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Hencethecharacteristic

UNIT-I (2marks questions)


1 2
1. Find the characteristic equation of the matrix

equationis (5) (6) 0

5 6 0

Sol.

3. Find the sum and product of the eigenvalues of the


matrix 1 1 1

The characteristic equatin of A is A I 0


1 2
1 0
0
0
0 2
1
1
0

1 1 1 .
1 1 1
Sol.
sumof theeigenvalues sum ofthe diagonal elements
(1) (1) (1)

2
20

(1 )(2 ) 0 0
2

2 2 0

1 1 1 product of theeigenvalues

3 2 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

The required characteristic equation is 3 2 0 .

1
2. Obtain the characteristic equation of

Sol.
1
Let A=

4
11

2
4

5
2
The characteristic equation of A is c1 c2 0
c1 sumof the maindiagonal elements
1 4 5
c2 A

1(1 1) 1( 1 1) 1(11)
1(0) 1( 2) 1(2)

1 2
5 4
4 10
6

4. Two eigen values of the matrix

7 2
10 4

5 are 0 and 1,

find the third eigen value.


Sol.
Given 1 0, 2 1, 3 ?
sumof theeigenvalues sum of the main diagonal elements

123
0 1 3
3

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11 ( 2) (6)
3
2

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32
163 32

5. Verify the statement that the sum of the elements in the


diagonal of a matrix is the sum of the eigenvalues of the matrix
2
2 3

2 1
1 2

6
0

sol .sum of theeigenvalues sumof the maindiagonal elements

(2) (1) (0)


1

2
product of theeigenvalues 2

3 2
7. Two eigenvalues of the matrix
6
8
2
6 7 4 are 3and 0.what is the product of theeigenvalues of A?
2 4
3
sol . given1 3, 2 0, 3 ?
w.k .tThe sum of theeigenvalues sumof the main diagonal
elements 1 2 3 8 7 3

2 3
1 6

0
1 2
2(0 12) 2(0 6) 3(4 1)
24 12 9

3 0 3 18

3 15
productofeigenvalues 123 (3)(0)(15) 0

45

8. Find the sum and product of the eigen values of the matrix
2 0 1
6 2

6. The product of the eigenvalues of the matrix A

2
2

3 1
1 3

is
16, Find the third
eigenvalue. Sol.
let theeigenvalues of the matrix Abe 1, 2 , 3.

0 2 0
1 0 2
sol .sumof theeigenvalues sum of the main diagonal elements

222

6
1

0 2
1 0

0
2

Given12 16

product of theeigenvalues A
2 0

we knowthat 12 3 A
6 2 2
2
3 1
2
1 3
6(9 1) 2( 6 2) 2(2 6)
6(8) 2(4) 2(4)

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2(4 0) 0(0) 1(0 2)


8 2
6

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1 2
9.Find the characteristic equation of the matrix

11.Find the eigenvalues of A given

and get its

0 2
A

eigenvalues.
Sol.
Given is a upper triangular matrix.
Hence the eigenvalues are 1,2

2 3
0 2 7
0 0 3

sol.
1 2 3

W.k.t the chacteristic equation of the given matrix is

A 0 2 7
0 0 3
clearly given Ais aupper triangular matrix

(sumof theeigenvalues ) ( product of

Hencetheeigenvalues are1,2,3 theeigenvalues

theeigenvalues) 0 (1 2) (1)(2) 0

of the given matrix Aare1,2,3

3 2 0

By the property theeigenvalues of the matrix A are1 ,2 , 3 .

10.Prove that if is an eigenvalues of a matrix A, then


eigenvalue of A1

is the

12.If

and

are cthe eigen values of


3

matrix whose eigenvalues are and

proof ;
If X betheeigenvector corresponding to
then AX X
premultiplying bothsides by A 1, weget
A 1 AX A 1 X

1 7
0 2
0

5
9

3 1

form the

Sol. (1 )[(2 )(5 ) 0] 7[0 0] 5[0 0] 0

(1 )(2 )(5 ) 0
1, 2, 5

IX A 1 X
XA X
1

sumof theeigenvalues

1 X A 1 X

i.e, A 1 X 1 X

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1 2 5
30

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1
13.Sum of square of the eigenvalues of

0 2
0 0

15.show that the matrix

Sol.
LetA

(1 )[(2 )(5 ) 0] 7[0 0] 5[0 0] 0

1, 2, 5

4
14 .two eigenvalues of A=

1 2 5
30
6

S2 A 1 2 1 4 5

Thecharacteristicis 2 5 0
2

Toprove A 2A 5I 0

A A.A

1 3
2 are equal and they are
1
5 2

double the
third.Find the eigenvalues of
A. Sol.
Letthethirdeigenvaluebe

Theremainingtwoeigenvaluesare2 ,2

sumftheeigenvalues sumofthemaindiagonalelements

A 2A 5I

2 2 (4) (3) (2)


5 5

2 1 2
2 1 2 1
3
4
4 3
3 4
4 3
0 0
0 0

1
theeigenvaluesofAare2,2,1
2

S1 sumof main iagonal elements


1 1 2

(1 )(2 )(5 ) 0

2 1
The cha.equation of the given matrix is
A I 0
2
SS 0

sumof theeigenvalues

satisfies its own characteristic

equation.

The characteristic equatin of A is A I 0


5
9

9 is..

Sol.

1 7
0 2

HencetheeigenvaluesofA are 2 ,2 ,1

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1 2
2 1

1 0
0 1

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16.If A=

express A in terms of A and I using Cayley

4 5
Hamilton theorem.
Sol.The cha.equation of the given matrix is A I 0
1 0
1 0
0
0
4 5
1

17.Write the matrix of the quadratic form


2
2
2x 8z 4xy 10xz 2 yz .
Sol.
1
1
2
coeff of x
2 coeff of xy
1

0 0
1
4
5

coeff of xz

(1 )(5 ) 0

0 (1 )(5 ) 0

coeff of yz coeff of z2

5
1

f x1 , x2 , x3 x1 2x2
sol .The matrix of Q.F is
Q=
1
2
coeff of x
2 coeff of xy
2

A 6A 5I 0, A 6A 5I multiply
Aon both sides
2

A 6A 5A 0

2 coeff of yz

18.Determine the nature of the following quadratic form

By Cayley Hamilton theorem,

Q= 2 0
5 1

2 6 5 0

coeff of y

Q= 2 coeff of xy

2 coeff of xz

A 6A 5A
6(6A 5I ) 5A
36A 30I 5A
31A 30I

coeff of xy

coeff of xz

coeff of y

1
2 coeff of xz

coeff of

yz

2
2

coeff of yz

coeff of z

1 0

=0 2
0 0

There for the eigenvalues are 0,1,2. so find the eigenvalues one
eigenvalue is Zero another two eigenvalues are positive
.so given Q.F is positive semi definite.

