FLUID MeCHANlCS
FOR TH
PRACTICING NGlNR
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
L. L. Faulkner
Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute
and Department of Mechanical Engineering
Ihe Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
g.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
1g.
1 g,
20.
Charles S. Knox
22. CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation,
and Applications,
23. ProbabilisticEngineeringDesign:Principles
James N. Siddall
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
PUNDAMNTAL
FLUlDMKHANICS
f 0 R TH
PRACTICING NGINR
J A M S WAURDOCK
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Marcel
Dekker,
Inc.
New
York.
Basel
Hong
Kong
CIP
This book is printed on acidfree paper.
MARCEL DEKKER,INC.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, New York
10016
To my friend
Dorothy M. Thompson
As the title suggests, this book is writtenfor the practicing engineer. Its
purpose isto bridge the gap betweenthe fundamentals presentedin modern mathematically oriented fluid mechanics textbooks and the needs of
practicing engineers.The minimum mathematical level required
for clarity
of concepts and academic integrity is used. It is essentially a selfstudy
book to be used by engineers with no to totally recalled knowledge of
this subject. It is also a thumbthrough bookall required equations
are repeated with the derivation of each concept, eliminating the need to
refer to other sections. This book can be used and understoodby almost
anyone with an elementary knowledgeof calculus and physics.
This book uses a dual system of units, U.S. Customary Units (U. S . )
and Syst&meInternationaledUnites (SI). In keeping withthe practical
emphasis, lbf/in.2 (psi) is usedfor pressure in place of lbf/ft2 and Ibm/ft3
for density in place of slugs/ft3. The unit of slugs for mass is not used,
but conversion factors are provided. A stepbystepprocedure is followed
throughout this book to eliminate any guessing games between
the author
and the reader. Each new concept is followed by at least one example.
An organized method of problem solving is presented. Each example is
solved by an approach statement, development of the needed equations
for the particular application, data sources, and numerical solutions in
U. S . and SI units. There are 76 fully solved tutorial examples to serve
as models.
V
vi
Preface
Preface
Introduction
Fluidsand other substances
Units
Pressure
Temperature scales
Mass, force, andweight
Gravity
Applications of Newtonssecond law
Density
Specificweight
Specificvolume
Specificgravity
Idealgas processes
Equations of state
Bulk modulus of elasticity
Acousticvelocity
xi
1
1
1
4
5
7
10
11
12
16
16
17
17
20
22
27
32
vii
Contents
viii
1.17 Viscosity
1.18 Surface tension and capillarity
1.19 Vapor pressure
References
2. FluidStatics
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
Introduction
Fluid statics
Basic equation of fluid statics
Pressureheight relations for incompressible fluids
Pressuresensing devices
Pressureheight relations for ideal gases
Atmosphere
Liquid force on plane surfaces
Liquid force on curved surfaces
Stress in pipes due to internal pressure
Acceleration of fluid masses
Buoyancy and flotation
3. FluidKinematics
34
38
42
45
46
46
46
47
49
51
62
64
70
77
81
86
97
105
Introduction
Fluid
kinematics
Steady andunsteadyflow
Streamlinesand streamtubes
Velocity
profile
Correction for kineticenergy
Continuity
equation
105
105
106
4. FluidDynamicsandEnergyRelations
124
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
Introduction
Fluid dynamics
Equation of motion
Hydraulic radius
Onedimensional steadyflow equation of motion
Specific energy
Specific potential energy
Specific kinetic energy
Specific internal energy
Specific flow work
Specific enthalpy
108
109
115
118
124
124
125
127
129
133
133
133
134
135
136
ix
Contents
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
Shaft work
Heat and entropy
Steadyflow energy equation
Relation of motion and energy equations
Nonflow vs. steadyflow energy equations
Ideal gas specific heat and energy relations
Impulse momentum equation
Thermal jet engines
Rocket engines
Propellers
Flow in a curved path
Forces on moving blades
5. Gas Dynamics
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Introduction
Gas dynamics
Areavelocity relations
Frictionless adiabatic (isentropic) flowof ideal gases in
horizontal passages
5.5 Convergent nozzles
5.6 Adiabatic expansion factor Y
5.7 Convergentdivergent nozzles
5.8 Normal shock functions
5.9 Adiabatic flow in constantarea ducts with friction:
Fanno line
5.10 Isothermal flow in constantarea ducts with friction
6. DimensionlessParameters
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
Introduction
Dimensionless parameters
Physical equations
Models vs. prototypes
Geometric similarity
Kinematic similarity
Dynamic similarity
Vibration
Similarity of incompressible flow
Similarity of compressible flow
Centrifugal forces
Similarity of liquid surfaces
Dimensional analysis
136
139
140
144
145
147
152
160
164
166
169
171
176
176
177
177
179
184
188
193
202
214
231
276
276
276
277
278
278
280
283
286
287
289
293
297
299
Contents
300
302
306
AppendixA.FluidProperties
317
318
340
369
373
B.1 Introduction
B.2
Background
B.3
Dimensions
B.4 SI Units
B.5 U. S. Customary Units and relation to SI units
Table Bl Conversion factors
373
373
375
376
380
382
389
390
393
394
404
405
408
Index
409
Symbol
Quantity or Description
A
A*
At
A S
ASHRAE
ANSI
API
"API
ASME
"Be
C
Cn
CP
xi
xii
go
Symbols
g4
h
h
hc
hF
Hf
H
10
IC
KE
Ibf
Ibm
L
L
L*
m
m
m
m*
m
,
mf
M
M
M
M*T
M,
MY
MOA
MOF
n
NS
Ns
XiV
NSPrJS
NSTUS
P
P*
Po
Po
Pr
Pv
Px
PY
PVr
psia
P a
P
xv
XVi
Y
Y
Y C
YF
YG
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1
Kinds of Fluids
For the purposes of the application of fluid mechanics to design it is
convenient to consider two kinds of fluids: compressible and incompresU
Basic Definitions
Elastic solid
sible. These characteristics are determined by molecular spacing and arrangement or phase of the substance. The phase relationsof a pure substance are shown withrespect to temperature andpressure in Figure 1.3.
Liquids are considered to be incompressible exceptat very high pressures and/or temperatures and unless otherwise specifiedwill be treated
as such throughout this book.
Vapors are gases below their critical temperatures and are very compressible, but their temperaturepressurevolume relationshipscannot be
expressed by simple mathematical equations. Vapor properties are usually tabulated, as, for example, in steam and refrigeration tables.
The flow
of vapors is not usually included in fluid mechanics
texts, but is considered
in this book as being essentiakfor complete design coverage.
Gases are compressible fluids. As the ratio of the temperature of the
substance T to the critical temperature Tc approaches infinity and the
ratio of the pressure p to the critical pressure pc approaches zero, all
substances tend to behave as ideal gasesthat is, their pressurevolumetemperature relations may be expressed by the equation of state for ideal
gases (Section 1.14). No real gas follows this law exactly, and a simple
Chapter 1
1.3
UNITS
For the foreseeable future designers in the United States will be faced
with the problems involved in converting fromits customary units(U.S.)
of measure to the Syst6me Internationale dUnites(SI) units. During this
long period, which will probably span the professional life of those who
use this book, both systems will be employed. This makes it mandatory
that those engaged in design and application be proficient in the use of
both systems.
Both systems of units are used in this volume. Although equal weight
is given to each system, all basic physical constants and standards are
defined by international agreements in SI units. This sometimes results
in the use of precise but inexact values for physical constants and standards in U.S. units.
Appendix C explains the SI system of units in regard to fluid mechanics
and provides conversion factors. The U.S. system is not really
a system,
since its units are based on customary use.Insofar as practical, the units
used in this book are those traditionally used in mechanics, the foot (ft)
Basic Definitions
for length, the second (sec)for time, and the poundforce (Ibf)for force.
Although the slug is the customary unit for mass in fluid mechanics, the
poundmass (lbm) was chosen for the mass unit in because it is used in
general engineeringpractice.
This book follows the SI practice [l]* of leaving a space after each
group of three digits, counting fromthe decimal point. This is done with
metric units only, because in many countries a comma is used to signify
a decimal point.Thus 5,720,626 is written 5 720 626and 0.43875 is written
as 0.438 75. A fourdigit number, for example, 5,280, is written either as
5 280 or 5280.
1.4
PRESSURE
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Force per
unit
area
FL or MLT2
US.:lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2
SI: N/m2 or Pa
Fluid forces that can act on a substance are shear, tension,and compression. By definition, fluids in a static state cannot resist any shear force
without flowing. Fluids willsupport small tensileforces due to the property of surface tension (Section 1.17). Fluids can withstand compression
forces, commonly called pressure.
Atmospheric Pressure
The actual atmospheric pressure is the weight per unit area of the air
above a datum and varies with weather conditions. Since this
pressure is
usually measured with a barometer, it is commonly called barometric
pressure.
Chapter 1
6
P
Gdge
(Negatfve
Actual
Atmospheric
Pressure
Absolute
+
+
Gauge)
Vacuum
Atmospheric
Absolute
Observed Pressures
Most pressuresensing devices (Section2.5) (the barometer is an exception) indicate the difference between the pressure to be measured and
atmospheric pressure. As shown in Figure 1.4, if the pressure being sensed
is greater than atmospheric it is called gage pressure, and if lower (negative gage) it is called a vacuum. The algebraic sum of the instrument
reading and the actual atmospheric pressure is the true or absolute pressure. Thus:
where p is the absolute pressure, Pb the atmospheric (barometric) pressure, and pi the instrument reading (positivefor gage pressure, negative
for vacuum). All instrument readings mustbe converted to absolute pressure before they are used in calculations.
Conventional American engineeringpractice is to use the unit lbf/in.*
(psi) for pressure. Gage pressures are indicated by psig andabsolute pressures by psia. Vacuums are almost always reportedin inches of mercury
at 32F. There is no equivalentof gage pressure in the SI system, so.that
all pressures are absolute unless gage is specified.
Example 1.1 During the test of a steam turbine the observed vacuum in
the condenser was 27.56 in. (700 mm) of mercury at 32F (OOC) and the
actual atmospheric pressure was 14.89 psia (102.7 kPa). What was the
absolute pressure in the condenser?
Basic Definitions
Solution
Since the vacuum is given in units of the height of a liquid column and
the atmosphericpressure in unitsof force per unit area, the vacuum should
be converted to force per unit area units using conversion factors from
Appendix B. Equation (1.1) should then be applied notingthat a vacuum
is a negative gage.
US. Units
pi = (27.56) x (4.912 x 10")
p = 14.89
 13.54 psig
SI Units
p i = (700) X 133.32 = 93 324 Pa = 93.3 kPa
p = 102.7  93.3 = 9.4 kPa
Chapter 1
"
 32
0
1.8
+ 32
Basic Definitions
and
The triple point of water on the Celsius scale is fixed at O.Ol"C, and
on the Kelvin 273.16 K, so that TK = tc
(273.16  0.01) or
TK(1.4)
= tc
+ 273.15
TR = 1.8TK
459.67
t
F
and
TR
1.8tc
+ 491.67
+ 273
and
TR =
t
F
+ 460
Example 1.2 Convert 45F to (a) degrees Rankine, (b) degrees Celsius,
and (c) kelvins.
Solution
US. Units
TR = 45
+ 460 = 505"R
SI Units
tc = (45  32)/1.8 = 7.22"C
TK = 7
+ 273 = 280 K
10
Chapter 1
U.S.Units
TR = 45
+ 459.67 = 504.67R
(1.6)
SI Units
(1.4)
F = ma
(1.10)
gc
g,==1
kgm
N*s
(1.11)
1 lbm(32.174
lbmft
ft/sec)
lbf
= 32.174 
lbfsec
(1.12)
Basic
11
Solution
a = FgJm
U.S. Units
a = 100 x 32.1741500 = 6.435ft/sec
S I Units
= 450 X
11225 = 2 m/s2
1.7 GRAVITY
The standard acceleration due to gravity of the earth is fixed as g , =
9.806 65 m/s2 by international agreement. For engineering calculations:
g , = 32.17 ft/sec2
(1.13)
m/s2
= 9.807
+ 5.9 X
COS
24)
(1.14)
12
Chapter 1
US. Units
32.17 x (20.86 x
+ 100 x 5280)2 = 30.60 ft/sec2
g = (20.86 x lo6
(1.15)
SI Units
9.807 x 6 3572
= 9.329 m / s 2
g = (6 357 + 161)2
(1.15)
(1.16)
where W is the work, and F is the applied force through the distance dx.
Substituting equation (1.10) for force in equation (1.16),
(1.17)
Potential Energy
Potential energy is defined as the energy required to lift a body to .its
present height from some datum. Substituting PE (specific potential energy) for Wlm, g for a,and dz (elevation change)for dx in equation (1.17),
(1.18)
.20)
Basic Definitions
13
(1.19)
8c
If the gravity fieldis not constant, then equation (1.15) is substituted for
g in equation (1.18),
(l .20)
Example 1.5 A Boeing 727jet aircraft has a mass of 145,000 lbm (64 400
kg) and is flying at an altitude of 33,000 ft (10 km) above sea level. Calculate the potential energy of the aircraft, assuming (a) constant gravity
and (b) variation of gravity with elevation. (c) Compareresults.
Solution
The specific potential energy for part (a) is calculated using equation
(1.19), and equation (1.20) for part (b). The total energy is calculated in
each case by multiplyingthe specific potential energy bythe mass of the
aircraft. The difference in results may be calculated from the following:
A%
= 100(PEa  PEb)/PE,
(x)
U.S. Units
1.
PE = (32.17/32.17)(33,000)
(1.19)
= 33,000 ftlbf/lbm
mPE = 145,000 X 33,000 = 4.785 X lo9 ftlbf
Differencebetween 1 and 2
(x)
S I Units
1.
PE = (9.807/1)(10 OOO)
= 98.07 kJkg
mPE = 64 400 X 98.07 = 6316 MJ
(1.19)
Chapter 1
14
2.
3.
9.807 x 10
OOO/l X (1 + 10/6357)
= 97.92 kJkg
mPE + 64 400 X 9792 = 6 306 MJ
PE
(1.20)
Differencebetween 1 and 2
A = lOO(98.07  97.92)/98.07 = 0.15%
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of a body due to its motion. It is equivalent
to the work required to impart this motion from rest in the absence of
friction. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time, or
a = dV
(1.21)
dt
gc
(1.23)
15
Basic Definitions
U.S. Units
KE = 5002/2 x 32.17 = 3886 ftlbf/lbm
mKE = 140,000 x 3886 = 544.0 x lo6 ftlbf
(1.23)
SI Units
KE = 1502/2 X 1 = 11 250 J k g
mKE = 62 600 x 11 250 = 704.3 MJ
(1.23)
m dV
gc
The impulse of a force is the integral of the lefthand sideof this equation:
Impulse of a force =dt
J]:
J]: J]:
F
(1.24)
F dt = F
dt = F(tz  t , )
(1.25)
Momentum change = m
gc
gc
Jvy
dV =
m(V2  V , )
(1.26)
or
Impulse of a force = momentum change
For constant mass and force between t l and t2 equation (1.27) may be
written in the following form:
(1.28)
16
Chapter 1
kg/s) of fluid flows through a jet propulsion system if its inlet velocity is
100 ft/sec (30 d s ) and its exit velocity is 400 ft/sec (120 ds).
Solution
US.Units
F = 20(400  100)/32;17 = 186.5 lbf
(1.28)
SI Units
F = 9(120  30)/1 = 810 N
(1.28)
1.9 DENSITY
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Density is mass per unit volume and its numerical value is the same
any place in the universe because (Section 1.6) it represents a quantity
of matter.
Specific weightis the weight or force (F,) exerted by mass ofa substance
per unit volume (density) dueto the local accelerationof gravity. Unlike
density, the numerical value of specific weight varies with local gravity.
Equation (1.10) related force to mass, and sinceboth density and specific weight have the same volume (V) units:
(1.29)
17
Basic Definitions
Solution
US. Units
Y = 16 x 50132.17
SI Units
y =
(1.29)
= 24.87 Ibf/ft3
(1.29)
L3M or FL4T2
U.S.: ft3/lbm
SI: m3/kg
Specific volume, likedensity, has the same numerical value any placein
the universe.
Relation to Density
Since specific volume isthe inverse of density, it follows that:
v = 
(1.30)
Dimensionless ratio
None
Solidsandliquids: water
Gases: air
Chapter 1
18
Pf

(1.32)
Pw
where pfis the density of the fluid at temperature rfand pw is the density
of water at temperature tw.
145
145  "Be
(1.33)
140
130 + "Be
(1.34)
S60/60F(15.56t15.56'C)
Basic Definitions
19
141.5
131.5 + "API
(1.35)
The BaumC scale for liquids lighter than water is very nearly
the same
as the American Petroleum Institute Scale, both being 10"for a specific
gravity of unity. The use of the American PetroleumInstitute (API) scale
is recommended by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Standardized hydrometers are available in various ranges from  1"API
to 101"API for specificgravityranges of 1.0843 to 0.6068 at 60/60"F
(15.56/15.56"C). For detailsconcerningstandardizedhydrometers
the
ASTM standard [3] should be consulted.
Example 1.9 A liquid has a density of 55 lbm/ft3 (879 kg/m3) at 60F
(1536C). Calculate (a) its American PetroleumInstitute gravity, and (b)
its BaumC gravity.
Solution
1. The specific gravityis calculated using equation (1.32) noting that the
density of water at 60F (1536C) is 62.37 lbm/ft3 (999.1 kg/m3).
