual curve is to be put in the metal rather than sharp bends. Now the sheet
metal is introduced between the top and the bottom rolls, the gap between the
top and bottom rolls are adjusted as per the required diameter by regulating the
screw rods.
The rollers were arranged in triangular form; two sets of rollers below and
one above. The upper roller providethe bendingforcewhilethebackbaseroller
provides the required driving force and the front end
Roller bends the metal according to set radius of bend. Aperture adjuster on
each block assembly ensure loading of workpiece and adjustment to required
radius of bent.

Thefreeendofthetopbearingblockis springloadedtoincrease or

toreducetop-baseroller clearance. Twootherboresoneach bearing blocks provide


an adjustment for the roller gap variability. Top roller
Provides the bearing load (bending force)and also compliments the driving
roller when working on thick materials. Thelowerbackroller provides the
necessary driving forces while the idler roller does the bending and material
delivery. There are two crank levers, one on the toprollerand anotheronthefrontend roller. The lever (handle) couplinghead hasasquare configuration
whichfitsinto thesquareendoftherollershaft.
The frame structure made of(50505)mm angle iron for the purposes of
strength. The tool table is provided below the rollers for safe keeping of tools
and cranks. Therollerhead assembly is detachablefrom
theframeandcanbemountedonatable tobeused asatabletop machine fortinkering
works.

18

8.DESIGN
8.1General design principles
Following basic shearing operation on a sheetmetal, components
canberolled to give it a definite shape.
Bendingofpartsdependsuponmaterial propertiesatthe location ofthebend.
Toachievebending,thework materialmust be subjected to twomajorforces;
frictional forcewhich causesano-slip actionwhenmetalandroller cameincontact
anda bendingforceactingagainst the forward speed and the torque applied to
move the material. Fig8.1

8.1Shape rollingmechanism
Where,a=distancefromexitzonetotheno-slippoint(assumea=L/2);
F=forceappliedtorollers;T=torqueappliedtorollers;L=rollgap;
r=radiusofrollers;=frictionalforce;ho,hf=thicknessof thesheet before and
after timet.
Atleast two rollers were involved in flatrolling dependingonthe thicknessand
properties

ofmaterial

whilethreeormultiplerollersystem

isrequiredinshape

rolling. A work material under bending load is subjectedtosomeform

19

ofresidualstressanddeformation asit bends. Materials at the outerbend


radiusundergo tensile plastic deformation whilethematerial at theinner
bendradiusundergoescompressiveplasticdeformation.
8.2 Stress and Strain in steel:
Bending is a process by which a metal can be deformed by plastically
deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond
the yield strength but below the ultimate tensile strength. Roll forming, [also
known as roll bending], is a process for forming plates, sheets, bars, beams,
angles or pipes into various shapes by passing the work piece between the
properly spaced rolls. Sheet and plate are the mill products often formed by the
roll bending process. Because of the elastic plastic behaviour of the sheet
material, deformation imposed on the sheet when it is forced to conform to the
rolls, has both elastic. The plastic part of the deformation is permanent and it is
not recovered when the sheet is unloaded by removing it from the roll system.
The elastic part of the deformation is recovered up on removal of the load. This
phenomena is known as spring back or elastic recovery

20

8.2Stress and Strain Curve for Steel

8.3 Plastic Theory of Bending:

(a) Fully elastic state(b) partially plastic state

(c) fully plastic state

Fully Plastic Rectangular Section:


For the rectangular section of width b and depth d the plastic moment of the
resistance of plastic hinge can easily be found. The total loads above and below
the neutral axis NA are both equal to in magnitude but opposite in direction.
Further each of these loads acts at a distance d/4 from the neutral axis. Thus at
plastic hinge, the plastic moment of the rectangular section

21

8.4 Design Calculation:

8.4 Geometrical analysis


FORCE ANALYSIS:
The material selected for analysis is mild steel. The mild steel plate
Properties are
2
Youngs Modulus, E=207GN/ m

2
Elastic limit (yield stress) y =515MN/ m

Poissons ratio=0.34
Given data from the specification of the machine

22

The plate thickness t=1mm

Upper roller diameter, du=50mm

Lower roller diameter dl=50mm

Lower rolls centre distance 2f=120mm


Theplate rolling speed v =5.5m/s
Using a geometrical analysis based on the assumption that the deflected form of
the plate is an arc of a circle and this analysis is used to predict the upper roll
vertical force, the torque required for bending and other requirements