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19. State Cayley Hamilton theorem.


Every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation.
2

20. Prove that the Q.F x 2 y 3z 2xy 2 yz 2zx .


Sol.The matrix of the Q.F form,
coeff of x

2 coeff of xy

coeff of y

Q= 2 coeff of xy

coeff of xz

2 coeff of xz

coeff of yz

1
2 coeff of yz

coeff of z

1 1

D1 a1 1 1(ve)
b1 1 1
a1
D2

a
2

a1 D3
a2
a3

(2 1)
1(ve) b2 1 2
b1

c1

b2 c2 1(6 1) 1(3 1) 1(1 2)


2(ve) b3 c3

The Q.F is indefinite.

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Solution:

UNIT II - SEQUENCES AND SERIES


Part A
1. Given an example for (i) convergent series

(i)

The converges or diverges of an infinite


series is not affected when each of its terms
is multiplied by a finite quantity

(ii)

If a series in which all the terms are positive


is convergent, the series will remain
convergent even when some or all of its
terms are made negative

(ii) divergent series (iii) oscillatory series


Solution:
(i)

The series
+

is convergent

(ii)

1+2+3+.+n+ is divergent

(iii)

1-1+1-1+ is oscillatory

5. Define alternating series


Solution:
A series whose terms are alternatively positive and
negative is called alternating series

2. State Leibnitzs test for the convergence of an


alternating series
Solution:

Eg:

The series a1-a2+a3-a4+. In which the terms are


alternately +ve and ve and all ais are positive, is
convergent if
(i)

and

is an alternating series

6. Prove that the series

is convergent

Solution:

(ii)

The nth term of the series is an=

3. State the comparison test for convergence of


Then an+1 =

series Solution:
Let an and bn be any two series and let
finite quantity 0, then the two series converges
or diverges together

now

=
=

=
=0(

Hence by DAlemberts test, an is convergent

4. State any two properties of an infinite series

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7. When is an infinite series is said to be (i)

The nth term of the series be an=

convergent (ii) divergent (iii) oscillatory?


Then

Solution:
Let an be an infinite series and let Sn be the
sum of the first n terms of an infinite series then
(i)

an is decreasing and

(iii)

If
not tend to a definite limit or , then
the series is oscillatory.

8. State true or false


2

(i)

If an is convergent, an is also convergent.

(ii)

If the n term of a series does not tend to zero


as n, the series is divergent.

(iii)

The convergence or divergence of an infinite seies


is not affected by the removal of a finite number of
terms from the beginning

th

absolutely

convergent

series

is

10. For what values of p, the series


(i) convergent (ii) divergent

=0

++

+ will be

Solution:
The p-series is convergent if p 1 and divergent if

UNIT-III
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
2

1) Find the curvature of x y 4 x 6 y 1 0

Solution:

fx

convergent Solution:

f y 2
2
2
f xx f y 2 f xy f x f y f yy fx
2
2
f = x y 4x 6 y 1

All are true.


9. Prove that the series
convergent

By Leibnitz test, the given series is convergent. Also the


series formed by the absolute value of its terms is
divergent. Hence the series is conditionally convergent.

the series is said to

If If
be divergent

An

=1/n+1

Since , n+1 n ,

If
is finite the series is said to
be convergent

(ii)

(iv)

=1/n and

is conditionally

Solution:

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f x 2x 4

fy2y6

f xx 2

f yy 2

xy

ye
x
ye
1

3
2

2 y 6

2 2 y 6 0 2 2x 4
2

1 2
curvature

2 y 6

2x 4
2

2 y 6

2x 4

2 y 6

(2x 4)

(2 y 6)

3
2

2 y 6

3
2

2 2 y 6 2x 4
2

(2x 4)
2

1 y12

3/ 2

113/ 2

2 2

(2x 4

Given xy c at ( c , c)
2
y c
x

y c
2
x
1
2
2c
y2

Sol:
2

x3

2) What is the formula of radius of


curvature in Cartesian
form and parametric
form? Sol:
(1 y 2 )3/
1
Cartesian form:

y c 1
2
c
1
2
2c
2
y2

c
c3

1 y12 3/ 2 113/ 2 c.2


2/c

y2
c 2.

3/ 2

y2

2
2 3/
Parametric form: x ' y '
2

y 2 ]x0 e

2 y 6 (2x 4)

x0

4 Find the radius of curvature of the curve xy c at ( c , c)

1/ 2

y2

y2e

2x 4

e 1

y]

x ' y '' y ' x ''

3 Find the radius of curvature at x=0 on y e


Solution:
x
Given y e
3

Radius of curvature

1 y 2
1

What is the curvature of the curve x y 25 at the

point (4,3) on
it. Sol:
Since the given curve is a circle &
We know that radius of given circle is 5 units
radius of curvature of a circle is equal to the
radius of the given circle
5

1 1

curvature

y2

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5.