2. For Part (a) solve equation (1.35) for "API:
(1.35)
(1.34)
US.Units
(1)
S~O/~
= *5Y62.37
F
= 0.8818
"API = 141.5/0.8818  131.5
= 29.0
(3) (b)
"Be = 140/0.8818  130
= 28.8
(1.32)
(2) (a)
(1.34)
(1.32)
SI Units
(1)
(2) (a)
8811999.1 = 0.8818
"API = 14130.8818  131.5
= 29.0
S15.5f315.5aoc
(1.32)
(1.32)
Chapter 1
20
(3)
(b)
(1.34)
= 28.8
Polytropic Process
All ideal gas processes are polytropic processes, and the processes discussed below are all special cases of the polytropic. For an ideal gasthe
relation between pressure and specific volume is given by:
pv" = c
P1
P2
(1.36)
Basic
+ n log, v = log,
c) and differentiated,
dp
ndv
or
n =   v dP
(1.37)
P dv
P
V
Equation (1.37) indicates that n is the slope of thepv curve and establishes
the pressurespecific volume relationshipfor the process. The value of n
for a polytropic process ranges from + W to  W , depending upon the
nature of the process.
+=O
Isentropic Process
If a process takes place without heat transfer and is reversible (frictionless) then it follows a path of constant entropy ( S ) , and hence it is called
isentropic. This same process is also called a reversible adiabatic and
sometimes (incorrectly) an adiabatic process. The path of this process is
given by:
(S
= c)
pv" = pvk = c
(1.38)
Isothermal Process
If a process takes place at constant temperature it is called an isothermal
process. From the equation of state for an ideal gas, pv = RT [equation
(1.42), Section 1.141. Differentiating equation (1.42) for T = c, we have
d ( p v ) = 0 or v dp =  p dv; substituting this relation in equation (1.37),
(1.39)
Isobaric Process
If a Process takes place at constant pressure it is called an isobaric process. For a constant pressure process, dp = 0, and substituting this relation in equation (1.37),
(1.40)
Chapter 1
22
Isometric Process
If a process takes place at constant volume it is called an isometric process. The path of this process is given by:
(1.41)
+ n log,(v2)
(x)
U.S. Units
n = log,(50/125)/log,(200/400) = 1.32
S I Units
n = log,(345/860)/log,(12.5/25) = 1.32
1.14
EQUATIONS OF STATE
An equation of state is one that defines the relationships of pressuretemperature and volume. Reid et al. [4]present and evaluate a number
of proposed equations of state and provide an excellent sourceof information on this subject.
(1.42)
Basic
23
P=@
For temperature,
Tz
n 1
(n I)/n
(1.47)
Example 1.11 A tank with a fixed volume of 62.42 ft3 (1.77 m3) initially
contains carbon monoxide at 15 psia (105 Pa) and 70F (21C). Three
pounds (1.33 kg) of carbon monoxide are added to the tank. If the final
temperature is 75F (24"C), what is the final pressure?
Solution
1. The temperatures must be converted to absolute.
2. The density equation of state (144) maybe converted to solve for
"
V  p = RT
or
m = v,
24
Chapter 1
+ mass added
US.Units
From Table Al and equation (1.43), R = 154Y28.010 = 55.16 ftlbf/lbm"R for CO:
Ti = 70 + 460 = 530"R
Tf=75
pi = 144 X 15 = 2160 Ibf/ft2
pf
+ 460 = 535"R
(1.9)
SI Units
+ 273 = 297
(1.8)
pf = 297(105000/294
296.8 X 1.3311.77)
= 172308 Pa = 172.3 MPa
or
PV
Z =RT
(1.48)
where Z is the compressibility factor.Note that when Z is unity the substance is in the ideal gas state. Thus the deviation of the compressibility
factor from unity is a measure of nonidealness of the state of the substance.
Basic Definitions
25
(1.49)
b
a
T'"v(v  b )
(1.51)
where
a =
Q.4275R2Tz"
(1.52)
Pc
and
b=
Q.08664RTc
Pc
(1.53)
Chapter 1
26
z
2
+ (A
B2  B)Z
 AB
= 0
(1.54)
where
A =
0.4275~~
T;I2
(1SS)
0.08664~~
T,
(1.56)
and
B =
Solution
US.Units
1.FromTable Al and equation (1.43), R = 15451120.914 = 12.78 ftlbf/lbm"R, Tc = 233.24 + 460 = 693"R, pc = 598.3 psia, p c = 598.3
X 144 = 86,155lbf/ft2.
2. v = 100/430 = 0.2326ft3Abm, T = 400 + 460 = 860"R.
3. For part (a), ideal gas pressure,
Pi = 12.78 X 86010.2326 = 47,252 lbf/ft2
= 47,2521144 = 328 psia
4.
(1.42)
10,246
(1.52)
Basic
27
b =
(1.53)
1210,246
.78 x 860 0.2326  0.008906 8601X 0.2326(0.2326  0.008906)
(1.51)
= 42,418lbf/ft2
= 42,4181144= 295 psia
From ASHRAE tables [6]the value of pressure at 400F and 0.2326
ft3/lbm is 300 psia. The error using the ideal gas equation is 9.33%,
and the error using the RedlichKwong equation is1.7%.
PRK
SI Units
1. FromTable Alandequation (1.43),R = 8314/120.914 = 68.76
JkgK., T, = 111.80 + 273 = 385 K,pc = 4.125 X lo6 Pa.
2. v = 2.831190 = 0.01489,T = 200 + 273 = 473 K.
3. For part (a), ideal gas pressure,
pi = 68.76 x 473/0.01489= 2 184 25Pa
0
(1.42)
= 2 184
250/1000
= 2 184 kPa
4. For part (b), RedlichKwong pressure,
0.4725 x 68.762 x 385
a =
(1.52)
= 1425
4.125 x lo6
0.08664 x 68.76 x 385
b =
= 0.00056
(1.53)
4.125 x IO6
168.76
425 x 473 PRK =
0.01489  0.00056 473 X 0.01489 X (0.01489 0.00056)
= 1 962 534
Pa
= 1 962
534/1000
= 1 963 kPa
Converting ASHRAE tables [6]to SI Units the value of pressure at
200C and 0.01489 m3/kg is 1 988 kPa. The error using the ideal gas
equation is 9.86%, and the error using the RedlichKwong equation
is 1.88%.
1.15 BULKMODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Definition:
Symbol:
Stress/volumetric strain
E
Chapter 1
28
Dimensions:
Units:
FL or ML T  2
U.S.: lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2
SI: kN/m2 or Pa
E = stress
strain
"=
dP
dVN
(1.57)
Basic Definitions
29
En = v
(3
(1.59)
Ideal Gases
If equation (1.37) is writtenas np =  v(dp/dv),,and substituted in equation
(1 S9):
E,,
= v
(3
np
(1.60)
For an ideal gasthe bulk modulusof elasticity isthe product of the process
exponent and the pressure.
For an isothermal process, n = 1 so that from equation (1.60),
ET = np = p
(1.61)
E,
np = kp
(1.62)
Liquids
At constant temperature the bulk modulusof most liquidsdecreases with
temperature. Water is one exception and increases to a maximum value
at 120F (49C) and decreases in value above that temperature at atmospheric pressure. At constant temperature the bulk modulus increases with
pressure for all liquids.No simple relationship similar
to pv" = c for ideal
gases exist for liquids. For liquids equation (1.59) may be approximated
Chapter 1
30
rg)n
= v1
(g)n
= v1
r?)
 V2 n
Some handbooks and other sources use equation (1.64) as a definition of
liquid bulk modulus. In obtaining and using data from other sources the
type of equation used to define bulk modulus should be verified.
Example 1.13 The data shown in Figure 1.8 were obtained from Table
3 or reference [7]at 600F (316C).A leastsquaresfit of these
data resulted
in the following equation:
v =A
+ Bp + Cp2 + Dp3
(U)
where:
specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)
= pressure, psia (kPa)
= 2.464 X
ft3/lbm (1.538 X lo m/kg)
= 7.707 x 10 [ft3/lbm]/psia(6.979 x
= 5.324 x lo [ft3/lbm]/psia2
(6.991 x
=  1.579 X
[ft3/lbm]/psia3(3.008 x
v =
A
B
C
D
[m3/kg]/kpa)
[m3/kg]/kpa2)
[m3/kg]/kpa3)
Solution
(g)T
=B
+ 2Cp + 3Dp2
or
T
1
2Cp
+ 3Dp2
(W)
= A
V($)
T
+ Bp + Cp2 + Dp3
+ 2Cp + 3Dp2
Basic
31
Specific Volume
 RsAb m
U.S.Units
(g)T
+ 2 x 5.324 x
= 7.707 x
+3X
=
ZI =
2.464
( 1.579 X lo"')
 1.796 x
X
1011
IO'' x 10,OOO
X 10,0002
(v)
[ft3/lbm]/psia
+ (7.707 X
10,0002 + (1.579
10,000
X 1015)
+ 5.324
X 10,0003
= 0.020678 ft3/lbm
ET
= v($)
=
T
0.020678
1.796 x
= 115,lOo psia
(U)
Chapter 1
32
SI Units
(g)T
+ 2 X 6.991 X
= 6.979 X
+3X
(3.008
=  1.613 X
v = 1.538 x
X 1014
70000
1019) X 700002
(v)
[m3/kg]/kpa
+ (6.979 X
X 70
+ (3.008
0002
x 70,000
X 1019)
+ 6.991
70 0003
= 0.001289 m3/kg
(v)
LT"
U.S.: ft/sec
SI: m/s
E =dPstress
    dP  strain
 dVN
( V dt A ) / ( cdt A )
c dP
V
or
VE
c = dP
(1.65)
Basic
33
1
*
2
Odt
dF
or
dP g c
c = 
gc
PV
(1.66)
or
(1.67)
c =
(1.68)
Equation (1.68) may be used for any fluid whose value of E, and p are
known.
Chapter 1
34
Ideal Gases
From equation (1.62) E, = kp and from equation (1.44) p = p/RT. Substituting these values in equation (1.68),
(1.69)
Example 1.14 Estimate the acoustic velocity of air at 68F (20C).
Solution
U.S. Units
1. R = 154Y28.96 = 53.35 ftlbfAbm
2. T = 68 460 = 528"R.
3. c = (1.400 x 32.17 x 53.35 x 528)O.' = 1126ftlsec.
(1.43)
(1.69)
SI Units
1. R = 8314/28.96 = 287.0 J/kg*K,
2. T = 20
273 = 293 K.
3. c = (1.400 x 1 x 287 x 293)O.' = 343 m/sec.
(1.43)
(1.69)
1.l7 VISCOSITY
Dynamic Viscosity
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Basic
35
FJA,
dU
dUldy
dy
=p=
(1.70)
.=P($)
Kinematic Viscosity
DeJinition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Dynamic viscosityldensity
v (nu)
L2 T"
U.S.: ft'lsec
SI: m2/s
(1.71)
US. Units
v =  g=c P
P
(lbmft/lbfsec2)(lbfseclft2)= ft2
(lbm/ft3)
sec
SI Units
Characteristics
In a flowing fluid tangential(shear) stresses arise from two different molecularphenomena. The firstis the cohesive (attractive) forces of the
molecules, which resist motion. The second is the molecular
activity,
which causes resistance to flow due to molecular momentum transfer.
Chapter 1
36
Liquid Viscosities
In liquids cohesive forces predominate. Since cohesive forces decrease
with increasing temperatures, so do the liquid viscosities.
Gas Viscosities
In ideal gases, cohesive forces are absent. Molecular activity increases
with temperature and so does viscosity.
ssu
(1.72)
Basic
37
centistokes = 0.22OSSU
135
ssu
ssu
(1.73)
> 100
For very viscous oils a larger orifice is used in the Saybolt viscometer
and the time in seconds is called SSF (Saybolt Seconds Furol).The term
furol is an contraction of fuel and road oils. Approximate conversions
of
SSF to centistokes may be made using the following equations:
184
centistokes = 2.24SSF  SSF
6o
centistokes = 2.16SSF  SSF
+ "API)
+ 20) = 0.9340
(1.35)
> 100
centistokes = 0.22OSSU  135/SSUSSU
v = 0.220 X 400  135/400 = 87.66 centistokes
(1.73)
= SPW
(1.32)
VPkC
US. Units
3. The density of water at 60F is 62.37 lbm/ft3 (Section 1.12):
p. = 0.9340 x 62.37 = 58.25
lbm/ft3
(1.32)
(1.71)
Chapter 1
38
(1.71)
SI Units
3. The density of water at 20C is 999.1 kglm3 (Section 1.12):
.
p =
(1.32)
(87.66 X 1 X
933.2/1
(1.71)
= 0.081 80 Pass
Surface Tension
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Workfunit area
U (sigma)
FL" or M T  2
U.S.: lbf/ft
SI: Nlm
Frame
I
I
+ Slider
I
I
$
S Surface of
one slde of film
dS=Ldx
l
*XdXl
2F,
39
Basic
Consider Figure 1.10, which shows a soap film between a wire frame,
equipped with a slider which can move in the x direction. Moving the
slider the distance dx to the right increases the surfaceS by the amount
L dx. The force required to increase both (the film has two sides) surfaces
2L dx is 2F,. The work of extension is 2F, dx. From the definition of
surface tension,
U =
work
unit area
dW  2F, dx
dS
2L dx
F,
L
or
(1.76)
F, = uL
Capillarity
Liquid surfaces in contact with a solid will rise at the point of contact if
adhesive forces predominate and will depress when cohesive forces are
the strongest as shown in Figure 1. l 1. Capillarity is the elevation or
depression of a liquid surface in contact with a solid.
(a) Adhesive
forces predominate
(b) Cohesive
forces predominate
40
Chapter 1
LZD
FP Gravity Force
Consider the free body diagram shown in Figure 1.12. The angle 8 is
the contact angle betweenthe liquid and solidsurfaces. The liquid shown
in Figure l.ll(a) has strong adhesive forces and rises at the liquidsolid
interfaces. When the contact angle is less than 90 then the liquid is said
to wet the tube walls. Note from Figure 1.12 that if 8 is greater than
90 the surface tension force is exerted downward as in Figure l.ll(b)
when cohesive forces predominate. The curved portionof the liquid surface in the tube is called the meniscus.
The rise or fall h of a liquid columnof diameter D can be derived from
the free diagram of Figure 1.12. For equilibrium inthe vertical ( z ) direction
C F,
= F, COS I Fg = 0
or
F,
COS
F*
(1.77)
Basic Definitions
41
If the small mass of the fluid above the meniscus is neglected, then the
mass of the fluid in the tube above (or below) the surface of the tank is
m = ph.rrD2/4.From equation (l.lO), F = m d g c and Fg = mg/gc, so that
the gravity force is Fg = (ph.rrD2/4)g/gc = pgh.rrD2/4gc.The portion of
the surface tension force acting in z direction isF, cos 8. From equation
(1.76), F, = uL.
The length L is the circumference of the tube, so that F, = UL =
UTD. Substituting the above in equation (1.77),
F~ COS e =
COS
F* =
pgh.rrD2
4gc
or
(1.78)
(1.78)
U.S. Units
SI Units
3. From Table Al, for water, U = 72.75 X
(1.78)
42
Chapter 1
1.19 VAPORPRESSURE
Definition:
The pressure exerted when a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with its own vapor.
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Pv
FL or ML"T2
U.S.: lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2
SI: N/s2 or Pa
Cavitation
If at some point inthe flow of a liquid the existing fluidpressure is equal
to less than p u , the liquid will vaporize and a cavity or void will form.
Fluctuations of liquidpressures above and belowthe vapor pressure result
in the formation and collapse
of vapor bubbles. The combination
of sometimes violent collapse of these bubbles and related chemical reactions
results not only in poor performance but also at times in severe damage
to equipment. It is necessary in the design of fluid equipment to avoid
this phenomenon.
Cavitation Velocity
The velocity at which cavitation takes place in a steady flow system may
be determined by considering Figure 1.13. The fluid mass shown has a
length of dx, an area normal to its motion of dA, and the movement of
this mass is horizontal. The mass of this fluid element is p dA dx. For
frictionless movement the pressure forces opposing each other must be
equal to the fluid mass timesits acceleration, or from equation(l.lO), F,
Basic
43
(1.79)
Noting that by definition V = dx/dt, and substituting in equation (1.79),
F,
(y)($)
P&
dV = p dA V d V
gc
(1.80)
CF, = p d A
 (p
+ dp)dA= dpdA
=F,
or
F,
(1.81)
dp dA
p dA VdV
gc
which reduces to
pV dV
dp+=O
(1.82)
gc
!c
I""
V dV = ( p ,
 p,) + P
E  02)
2gc
which reduces to
v, =
p
P
 P,)
(1.83)
Solution
1.
Chapter 1
44
2. Calculate velocity using equation (1.81):
vu = [2gc(Ps  Pu)/Plo.5
(1.83)
US.Units
1. From Table Al, p = 62.32 lbm/ft3, p , = 4.880 lbf/ft2, and fromSection 1.4, ps = 14.696 psia = 144 X 14.696 = 2116 lbf/ft2
2. V , = [2 x 32.17 x (2116  4.8800)/62.32]0.5 = 46.74 ft/sec
(1 33)
SI Units
1.FromTable Al, p = 998.3kg/m3, p , = 2.337 X lo3 Pa, and from
Section 1.4, p s = 101.325 X lo3 Pa.
2. V , = [2 X 1 x (101.325 X lo3  2.337 x 103)/998.3]0.5= 14.08
m/S
(1.83)
REFERENCES
1. Murdock, James W., and Smith, Leo T., ASME Text Booklet: S I
Units in Fluid Mechanics, ASME SI5 1st Ed. American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y. 1976.