K= (R i+ r l)2 f 2

0.025 0.025 2 0.06 2


K=0.048m

23

f 2 t rl

K ru

Ri

2 ru rl t K

( 0.0480.025 )2 +0.06 20.0262


=
2 ( 0.025+ 0.0250.048 )

=0.0863m

To find the shift of contact angle() of bend plate with rolls:

sin =

f
(R i+ r l+ t)

=sin

0.06
(0.863+ 0.025+0.001)

48.7 o

To find the length:


48.7
0.025 sin
20.062

l=0.0824m
The deflection of the plate below its support point is calculated by taking the
ratio of length square to eight times internal radius

( 0.0824 )2
8 0.048

=0.017m

24

The plate will undergo elastic spring back after the maximum bending moment
has been applied. The relaxed radius, after spring back, of the plate may be
determined from the following equation.

M=

=594.67 106

N
m2

594.67 106 0.45 0.0012


M=
4

I=

b t3
12

0.4 0.0013
12

1
66.89
=
9
e 207 10 3.333 1011

Ri +

t
2

=66.89 Nm

=3.333

1011

=9.704m

=0.863+0.0005=0.8635m

1
1
1
=

=
r 0.08635 0.103
r =

b t 2
4

1.872m

0.534m

Upper roll vertical force applied on the plate (Pv)

25

1 0.017
66.89= Pv 4 + 2 tan 48.7

PV =

257.59N

The lower rolls force to drive the plate is

Pl=

257.59
2 cos 48.7

=195.14N

The side thrust force on the plate is

Ps

=195.14

48.7=
sin

146.60N

Power required for driving the machine:


P=

MpV
r

( )=(

66.89 0.0215
0.534

=2.69kw

The torque required to roll the plate is calculated:


T=

M p rl
r

( )=(

66.89 25
=
0.534

Shaft diameter:
For greater strength 45c8 (steel) is common for shafts

26

3131.55N-mm

Syt = 580
Sut = 770

N
2
mm
N
mm2

Using maximum shear stress theory of failure:


max

Mt

=
=

16
d 3

kb M b 2 K t M t

(60 10 6 ) P
2n

0.092 60
=
2 0.025

35rpm

For roller speed of 35rpm & with 2.69kw

( 60 106 ) 2.69

Mt

Kb

=1.5,

max

2 35

Kt

) =7.33

105

N-mm

=1

= 0.3syt = 0.3(580) = 174N/mm2

max = 0.18s = 0.18(720) = 138.6N/mm2


ut

27

Taking the min value of 138.6 N/mm2


d

16
( 138.6
) ( 1.5 1942300 ) +( 1 733931.65 )
2

d=47.97mm let d be 50mm (standard)

9.SYNOPSIS
In Sheet Metal working industry a wide range of power and hand operated
machines are used. As the sheet metal industry is a large and growing industry
different type of machines are used for different operations. Our project the
sheet metal rolling is very simple in operation by using roller which is coupled
with handle. This machine produces cylindrical objectives of different
diameters. This machine can be used in various fields. This machine consist of
three roller which is coupled with a handle and connecting the handle shaft with
worm shaft. This machine is simple in construction and working.

28

10.APPLICATIONS

Sheet Metal rolling machine is used to make,


Outer cylindrical casing for motors employed in submersible
pumps.
Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders
Bodies of shells and condensers
Dairy equipment
Compressors storage tanks etc
It is also used to make cylinders of different diameters

29

11.ADVANTAGES
Operation of this machine is very simple
Unit is compact so less space is required
No hand tools are required
Cylindrical shaped objects of dia 50mm to 225mm can be
produced
The dia can be easily operate this machine
The machine is hand operated. So the cost of the finished
product will be less.
The total cost of the machine is less.
Maintenance of this machine is very easy.
Easy to handle
Less effort & productive
Easy to install at any were
Skilled workers are not required
Convenient for mass production
Less in weight

30

12.DISADVANTAGES
This machine has a hand operated one
Production time is high.

31

13.ESTIMATION AND COST ANALYSIS:


SL.N
O
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

NAME OF MATERIALS

QUANTITY

Steel Hollow Shaft


Steel Square Pipe
Base
Nut and Bolt
Bearing
Welding Work
Cutting Work

3
2
1
6
6

TOTAL

32

AMOUNT
1500
500
500
100
400
500
500

4000/-

33

34

35

36