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Given y 4ax

6 Find radius of curvature of the curve x a


cos , y b sin at any point ' '
Sol:
x a cos
x ' a sin
x '' a cos

y bsin
y ' b cos
y '' b sin

x '2 y '2

3/ 2

a sin b cos
2

2 yy1 4a

sin b cos

3/ 2

2a

y1 at y 2a 2a 1
2a
diff 2 w.r .to x,
2
y
yy y y 0 yy

(Qsin cos 1)

3/ 2

r1 r
2
rr1 2r2
Given r e
r e
&

y2
r e

3/ 2

2 e
2.r

22

3/ 2
11
23/ 2 2a 2
1/ 2a 1/ 2a
3/ 2

3/ 2

e e 2 e

y 2 at y 2a 1/ 2a

2
e e 2

yy1 2a

3/ 2

ab
7 Find the radius of curvature at any point on the
curve r e .
Sol:
2

y2

diff 1 w.r .to x,

ab sin ab cos

x ' y '' x '' y '


2

1
1 y 2 3/
1
Formula

2 e

e e
2

2e

3/ 2

2 e

i.e. 2

5/ 2

5/ 2

.a 4a 2

9 Find the radius of curvature at (a,0) on y


2

Sol: Given y

a 3 x3
x

8 Find the radius of curvature at y=2a on the


2
curve y 4ax
Sol:
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a 3 x3
x

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y2a

d x
3

2 yy a 2x
2
x
1
3
y a x
2
2x y y
1

xy

at (a,0)

dx
dy

0 3x

2 y

dx

dy

2x 2xy 6x

3x y
dx
at (a,0)
0
dy

2y

2
3a

2a

3a

2a

10 Find the radius of curvature at x

dx 2xy

9a

dy
0

6a

dy

1 0 3/ 2

d 2x

dx

3/ 2

dy

dx

dx

3x 2 y2 2
3a 2 0 0 2a 0

3a2 02

dy

2xy ( y 3x ) dy

dy

d x

dy

x. 2y y . dy

dx

dy

at (a ,0) y1
Hence we find dx

3x

2 on the curve

y 4sin x sin 2x .
Sol:
y 4sin x sin 2x

dy
dx 4cos x 2cos 2x
d2y

y1

y2
4sin x
2
4sin 2x dx
at x / 2, y1 4(0) 2cos 2 at
x / 2, y2 4(1) 4sin 4

1 y1

23/ 2

1 4
4

5 5
4
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y2
3/ 2

3/ 2

1 (2)
4

53/ 2 5.51/ 2 5 5
4

Q is

ve

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11 Define the curvature of a plane curve and what is


the curvature of a straight line
Sol:

The curvature of a plane curve at K ds


The curvature of a straight line is zero.
12 Find the radius of curvature at any point (x,y) on the
x

curve y c logsec

13 Find the radius of the curve given by x 3 2cos ,

y 4 2sin
Sol:
x 3 2cos
y 4 2sin
dy
dx 2sin
2cos
d
d
dy 2cos

cot
dx 2sin
2
d y d dy d
d
1

cot

2
dx
d
2sin
d dx dx

cos ec

Sol:
1 y

c
1

y1 c.

2sin

y c logsec

tan

sec

x
x 1
x
tan
. sec c
c
c c
c

2
1

3/ 2

c
1

y2 sec
c

1
3
2 cos ec
2

3
cos ec

1
3
2 cos ec

c
2

3/ 2

1 cot

cos ec

1 y1

y2

3/ 2

tan
1

sec 2

c
sec

x
c
x

3/ 2

sec

c.

sec

x
c

3/ 2

c
c.sec

sec 2

14 Write the formula for centre of curvature


and equation of circle of curvature.
Sol:

Centre of curvature: x x

y1 1 y12
y2

(1 y )
&

x
c

Circle of curvature:

yy

y2

x x 2 y y 2 2

15 Find the centre of curvature of y x of the origin.


Sol:
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0 x 2am

The centre of curvature is given by


Xx

y1
y
2

1 ( y1 )2 , Y y

1 y1 2

2
2 1 (0)

1 0
Yy
2

2
at (0,0), X 0

1
2

at (0,0), Y 1
2
Centreof curvatureis

0,

xa

2a
2a
2
x
x
2a 2
4a
2a
2
2
2
x
x
x
y

2a 4a
4a
2
x 4ay is the required envelope
18 efine envelope of a family of
curves. Definition:
A curve which touches each member
of a family of curve is called the envelope of that
family curves.

at (0,0), y2 2

2.

at (0,0), y1 0
X x

2a

y mx am

Given y x ; y 2x ; y

1
2

16 Write properties of
evolutes. Sol:

19 efine Evolute and Involute.

(i) The normal at any point of a curve touches the


evolute at the corresponding Centre of curvature.
(ii)The length of an of the evolute is equal to the of
curvature at the points on the original curve
corresponding to the extremities of the arc

(iii)There is only one evolute, but an infinite


number of involutes.
17 Find the envelope of the family of straight
2
lines y mx am , m being the parameter.
Sol:
2
Given y mx am
Diff. partially w.r.to m, we get,

The locus of the centre of the given curve is


called the evolute of the curve.
The given curve is called the Involute of its evolute.
20 Find the envelope of the family of lines

x
t yt 2c ,

t being the
parameter. Sol:
Given family of lines can be written as,
2

yt 2ct x 0 --------- (1)


2

The envelope of At Bt C 0 is B 4AC


0 From (1) we get A = y, B= -2c, C =
Putting these values in (2) we get,

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(2c ) 4 yx

(1) (2) we get,


x
y

0 4c 4 yx
2

0 c xy 0

xy c
This is required envelope.

cos

x2
a

2 cos

sin

y mx m , where m is a parameter.

Sol:
a
(1)
m
2
ym m x a

y2
b

2 sin
2

Given y mx

sin

a b

2xy cos sin

b2

is the parameter.

Sol:
Given x cos y sin a sec 1
Dividing equation (1) by cos

y 4ax 0

sec

sin 1, being the parameter


Sol:
Given, x cos y sin 1
1

a
b
diff partially (1) w.r .to ' ' we get

1 0

x cos y sin a sec , where

cos

23 Find the envelope of the straight lines

m x ym a
0 This is a quadratic in m
2
So the envelope is B 4AC 0
Here A x , B y , c a

22 Find the Envelope of the family of lines

cos2 0 2xy cos sin

x y 1

y 4ax

x sin2 y
a 2 b2
2
2
x cos2 sin2 y sin2 cos2 1
2
y

21 Find the Envelope of the family of Straight


lines a

cos

we get,

a sec

x y tan a cos

a(1 tan ) a tan y tan (a x) 0


Which is a quadratic equation in

tan

Here A=a, B=-y, C = (a-x).