2. Benedict,Robert P., International practical temperature scale of
1968, Instruments and Control Systems, October 1969, pp. 8589.
3. ASTM Hydrometers, AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials
Standard Specification E10066.
4. Reid, R. C., et al., Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGrawHill
Book Company, New York, N.Y. 4th Ed., 1977.
5. Redlich, O., and Kwong, J., Chemical Review, Vol.44, p. 233,1949.
6. ThermodynamicProperties of Refrigerants, AmericanSocietyof
Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers,
Atlanta, Ga.,
1969.
7. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Steam: ASME Steam
York,
Tables, AmericanSociety of MechanicalEngineers,New
N.Y., 3rd Ed., 1967.
8. A Methodof Testfor Kinematic Viscosity,American Societyfor Testing and Materials D4457 1, 1971.
Basic Definitions
Table 1.1 Summary of Fluid Mechanics Properties
45
2.1
INTRODUCTION
2.2
FLUIDSTATICS
Fluid statics is that branch of fluid mechanics that deals with fluids that
are at rest with respect to the surfaces that bound them. The entire fluid
mass may be in motion, but all fluid particlesare at rest with each other.
46
Fluid
Statics
47
dx
l a
Fu = P & *
48
Chapter 2
are at rest with respect to each other. The entire fluid mass is subjectto
body force accelerations of a,, a,, and a,,opposite the directions of x ,
y , and z, respectively. In addition, the acceleration due to gravity, g , acts
opposite to the direction of z. Although, for clarity, only the z direction
forces are shown in Figure 2.1, forces also act in the x and y directions.
From equation (1. lo), F = ma/gc, the body forces are Fbx = (p dx dy
and the gravity
dz)a,/g,, Ft., = (pdx dy dz)a,/g,, Fbz = (pdx dy dz)az/gc,
force Fg = (p dx dy dz)g/g,.
Vertical Forces
By definition of pressure F = PA,the upward pressure force is F,, = p
dx dy and the downward pressure force is
Fd = ( p
+ dp) dx dy
Considering the cube of Figure 2.1 to be a free body and only vertical
components acting:
2 F,
dp =
= F,  Fd  Fbz  Fg = 0
g ) dz
gc
( x , y constant)
Combined Forces
In a like manner, itmay be shownthat with only y directionforces acting,
Fluid Statics
49
equation (2.1) for path b + 2. The total difference is the sum of each
component or
dp =
gc
pa dx
pay d~  p(az + g) dz

gc
or
2.4
PRESSUREHEIGHTRELATIONS FOR
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS
For a fluid at rest and subject only to gravitational force, ax,ay, and a,
are zero, reducing equation (2.4)to:
= Y(ZZ
 zl) = h
which reduces to
(PI  P Z ) = AP = yh
(2.6)
where h = (z2  z l ) , or the height of a liquid column. The relationships
of equation (2.6) are shown in Figure 2.2.
Example 2.1 The large closed tank shown in Figure 2.3 is partly filled
with benzene at 68F (20C). If the pressure on the surface is saturation,
what is the absolute pressure of the benzene 10 ft (3 m) below the liquid
surface?
50
Chapter 2
51
Fluid Statics
Solution
This example is solvedby noting that the absolute pressure at any depth
below a liquid surface is the sum of the surface pressure and pressure
equivalent due to the liquid depth.
1. Obtain fluid data from Table A 1.
2. Calculatespecificweightusingequation
(1.29), assuming standard
gravity.
3. Calculate pressure due to liquid depth using equation (2.6).
4. Add vapor pressure to the liquid pressure.
US.Units
1. From Table Al at 68"F, p u = 1.453 psia, pf = 54.79 lbm/ft3.
(1.29)
cp
SI Units
1. From Table Al at 20C p u = 10.04 kPa pf = 877.7 kg/m3.
2. y = 877.7 x 9.80711 = 8 608 N/m3
(1.29)
52
Chapter 2
40
50
I
60
80
I1 0
0 
0
7
Section AA
m) above floor level. The tubing connecting the pipe to the gage runs
horizontally for a short distance from the pipe before descending.to the
gage. The horizontal portion of the tubing is finned and allof the tubing
is uninsulated to insure condensation to protect the gage from the steam
temperature. The average temperature of the water in the tubing is 86F
(30C). The barometric pressure is 30.00 in. Hg at 32F (101.59kPa). The
local gravity is 32.10 ft/sec2 (9.805 m / s 2 ) . The gage indicates 100.22 psi.
(691.00 kPa). What is the absolute pressure of the steam in the pipe?
Solution
This problem is solved by noting that the gage indicates the sum of the
pressure due to the height of the water column above the gage and the
steam pressure less the barometric pressure, or:
Solving (a) for steam pressure:
1. Obtain fluid data from Table Al.
Fluid Statics
53
(1.29).
US. Units
1. From Table Al for water at 86"F, pf = 62.15 lbm/ft3
2. y = 62.15 X 32.10/32.17 = 62.01 lbf/ft3
3.
(1.29)
17.1)
SI Units
1. From Table Al for water at 30"C,pf = 995.6 kg/m3
2. y = 995.6 x 9.805/1762
= 9
N/m3
(1.29)
Credit for the discovery of the barometer is given to Evangelista Torricelli (16081647), an Italian scientist who related barometric height to
weight of the atmosphere. Figure 2.5 shows the essential features of an
elementary barometer. In its most primitiveform, the barometer is made
Figure 2.5
Barometer.
Chapter 2
54
pb = y h t p v
h = (Pb  Pv)h
1. Obtain fluid data from Table Al.
2. Calculatespecificweightusingequation
gravity.
3. Solve equation (a) for height.
(a)
(1.29) assuming standard
US. Units
1. From Table Al for carbon tetrachloride at 68"F, p v = 1.76 psia,
=
pf
99.42 Ibm/ft3.
3. h
(14.696
(a)
SI Units
1. From Table Al for carbon tetrachloride at 20"C,p,, = 12.13 kPa, pf
= 1 592.5 kg/m3.
5.71 m
(a)
Fluid Statics
P1
Area A
p2
Chapter 2
56
p1
Area A
where ym is the specific weight of the manometer fluid andyfthat of the
fluid whose differential is being sensed.
One of the disadvantages of the Utube manometer is that unless A I
= A2 exactly, then both legs must be observed simultaneously.For this
reason, the well or cistern type shown in Figure 2.7 is sometimes used.
In the well or cistern type of manometer, the areas A , and A2 are controlled to give a maximum deflection of z2 and a minimum for zl. From
consideration of volumetric displacementof the liquid fromone leg to the
other:
Z I A I= ~ 2 A 2
57
Fluid Statics
or
ZI = z ~ A ~ A I
P2
(a, + )
= (Ym
 Yf)
= (Ym
 Yf) ( I +
z2A2
22
2)
22
Z I A I= RiA2
or
=)
 Yf)Si
to (A2A1 +
58
Chapter 2
keaA2
k e a A 7
7
7I
Fill line
Application
The equations derived above are simple, but actual installationsmay require more complex ones. Since there is almost an infinite number of
combinations and arrangementsthat can be used, it is better to derive an
equation for each actual case, as will be shown the
in examples that follow.
Fluid Statics
59
+ YA(ZA  ZI) + y
A =
PB
+ YB(ZB + 2 2 )
(4
Solving for p A  p B ,
 PB = Y B ~ B+ 2 2 )  YA(ZA  ZI)  Y ~ Z +
I ~ 2 )
(b)
1. Obtain fluid data from Table Al
2. Calculatespecificweightsusingequation
(1.29) assuming standard
gravity.
3. Calculate PA  PB using equation (b)
PA
I
Carbon
Tetrachloride
J
B
60
Chapter 2
US. Units
1. From Table. A1 at 68F;
Benzene
PA = 54.79 lbm/ft3
Carbon tetrachloride
pB = 99.42 lbm/ft3
pm = 845.67 lbm/ft3
Mercury
2. ?A = 54.79 X 32.17/32.17 = 54.79 lbf/ft3
?B
3.
PA
PA
(1.29)
 PB
 PB
PB
(1.29)
99.42(2.5
(b)
>PB
S.I. Units
1. From Table Al at 20C:
Benzene
PA = 877.7 kg/m3
Carbon tetrachloride
pB = 1592.5kg/m3
pm = 13546.3kg/m3
Mercury
2. ?A = 877.7 X 9.807/1 = 8N/m3
(1.29)
608
TB
y m =546.3
13
3.
PA
X 9.807/1 = N/m3
849
132
(1.29)
= 618(760
15
+ 100 X
 8608(915
PA
 132 849(100 x
 pB = 20.15kPa
PB
>PA
 100 x
+ 100 x
Example 2.5 Tanks 1 and 2 of Figure 2.10 are filled with air. The barometric pressure is 14.50 psia (100 kPa). Gauge A indicates 30 psi (206.9
kPa) and he = 71.50 in. (1 .816 m). Both manometers contain mercury at
68F (20C). Compute the value of h,.
Solution
Fluid Statics
0
Tank No.1
Tank No.2
PI = P b
+ PA
(b)
Manometer C senses the difference between the pressure in Tank 2 and
the atmosphere, so that from equation (2.6):
Pb  P2 = y h c
(c)
p2
PA
+ ?he
+ yhe
or
hc = he  PAIT
(e)
US.Units
1. From Table Al for mercury at 68"C, p = 845.67 lbdft.
2. y = 845.67 x 32.17132.17 = 845.67 lbf/ft3
(1.29)
Chapter 2
62
SI Units
1. From Table Al for mercury at 20C, p = 13546.3 kg/m3.
2. y =546.3
13
X 9.80711 = 849
132
3. hc = 1.816  206.9
2.6
N/m3
(1.29)
1000/132
849 = 0.259 m = 259 mm
(e)
To integrate the lefthand term of this equation, the functional relationship between pressure and density must be established for a compressible fluid.The righthand termrequires that the relationship between
the acceleration due to gravity and altitude be established.
We may proceed to establish these by noting from equation (1.30):
P=;
(1.30)
e)
v =
VI
(1.37)
or
(2.11)
(1.15)
Fluid Statics
63
We see from equation (2.13) that mathematically there are only two values
of l/n that need be considered, one when n = 1 and when n # 1. Since
the value of n for an isothermal processof an ideal gas is1 (Section 1.13),
we have two equations, one for isothermal processes and another for
nonisothermal processes.
Isothermal Process
Integrating the lefthand term of equation (2.13) for n = 1:
(2.14)
Nonisothermal Processes
For all other processes, the lefthand term of equation (2.13) integrates
as follows:
(2.15)
64
Chapter 2
(2.16).
2.7
ATMOSPHERE
Fluid Statics
65
stant). The relationship between geometric altitude and geopotential altitude is given by equation (2.17) as follows:
(2.17)
The temperature at any altitudez may be computed using equation (2.18):
where Tz is the temperature at altitude z, "R (K),Tb is the base temperature, from Table 2.l(c) for z, "R (K), dT/dz is the temperature gradient,
from Table 2.1(c)
for z, "R/ft (Wm), and z b is the base altitude, from Table
2.l(c) for z, ft (m). The pressure at any altitudez may be computed using
equations (2.19) or (2.20) as applicable:
(2.20)
where pt is the pressure at altitude z, psia (Pa), P b is the base pressure,
2.l(c)
from Table2.l(c) for z, psia (Pa), n is the process slope, from Table
at z, ratio, P b is the base pressure, from Table2.l(c) for z, psia (Pa), and
n is the process slope, from Table 2.l(c) at z, ratio.
The value of sonic velocity is calculated using equation (1.69) and assuming that k has a constant value of 1.4. The value of dynamic viscosity
is calculated from the Sutherland equation:
(2.21)
where pzis the dynamic viscosity at altitudez, lbfsec/ft2 (Paes),(3 is the
Pas/K'"), T, is the tem3.045 x IO' lbfsecl(ft2"R'")(1.458 x
perature at altitude z, "R (K), and S, is the Sutherland constant, 198.72"R
(110.4 K).
Tables 2.l(a) and (b) contain pertinent data on the U.S. Standard Atmosphere up to 352,272 ft (86 km). Figure 2.11 shows the temperaturealtitude profile of this altitude range.
Example 2.6 Assuming that the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 is correct, estimate the error in temperature and pressure made at 16,400 ft (5
km) by assuming that the atmosphere fromsea level to that altitude is (a)
incompressible, (b) isothermal, and (c) isentropic.
66
Chapter 2
180
18'0
200
220
240
260
280
I
300
Temperature (K)
Figure 2.11 Temperaturealtitudeprofile, U.S. StandardAtmosphere
1976.
Solution
Fluid Statics
67
(b) Incompressible
1. Obtain fluid data from Tables 2.1, 18.1, and 18.3.
2. Integrating equation (2.5) for constant density and variable gravity
results in:
or
(c) Isothermal
4. By definition, Tz = To.
(c)
5. The term pz is calculated using equation (2.19) modified as follows:
(d) Isentropic
6. The term Tzis calculated using equation (2.16) as follows:
k  l
Tz =
To 
1"":
(7
[g,R( )
dre)]
(2)
Wk 1
Pz = Po
US.Units
(a) U.S. Atmosphere
0.00356(16,400  0) = 460.29"R
460.29 ~.234%9/(1.234%9~)
pz = 14.696 (518.67)
= 7.85psia
Tz = 518.67
Chapter 2
68
(b) Incompressible
1. FromTable 2.l(b), TO = 518.67"R, p. = 14.70 psia, p. = 0.07647
lbm/ft3. From Table Al, M = 28.97 lbmmol. From Table 18.2, k =
1.4.
R = 154Y28.97 =ftlbf/(lbm"R)
53.33 (1.43)
2. pz = 14.70
=
(a)
6.00 psia

7.85)/7.85 = 23.57%
= To = 518.67"R
32.17 X 16,404
32.17 X 53.33 X 518.67 X (1 + 16,400/20,860,000)
5. pz = 14.70exp
= 8.13psia
(dl
(d) Isentropic
6. Tz=518.67
'1 [
32.17 x 16,400
[l*;.;
32.17 x 53.33 x (1 + 16,400/20,860,000)
= 430.88"R
(e)
Error = 100 x (430.88  460.29)/460.29 = 6.39%
=
7.68 psia
SI Units
(a) U.S. Atmosphere
Fluid Statics
69
(1.43)
(a)
= 117.42 K
 255.71)/255.71
(b)
= 54.08%
(c) Isothermal
4.
Tz = To
288.15 K
(c)
9.80 7 X 5 000
1 X 287.0 X 2 88.15 X (1
+ 5 000/6357 000)
56 015 Pa
(dl
(d) Isentropic
'1 [
6.807 x 5 000
6. Tz = 288.15  le4l.;
1 X 287.0 X (1 + 5 00016357 000)
= 239.37 K
928
= 52
Pa
U.S.
SI
U.S.
SI
 54.10
 12.68
 6.39
 54.08
 12.68
 6.39
 23S 7
3.57
2.17
 23.68
3.56
2.17
Chapter 2
70
(2.22)
7 dA
The centroid of an area is the point at which the area might be concentrated and still leave unchanged the first moment of the area around any
Atmospheric
Pressure
surface
Liquid
Liauid
/
/
____)
Fluid Statics
71
0
Liquid level
dA = Si,A
(2.23)
where yc is the distance from the liquid surface00 to the center of gravity
of the area.
Force Exerted
The force F exerted at a depth h from the liquid surface is
(2.24)
Chapter 2
72
(2.25)
Fe)(y,A)
= (y sin
= yh,A
(2.26)
where h, is the vertical distance from the liquid surface to the center of
gravity. Equation (2.26) is a very important statement of fluid statics.
Example 2.7 The cylindrical tank shown in Figure 2.14 is 3 ft (914 mm)
in diameter and has its axis horizontal. Atthe middle of the tank, on top,
is a pipe 4 in. (102 mm) in diameter, which extends vertically. The tank
and pipe are filled with an oil whoseAPI gravity is 15.6 and whose temperature is 60F (15.66"C). The tank ends are designed for a maximum
force of 9000 lbf (40 kN). What is the safe maximum level of the free
surface of the oil in the pipe above the tank top?
Figure 2.14
73
Fluid Statics
Solution
+ 15.6) = 0.9619
(1.35)
F
c
?A
From Figure 2.14,
h
=
z = h .  d
c
2
and
ITd'
A =4
so that
z="
4F
ymd'
d
2
1. Obtain density of water from Table Al and compute specific weight
US.Units
1. From Table Al at 60C, p
, = 62.37 lbm/ft3.
y = 0.9619 X 62.37 X 32.17/32.17 = 59.99 lbf/ft3
2. z = 4 X 9OOO/(59.99 X
IT
SI Units
1. From Table Al at 15.56"C, pw = 999.1 kg/m3.
y = 0.9619 X 999.1 X 9.807/1 = 9 425 N/m3
2.
IT
(914 X 103)21
 914 x 103/2
(a)
=
6.01 m
(c)
74
Chapter 2
or
(2.27)
where Y F is the distance from the liquid surface to the point where F
would act if it were concentrated in one location (center of force). From
equation (2.25), dF = ?(sin 8)y dA and from equation (2.26), F = y c A
sin 8. Substituting in equation (2.27),
Noting that Jy2 dA is the second moment or moment of inertia or Io, and
substituting in equation (2.28),
(2.29)
Because equation (2.29) requires that the moment of inertia around the
liquid surface be known, it is not always convenient
to apply. To transfer
the moment of inertiato the center of gravity of the area, we mayproceed
as follows, using the parallel axis theorem:
dl0d=
A y2
= ( J J ,  Ay)
dA
(2.30)
J Ay dA
(2.32)
Fluid Statics
75
or
Water surface
FgateG
b
Figure 2.15
Chapter 2
76
Solution
(a)
ab
(4
The force exerted by the water on the gate is computed using equation
(2.26) and substituting values from equations (a) and (d):
Fwater = yhJ
y(b12
+ c)ab
(e)
The location of the force exerted by the water is computed using equation
(2.33) and substituting values from equations and (d).