2

B 4AC 0,
2

y 4a ( a x) 0

sin y cos 0
a
b

x
a

(2)

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24 Find the envelope of y mx a m b , where m is a

b (

26 Find the envelope of the family given by x my m ,

y m x 2mxy a m b
2

m is
parameter. Sol:

m (x a ) 2mxy y b 0

The given equation can be


2
written as m y mx 1 0,
Which is quadratic equation in

Which is a quadratic equation in m.


2

Hence the envelope is B 4AC 0


2

Here A= ( x a ), B=-2xy, C = y b
2 2
2
2
2
2
4x y 4(x a )( y b ) 0
2

i.e, b x a y a b
2
2
y
x

1
a

x 4 y 0 x

4y

27 Find the envelope of y mx 1 m2 where m is a


parameter.
Sol:

Given y mx 1 m

25 Find the envelope of x cos y sin a, where is

a parameter.
Sol:
Given x cos y sin a (1)
Diff w.r.to
x sin y cos 0 (2)
Eliminate between (1) and (2)
2
1 2 2 , we have

2
2
2
2
(x cos y sin ) ( x sin y cos ) a 0
2
2
2
2
x cos y sin 2xy sin cos 2
2

, Here, A y , B x , c 1

Hencethe envelopeis B 4AC 0

x y (x a )( y b ) 0
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
x y x y b x a y a b 0
2

y mx ) a m b

cos ) a x y a

y mx

x (cos sin ) y (sin

parameter.
Sol:

y mx 1 m

Squaring onboth sides ( y mx ) 1


2

m y 2mxy m x 1 m
2

m (x 1) 2mxy y 1 0.
2

Here A x 1, B 2xy , C
2

y 1. B 4AC 0
2

(2xy ) 4(x 1)( y 1) 0


2

4x y 4(x 1)( y 1) 0

x sin y cos 2xy sin cos

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UNIT IV

As f is a homogeneous function of order n=2, it

FUNCTIONS AND SEVARAL VARIABLE


PART-A
1

1. If u cos

xy
x y

, P.T . x

u
u
y
x
y

1
cot u .
2

satisfies the Eulers theorem.


x f y f nf
x
y
x (tan u ) y (tan u) 2 tan u.
x
y

Proof:
Given f ( x , y ) cosu

xy
x y

x (sec u )

u
u
2
y (sec u )
x
y 2 tan u.
xu y u
x
y

As f is hom ogeneous function of deg ree n 1 ,


2
it is satisfiesthe Euler ' s equation.
f
f
x
y
x
y

2 sin u cos

nf

x
3. If u log

x y

, P.T . x

xy

sin 2u .

Solution:
3

x y
Given f ( x , y ) tan u
xy

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u
u
y
sin 2u.
x
y

, P.T. x

x y

x
y
2 sin u
1
x u y u cot u.
x
y
2
1

cos u

1 .
sec u
2

u.

cos u
2sin u cos u.

x (cos u ) y (cos u) cos u .


x
y
2
1
x ( sin u ) u y ( sin u ) u cos u.
x
y
2
x u y u 1 cos u .

2. If u tan

2 sin u

u
y

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Given u log

Solution:

xy

f
2

xy

xy

.1 x 2x

f x y
2 2
2
2
x y
Similarly, y
2

x y
xy
As f is hom ogeneous functionof deg ree n 2,
Let

f eu

it is satisfies the Euler ' s equation.


f
f
x
y
x
y
u

4. If f ( x , y ) log x y , show that

0.

Solution: Given f ( x , y ) log x

x
x

x
u
x
x
y

1
2
2
2 log x y

2 x y

show that

tan 1

u
x

u
u
y
0
x
y

Solution: Given u x y z
y z x

Hence the proof.

6. If u x y z show that x u y u z u 0 .
y z x
x
y
z

1 2x

Using Eulers theorem, x

x u y u 2.
x
y

Solution: Here u is a homogeneous function of degree n = 0.

nf

u
u
u
x ( e ) u y ( e ) u 2e .

y f

5. If u sin 1

(e )
(e )
x
y
2e u
x
y

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1 z
2
y x
x z

y

x
y

.........(1)

1
z

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u
x y

y
y z

y
u
z
u
z
z

y 1
x
z2
y z

x
z

..........(2)

R.H .S

..........(3)

Add eqn. (1),(2) & (3), we get

z
x
z

cos

z z

(cos )

sin cos

x y

y
2

sin

2
2

cos 2

z z sin cos
x y

y
2

r
r

z z x z y
r x r
y r
z cos z sin
x
y
z z x z y

x
y

x
y
Solution: Wkt,

( sin )

sin 2

where x r cos , y r sin .Show that


2

u
u
u
x y z 0.
x
y
z
7. If z f ( x , y )

1 z

y
2

cos

sin

Thus, R.H.S = L.H.S


If z f x , y , x e cos v , y e sin v show that
u

8.
z

xv y u e

2u

z
y .

Solution: Given z f x , y , x e cos v , y e sin v


u

z( r sin ) z (r cos )
x
y
1z
z sin z cos
r
x
y

z
u

z
x

x z
u y

y
u

z u
z
u
x e cos v y e sin v

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u x 1 x
y
xy
y

z
z
z
u
u
ye cos v
ye sin v
y

u
x
y
e

2u

z
z

v
x
z

x
z

v
y

z xe
x
e

2u

(1) (2)
z
z

3x 3y

sin v

2u

xv y u e

sin

z xe u cos v

dy

v cos v

du

.
dx

u
x

1 log (xy)

1
( y ) log ( xy)
xy

dx 1 log( xy) y

dy f
dx
f

u
x

dx 0

10. Find dy when x y 3axy


dx
Solution:
3
3
Let f ( x , y ) x y 3axy
f
f
2
2
3x 3ay ;
3y 3ax
x
y

Solution:
Given , u x log ( xy ) & x y 3 xy 1
du u u dy
....(1)
dx
x y dx

dy

xx y

3
3
9. If u x log( xy) where x y 3 xy 1 find

du
(1)

Hence proved.

dx

e2u z

3y 3x

x y
dy 3 x 3y

2
2
3 y 3x
y x
dx

dy

3x 3y 3y 3x

z
2 z
2u
e cos v
....(2)
x
y

dx

y
sin v cos v

Diff. w.r.to x,

sin v y e cos v

consider , x y 3xy 1

....(1)

y
v
z

x e
x z
v

z 2u 2 z
e sin v
x
y

sin v cos v

x
y

11. Find dy when y sin x x cos y


dx
Solution:
Given y sin x x cos y
y sin x x cos y 0

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2
3x 3ay x ay
2
2
3y 3ax
y ax

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Let f ( x , y) x cos y y sin x


cos y y cos x & f x sin y sin x
y

f
x

du

dy f x cos y y cos x
dx

with

dt

2e

u
x

u
y

13. Find

du

(1) (2) (3)


t

if u sin (x / y) , where x e , y t .
15.

dt
Solution:
du u
dt t

u r
r x
u
(1)
s
u
r

u s
s x
u
(1)
t

r u
y
s

u
z

2 e e e sin t e sin t cos t e cos t e sin t cos t


2e e e sin t cos t

t
t
2e
2e

y2

2e

u (1) u (1)
r
t

x y (sin t cos t) z (cos t sin t)

y
y
t t
e e

2t

Let r y z, s z x and t x y

x dt
y dt z dt
t
t
t
t
t
2x e 2 y (e sin t e cos t) 2z (e cos t e sin t)
t

e cos

Solution: Given u f y z, z x, x y

Solution: Given u x y z , x e , y e sin t, z e cos t


du
u dx u dy
u dz

14. If u = f( y z , z x , x y ) find x y z .

If u x y z and x e , y e sin t , z e cos t find du


dt
actual substitution.
2

dy cos y y cos x
dx x sin y sin x
12.

cos

dt

x sin y sin x

f y

cos

x
.....(1)

u t
t

y
.....(2)

u t

u r u
r z
s z
t z
.....(3)
u (1) u (1)
r
s

u
x

u
u

y
z

0
2

Find the minimum value of F = x +y subject to the


Constraint x=1.

. dx u . dy
dt

Solution: Given F = x +y

y dt

= square of the distance from the


origin The minimum of F is 1.
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16. Define Jacobian.

If u and v are functions of the two independent variables

x and y, then the determinant x


v
y

y
v
y

of u ,v with respect to x,y.

(x, y)
17. Find the Jacobian

(r, )

evaluate
is called the Jacobian

(u, v)
(r, )

Solution:

u, v
r,

x, y
It is denoted by u, v .
if x r cos , y r sin .

Solution: Given x r cos

x
cos
r
y
r sin
r
x, y
r,

18. If u 2xy , v x y and x r cos , y r sin ,

r sin
sin

r
y r cos

x,

x, y

r,

x
v
x

y
v
y

r
y
r

vx y
v
2x
x
v
2 y
y

y r sin

Given x r cos

cos r sin
sin r cos
y

r cos r sin
r cos sin
2

x, y
r,

u, v

Given u 2xy
u
2y
x
u
2x
y

r
y
r

x
cos
r
y
r sin
r

u, v
r,

y
sin
r
y
r cos

cos
sin

2 y 2x
2x 2 y
4 y 4x

r cos
r cos

r cos2 r sin2
2
2
2
2
4 x y r cos sin
2

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4 r

u , v
r,
y
19. If u

x u
v

4r

(u , v)
x
, v then find
.
2

(x , y)

Solution:
u

Given

u
x
u

u , v
x , y

x
2

x2
2y

x
v

y
u
x
v
x

x , y
u , v

u
y
v
y

u , v

'

u &J x,y

To prove: J .J = 1
'
J J

1
u

x,y

u , v

u,v

x,y

1
u

'

J J 1

2y

2x

21. If x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos .Find J.


Solution:
Given x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos

20. If x u (1 v ), y uv compute J & J , and prove J . J 1.

Solution: Given x u 1 v and y uv


x
u 1 v

u,v

y2

x2
2
y
2

v
y
v

x,y

u
y
u

u uv uv

2x

2
2
x
y
1 4 3

u , v
x , y

u (1 v ) (uv)
u

2y
x

y2
2
x
2x
y
y

1 v
vu

x
y

y u
v

y
u v

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x,y,z
r , ,

x
r

r
y
r

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f x , y f a , b 1 f x a , b x a f y a , b y b
1

r sin
0
cos
2
2
2
2
cos (r cos sin cos r cos sin sin )

1 f xx a , b x a 2 f xy a , b y b x a
2
2
f yy a , b y b
1 x 1 y 1
2

sin cos r cos cos r sin sin


sin sin r cos sin r sin cos

xy

r sin (r sin cos r sin sin )


r sin cos sin cos r sin (sin cos )
2

xy

in Taylors series at (1, 1) up to

x,y e

xy

fyx,y e

xy

f xx x , y e

xy

f xy x , y e
f yy x , y

xy

xy

and the po int a 1,b 1


f 1,1 e
f

e xy x 2

The Taylors series is

f xx 1,1 e

(1) y e

1,1 e

f y 1,1 e

xy

(x )

f xy 1,1 e e 2e
f yy 1,1 e

Solution:

1
1
e 2
1, e sin
4 4

1
e1 sin
e
f
x 1,
4 4
f

f x x , y e sin y
x

f x , y e x sin y

Given f x , y e
xy
f x,y e

4 x 1 y 1 y 1

up to the first degree terms.

second degree.
Solution:

point 1,

22. Expand f ( x , y ) e

x 1

23. Find the Taylors series expansion of e sin y near the

J r sin

r sin sin cos


2

...

f y x , y e cos y
x

1,

e1 cos
4

2e
1
2

The required expansion is


f x , y f a , b 1 f x a , b x a f y a , b y b
1

f x , y f 1,

x 1 fx

1,

4
1

e sin y
x

1 x 1 y

e 2

fy

1,

24. Write condition for finding maxima and minima. Necessary Conditions:
The necessary conditions for f(x, y) to have a maximum

or minimum at (a, b) are that x 0 and y 0 at (a,b)

Sufficient Conditions:
Let r fxx a,b ; s fxy a,b and t f yy a,b
2

(i ) If rt s 0 and r 0 at (a, b) , then f is maximum and

f (a, b) is maximum value


2

(ii) If rt s 0 and r 0 at (a,b) , then f is minimum and f(a, b) is minimum value.