IC
b
b2112
y F = y , + F =  + c + ycA
2
b12 + c
= b  
b2112
b12 + c
yab(b + 3c)
6
77
Fluid Statics
US.Units
1. From Table Al at 68"F, p = 62.31 lbm/ft3.
(1.29)
2. Force on gate:
FGate
62.31 x 16 x 20 x (20
6
+3x
(9
SI Units
1. From Table Al at 20C, p = 998.2 kg/m3.
y = gp
=
gc
(1.29)
2. Force ongate:
FGate
2.9
Fzl = y V
= yacw
(2.34)
The second vertical force is the weight of the liquid below line BE and
above the curved line M.
Again fromthe definition of specific weightin
equation (1.29),
FZz = yV = y(areaME)w = yAw
(2.35)
The total vertical force acting on the surface AEw is the sum of these
two, or
Fz = Fz1
+ Ft2
(2.36)
Chapter 2
78
Liauidsurface
hFx
hFx
1""""""""""."CO
F*
Fz
Side view
End view
The upper vertical force Fzl acts through the center of gravity of area
BCDE, or from line AC, a distance of a/2. The lower vertical force Fz2
acts through the center of gravity of area ABE or a distance of x, from
line AC. The location xF where the combined force acts may be determined by taking moments around line AC:
or
XF
(aFz1/2) + ~ G F z ~
Fz
(2.37)
Substituting for FzI from equation (2.34), Fz2 from equation (2.35), and
F, from equation (2.36) in equation (2.37) and simplifying,
YF
+ XcA
+A
(a2c/2)
ac
(2.38)
Fluid Statics
79
F, = &Ap
(2.39)
where h, is the distance from the liquid surface to the center of gravity
of the projected area AEE'A'. From Figure 2.16, h, = c + b/2, and the
projected area Ap = bw. Substituting in equation (2.39),
F,
yhcxAp = y(c +
(2.40)
b/2)bw
F = 
(2.43)
This force F will act at the intersection of hFxand xG, shown in Figure
2.16 as CF (center of force).
Example 2.9 The curved surface shown in Figure 2.16 is immersed in a
tank filled with a liquid whose specific weight is 50 lbf/ft3 (7 850 N/m3).
The edge EE' is horizontal and is30 ft (9.14 m) below the liquid surface.
The curved surface is a parabola whose vertex is at A . The horizontal
distance a is 20 ft (6.10 m), the vertical distance b is 24 ft (7.32 m), and
the width W is 10 ft (3.05 m). Calculate (a) the magnitude and (b) location
of the total liquid force on the surface AEw.
Solution
3a
8
Chapter 2
80
+ b)/2
( 4
+b2 c + 
a2 c + 236)2
2. The location of the vertical force is computed by substituting equations (a) and (b) in equation (2.38):
a2c
a2c
+
ZGA  + (3a/8)(2ab/3)
2
FF =
ac + A
ac + (2ab/3)
(C
):
2b
c+3
(0
U.S.units
1. The total force is
+ 24
=
599,213 lbf
(20/2)(30 2412)
= 9.13 ft
30 + 2 x 24/3
30
+ 2412 + 3024212
+ 24/2 = 43.14 ft
(20
T)
Fluid Statics
81
SI Units
1. The total force is
F = 7 850
2 X 7.32)2
3
+ 7.329.14(
7
2
;)
+
= 3 037298 N = 3 037 kN
(6.1012)(9.14
7.3212)
= 2.78 m
9.14
2 x 7.3213
+ 7.3212 + 9.147.32112
+ 7.3212 = 13.18 m
(2.42)
FL or MLT
U.S.: lbflin
SI: kPa
Tensile Stress
When the internal pressure exceeds the external, the size of the container
is increased because of the elasticity of the container material. This increase in size produces tension .in the structure, and hence the material
is subjected to tensile stress.
Thin Wall
All stress relations developedin this chapter are based onthe assumption
that stress in a given cross section is uniform. For this to be valid it is
Chapter 2
82
necessary that the thickness of the walls with respect to the size of the
container be small. For the purpose of defining thin, pipes whose wall
thickness is less than onetenth of their internal diameters will be considered thinwalled.
Pipes
Figure 2.17 shows a cylinder subjectedto an internalpressure. The stress
produced may be reduced to longitudinal (3,) and circumferential (S,)
components. Figure 2.17(a) shows the circumferential areas and 2.17(b)
shows the forces. The fluid force FP = FAp, where F is the difference
(C)
Figure 2.17
Stress in pipes.
Fluid Statics
83
FP = FAp = F DL
F, = S,A, = S,2twL
which reduces to
(2.44)
For the longitudinal component, Figure 2.17(c) shows
the areas and Figure
2.18(d) showsthe stresses. The fluid force F = FA, where A is the crosssectional area and equal to nD2/4. The resisting force FL = S A L where
AL is the area of the annulus and is equal to the difference between the
crosssectional areas (D + 2tw)2/4and nD2/4, which reduces to ntw(D+
t,). Since twis small with respect to D, AL = ntwD. From the freebody
diagram of Figure 2.17(d)the resisting forces must equalthe fluid forces,
or
F = FA = pnD2/4 = FL = S A L = SLTtw(D t,) = SLntwD
which reduces to
(2.45)
Dividing equation (2.44) by equation (2.45),
S,
= 2t,D
or
SL = FISL 4twD
2
Fsc
Design Equations
The American National Standard ANSIIASME B.31.1 Codefor Pressure
Piping recommends an equation which may be derived from equation
(2.44) as follows: replace t,by t,  A,, where t, is the minimum wall
thickness and A, is additional wall thickness required to compensate for
material removed in threading, grooving, etc., and to provide for me
Chapter 2
84
Piping Schedules
Table C3 shows someproperties of wrought steel and wrought iron pipe
from American NationalStandard ANSI B36.101970. In 1939 the B36.10
committee surveyed the pipe sizes then in use and assigned schedule
numbers to them. These numbers were based on an allowanceof 0.1 for
A,, y = 0, and r,,, = 7t,/8, where t, is schedule thickness, and the factor
7/8 to allow for a 124% variation in wallthickness. Substitutingin equation
(2.461,
F
Sa
2(7ts/8  0.1)
= N s
Do  2(0)(7tS/8  0.1) 1000
"
"
or
(2.48)
where N , is the schedule number.
The relationship N , = 1000p/~aisveryapproximateowing to the
rounding off of values of existing sizes andthe variation between equations (2.47) and (2.48) and should not be used for design. Schedule numbers always give conservative values. In using piping schedules, values
of t,,, must be increased by wall thickness tolerance to obtain t, and the
values of ts selected must alwaysbe equal to or greater than the calculated
value of t,. For design the AmericanNational Standards Codes must be
used.
Example 2.10 A carbon steel pipe is required for 1800 psig (12.4 MPa
gage) and 300F (149C) service. The pipe must have a minimum flow
Fluid Statics
85
area of 0.6 ft2 (55 750 mm2). The ANSVASME B31.11986 gives a value
of A, = 0, y = 0.04, and an allowable stress of 15.0 x IO3 psi (103.4
MPa). For a mill tolerance of 12.5% for wall thickness, what pipe size
and schedule should be used?
Solution
23,
+ 2y7i + A,
From Table C3 select the schedule number that satisfies both the
minimum area and thickness requirements.
U.S.Units
1. The approximate pipe size is
D = (4 x 0.6 x 144/,rr)0.5 = 11 in.
selected. From
(b)
1800 x 12.750
2 x 15,000 + 2 x 0.4 x 1800
+ 0 = 0.730 in.
Chapter 2
86
Note that Schedule 120 with ts = 1.00 in. and A = 0.6303 ft2 would
have also met the requirements but would be a very conservative
design.
SI Units
1. The approximate pipesizeis
D = (4
55 75O/~r)O.~
= 266 mm
12.4 x 323.9
2 x 103.4 + 2 x 0.4 x 12.4
+ 0 = 18.53 mm
mm
4. From Table C3for 323.9 mm Do pipe (Schedule loo),
f,= 8tJ7 = 8 X .18.53/7 = 21.18
> 21.18 mm
62 020 mm2 > 55 750 mm2
f, = 21.44 mm
A =
Fluid Statics
87
DAlemberts Principle
Jean Le Rond dAlembert (17171783), a French scientist, noted that
Newtons second law couldbe written as
f  =ma
O
(1.10)
gc
where  m d g , is a fictitious force and is sometimes called the reversed
effective force or the inertia force. This principlemay be used to reduce
a problem of dynamics to one of statics. In the derivation of the basic
equation of fluid statics, equation (2.4), the body force accelerations ax
a,,,and a, were assumed to act opposite the directions x , y , and z, respectively. With the employment of the inertia force concept then the
accelerations maybe assumed to act in the directions of x , y , and z,
respectively, in equation (2.49).
Translation
Consider the liquid mass shown in Figure
2.18 being uniformlyaccelerated
upward at an angleof p and a rate of a.The acceleration in the y direction
ay is zero. Letting p2  pl = ps  p (where ps is the surface pressure),
x2  x1 =  L , z2 . z 1 = h, and ay = 0. Equation (2.48) becomes:
which reduces to
P
Ap = p  ps =  [(a,+ g ) h  axLI
gc
or
Ap = 0, h = ho, L = LO
(2.49)
Chapter 2
88
Figure2.18
P
[(az + g)ho  ad01
gc
which reduces to
h0
= = tan0
Lo a, + g
AP
(?)($)
(2.50)
+
h ( L = 0)
(2.51)
Fluid Statics
89
Comparing equation (2.51) with equation (2.6), b p = yh for an unaccelerated liquid, it becomes evident that the ratio of the two is 1 + =,/g.
The horizontal force may be obtained by multiplying equation (2.39) by
this ratio, or:
(2.52)
In a like manner the vertical force is the effective weight of the liquid
above the bottom and may be obtained by multiplying equation(2.34) by
the same ratio:
(2.53)
Example 2.11 The open tank shown in Figure 2.18 contains 200 ft3 (5.66
m3) of water whose specific weightis 62.42 lbf/ft3 (9 790 N/m3). The tank
is 6 ft (1.83 m) high, 5 ft (1.52 m) wide, and 10 ft (3.05 m) long. The angle
of the incline is 30". Determine (1) the maximum acceleration to which
the tank may be subjected without spilling any water, (2) the maximum
end force during the acceleration, and (3) the total force required to acceleiate the fluid mass.
Solution
 H,
and
a cos
a sin p
+g
90
Chapter 2
Solving equation (c) for a and substituting from equation (b)for ho:
g
a = (Lo/ho)cos p  sin
P
( 4
2. The maximum end force during the acceleration. The maximum end
force will occur on the end A (maximum height of water) and may
be calculated using equation (2.52) noting that h, = H12 and A, =
WH.
3. The total force required to accelerate the fluid mass: The total force
may be calculated from equation (1 .lo) and noting from equation
(1.29) that y = pg/g,:
US.Units
Given: H = 6 ft, W = 5 ft, Lo = 10 ft, V = 200 ft3, p = 30".
1. The maximum acceleration without spilling water:
a =
32.17
= 19.32 ft/sec2
[10/2(6  200/10 x 5) cos 30"  sin 30"
F, = 62.42 1
9'66
+ 232.17)
x 62  7305 1bf
F = 62.42
SI Units
Given: H
(0
Fluid Statics
91
9.807
[(3.0512(1.83  5.6613.05 x' 1.52)] cos 30"  sin 30"
= 5.88 m/s2
a, = 5.88 cos 30" = 5.09 d s 2
F, = 9790 1
2.94
1.52
+9.807)
x 1.83*
= 32 386 N
2
(0
Example 2.12 The Utube manometer shownin Figure 2.19 with vertical
legs 20 in. (508 mm) apart is partly filled with a liquid to be used as an
accelerometer. I t is installed on an automobile that is accelerated uniformly from 15 mph (6.71 d s ) to 50 mph (22.35 4 s ) on a level road.
What is the difference in level between the two legs during the acceleration?
Solution
a X
Chapter 2
92
ax =
dV AV
 ="
dt
At
V2
 V1
t
or
US.Units
15 Is) (
h0
5280 ftlmi
= 3.422 ft/sec2
3600 seclhr
ax =
20 x 3.422
= 2.13 in.
32.17
SI Units
ax =
22.35  6.71
= 1.043 m/s2
15
h0 =
508 x 1.043
= 54.01 mm
9.807
Rotation
Consider the fluid mass shown in Figure2.20 being rotated around the z
axis at a constant angular velocity of W radians per second. The acceleration of the fluid mass p dy dx dz is w2x (radially inward). The acceleration in the y direction a,,is zero, and gravity is the only force in
the z direction, so that a, is also zero. Using the inertia force concept
discussed in conjunction withtranslation, ax = w2x and equation (2.4)
for rotation becomes
dp = P (o*x dx
gc
+ g dz)
(2.54)
Fluid Statics
93
ccelerated liquid
Line of
constant
pressure
I
I
I2
I2
YO2
dp = 
x dx  y
i2
dz
(2.55)
Chapter 2
94
From equations (2.56) through (2.58), it may be seen that all constant
pressure lines includingthe surface are parabolic (Table Cl). The volume
of a paraboloid of revolution is onehalf
that of its circumscribed cylinder.
If no liquid is spilled, then
zs =
h0
z
(2.59)
If some liquid is spilled then equation (2.59) represents the surface distance after rotation.
Pressureheight relations for the rotating fluid may be established by
letting X I = x2. Then equation (2.55) becomes
 P11
= y(z2  Zl)
b p = yh
( x constant)
(P2
or
Note that this is the same as for unaccelerated fluids.
Example 2.13 The open cylindrical tank shownin Figure 2.21 is 3 ft (914
mm) in diameter and 20 ft (6 096 mm) high. It is filled to the brim with
62.15 lbt/ft3 (9765 N/m3)androtated
water whosespecificweightis
around its vertical center line at 200 rpm. Determine (1) the volume of
water spilled and(2) the gage pressure exerted by the liquid onthe bottom
of the tank 1 ft (305 mm) from the center line.
Solution
This example is solved usingthe principles and equations from this section. The rotational speed is calculated as follows:
o = 21~(200/60) = 20.94 rad/sec
1.
Volume spilled. Since the tank wasfullbefore rotation, the crosshatched area in Figure 2.21 is a paraboloid of revolution representing
Fluid Statics
95
21
= zo 
w2r$
2g
which reduces to
(c)
96
Chapter 2
US.Units
1.Volumespilled:
V =
IT
20.94 X (3/2)4
= 54.19 ft3
4 X 32.17
(b)
+ 62.15 X
20
1. Volumespilled:
V =
IT
4 x 9.807
2. Gage pressure
+ 9765
1.53m3
at bottom of tank:
x 6
094 x
= 34.22 kPa (gage)
= 34
223
N/m
97
Fluid Statics
b  d
Axis of rotation
'
20
+
x,
US.Units
2 x 25' x 10 x (1312)
32.17
= 150,474 lbf/ft'
= 150,174/144 = 1,045psi
p2  p1 = 58.81 [
33]
SI Units
p2
 p1
= 9 238
,.,]
9.807
= 7 204 631 Pa = 7 205 kPa
~
Chapter 2
98
(1) a body immersedin a fluid is buoyed up bya force equal tothe weight
of fluid displaced by the body, and (2) a floating body displaces its own
weight of the fluid in which it floats. These principlesare readily proved
by the methods of Section 2.9.
Buoyant Force
Consider the body ABCD shown in Figure 2.23. Dashed linesAE and BF
are vertical projections. The force Fzd exerted by the fluid vertically on
the body is the weight of the fluid above ABC. This weight is
Fzd = Y ~ E A C B F
(2.60)
In a like manner, the upward vertical force is the weight above ABD, or
= YVEADBF
(2.61)
(2.62)
Thus the buoyant force is the weight of the fluid displaced and always
acts upward.
Fluid Statics
99
FB = ~ V A B D
The weight of the body Fg acts downward, so that for vertical equilibrium
CFz=O=FgFs
or
FB = FR
 FB  F=
(2.65)
Chapter 2
Fluid Statics
submerged, or:
Fg = Yfvd/2
Using the free body diagram of Figure 2.25 and equation (2.65):
FL = FB  F8 = YcVc = YAVd
+ VC)  Yfvd/2
v,
vd = .rrd2L/4:
.rr x 429
= 42.08 ft3
8(150/64  1)
SI Units
v,
1.222 X 2.74
= 1.21 m3
8(23.5/10.1  1)
IT
C =
4 F g l ~ y D2B
d2
102
Chapter 2
US.Units
(4 X 0.02/1~X 78)  (0.5/12)2 X (2112) = o.342 ft
(0.125/12)2
= 0.342 x 12 = 4.11 in.
C =
SI Units
(4 X 90 X IO^)^ X 12250)  (13 X IO^)^ X 50 X
(3 X 103)2
= 0.100 m
= 100
C =
(b)
Chapter 2
3.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is concerned with establishingthe basic relationshipsof velocity witharea in flowsystems and withthe continuity equation. Methods
of reducing two and threedimensional flowsto onedimensional are illustrated.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are familiar with fluid
kinematics andlor the continuity equation. It is suggested that those who
are interested in boundary layer phenomena read this chapter first.