2

(iii) If rt s 0 , then f is neither maximum nor minimum


at (a, b).
2

(iv) If rt s = 0 , in this case further investigation are


required.
25. Find the stationary points of
3

f (x, y) x y 3x 12 y 20 .

Solution: Given f (x, y) x y 3x 12 y 20


2

fx 3x 3 fy 3y 12 For stationary points fx 0, f y 0


2

3x 3 0 x 1 x 1 3y 12 0 y 1 y 2
The stationary points are (1,2), (1,-2),(-1,2) & (-1,-2).
2

26. Find the stationary points of z x xy y 2x y .


2

Solution: Given z x xy y 2x y
zx 2x y 2 , zy x 2 y 1 For stationary points fx 0, f y 0

2x y 2 and x 2 y 1 Solving x =1, y =0


The stationary point is (1,0)
2

27. Find the maximum and minimum values of x xy y 2x y


2

Solution: Given f (x, y) x xy y 2x y


fx 2x y 2

f y x 2 y 1

fxx 2

f yy 2

fxy 1
2

At maximum and minimum point: fx = fy = 0 (1,0) may be maximum point or minimum point. At (1,0): fxx . fyy ( fxy) = 4-1 =
3 > 0 & fxx =2 > 0

(1,0) is a minimum point


Minimum value = f(1,0) = -1
in
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u
xx

xy

u
28. A flat circular plate is heated so that the temperature at
2

any point (x,y) is u(x,y) = x +2y -x. Find the coldest

For stationary points u x 0

2x 1 0

point on the plate.


2

Solution: Given u x 2 y x
ux 2x1

uyy 4

uy 4y

u y 0 4 y 0
The point is

1
2 ,0

y 0

1 ,0

At

xx

yy

xy

8 0&u

xx

2 0

f x x 0
f 0

2
The point

,0

is the minimum point.

2
1
Hence the point

,0 is the coldest point.

(1)
(2)

4 x 1 7 y 0

Solving (1) & (2) = 1, =

1
9

If 1 x 2 y & 5y 225
(no real valueof y)

2
29. Find the shortest distance from the origin to the curve
2

1 x 4 y 0

If

x 8xy 7 y 225 .

9 y 2x x

5, y 20

Solution:

Let f x 2 y 2 & x 2 8xy 7 y2 225


f

1. y3

8xy 7 y 225
2

x1 x2
x3

u , v , w
x , y , z

(12. (i) Find the Jacobian


x y z u , y z u v , z u v w
2

, if

(ii) If u x y , v 2xy . f ( x , y ) (u , v) show that


2

f
2

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f
2

2
2

4(x y

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UNIT-V
PART-A
1

1. Evaluate dx e
0

y x

dy

Sol:
1x

Let I =

yx

dydx

0 0

eyx

x
ax
dydx

1x
0

xe

Qe

dx

eax

yx x

dx

(xe

x x

xe

)dx

(xe x ) dx
0

x ( e 1) dx
0

(e 1) x dx
0

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2 1

(e 1)
2

(e 1)

0
a

11

xy

ba

dxdy

dx

log x

x2

a
2

sin

a
a

a2

dydx

sin

(1)

0 0

xy(x y) dxdy

2
1

(0) 0,

sin 1 (1)
2

4
1 x

sin

0 0

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Sol:

sin 1
2

4. Evaluate
Sol:

Qsin 0 0

a a

b
1

log a log b
2

(log a 0)(log b 0) (Qlog1 0)

a a

log y
log a log1 log b log1

3. Evaluate

x a x
2

log x1

xy
b
dy
a dx

2
x 0 dx

11

a x dx

Sol:

dx

dxdy
ba

e 1
2

Let I

dydx

y0 a 2 x2

2. Evaluate

a a 2 x2

Let I

sin

(0)

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in
1 x

Let I

xy(x y) dxdy

x2 y xy2 dxdy

1 x

Sol:

Let I

(x y xy ) dydx (correct form)

00

x
1

3
2

1
0

x5 2

dx

xy

1 1
2 4

32

1 2

2 1 tan

21

xx

52

37

y
y

3 72

dy

(0) dy

tan

y
y
1
1 tan (1) dy
1 y
1

1 dy

log 2 log1

4
2 a cos

r drd

6. Evaluate
0

Sol:

2116

168

168

dy
x

tan

3 7

y2

41y

x2

2
1 dy
1y 4

x2 y2

dx

x
dx
3

00

1 52
1
x dx x dx
0 2
0 3
14
72
1 x
1 x

dxdy

2 y

00

Q x

dx

2y

2 2

x y

x2 y2

00

0 0

dxdy

2 y

5. Evaluate

0 0

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4 log 2 (Qlog1 0)

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2 a cos

r drd

Let I
0

r dr d

correct form

3 1
3

n 1 n 3

cos
0

cos d

2 sin
0

3
3
2a

a3

r d dr

a cos d
3

2 sin
0

a cos

r3

Let I

n n2

......1,if nis odd

n 1 n 3 ...... ,if nis even


n n2
2

sin

d
2 0

sin 2

1
2

sin

sin

1 . 1 .
2 2 2 8

r d dr

7. Evaluate
Sol:

cos

r dr d

8. Evaluate
0

Sol:

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n 1 n 3

sin n
0

n n2
n 1 n 3
n n2

......1,if nis odd

......

,if niseven

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cos

Let I r dr d
0

0x

But by changing the order we get,

0 d

cos d
2
0
1
2
cos d
20

1 1 cos 2 d
20
2
sin 2
1

4
2
0
1
sin 2 0 0

4
2
2

y dxdy
e0 0 y
x0y dy
y

r 0

cos

dxdy is difficult to solve

r cos

ey

( y 0) dy

e dy
y

1 0
4

9. Why do we change the order of integration in multiple


integrals? Justify your answer with an example?

e y

Sol :

1
0

Some of the problems connected with double


integrals,which seen to be complicated,can be made easy
to handle by a change in the order of integration.

(e e ) (0 1) 1
0

10. Express

Example:

aa

(x2
0y

Sol:

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x 2 dxdy in polar co-ordinates


y )

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Here
The region of integration is
bounded by y 0, y a , x y , x a.
Let us transform this integral in polar co-ordinates by taking
x r cos , y r sin , dxdy rdrd .
Consider the limits x y , x a , y 0 .
If y 0 r sin 0 r 0,sin 0
r 0, 0
r cos r sin

If x y

x2
0y

r (cos sin
2

r sin
3
2
r cos drd

4 asec
0

R
1 1 y

x 10 y dy
0

(1 y ) dy

32

0
2
y y

32

cos drd

11 .Find dxdy over the region bounded by x 0, y 0, x y 1

Sol:
Given x 0, y 0 & x y 1
The region of integration is the triangle.

2 0

4 asec

dxdy
0 0
1

(r cos ) rdrd

r cos

I dxdy

4 asec

x2

aa

4
a
r
cos
ra sec

r cos a

y varies from y 0 to y 1

cos 1
sin
tan 1


If x a

varies from x 0 to x 1 y

12. Find the area of a circle of radius a by double


integration in polar
Co-ordinates
Sol:

The equation of circle whose radius is a is given by

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r 2a cos

The limits for


r : r 0 to r 2a cos

y var ies from 0 to 1 x


x var ies from 0 to 1

: 0 to 2
Area 2 upper area

r2

2
0
2

2 a cos

dzdydx

1
0 0

15. Evaluate

20
2

Let I

232
0 1 1
23 2

xy zdxdydz
0 11

cos d

2 1

x 2

2 2

4a

13. Define

3y

xdx

4a

xy z dzdydx

Sol:

4a cos d
4a

rdrd

1 x

2 2 a cos

z var ies from 0 to 1 x y

a
22

Area

in

polar

dy zdz
1

Co-

Area=

14. Express the Volume bounded


by x 0, y 0, z 0 and x y z 1
in triple integration.

(2)

27

26 3
2

2 2
2
1

ordinates Sol:
rdrd

Sol:
For the given region

2 3

1
3

4 1

2 2

26 3

16. Find the volume of the region bounded by the


2

surface y x , y x and the planes z 0, z 3

Sol:

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y x (1)

17. Sketch roughly the region of integration for

x y (2)

Substituting (2) in (1) we

00

f ( x , y ) dy dx.

Sol:

get x x
x

1x

x 0
3
x x 1 0

x 0,1
1

Re quired volume

dzdydx
0 x

The region of integration is bounded by x 0, x 1, y 0, y x

z 0dydx
3

Here x var ies from x 0 to x 1 y


var ies from y 0 to y x

0x

a a

1 x

3dydx

0 ax x

xx

dx

y varies from y a x to y ax x
2
2
i.e., y x a which is a circle with centre (0,0)
and radius a.

32 3 0
32
31
2x
x
3
3
3
0
3 2(1) 1

dydx.

Given x varies from x = 0 to x = a

Sol:

3 y x2 dx

x32

18. Sketch the region of integration

0x

2 1 1

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x 2 y 2 ax

i.e., x

a
2

a
2

2
y

a y 2 0
4

a2
4

This is a circle with centre


(a/2,0) and radius a/2.
ax
19. Change the order of integration in
f ( x , y ) dydx

20. Sketch roughly the region of integration for the following


double integral

00

Sol:
ax
Given
f ( x , y ) dydx

f ( x , y ) dxdy

Sol:
Given that x var ies from x 0 to x a
2

00

The region of integration is


bounded by x 0, x a , y 0, y x
i.e., x var ies from x 0 to x a represents Vertical path
y var ies from y 0 to y x represents Vertical strip
Now changing the order of integration we get
x var ies from x y to x a represents Horizontal strip
y var ies from y 0 to y a represents Horizontal path
ax
aa

f ( x , y ) dydx
f ( x , y ) dx dy
00

a a 2 x2

y var ies from y 0 to y a x i.e., y


2

x a
2

x y a
Which is a circle with centre (0,0) and radius a

0y

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1 1 y

21.Change the order of integration in f ( x , y ) dxdy


0

Sol:
Given x var ies from x 0 to x 1 y i .e., x y 1 represents
Horizontal y var ies from y 0 to y 1 represents Horizontal path

The region of integration is bounded by y 0, y 1, x 0, x y 1

x var ies from x 0 to x 1 represents Vertical path


y var ies from y 0 to y 1 x represents Vertical strip
After changing the order of integration limits of x and y
becomes x 0, x 1, y 0 and y 1 x .
1 1 y

1 1 x

i.e., f ( x , y ) dxdy
0

f ( x , y ) dydx
0

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UNIT-I
PART-B
2
=

1 2
7 2

0
0

Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

1 3 1
1 2 2
4. Using

2 1
Cayley Hamilton theorem find A when A= 1
4

2
1

1 1 2
1
2
5. Using Cayley Hamilton theorem find A

When A

1
6. Using Cayley Hamilton theorem find A

find A

3 0

0 2 1
0 3

2 1

1 1

6. Using Cayley Hamilton theorem find the inverse of the matrix

1
7.Find a A 1 if A

3 2

1 , Using Cayley Hamilton theorem.

2 1

1
A

0 3
8

1 7

0 8

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1 3 1

8. Diagonalise the matrix A=

10
9.Reduse the matrix

1 1
2 5

2 2

5 3

5
3 1

by means of an orthogonal transformation.

3
to diagonal form.

10. Diagonalise the matrix 1 5 1

by means of an orthogonal

1 1 3
6 2 2
11. Diagonalise the matrix

3 1

by an orthogonal

1 3

2
transformation.

= Reduce the quadratic form Q 6x 3y 3z 4xy 2yz


4zx into canonical form by an orthogonal transformation.
=

Reduce the quadratic form 8x1 7x2

3x3

12x1 x2 8x2 x3 4x3 x1 to

the canonical form by an orthogonal transformation and hence show

that it is positive semi-definite.