This chapter may be used as a text for tutorial or refresher purposes.
Each concept is explained and derived mathematically
as needed. In keeping with the concept of minimum mathematics, the vector approach is
not used.There are seven tutorial type examples
of fully solved problems.
3.2 FLUID KINEMATICS
Fluid kinematics is the branch offluidmechanics that deals with the
geometry of fluid motion without considerationof forces causing motion.
It will be assumedthat any fluid particle is very large in size with
respect
to a molecule and is hence continuous, so that we are concerned with a
continuum.
105
106
Chapter 3
If at every point in the continuum the local velocity U,and any other
fluid property, remains unchanged with time,the flow is said to be steady
flow. Whileflow is generally unsteady by nature, many real cases of
unsteady flow may be reduced to the case of steady flow, a case that is
far easier to analyze mathematically. One technique for doing this is to
use a temporal mean or average.
Fluid
107
\\
Consider the velocity U' at a point in space and time shownin Figure
More generally,
1
(instantaneousfluid property) d t
This technique may be used for small cyclic variations of fluid properties such as in turbulent flow or for large but rapidly changing cycles
such as those producedbyhighspeedreciprocatingmachinery.
The
amount of error produced will, of course, vary with the application.
Another technique that may be used that is free of error is to change
the space reference. Considerthe boat shownin Figure 3.2 moving in still
water with a speed of V,. As the boat passes point A located at xl, y1 the
wave produced will cause the fluid at point A to change froma velocity
of zero to a complicated variation with time until long
after the boat has
passed beforeit returns to zero again. If the point of reference is switched
Chapter 3
108
I(
4''
EL
*.*
I
Streak of a particle
Fluid
109
3.5 VELOCITYPROFILE
Volumetric Flow Rate
In the flow of real fluids, the individual streamlines will have different
velocities past a section. Figure 3.5 shows the steady flow of a fluid in a
circular pipe. The velocity profile is obtained by plottingthe velocity U
of each streamline as it passes section AA. The streamtube that is formed
by the space between the streamlines is an annulus whose area normal
A
Figure 3.5
Velocityprofile.
Chapter 3
110
to the flow isdA as shown in Figure 3.5for the streamtube whose velocity
is U.
The volume rate of flow Q past section AA is given by
Q = l U d A
(3.3)
Average Velocity
In many engineering applications,the velocity profile is nearly a straight
line or can be reduced to one so that the average velocity V may be used.
The average velocity V is defined as follows:
(b) Twodimensional
flow
Fluid
111
Depth
ft
(m)
ftlsec
(&S)
surface
(0)
1.18
(0.360)
115 depth
(1.524)
1.26
(0.384)
215 depth
(3.048)
10
1.16
(0.354)
315 depth
15
0.95
(0.290)
415 depth
(6.096)
20
0.55
(0.168)
bottom(7.620)
25
(0)
(4.572)
Estimate (1) the volumetric flow rate and (2) the average velocity of
the water as it flows past this section.
Solution
112
Chapter 3
and streamtube concepts rather than to obtain maximum numerical accuracy, the trapezoidal rule is used to solve this example.
(a) Apply the trapezoidal rule.
Divide the velocity profile into five evenly spaced depths Ay based on
the six measured velocities. The measured velocities may then be considered streamlines and the spaces between them streamtubes. Assume
that the velocity of a streamtube is the average of its bounding streamline
velocities.
1. Volumetric flow rate. For each streamtube, the volume flow rate is:
Q=
U d A = UW
2 QIA = C QIWyo
US. Units
1. Volumetricflow rate:
C Q = [$(1.18 + 0) +
1.26
x 100 x 2515
= 2255 ft3/sec
SI Units
1. Volumetricflowrate:
cQ
= [$(0.360
2. The averagevelocity:
V = 63.92/(30.48 X 7.620) = 0.275 &S
(dl
113
Example 3.2 Experiments with the flow of viscous fluidsin circular conduits indicate that when viscous forces predominate and laminar flow
takes place, the velocity profile is a paraboloid of revolution with the
maximum velocity at the center of the conduit. Derive a relationship between the average velocity and the center line or maximum velocity.
6).
which reduces to
U = U,,, 1 
Q2]
U , and sub
114
Chapter 3
dAdr= 2nr
7
From Figure 3.8, dA = 21rr dr; substituting this relationfor dA and also
for U from equation (b) in equation (3.4),
v = urn
2
or
U,,, = 2V
Example 3.3 Velocity profile for turbulent flowin smooth circular pipes
may be empirically expressed by:
U
=
urn
(I
 ;)a
115
Fluid
From Figure 3.8, d A = 2nr dr, substituting this relation for d A and also
for U from equation (a) in equation (3.4):
V
=
ua(rO
U)
(du)
 (ro  r)a+2
a+2
Finally,
For a =
ro
urn
(dl
(a
4,
V Urn (V7
+ l ) ( a + 2)
+ l)(1/7 + 2) = 0.8167
(1.23)
2gc
For a streamtube, the kinetic energyKE flowing pasta section isthe sum
of the kinetic energies of all the streamtubes, or
KE =
1

U2(Ud A ) =  U3 d A
(3.5)
2gc
2gc
For onedimensional flow U = V = constant, so that equation (3.5) becomes:
KE =
Chapter 3
116
Correction
Let a (alpha) be a correction factor to reduce the kinetic energyof twoand threedimensional flowsto onedimensional flow, or:
a =
V3A/2g,
KEonedimensional
'I );(
a =A
(3.7)
dA
($
U = Urn [ l so that
Um/2
1 
(3'1
V =u2rn
and
=2
1  LJ2]
1
( 9 2 ] 3
dr
Fluid Kinematics
a =
a =
117
1
(92]3
dr = (8)
[l  ro
 (S)];= 2{[1$]
($)[l
 [I
($)
dr
;l}
Solution
This exampleis solved by usingthe relation betweenV and U,,,
developed
in Example 3.3 and using
this relationship in equation (3.7). From equation
(e) of Example 3.3:
V 
"
U,
(a
+ l)(a + 2)
a =
[(a
;3;+2];
(8)
118
Finally,
a =
[(a
4(3a
+ 211~
+ 1)(3a + 2)
For a = f,
a =
119
Fluid Kinematics
Continuity Equation
This equation is a special case of the general physical lawof the conservation of mass. It may be stated simply that the mass flow rate entering
a system is equal to the mass rate of storage in the system plusthe mass
flow rate leaving the system. Consider the flow system shown in Figure
3.10. Fluid is being suppliedto the tank by means of the pipe at the rate
rizl = plAIVl and leaves the system at the rate of riz2 = p2A2V2. If the
amount supplied is greater than that leaving, then the tank level z will
i
z
,= pA(dz/dt). We
rise and fluidwill be stored in the tank at the rate of r
can now state:
Mass rate entering = mass rate of storage + mass rate leaving
h,= r
i
z
, h*
Chapter 3
120
Steady State
If the amount supplied is equal to the amount removed, then dz is zero
or there is no storage. Equation (3.10) becomes:
rit = plAlVl = pzAzV2 =
(3.10)
= pnAnVn = PAV
VA

(3.11)
The mass flow rate is constant any place in a steadystate system. For
compressible fluid, it is sometimes convenientto use a differential form
of equation (3.11), which may be obtained by writing it in logarithmic
form and differentiating, notingthat rit is a constant:
loge V
dV
v
dv
(3.12)
(3.13)
0
""
Example 3.6 A 12 in. size schedule 40 steel pipe reduces to a 6 in. size
schedule 40 pipe and then expands to an 8 in. size schedule 40 pipe, as
Fluid Kinematics
121
shown in Figure 3.11. If the average velocity in the 12 in. size pipe is
13.12 ft/sec (4 m/s), compute the average velocity in the 6 in. size and
the 8 in. size pipes, for any incompressible fluid.
Solution
(a)
Noting that for an incompressible fluid p is a constant and that the pipe
area = rd2/4. Substituting in equation (a) and simplifying:
h = p12AnVn = P&vn
PsAsVs
dT2V12 = dgv6 = d f v s
(b)
v6
v
8
(c)
VI~(~IZ&)~
and
vs = V 1 2 ( d n / d s ) ~
( 4
Note that for incompressible flow in circular pipes, the velocity varies
inversely with the square of the diameter.
From Table C3, Schedule 40, steel pipe:
Pipe size
6 in.
8 in.
12 in.
Internal diameter, ft
(mm)
0.5054
0.6651
0.9948
(154.1)
(202.7)
(303.3)
U.S. Units
v6 = V12(d12/d6)~
= 13.12(0.9948/0.5054)2 = 50.83 ft/SeC
vs = V12(d12/ds)~
= 13.12(0.9948/0.6651)2 = 29.35 ft/sec
(c)
(dl
S I Units
v6 = V12(dlz/ds) = 4(303.3/154.1)2
vs = V12(d12/ds)~
= 4(303.3/202.7)2
= 15.50 m/S
(c)
= 8.96 m / S
( 4
Example 3.7 Air discharges froma 12in. size standard steel pipe through
a 4 in. (100 mm) inside diameter nozzle into the atmosphere, as shown
Chapter 3
122
12 in. size Std S t e e l p i p e 7
in Figure 3.12. The pressure in the duct is 20 psia (140 kPa), and atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia (101 kPa). The temperature of the air in the
pipe just upstream of the nozzle is 140C (60C), and the velocity is 18
ft/sec (5.5 m/s). For isentropicflow, compute (1) the mass flow rate and
(2) the velocity in the nozzle jet. (Assume that the isentropic exponent
of air has a constant value of 1.4.)
Solution
The specific volume of the air in the pipe may be calculated from
equation (1.42), pv = RT, and Eq. (1.43), R = R,/M
RuTp
PP
MPP
Substituting equation (b) in equation (a):
v,==
RTp
2. Solvingequation(a)
v,
($p)(;)
v,
($)2
Fluid Kinematics
123
3. Common data. From Table C3for a 12 in. size standard steel pipe,
d,
= 1 ft (304.8
A, = 0.7854 ft (72
970
mm)
m')
From Table Al for air, M = 28.97. From Section 1.14, R, = 1545
ft/lbf/(lbmmol"R) (8 314 Jkg.mo1.K).
US.Units
T, = 140
+ 460 = 600"R
Aj = ~(4/12)~/4
= 00873 ft2
1. Massflow rate:
= 1.272 lbm/sec
(c)
2. Jet velocity:
Vi = 18
= 201.8
ft/sec
SI Units
Tp = 60
+ 273 = 333 K
Aj = ~ ( 1 0 0X 103)2/4
= 7 854 x
m'
1. Massflow rate:
m = 72 970 x
= 0.588
kg/s
2. Jet velocity:
Vj = 5.5
(100)
(E)
~
111.4
304.8
= 64.52 m/s
AVp
RT
RUT
e)@
in the solution of
(3.15)
VI
'ln
(idealgasonly)
(3.16)
4.1
INTRODUCTION
FLUID DYNAMICS
Fluid dynamics is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with energy
and force. This chapter considers the equation of motion, the energy
equation, and the impulsemomentum equation. The continuity equation
was developed inChapter 3 as a special case of the principle of the conservation of mass. The equation of motion is an applicationof Newtons
second lawto fluid flowin a streamtube. The energy equationis a special
124
and
Dynamics
Fluid
125
case of the principle of the conservation of energy. Theimpulsemomentum equationwas developedin Chapter 1 as a special case of the equation
of motion.
The equation ofmotionwas first developedin 1750 by Leonhard Euler
and is sometimes called the Euler equation, although Eulers equations
were writtenfor a frictionless fluid. Eulers equation laid
the groundwork
for an analytical approach to the study
of fluid dynamics. The introduction
of viscous effects allowsfor a more general interpretationof the equation
and makes it more applicableto the solution of practical problems.
The energy equation for steady flow is simply an accounting of all of
the energy enteringor leaving a control volume. Althoughan energy equation may be developedto consider all formsof energy, in fluid mechanics,
chemical, electrical, and atomic energies are not normally considered.
The impulsemomentum equation, along with the continuity equation
and energy equation, provides a third basic tool for the solution of fluid
flow problems. Sometimes
its application leads to
the solution of problems
that cannot be solved by the energy principle alone; more often it is used
in conjunction with the energy principle to obtain more comprehensive
solutions of engineering problems.
4.3 EQUATION OF MOTION
Derivation
2.
pg dA dLdz
gc
pg dA dz
= gc
(x)
dFf =
7
dP dL
(4.3)
Chapter 4
126
dP
AFQ
dz
C dF
dFp
+ dF, + dFf =
dA ( d p
dp dA
dA dz  7 dP dL
gc
+(4.4)
 p dAdUdL
gc
(x)
(p dA)(UdU)
gc
Udp
dU
dL dP
+gc +  +
PP(;j;i)=o
7
(4.7)
127
4.4
+U d U + v d p + m d L
gc
(g)
=0
(4.8)
HYDRAULIC RADIUS
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
flow
fluid
area = R  dA
h"=shear perimeter
dP
A
P
(4.9)
(4.11)
Example 4.1 A liquid flows in the rectangular duct shown in Figure 4.2
to a depth of 2 ft (0.61 m). If the duct is 6 ft (1.83 ,m) wide and 3 ft (0.91
m) deep, compute ( 1 ) the hydraulic radius Rh and (2) the equivalent diameter D,.
Solution
bh
(4
128
l
Chapter 4
D, = 4Rh
US. Units
1. The hydraulicradius:
6 x 2
R = 1.2ft
h  2 x 2 + 6
(c)
2. Equivalentdiameter:
D, = 4
1.2 = 4.8 ft
SI Units
1. The hydraulicradius:
Rh =
1.83 x 0.61
= 0.366 m
2 x 0.61 + 1.83
(4.1 1)
and
Dynamics
Fluid
129
2. Equivalentdiameter:
D,
= 4 x 0.366 = 1.464
(4.11)
Values of the fluid flowarea A and the hydraulic radiusR h and equivalent diameter D, for various cross sections are given in Table C2.
4.5 ONEDIMENSIONAL STEADYFLOW EQUATION OF
MOTION
gd z
&?c
+V dV
gc
m
+vdp+dL=O
(4.12)
Rh
 (22 gc
Zl)
 v: + 1 2 v d p
+ vf2gc
+I
1
Rh
mdL = 0
(4.13)
Let
(4.14)
VZ),
Multiplying equation (4.17) by gc/g and noting from equation (1.31) that
v = g/ygc results in
Chapter 4
130
(4.18)
or
Hydrody
Example 4.2 The system shown in Figure 4.3 consists of a 12 in. size
Type L seamless copper water tube that reduces to a 6 in. size tube and
then expands to an 8 in. size tube. Water (y = 62.31 lbf/ft3, 9 790 N/m3)
flows steadily and without friction through this system. At section 1 in
the 12 in. size, the pipe center line is 10 ft (3.05 m) above the datum, the
pressure is 20 psia (138 kPa), and the velocity is 4 ft/sec (1.22 m/s). At
section 2 in the 6 in. size, the center line is15ft (4.57 m) above the datum.
At section 3 in the 8 in. size, the center line is 20 ft (6.10 m) above the
datum. Find (1) the volumetric flow rate, (2) the velocity, and (3) the
pressure at sections 2 and 3 of Figure 4.3.
Solution
where H, is the total fluid energy at each section. The term H1 may
be calculated from section 1data:
(c)
reduces to
mlp = Q = AIVI = A2V2 = A3V3
(dl
131
3. At section 2,
V2
4.
= QIAZ
Atsection 3,
V3
QIA3
Size
ft (mm)
Section
1
2
3
12 in.
in.
8 in.
Chapter 4
132
U.S.Units
1. Totalhead:
Ht = 10
x 144
= 56.47 ft
62.31
+ 2 X 4'2032.17 "
Q = 0.7295
4 = 2.918 ft31sec
3. At section 2:
V2 = 2.918/0.1863 = 15.66fVsec
4.
At section 3:
V, = 2.91810.3255 = 8.96 ftlsec
SI Units
1. Totalhead:
Hr = 3.05
138
+ 2 x1.22'
9.807
103
9 790
= 17.22 m
3. At section 2:
V2 = 0.0827117320
p2 = 9 79017.22
10"j = 4.77 m / ~
 4.57 
4*772
2 x 9.807
= 112.5 kPa
(g)
4.
At section 3:
V3
= 0.0827/(30
250
= 2.74
m/~
2x
9.807
2.742
(h)
= 105.1 kPa
(i)
133
4.7
SPECIFIC POTENTIALENERGY
Note that equation (4.18) is the same as the first term of equation (4.13).
4.8
SPECIFIC KINETICENERGY
134
Chapter 4
Note that equation (4.19) is the same as the second termof equation (4.13).
Equation (4.19) may be used only for onedimensional flow. As was
shown in Section 3.6, the correction factor CL should be applied for twoand threedimensional flows. Application of equation (3.7) to equation
(4.19) results in
AKE =
a2v;
 CL1v:
2gc
(4.20)
where a1 and a2 are the kinetic energycorrection factors for the velocity
distributions at sections 1 and 2 respectively.
Note that equation (4.20) is seldom used in engineering practice. For
turbulent flow in pipes where the velocity is high the kinetic energy correction factor is nearly unity (see Example 3.5) and when the flow is
laminar the velocity is low and the kinetic energy correction factor is 2
(Example 3.4) the changein specific kinetic energy is usually insignificant.
l2
du = u2  ut
(4.21)
135
Units
For the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram
is used. For the U.S. customary units, conventional practice isto use the
British thermal unit per pound mass (Btuhbm). For fluid mechanics, it
will be necessary to convert the Btu to.ftlbf (778.2ftlbf = 1 Btu).
4.10 SPECIFIC FLOW WORK
Flow work is the amount of mechanical energy required to push or
force a flowing fluidacross a section boundary. Considerthe steadyflow
system shown in Figure 4.4. Fluid enters the system at section 1, where
the flow area is A , and the pressure is p l , and leaves at section 2, where
the flow area is A2 and the pressure p 2 . The force acting to prevent the
System boundaries
Flow direction
Section boundaries
Chapter 4
136
(4.22)
where p is the pressure at the section boundary andA is the flow area.
Substituting equation (4.22) in equation (1.16),
F W =m
1J F d r = J $ &
(4.23)
1=I;
d(:v)
4pmv) 
(4.25)
Units
For the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram
is used. For the U.S. customary units, conventional practice is to use the
British thermal unit per pound mass (Btdlbm). For fluid mechanics, it
will be necessary to convert the Btu to ftllbf (778.2 ftlbf = 1Btu).
and
Dynamics
Fluid
137
Figure 4.5
Nonflowshaftwork.
138
Chapter 4
cylinder expands and work is done by the fluid. If the piston were made
to retract, then the fluid would be compressed and work would bedone
on the fluid.
Equations
The force exerted by the fluid on the piston of Figure 4.5 is given by
F = pA
(4.22)
Substituting equation (4.22)in equation (1.16), noting that the area of the
piston A is a constant so that A dx = dV and that by definition V = mu,
results in
(4.27)
where Wnfis the specific shaft work.
Function
Equation (4.27)is a mathematical statement that the shaft work is the
area under the pressurespecific volumecurve of Figure 4.5.There are
an infinite number of ways that the fluid can change fromstate 1 to state
2. Shown in Figure4.5 are three curves which represent the paths of three
possible processes. Path 1y2was chosen to represent the actual path of
the process or state change. Had path 1x2been chosen, the amount of
work would have been greater; if 122,the work would have been less.
For this reason, shaft work is called a path function. Before equation(427) can be integrated, the pressurespecific volume relationship must be
known.
where W , is the steadyflow shaft work per unit mass. Because the differential of shaft work is inexact, the Greek symbol 6 is used instead of
d. Equation (4.28)may be then written as follows:
Wsf =
J SWSf
(4.29)
139
q = JTds
where q is the heat transferred per unit mass andS is the entropy per unit
mass.
Process
Heat may also be expressed as
4 =
L*
84
f 42
 41
(4.31)
where q is the heat transferred per unit mass. Note that the symbol 6 is
used in place of d to remind us that the differential of heat transfer is
inexact.
Equations (4.30) and (4.31) may be combined as follows:
q = J8q = JTds
(4.32)
Units
In the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram is
used for heat and the joule/kilogram kelvin is used for entropy. In the
U.S. system, the British thermal unit per pound mass is used for heat,
140
Chapter 4
and the British thermal unit/pound mass degree Rankine is used for entropy. For fluid mechanics, it will be necessary to convert the Btu to ftlbf and the Btu/lbm"R to ftlbf/lbm"F (778.2 ftlbf = 1 Btu).
4.14 STEADYFLOW ENERGY EQUATION
PotentialenergyAPE
g
=  (z2  ZI)
Kinetic
energy
AKE
gc
v=: v:
k
(4.18)
(4.19)
nd
Dynamics
Fluid
ansfer
141
AU
Internal energy
Flow work
In Transition
Shaft work
Heat
~2
AFW = ~
 ~1
2
(4.21)
~ plV1
2
(4.29)
SW,, = W,,
Jsq
(4.24)
(4.32)
= 9
(4.33)
In a steadyflow system, the energy stored in the system does not change
with time, so that for any given period of time, equation (4.33) reduces
to
CinEnergy
=C
outenergy
(4.34)
(4.35)
Consider the block diagram of Figure 4.7. The fluid enters the system
through section 1 transporting with it its stored energy,
vt
g
z2 +  + U 2 + p2v2
gc
2gc
Since heat (4)added to a system is considered positive,the arrow shows
heat being added between sections 1 and 2. In a like manner,the steadyflow shaft work ( W,,) is shown to be leaving between sections 1 and 2
because work done by the fluid is considered positive.
Chapter 4
142
Transitional
wsf
tI
Steadyflow
0
3
.C
C
.0
U,
PlV,
System
Path functions
143
(4.37)
and equation (4.37) may be written as:
q = Wsf
(4.38)
p2 =
69.27"F
(20.71"C)
t2
99.76
psia
(687.8
kPa)
= 362.0"F
(183.3"C)
v1 = 13.24ft3/lbm(0.8265m3/kg)
v2 = 3.049ft3/lbm(0.1904m'lkg)
V, = 42.63 ft/sec
(12.99
UI
= 90.96Btu/lbm(210.92kJ/kg)
m/s)
uz = 140.9Btu/lbm(327.7kJ/kg)
If the heat transferred out of the system is 16.73 Btu/lbm (38.91 kJ/kg),
and the outlet is 10 ft (3.05 m) above the inlet, find the steadyflow work
for each pound mass of air.
Solution
+ AKE + AU + AFW]
(a)
US. Units
1.
(4.32)
2. Substituting
+ 156021
(4.24)
144
Chapter 4
SI Units
1. Calculating the individual terms of equation (a):
4 = 38.91 X lo3 = 38910J/kg
(4.32)
30 J/kg
(4.18)
AU
(out of system)
509
1J/kg
(4.19)
4.15
(a)
g
( 2 2  21) +  v:
&?c
gc
i2
v dp
+ Hf
= 0
(4.39)
(4.40)
4 = WSf
gc
(22
 Zl)
v;  v:
+ u2  UI + i 2 v d p + 1 2 p d v
As the equations are now written, the equation of motion (4.39) contains no thermal energyterms and the energy equation(4.41) contains no
term for friction. If equation (4.39)is subtracted from equation(4.41) and
solved for Hf, the following is obtained:.
and
Dynamics
Fluid
145
Hf =
~2
 ~1
v2
q
(4.43)
4.5. Fluid does not cross the system boundaries so that no flow work is
performed, nor can there by any change in kinetic energy. Baause the
cylinder is horizontal, there is no change in potential energy. Of the six
forms of energy considered in Section 4.14 for the steadyflow equation,
only three, internal energy, shaft work, and heat transfer, need be considered for a nonflow system.
Transitional
t
q
Path functions
146
Chapter 4
P
Figure 4.9
+ Wnf
AU
(4.44)
AU
~2
~1
Wnf
P dv
L2
(4.45)
P dv
q=uzu1+
v$  v: + L 2 V d P
8
+(z2  z d +
gc
&?c
or
(4.46)
L2
v dp =
Wsf
+ APE + AKE
(4.47)
nd
Dynamics
Fluid
147
(4.48)
J2vdp
+ Ah =
L*
T ds
(4.49)
V
dp
+ dh
(4.50)
+ du
(4.51)
+ Ah
(4.51)
148
Chapter 4
Specific Heats
The specific heat of any substance is defined by the following equation:
c, =
(2)
(4.52)
6qu = p(0)
+ du = du
(Z),
CV
(4.53)
(S)
(4.54)
du = cu dT
Equation (4.55) may be used for any ideal gas process.
6qp =
+ dh = dh
u(O)
(g),
= c, =
(4.56)
(g)
(4.57)
and
Dynamics
Fluid
149
partial notation may be dropped and equation(4.57) may be then be written as:
d h = c, dT
(4.58)
dp
V
+ C, dT
(4.59)
v dp =
(S
constant)
(4.60)
+ cvdT
(4.61)
= cv dT
p
(S
= constant)
(4.62)
+ d(pv) = c, dT = cVdT + R dT
or
(4.64)
C,
C,,
%  5 =  =Rk  1 = 
CV
CV
CV
or
(4.65)
CV
R
k 1
150
Chapter 4
kR
(4.66)
k  l
[equa
(4.67)
 (C,
C,)
dT
(4.69)
l  n
+ c,dT
c,dT = ("
l  n
dT
+ c,
dT
(4.70)
or
cn =
c,
 nc,
In
151
The third term of equation (4.71) may be integrated by noting from equation (1.46) that v = vl(p1/p)lk,
so that:
i2
v dp = vlpiIk
dP
p/k
= vlpiIk
[k (
 1L
p(k)
~)lk]
(4.72)
l
( k  I)lk
 (22  Zl)
 v:
+ v,2gc
(h)
[e)
(4.73)
( k  1)lk
+ PIVl
 l]
= 0
Substituting from the equation of state (1.42) plul = RTI and from equation (1.47) T2/TI = ( p 2 / p l ) k  1 ) 1ink equation (4.73) results in:
(4.74)
1) andfromequation
(4.75)
The same result may be arrived at from the energy equation. For an
isentropic process, q = 0, and for no shaft work, Wsf = 0, and by definition u2  ul + p2v2 = p l v l = h2  h l . Substituting in equation (4.37):
q = Wsf
0 =0
(22
gc
2gc
 h1
 plvl
(4.75)
Chapter 4
152
(4.76)
4.18
IMPULSEMOMENTUM EQUATION
(1.28)
F =  ( V 2  V,)
gc
F (the summation of all forces acting) for F and from
Substituting
equation (3.10) m = pAV yields
(4.77)
In the application of equation (4.77), it must be remembered that velocity is a vector and as such has both magnitude and direction.
The
impulsemomentum equation is often used in conjunction with the continuity and energy equations to solve engineering problems. Because of
the wide variety of applications possible, some examples are given to
illustrate methods of attack.
In general, the free body method is used to compute the forces
involved on the boundaries on a control volume. The symbol F is used
for the force exerted by the boundaries on the fluid. There is an equal
but opposite force exerted by the fluid on the boundaries.
Example 4.4 Carbon dioxide flows steadily through a horizontal 6 in.
Schedule 40 wrought iron pipe at a mass rate of flow of 24 lbmlsec (11
kg/s). At section 1, the pressure is 120 psia (827 kPa) andthe temperature
100F (38C). At section 2, the pressure is 80 psia (552 kPa) andthe temperature is 109F (43C). Findthe friction force opposing the motion (see
Figure 4.10).
153
2
4 P A
PIA, m
v1
e
v2
Ff
Solution
This exampleis solved by the application of the impulse momentum equation (4.77), the continuity equation (3.11), and the ideal gas equation of
state (1.42).
1. Derive an equation for this application. From the free body diagram of Figure 4.10,
Solving equation (a) for F f , noting that for a pipe of uniform crosssection, A2 = A I = A :
= A(p1 
P2)
m2
&A
 (v2 
v1)
154
Chapter
2.Common data, from Table C3 for 6 in. Schedule 40 wrought iron
pipe, A = 0.2006 ft2 (18 650 mm2). From Table Al for C02, M =
44.01.
US. Units
R = R,/M = 154Y44.01 = 35.11 ftlbf/lbm
( I .43)
 242 x 35.11
(109
32.17 x 0.2006
80
1155  53 = 1102Ibf
+ 460 
100
x 144
120
+ 460)
x 144
( 4
SI Units
R = RJM
8314144.01 = 188.92J1kg.K
(1.43)
(43
273  37 + 273)
552 x IO3 827 x IO3
= 5 129  242 = 4 887 N
1 x650
18
( 4
Example 4.5 The vertical nozzle shown in Figure 4.11 discharges a circular jet of 86F (30C) at water at a mass flow rate of 7 lbm/sec (3.18
kg/$. The diameter of the jet is 1 in. (25.4 mm). A large circular disk
whose mass is 2.25Ibm(1.02kg) is held by the impact of the jet in a
horizontal position above the nozzle. For frictionless flow, what is the
vertical distance (22  zl) between the disk and the nozzle?
Solution
to the free body diagram of the disk, noting that since velocity is a
vector, the horizontal component of V3 is zero, gives:
elations
Energy
Fluid
and
Dynamics
155
3
2
v1
Nozzle
Noting that for the disk that A2 = A3 and that for an open jet p2 =
(a) may be reduced to:
p3, equation
v2
mdg

AIPI
4m
TDj2pl
From the Bernoulli equation (4.18), noting again that for an open jet
p2 =
p1:
z2
 ZI
2g
(e)
156
Chapter
US. Units
4 x 7
 z1 =
(T
X (1112) X 62.15
) 
(2.25
SI Units
4 x 3.18
22
 z1 =
X (25.4 X
= 1.52 m
32.17)
2 x 32.17
= 4.97 ft
(T
X 995.6
(e)
) 
(1.02 x 9.807)
3.18
2 x 9.807
(e)
This exampleis solved bythe application of the impulse momentum equation (4.77), the continuity equation (3.11), and the Bernoulliequation
(4.18). Since velocity is a vector, it is necessaryto reduce the forces into
their x and y components, as shown in Figure 4.12 (b). In the x direction
Vxl to Vx2 = 0 and in they direction, the velocity
the velocity changes from
changes from V,, = 0 to V,,. These velocities may be computed using
the continuity equation (3.11), noting that for an incompressible fluidp1
=P2=p:
and
157
FY
v,
(a)
P A
(W
158
Chapter 4
Solving equation (e) for F,, and substituting for V,, from equation
(4:
(0
Solving equation (g) for Fy, and substituting for Vy2from equation
(b):
(h)
4. The magnitude of the resulting force may be calculated from equation
(2.43):
F = 5.
6.
(9
E)
Common data, from Table Al for CCL at 68F (20C):p = 99.42
lbm/ft3 (1 592.5 kg/m3).
US. Units
1. Exit pressure p 2 :
p2 = 50 X 144
+ 32.17 8X xIT^1252
X 99.42
lbf/ft2
= 6,2501144 = 43.40 psia
2. Fx:
F,
= 144 X (50
 14.70)
1252
+ 32.17 X 4 Xx (6/12)2
X
= 998 + 25 = 1023 lbf
99.42
159
3. Fy:
Fy = 144 X (43.40  14.70)
[=(3:2)21
4 x 1252
' 32.17 X 7~ X (3/12)2 X 99.42
=
203
.4. F
F
5.
d1023'
e:
0 = tan"
(g)
=
16'30"
SI Units
1. Exit pressure p z :
p2
344750
1x 56.72
+ 1 X 87~'
X 1
592.5(152.4
X 103)4
(76.2 X
2. Fx:
F, = (344750
101330)
[71(m.4
4"
IO^)^
4 x 57.62
X (152.4 x 103)2 x 1592.5
+1XT
= 4440 + 114 = 4554 N
3. Fy:
+1X
= 903
T X
4 x 57.62
(76.2 X 103)2(1 592.5)
+ 457 = 1 360 N
160
4.
F
F = d 4 5542
5.
+ 1 3602 = 4 753 N
e:
Consider the typical thermal jet engine shown in Figure 4.13 moving at
a velocity of Vu.Air at a pressure of pa enters the inlet section whose
flow air is Ai and whose pressure is piat a mass flow rate of m,. The air
compressor is driven by the gas turbine that supplies Wsf of steadyflow
work. In the combustion chamber, fuel is supplied from the fuel tank at
a mass flow rate of mf producing q amount of heat. Products leave the
nozzle section whose exit area is Ai with a velocity F,at a pressure of
p j at a mass flow rate of ha + hf.
Treating Figure 4.13 as a "free body" diagram and applying equation
(4.77) and solving for engine thrust FT results in:
(4.78)
Noting that if inlet loss is neglected, then p a = piand for full expansion
of the nozzle p j = p a , equation (4.78) becomes:
(4.79)
In many practical applications the fuel flow rate m f is small when com
Cornpresaor
Air
Fuel Tank
lGesTurbine
FT
Nozzle Section
mi
Fluid
Relations
Dynamics
Energy and
161
FT=(&
gc
 V,)
(4.80)
The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid,
assuming that m f is small with regard to m,, produces an ideal power
input of Pi:
(4.82)
Note that for 100% ideal efficiency, & = V, and no power is produced!
The system efficiency E, is defined as the ratio of the useful power P, to
the power supplied P, or
E, = P,
PS
(4.84)
Example 4.7 An airplane whose jet engine is shown in Figure 4.13 flies
at a constant altitude where the temperature is  58F ( 50C) and at a
speed of 360 mph (161 d s ) . Heat in the amount of 425 Btu/lbm (989 kJ/kg)
is added to the air in the propulsion system. The system mass flow rate
is 12.5 lbdsec (5.67 kg/s) of air. Hot gases leave the gas turbineat 1292F
(700C). Assuming that the hot gas has the same properties as air and
neglecting the weight of fuel, determine (a)thrust produced, (2) maximum
propulsive efficiency, and (3) system efficiency.
Solution
Chapter 4
162
for jet velocity. Writing equation(4.76) in the notation of Figure 4.13 and
solving for the jet velocity vj results in :
.=J[
2gc q 
WSf
g (Zj gc
ZIJ
(kF
 (C 
TV)] +
v?
(4
Noting that for horizontal flight zv = zj and that the steadyflow work
Wsf produced by the turbine is required to drive the compressor, the net
Wsf is 0, and equation (a) reduces to:
E.
'
is calculated
2
1 + VJVV
4; Common data. From Table Al, for air M = 28.97, and from Table
A2, for air at 58F (50C) k = 1.402, and at 1292F (700C) k =
1.339. Average k = 1.371.
US. Units
First solve for jet velocity:
R = R,/M = 1545/28.97 = 53.33 (ftlbf)/(lbm"R)
(1.43)
nd
Dynamics
Fluid
163
J2
=
X 32.17
[330,735 
x 5333) (1
752
1.371
1+
 402)
528
2 107 ft/sec
1. Thrust:
FT = 12.6 [2107  5281 = 618 lbf
32.17
(c)
2. Idealefficiency:
E.