= Reduce the quadratic form x1

5x2

x3

2x1 x2 2x2 x3

2x3 x1 to the canonical form by an orthogonal transformation


2

= Reduce the quadratic form x y z 2xy 2 yz 2zx to


canonical form by an orthogonal transformation

16. Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

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17.Obtain the orthogonal transformation whish will transform the


Quadratic form Q 2x1 x2 2x2 x3 2x3 x1 into sum of squares.

UNIT-II

PART-B
1.

Show that

2.

The series

converges to 0
is convergent and its sum is 1.

3. Prove that the series 1-2+3-4+. Oscillates infinitely


2

n-1

4.

Prove that the geometric series 1+r+r +.+r


to
.

5.

Examine the convergence of the series +

6.

Test the convergence of the series

7.

Using the integral test, discuss the convergence of the series

8.

Test the convergence of the series

9.

Test the convergence of the series

10. For

+ converges, if 0

what values of x are the following series convergent.

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and diverges

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UNIT-III
PART-B
1. Show that the radius of curvature at any point (x , y) on the

asteroid x

2/ 3

2/ 3

2/3

1/3

is 3( axy)
3a 3a
,
on
2. Find the radius of curvature at
2 2
3
3
x y 3axy
3. Find the radius of curvature at the (a, 0) on the
2
3
3
curve xy a x

4.

(i) If

is the radius of curvature at any point (x ,y) on

the curve

ax
, P.T

2/ 3

ax
a
y
x
(ii)Find the radius of curvature of the curve
r a (1 cos ) at
5.

Find the equation of the centre of curvature of the


rectangular hyperbola xy =12 at the point (3,4)

6. Find the equation of the circle of curvature at


2
(c,c) on xy = c
7. Find the circle of curvature of the curve x y a

= Find the envelope of the family of

x
a

b 1, where a and b are connected by the


2

relation a b c
x y
(ii) 1, where a and b are connected by the
a b
2
relation ab c
2
2
(iii) x2 y2 1, where a and b are arbitrary constants
a b
2
2
2
given by a b c
10. Find the evolute of Parabola, Ellipse,
Hyperbola, Rectangular hyperbola, Astroid.
11. Show that the evolute of the cycloid
x a( sin ), y a(1 cos ) is another
cycloid
12. Find the evolute of Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola,
Rectangular hyperbola, Asteroid. considering it
as the envelope of its normals.

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a a
,
4 4

at the point

(i) sin x sin y sin( x y) (ii) sin x sin y sin( x y)

6. Find the volume of the largest rectangular parallelepiped

8. Find the envelope of family of curves

y3

that can be inscribed in the ellipsoid. (OR)

3 1,
3
a cos
b sin

Find the volume of the largest parallelepiped and which can

being the parameter.

inscribed in the ellipsoid

x 2 y2
a

z2 1
2
b
c

7. (i).Find the dimensions of the rectangular box with out top of

UNIT IV

maximum capacity whose surface is 108 sq.cm?

PART-B
1. (i) If Z = f(x, y) and u ,v other two variables such that

(ii) A rectangular box open at top to have the volume of


32 cube feet .find it dimensions, if the total area is

u lx my , v ly mx show that

minimum.
2

z
2

z
2

(l

u
3

8. If x r cos , y r sin .Prove that the Jacobian

z
2

x y

If u sin 1

(ii)

u
, P.T. x

2 tan u

x y
x
y
x
x
2. Given the transform u = e cos y and v = e siny and that

J (x, y) r and J
(r, )
9. Find the Jacobian

( y 1 , y 2 , y3 )
1

(x,x ,x)
2
3

(r, ) 1
(x, y) r

if, y1

x2 x3
x x
, y2 1 3
x
x
1

is a function of u and v and also of x and y, prove that


2

2
2

(u v

y x1 x 2

x
y
u
v
3. Find the maxima and minima value of

(ii)

(OR)
3 2

f (x, y) x y (1 x y)
(i) f (x, y) x y 3axy
4. In a plane triangle ABC find the maximum
3

x
10. (i) Expand e cosy about 0,

value of cosAcosBcosC.
5. Find the maximum and minimum value of

zx

xy

,w
Find the Jacobian (u, v, w) , if u yz , v
(x, y, z)
x
y
z

2
series.

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up to third using Taylors

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x
(ii) Expand e log(x + y) in powers of x and y up to terms of third 2. Change the order of integration in the double integral
2ax

2a

degree using Taylors theorem.

dxdy

(iii) Expand e sin y about (x ,y) up to third using Taylors

2ax x

a y

series
xy

11. (i) If u cos

3. Evaluate by changing the order of integration


, P.T . x

x y
2

(ii) If u x y z

u
u
y
x
y

1
cot u
2

ay
1 2 y

xy dydx and

4. Change the order of integration in the integral

y2

evaluate it.
5. Change the order of integration and evaluate

u, v, w
12. (i) Find the Jacobian x, y, z

y dxdy

and x e , y e sin t, z e cos t , find

du
dt

aa

0x

6.

, if

a 2a x

Change the order of integration and evaluate 2


0 x

f
2

f
2

2
2

4(x y

7. Change the order of integration and evaluate 2

xy dydx

0 x

8. Evaluate by changing into polar co-ordinates the integral


2
aa
x
dxdy
2

xy dydx

1 2x

(ii) If u x y ,v 2xy. f (x, y) (u,v) show that


2

(x y ) dydx

x y z u , y z u v , z u v w
2

0y

x y

UNIT-V
PART-B
1. Evaluate e

(x

y2 )

dxdy

9. Change into polar co-ordinates and evaluate e

( x 2 y2 )

dxdy

0 0

10. Evaluate
00

11. Evaluate
for which

aa

x
2 by changing into polar co-ordinates
y

x
0y

xy dxdy over theregion over the positive


quadrant x y 1

5. Find by double integration the area enclosed by the curve


x 2 3 y 2 3 a2

6. Find the area common to y 4ax and x 4ay using


double integration
7. Find using double integration the area of the cardioid
r a(1 cos )
log 2 x x y

15. Evaluate e
0

xyz

dxdydz

16. Find by Triple integral the volume of Tetrahedron


bounded by the

planes x 0, y 0, z 0 and a b c 1
17.Find the volume of that portion of the ellipsoid

a2

which lies in the first octant

b2

c2

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