3. Systemefficiency:
E, =
618 x 528
= 0.0783 or 7.8%
12.6 x 330,735
SI Units
First solve for jet velocity:
R = R,IM 314128.97
= 8
= 287 Jl(kg*K)
TV = 50 + 273 = 223 K
Tj = 700 + 273 = 973 K
989 x lo3 = 643 m/s
1. Thrust:
FT
5.67
(646 1
161) = 2733 N
2. Idealefficiency:
E; =
2
= 0.4005 or 40%
6431161
3.Systemefficiency:
E, =
(1.43)
2733 x
= 0.0785 or 7.9%
5.67 X 989 X lo3
164
4.20
Chapter
ROCKET ENGINES
mjvj
FT =  + ( p i
8,
(4.85)
 pa)Aj
For full expansionin the nozzle pi = pa, so that equation (4.85) becomes:
mjVj
FT = 
(4.86)
8c
P,
FTV, =
mjvjv,
(4.87)
8c
The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid
produces an ideal power of Pi:
(4.88)
r
.
lxidizer
Combustion
Chamber
Nozzle Section
,
I
I
l
p . 4 1
..
* c
Pa
m
elations
Energy
Fluid
and
Dynamics
165
Example 4.8 A solidfueled rocket of the type shown in Figure4.14 produced a jet 6 in. (152.4 mm) in diameter with a velocity of 1,475 ft/sec
(450 d s ) and a density of 0.0482 lbm/ft3(0.772 kg/m3). Therocket velocity
in level steady flight is 1,100 ft/sec (335 d s ) . Determine (1) the thrust
produced, (2) useful power, and (3) maximum propulsive efficiency.
Solution
(4.87):
P , = FTV,
(c)
(4.89):
US. Units
mj = 0.0482 x
(a)
(b)
(c)
'
+ (1475/1100)2
SI Units
mj = 0.772 X T
(152.4
(a)
(b)
P , = 2 852
(C)
Ei =
335 =420
955
= 955 kW
2 x (4501335)
= 0.96 or 96%
1 (4501335)2
166
Chapter 4
4.21
PROPELLERS
Although propellers for ships and aircraft cannot be designed with the
energy and impulsemomentum relations alone, application of these relations to problems leads to some of the laws that characterize their operation.
Slipstream Analysis
The stream of fluid passing through the propeller of Figure 4.15 is called
the slipstream. Fluid approaches the slipstream with a velocity of V , and
leaves with a velocity V 2 . Within the propeller boundary, the velocity is
V, and work in the amount of W , is added between sections A and B by
the propeller. The inlet and outlet pressures are p 1 and p 2 , respectively,
and are equal to each other. The pressure at section A is p A and at B is
PB
v;  v: +p2
 P1
 0
(4.90)
gc
2gc
P
Writing equation (4.90)between sections 1and 2 and noting that if work
is added to a systemit has a negative sign (Section 4.14, Figure 4.7) and
that for a horizontal slipstream z2 = z1:
W,,
g (z2
+
W, +
Zl)
vi:  v: +=
p2
 p1
0
(4.91)
P
2gc
Between sections I and A where W, = 0 application of equation (4.91)
yields:
(4.92)
Between sections B and 2 where W , = 0 application of equation (4.91)
yields:
(4.93)
167
islipstream boundary
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
v,
k B o Propell
u n d a r y er
+v
I
I
l
I
I
Y v.
Work added
Slipstream
pressure
Ab
PIY
PlY
PAY
v;  v:
p2
2gc
When the fluid in the slipstream is isolated, it is notedthat between sections 1 and 2 the only force acting is that exerted by the propeller on the
fluid. This force results in the creation of the pressure difference ( p B p A ) over the propeller area A . This force must also be equalto the force
created by the change in momentum per second of the fluid between
sections 1 and 2. Therefore,
(4.77)
Chapter 4
168
v,
v
2
+ VI
2
(4.97)
The minimum ideal power is that required to change the kinetic energy
or
(4.99)
Ep =
OC
pAVp
(%
(4.100)
(4.101)
This problem is solved by using the continuity equation (3.10) and the
equations derived in this section.
1. Useful power, from equations (4.101) and (4.97):
V, = Vl/Ei
(a)
(b)
and
Dynamics
Fluid
169
P,
PAVP
(V2  VdVI
gc
PI@( VI /E;)
[VI(2/Ei  1) 4gc
Vl]Vl
Pp
PdE;
US. Units
From Table B.l, VI = 22 knots X 1.6878 = 37.14 ft/sec.
64 X
7~ X (14/12)* X 37.143
2 x 32.17 x 0.75
= 96,847 ftlbf/sec
96,847
==
176 hp
550
1. P, =
2. Pp = 176/0.75 = 235 hp
(4
(dl
SI Units
1026 X
131681 J/s
= 132kW
=
2. Pp = 13210.75
kW = 176
4.22
(dl
In Section 2.11 the effects of rotating a fluid mass were explored. This
type of rotating produces a forced vortex, so called because the fluid
is forced to rotate because energy is supplied from some
external source.
When a fluid flows through a bend, it is also rotated around some axis,
but the energy required to produce this rotation is supplied from the en
170
Chapter 4
t r"" "
II
i
!
 5 .
*.
*.,
X
Po
L
L"""""""":
Figure 4.16 Notation for flow in a curved path.
ergy already in the fluid mass. This is called a "free vortex" because it
is "free" of outside energy.
Consider the fluid mass p(ro  T i ) dA of Figure 4.16 being rotated as
it flows througha bend of outer radius r,, inner radiusri, with a velocity
of V . Application of Newton's second law to this mass results in:
Dynamics
Fluid
Relations
Energy and
171
Po  pi = 2
(52)
Pe2
+
ro
ri g,A
For a bend of square crosssection A = (ro  ri) and equation (a) becomes:
US. Units
From Table Al for 68F benzene (C&), p = 54.79 lbm/ft3.
2 x 54.79 x 82
Po  Pi = 32.17 x (2 + 1) x (2  l)3 = 72.66 lbf/ft
= 72.661144 = 0.505 psi
SI Units
From Table Al for 20C benzene (C6H6), p = 877.7 kg/m3.
Po  Pi
4.23
2 x 877.7 x 0.227
1 X (610 X 103 + 305 X 103)
X (610 X 103  305 X 10313
= 3 481 Pa
Consider the fluidjet whose area is A issuing froma nozzle witha velocity
of V , as shown in Figure 4.17. The fluid jet impinges on the blade, which
is moving at a velocity of U in the direction of the jet, and turns the jet
through an angle of 0 degrees.
172
Chapter 4
vy, = 0
Nozzle
v,,
7"
vU
FY
Assuming that the flow is without friction, the jet enters and leaves
the blade witha velocity of ( V  U)with respect to it. In the x direction,
the velocity V,, is ( V  U)and VX2 = ( V  U)cos 8. In the y direction,
V,, is zero, and V,, = ( V  U)sin 8.
Application of Eq. (4.77) in x direction yields:
 pA(V  U)'(COS8  1)
gc
(4.104)
 pA(V

 U)'
gc
sin 8
(4.105)
nd
Dynamics
Fluid
173
pA(V  U)(COS8  1)
3 [
+
PA(V
 g ~ 2sin
gc
pA(V  U)2
8c
I
(4.106)
pA(V  U)2
gc
pA(V 
U)
gc
V2  COS
e)
2pA(V  U)sin(8/2)
gc
The useful power producedis in the x direction andis the product of F,
(the force in the direction of blade movement and flow) computed from
equation (4.104) and the blade velocity U or
U)(COS8  l)U
gc
(4.107)
 PA( V  U)2(1  COS e)u
gc
The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid
produces an ideal power of Pi:
P,
Pi =
(F,)U = 
pA(V
pA(V  U)V2
(4.108)
2gc
The maximum (ideal) efficiencyEiis given by
E.=P
 ,=
Pi
PA(V
(4.109)
COS
e)(u/v)
Chapter 4
174
(a)
F=
2pA(V  U)sin(0/2)
gc
COS
(c)
0)V/g,
COS
(dl
0)( U/V).
US. Units
A = ~(1.5/12)~/4
= 0.01227 ft2
(a)
F = 2 x 79 x 0.01227 x (35 
x sin(80/2)/32.17 = 24.21lbf
(b)
2. The usefulpower:
P , = 79 X 0.01227(35 X [l  COS(~O)]
X 10/32.17
= 155.6 ftlbf/sec = 155.6/550 = 0.29 hp
(c)
3. The idealbladeefficiency:
E; = 2(1  10/35) X [l  COS(~O)]
X 10/35
= 0.337 or 33.7%
(dl
SI Units
m2
F = 2 X 1 265 X 1.134 X
= 107.9 N
(10.7  3.05)2
sin(80/2)/1
(b)
(a)
nd
Dynamics
Fluid
175
2. The usefulpower:
P,, = 1 265 X 1.134 X
X [l
 COS(~O)]
X (10.7
 3.05)*
X 3.05/1
(c)
3. The idealbladeefficiency:
Ei = 2 X (1  3.0Y10.7)
= 0.337 or 33.7%
[l  COS(~O)] X (3.05110.7)
(d)
5.1
INTRODUCTION
176
Gas Dynamics
177
Because the potential energy changesin ideal gas systems are usually
small compared with other energy changes, all systems in this chapter
are assumed to be horizontal, and thus z z  z1 = 0. It is further assumed
that the flow is onedimensional and that all fluids are in the ideal gas
stare.
AREAVELOCITY RELATIONS
5.3
Incompressible Fluids
Repeating the continuity equation in differential form from Section3.7,
dV
dA dp
+"=o
+
(3.14)
dA
"
Chapter 5
178
Compressible Fluids
The equation of motion (4.12) for a horizontal system (dz = 0) and for
frictionless flow (7 = 0) becomes
V dV
gc
+ v d p
V+dV= o
gc
dp
P
(5.3)
v2
9
V+d V=  dp
pv2
&V2
dV
gcv
( E dvlv)
=o
V2(Egc/c2)
(5.4)
or
In Section 3.7 the continuity equation (3.13) was developed in the following differential form:
dV
dA
+
dv
 0
v
(3.13)
""
dV
V
Gas Dynamics
179
(1)
V < c, M
(2)
V = c, M = 1
(3)
> c, M > 1
dAIA varies
as dVIV
dAIA
equals
zero
dAIA varies
as dVIV
Velocity subsonic
If area increases, velocity decreases. Same as for incompressible flow.
Velocity
sonic
Sonic
velocity
can exist only
where the change in area is zero,
i.e., at the end of a convergent
passage.
Velocity supersonic
If area increases, velocity
increasesreverse of incompressible flow. Also, supersonic velocity
can
exist only in the
expanding portion of a passage
after a constriction where sonic
(acoustic) velocity existed.
5.4
p v = RT
2.
1ao
Chapter 5
pressed as
AlVl
AzV2
AV
m==V
v1
v2
Derivation of Equations
For an ideal gas, equation (4.74) may be written as:
RkT
k  l
2g,
V$
2gc
(5.9)
(5.10)
Stagnation Condition
The stagnation state exists when the velocity is zero and hencethe Mach
number is also zero (see Figure 5.1). Let To represent the temperature
when M = 0 ( V = 0): To is thestagnation temperature.In equation (5.10)
substituting TOfor Tl and T for T2 and M for M 2 results in:
T
=
To
(q + (v)
+ (F)
+
02
M'
[l
M
'
]
"
(5.11)
181
Gas Dynamics
T
Stagnation
T'
M =O
M =l
"
"
Supersonic Flow
.""
E=($)
Po
 1)
1
= { [ 1 + ( 7k M 1)2 ]
W(kl)
"
= [l
M(1k)
(5.12)
Chapter 5
182
Critical Conditions
Critical conditionsexist when the Mach number is unity.
Let T* represent
the temperature when M = 1, where T* is the critical temperature. Substituting in equation (5.11) T* for T and M* for M results in:
(5.14)
Let p* represent the pressure whenM = 1, where p* is the critical
pressure. Substituting in equation (5.12) p* for p and 1 for M results in:
P*
=
Po
2 (M*)2]
[1 + kl
= [1 + (l)]
W(1 k)
W(1 k)
k  l
2
= k + l
()
W(k 1)
(5.15)
2
[1 + (M*)]
kl
= [1 + k  l (l)]
1/(1
k)
1 4 1 k )
()k + l
V ( k  1)
(5.16)
Let V* represent the velocity when M = 1 where V* is the critical velocity. From equation (5.6) V = M(kgcRT)ln, so that:
(5.17)
Substituting from equation (5.11) for T/To and from equation (5.14) for
TOIT*,
Gas Dynamics
183
= M ,/2(1
k + l
+ FM')
k  l
(5.18)
$=(&)
l/(k 1)
I K k  1)
(5.20)
k + l
= I[()(l 2
M
+ ?M2)]
k  l
( k + 1)R(k 1)
k + l
Note that A/A* is always greater than one and that equation (5.20) has
two solutions. For every area ratio except unity, there are two Mach
numbers, one subsonic and one supersonic, that will satisfy equation
(5.20).
Writing the continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas (riz = AVp/R7')
substituting for T* from equation (5.14), for p* from equation(5.15), and
for V* from equation (1.69) results in:
W(k  1)
.
m*
A*V*p* RT*
(*)K + 1
(5.21)
184
Chapter 5
Function
Equation
M* = VlV*
5.18
5.20
5.11
5.12
5.13
AIA*
TIT0
PIP0
PIP0
In applying this table it should be noted that all data are based on the
assumption that the gas is ideal, andthe molecular weight, specificheats,
and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A2 gives values of k for
ideal gases as a function of temperature. When the temperature range is
known before calculationsthe average value of k should be used. If one
of the temperatures is not known, use the k value for the known temperature and check for variation after the other is computed.
5.5
CONVERGENTNOZZLES
Consider the flow of an ideal gas froma large tank througha convergent
nozzle that discharges into the atmosphere or to another large tank as
shown in Figure 5.2. Stagnation conditions exist in bothtanks as well as
the atmosphere. From Section 5.3 only subsonic flow can exist in the
."""""""_
"
Supply Tank
I
I
I %1.
rl I
Receiving Tank
A,,I
L"""""""",
Gas Dynamics
185
nozzle proper. Sonic flowcan exist in the nozzle exit if p04 1p . Example
5.1 illustrates how to determine the type of flow andcalculate conditions.
Example 5.1 Air discharges from the large tank shown in Figure 5.2 in
which the temperature and pressure are 100F (38C) and 115 psia (793
kPa), respectively, through a convergent nozzle whose throat diameter
is 1 in. (25.4 mm) and into a large receiving tank. Compute the pressure,
temperature, velocity, Mach number, and mass flow rate of the nozzle
jet when the pressure in the receiving tank is (a) 45 psia (310 kPa) and
(b) 95 psia (655 kPa).
Solution
If the receiving tank pressure po4 is less than 0.5283~0then exit flow
is sonic; if greater then it is subsonic. The pressure in the nozzle
throat for sonic flow is p*, for subsonic flow it isthe receiving tank
pressure.
3. The exit temperature is computed from equation(1.47):
(k  I)/k
(1.4 1Y1.4
T2 = TO
= To
= TO
e)
E)
e)m
Chapter 5
186
US. Units
1. From equation (1.43): R = R U N = 154Y28.97 = 53.33 (ftlbf)/(lbm"R)
To = 100 + 460 = 560"R
A2 = ~(1/12)'/4 = 5.454 X
ftz
Part (a)
2. p2:
p04 = 45 psia
(4
Since the receiving tankpressure is less than p * the exit flow is sonic
and p2 = p * = 60.75 psia.
3. T2:
(b)
Tz = 560(60.75/115)2" = 467"R
4.
v2:
VZ = [7 X 32.17 X 53.33(560
 467)]"'
= 1057 ftlsec
(c)
(e)
Part (b)
2. p 2 :
po4 = 95 psia
p* = 0.5283 X 115 = 60.75 psia
Since the receiving tank pressure is greater than p * the exit flow is
subsonic and p 2 = p04 = 95 psia.
3. T2:
T2 = 560(95/115)2" = 530"R
(b)
Gas Dynamics
4.
187
v2:
(c)
5 . M2:
M2 = 600/[1.4 X 32.17 X 53.33 X 5301'" = 0.532
(dl
6. m:
h = 5.454 X
X 600
(e)
SI Units
1. R = RUM =314/28.97
8
To
38
287.0 J/(kglK)
+ 273 = 311 K, A2 = ~ ( 2 5 . 4X
= 5.067 x
(1.43)
103)2/4
m'
Part (a)
2. p2:
p04 = 310 kPa
p * = 0.5283 X 793 = 418.9kPa
Since the receiving tankpressure is less than p * the exit flowis sonic
and p 2 = p * = 418.9 kPa.
3. T2:
T2 = 311(418.9/793)2" = 259 K
4.
(b)
v2:
(C)
(e)
Part (b)
2. p2:
p04 = 655 kPa
p * = 0.5283 x 793 = 418.9
(a) kPa
Since the receiving tank pressure is greater than p * the exit flow is
subsonic and p 2 = po4 = 655 kPa.
Chapter 5
188
3. T z :
Tz = 31
1(655/793)2"
= 294 K
(b)
v2:
4.
Vz = [7 X 1 X 287.0(311  294)]'" = 185 &S
(c)
5. Mz:
M2
(dl
6. m:
riz = 5.067 X
x 185 x 655
X' 103/(287.0 X 294) = 0.728 kg/s
(e)
The adiabatic expansion factor Y is the ratio of the mass flow rate of a
compressible fluidto that of an incompressible fluid under
the same conditions. Thisfactor is important inthe flow of compressible fluidsin some
metering devices such as the flow nozzle andthe Venturi meter.
Consider conditionsat the nozzle inlet Section1 of Figure 5.2. At this
section both the area A I and the velocity VI are finite. Writing equation
(5.9) for the kinetic energy change between Sections1 and 2:
(5.22)
(5.24)
.GasDynamics
189
Substituting the value of V2 from equation (5.24) in the equation of continuity (3.11) and noting fromthe equation of state (1.42) that RTI = p l v l
Figure 5.3 shows the mass flow rate versus pressure ratio for a convergent nozzle. As the pressure ratio p2/pI is decreased the mass flow
rate from equation (5.26) increases until the pressure ratio pP/pl is attained. The other mathematical solutionof equation (5.26) is shown as a
dotted line. The maximum flow rate is given by equation (5.25). This is
known as chocked flow.
m*
d
3
m
Figure 5.3
190
Chapter 5
(5.27)
This of course is the same result that was obtained fromthe convergent
nozzle discharging from
a large tank. When an incompressible fluid flows
without friction througha horizontal nozzlethe mass flow rate m may be
obtained by writingthe Bernoulli equation(4.17) for a horizontal passage:
(5.28)
(5.30)
Substituting equation (5.26) for riz and equation (5.29) for mi in equation
(5.30) and simplifying results in
?\i
y=mi
(5.31)
Gas
191
The use of the expansion factor from Table 5.2 facilitates computation.
An expression for compressible flow maybe obtained by substituting
equation (5.29) for m i in equation (5.30) and solving for h,noting the
definition of P from equation (5.32)
(5.33)
Example 5.2 Nitrogen flows in a 4 in. size Schedule 40 steel pipe that
reduces to a 2 in. size Schedule 40 steel pipe. In the inlet section, the
temperature is 100F (38C) and the pressure is 100 psia (690kPa). Assume
adiabatic frictionless flow and ideal gas properties and determine (a)the
minimum pressure that can exist in the 2 in. size pipe, (b) the maximum
mass flowrate, and (c) the mass flow rate if the pressure in the 2 in. size
pipe is 70 psia (483 kPa).
Solution
Table 5.2 at
P* =
2.
P and k:
Pl(P*/Pl)
(a)
3. The mass flow rate for p2. The adiabatic expansion factor Y is obtained from Table 5.2 at P,p z / p l , and k. The mass flow rate is calculated from equation (5.33).
4. Common data. From Table Al for N Z ,M = 28.013. From Table A2, the value of k for N2 for 122F (50C) and below is 1.400. From
Table C3, Schedule 40 steel pipe:
Chapter 5
192
Internal Diameter
Pipe
(mm)
size
(mm)*Section
ft3
Row area
ft
~~
1
2
4 in.
0.3355
0.1723
in.
102.3
52.52
0.08841
0.02330
8 219
2 166
US. Units
TI = 100
+ 460 = 560"R
(1.43)
1. Minimum pressure:
(1.42)
VI
(a)
0.02330
= 0.5135,
X
144)
Ibndsec
(b)
3. The mass flow rate for p2 = 70 psia. From Table 5.2 at k = 1.4,
= 0.5135, p2/p1 = 70/100 = 0.7, and Y = 0.8116.
x 0'02330
= 7.07
32.17(100 X 144  70
2.145(1  0.51354)
144)
(c)
lbndsec
SI Units
TI = 38
+ 273 = 311 K
(1.43)
1. Minimum pressure:
v1 = RTl/pl = 296.8 x 311/690 x
(1.42)
Gas Dynamics
193
(a)
2.Maximummassflow
and Y* = 0.6962.
m * = 0.6962 X 2166
x
=
0)
3.41kg/s
3. The mass flow rate for p2 = 483 kPa. From Table 5.2 at
= 0.5135 pdp1 = 483/690 = 0.7, and Y = 0.8116.
k = 1.4, p
x
= 3.21kg/s
5.7 CONVERGENTDIVERGENTNOZZLES
AreaPressure Relations
The mass flowrate through any section
of the convergentdivergent nozzle
shown in Figure 5.4 may be determined by modifying equation (5.26)
for
stagnation conditions (A2 = A , , A 1 = A o , A,/Ao, 0, and p1 = PO,v 1 =
vo, v2 = v
,
)
.
m = A,
1
e)(kl)/k]
(5.34)
which reduces to
(5.35)
Chapter 5
194
Throat
Supply Tank
VC4
+0
L""""""""""
(5.36)
Note that equation (5.36) has two solutions, one for isentropic compression (subsonic flow) and the other for isentropic expansion (supersonic
flow).
195
Gas Dynamics
Shock
X L
1%
Chapter 5
throat. Except for the throat, the flow in both portions of the nozzle is
subsonic. Pressure p38 is the pressure calculated from the subsonic solution of equation (5.36).
Path C represents an isentropic expansion in the both the convergent
and divergent sections of the nozzle. The flow in the convergent section
is subsonic and in the divergent section it is supersonic. Pressure p3c is
the pressure calculated from the supersonic solution of equation (5.36).
Note that any receiving tank pressure (PM)lower than p S c will have no
effect on this process.
Path D represents any pressure between pse and p3c. The gas expands
along an isentropic path to the throat and continues along path C until
the distance x in the divergent portion of the nozzle is reached. At this
point a shock wave is formed and the pressure (and other properties)
essentially jump to point y. From point y to the exit, path D is one of
isentropic compression. The flow in the divergent portion is supersonic
to point x and subsonic from point y. Discussion of this phenomena is
continued in Section 5.9,Compression Shock Wave.
2.
Gas Dynamics
197
Example 5.3 Design an ideal convergentdivergent nozzle that is to deliver 4.5 Ibndsec (2 kg/s) of air from a large plenum chamber at 100 psia
(700 kPa) and 240F (1 16C) to another plenum chamber wherethe pressure is maintained at 10 psia (70 kPa). Determine(a) area of nozzle throat
and (b) area of nozzle exit.
Solution
This exampleis solved by the application of the mass flow rate equation
(5.21) and the use of Table 5.1.
Common data
From Table Al for air, M = 28.97. From Table A2, the value of k for
air at 302F (150C) and below ranges from 1.395 to 1.402 = 1.4.
p04/p0 = 10 psidl00 psia = 70 kPd700 kPa = 0.1
PIP0
M
AIA*
0.1W4
2.10
1.8370
0.09352
2.20
2.005
0.1 (interpolated)
2.159 (interpolated)
1.938 (interpolated)
A3 = A*(A/A*) = 1.938A*
U.S.Units
To = 240
+ 460 = 700"R
(1.43)
198
Chapter 5
SI Units
To = 116 + 273 = 389 K
R = R U M = 8 314/28.97 = 287 J/(kgK)
(1.43)
m'
(c)
10 psia
(70
kPa)
t2 = 0F
(  I8OC)
V2 = 700 ft/sec
(213 &S)
Exit conditions:
V , = 300 fdsec
(91.5m/s)
Gas Dynamics
199
are computed fromthe equation of state (1.42), areas from the continuity
equation (3.11), exit temperature from the energy equation(5.9), and exit
pressures from the isentropic process relationship equation (1.45).
1. Inlet area A2
is computed usingequations (5.6) and (1.69).
The inlet Mach number and
M2 = V21(kgcRT2)1n
(a)
(b)
(4
2. Exit area As
The exit temperature is computed from equation(5.9):
US. Units
T2 = t2 = 460 = 0 + 460 = 460"R
R = R U M= 1545128 = 55.18 (ftlbf)l(lbm"R)
1. Inlet area A2
(1.43)
200
Chapter 5
2. Exit area A3
T3 = 460
p3
(d)
SI Units
R = R,lM 8314128 = 297 kJ/(kgK)
T2 =
t2
+ 460 =
 18 + 273
255 K
1. Inlet area A2
M2
1.4  1
[2132  91.52] = 273 K
1 x 1.4 x 297
= 70(273/255)3.5 = 88.74 kp~r
T3 = 255
p3
+2x
Example 5.5
sions:
Inlet diameter
Throat diameter
Exit diameter
D1
Dz
D3
25 in.
12 in.
in. 19
(625 mm)
(300 mm)
(475 mm)
Gas Dynamics
201
Oxygen at 30 psia (207 kpa) and 68F(20C)enters this nozzle. The flow
in the throat is sonic. Determineby calculation (do not use Table 5.1)the
(a) range of Mach numbers and (b) pressure range at exit for isentropic
flow.
Solution
This example is solved by use of basic equations as requested in the
problem statement. Most of the information desired is in dimensionless
form, so the numerical unit computationsare included in the theoretical
development as appropriate.
Common data
From Table A2, k for oxygen at 212F (100C) and below ranges from
1.386 to 1.400 = 1.4.
AI/A2 =
A3/A2 =
1.4  1
+ M2)]
rlL)(1
.4 + 1
1.4+1/2(1.4l)
which reduces to
M = A*
(
5 + M2 7
)
( k = 1.4)
A
For sonic velocity in the throat, AJA2 = AJA* = 4.340.
Solving equation (b)by trial and error,
M1 =
1
5+M:3
4.340
(
7
= 0.135,
3.09
)
M1 = 0.135
For exit Mach numbers, A3/A2 = A3/A* = 2.507.
Solving equation (b) by trial anderror,
1
5 + M : 3 = 0.239, 2.45
M 3 = 2,507
(4
Chapter 5
202
The value Of M3 can range from 0.238to 2.45 depending onthe exit pressure.
For part (b), the stagnation pressureMach number relationsare given
by equation (5.12):
P = [ 1 + 1
( kM
 1)
2 ]
= [ l + (1.4  1) M z 1.4/(1.4~
l)
Po
2
= (1  0.2~2135
(c)
U S . Units
P3 max
S I Units
1
1
+ 0.2 x 0.139
+ 0.2 x 2.4S
= 0.064OPl
U.S. Units
P3 min
= 0.0640 X 30 = 1.92psia
S I Units
P3 min
Gas Dynamics
203
formed. This wave is formed to satisfy the requirements for the conservation of mass and energy. This type
of wave is associated with large and
sudden rises in pressure, density, temperature, and entropy. Figure 5.6
shows this phenomena on the TS plane. The shock wave is so thin that
for computation purposes it may be considered as a single line,as shown
in Figure 5.4.
TemperatureMach numbervelocity relations for a normal shock are
shown in Figure 5.6.
Conservation of Energy
The formation of a shock wave does not change the total energy of the
system, so that energy relations may be established by writing equation
(5.9) in terms of temperatures before (TJ and after (T,) the shock wave.
RT,
k  1
V:
RT,
k  1
Ta+ = +  =  +  =
2gc
(5.37)
To,
2gc
A
Po4
....... H o
TO
Pv
'
Stagnation
...............................
sonic Flow
Px
b
SV
204
Chapter 5
Substituting the value of acoustic velocity from equation (1.69) and for
Mach number from equation (5.6) as was done in the development of
equation (5.10) results in:
m
l+:
k  l
2
l+:
k  l
L

Tx
(5.38)
Conservation of Mass
The continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas rit = AVpIRT maybe
written in terms of Mach number by noting that the definition of Mach
number from equation(5.6) is M = V/(kg,RT)*.Substituting these values
in equation (3.15) for before and after the shock wave, we have
Solving for M y ,
M y = Mxp
PY
4%
(5.39)
ImpulseMomentum Concept
The impulsemomentum equation(4.76) when applied to the shock wave
of Figure 5.5 yields
(Px
PYM
PAVX
[Vy  V,]
gc
PYAVY
[V, gc
Vxl
(4.76)
which reduces to
(5.40)
Substituting in the equation above the definition of Mach number ofequation (5.6), V = M(kg,RT)*, and from the equation of state (1.44) p =
p1RT results in:
PY
gc
= Px
gc
Gas Dynamics
205
which reduces to
&=1
px
+ kM:
(5.41)
+ kM;
Equations (5.38), (5.39), and (5.41) involve three unknownsT,, P,, and
Myand may be combined to yield a relationship between M, and M,
as follows. If equation (5.39) is solved for T,/Tx,
(5.42)
which reduces to
I
(5.43)
d z : d z 2
k 1
+ kM:
M,
k 1
+ kM;
206
Chapter 5
M:
M,' =
+k  l
L
(5.45)
2k M:  1
k 1
The first solution is trivial because the Mach number mustdecrease after
a shock wave, and therefore equation (5.45) represents the physical solution. Solving equation (5.45) for My results in:
(k  1)M:
2kM:  k
+2
+1
(5.46)
"
pY= 1
px 1
+ kM:
+ kM,'
+
M: + 2/(k  1)
1 2kkM:
2k
"21
kl
1
k+l
M
":
k+ 1
kl
(5.48)
(5.49)
Gas Dynamics
207
(5.46):
M(k  I )
1
.
[(k
( 2k
+ 1)/2] M?
[1 + [(k  1)/2] M:
k+ 1
M:  
k+
l
(5.50)
The ratio of the stagnation pressure after the shock waveto the pressure
just before pOy/poxmay be obtained followingthe preceding method used
to obtain equation (5.50):
PS,=
Px
poy
M:
p.
( p y ) ( p ) = [l
.2
+
W(k I )
k 2k
 l M:
k ])l 1
+%l(
M:  k+l
M(k 1)
= (
'
;
'
M
:
)
(&M:
(5.51)
k+l
The velocity ratio across a shock wavemay be determined fromthe continuity equation (3.9)as follows
m = pxAVx = pyAVy
or
(5.52)
v dp
(4.59)
Chapter 5
208
dp
dT
= (kF1) T
"
R P
Integrating equation (5.53) for constant specific heat ratios between the
limits of x and y results in:
S,
kR
 sx = k  1 log,
(2) 
R log,
(5.54)
k)
 S,
k
R
= log,[
k  l
S,
( l + yk M
 l: ) ( = M :2k
( k 1)'
"1
2(k  1 ) M'
 log,
'I
M:  1
[k?
kk + l
(5.55)
Gas Dynamics
209
In using Table 5.3 it should be again noted as in Table 5.1 that all data
are based on the assumption that the gas is ideal and that the molecular
weight, specificheats, and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A2 gives valuesof k for ideal gasesas a function of temperature. When the
temperature range is known before calculations the average value of k
should be used. If one of the temperatures is not known use the k value
for the known temperature and checkfor variation after the other is computed.
Example 5.6 Air flows from a large tank at 104F (40C) and 116 psia
(800) kPa through a convergentdivergent nozzle into a large receiving
tank. The nozzle throat diameter is 1 in. (25 mm), and the exit diameter
is 1.292 in. (32.3 mm). A compression shock wave is formed in the divergent cone of the nozzle. Just before this wave, the pressure is 20.16
psia (139 kPa). Compute (a) the diameter where the shock wave forms,
velocity and temperaturejust before the wave, (b) velocity,temperature,
and pressure just after the wave, and (c) velocity,temperature, and pressure at nozzle exit.
Solution
This example is solved by the application of Tables 5.1 and 5.3 to the
theory developed in this section.
Common data
From Table Al for air, M = 28.97. From Table A2, the value of k for
air at 122F (5OOC) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.
AIA* = (&/Oz)
= (1.29211) = (32.3/25)2 = 1.669
pxIpo = 20.161116 = 139/800 = 0.1738
1. Conditions before shock wave
For a shock wave to form in the divergent section, then sonic flow must
exist in the throat or M2 = 1 = c = (kg,RT*) from equation (5.6).
From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and M = 1, T*ITo = 0.8333, substituting
in equation (5.6),
[l .4g,R~(O.8333To)] = 1 .OSO(~,RTO)~~
or
(a)
V* =
= I.OSO(g,RTo)
(b)
(c)
AIA*
+ A,/A*
= 1.440
(d)
Chapter 5
210
(0
(g)
(h)
pylpx = 3.613
(9
T,/T, = 1.532
Vx/Vy = 2.359
(k)
3. Exit conditions
Examination of Figure 5.5 indicates that the path of the air just after the
shock wave is an isentropic compression to the nozzle exit.
The Machnumber just downstreamfrom the shockwave, M,, is
0.6165. From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and M, = 0.6165,
A/A* = Ay/Ay* = 1.172
(1)
The area ratio just upstream of the shock wave was foundto be
AIA* = A,/A* = 1.440
(dl
The differencebetweenthesearearatiosrepresents
the adjustment
needed to satisfy the requirements for the conservation of energy and
mass. The term A, represents the area at which critical flow wouldtake
place at the constant entropy path from just downstream of the shock
wave to exit of the nozzle.
Noting that A, = A, and dividing equation (1) by equation (d),
(m)
(n)
(0)
211
Gas Dynamics
TIT0 = TJTo
0.9597
VlV* = V31V* = 0.5260
From equation (1.43,
=
p3 = py(TylT~)k[kll
= py(Ty/T3)1.4/[1.4=
'1~y(TylT3)~"
]
US. Units
To = 104 + 460 564"R
p, = 20.16psia (given)
R = RJM = 1545128.97 = 53.33 (ftlbf)I(lbm"R)
1. Conditions before shock wave
V* = c = l.OgO(32.17 x 53.33 x 564)'" = 1062ft/sec
D, = 1 x 1.2 = 1.2in.
V, = 1.536 x 1062 = 1 631 ft/sec
T, = 0.6066 X 564 = 342"R = 342  460 =  118F
2.Conditions just after the shock wave
(1.43)
V, = 163212.359= 692ft/sec
Ty = 1.532 X 342 = 524"R = 524  460 = 64F
p, = 3.613 X 20.16 = 72.83psia
3. Exit conditions
To = 40 + 273 = 313 K
R = R,IM = 8 314128.97= 287.0Jl(kgK)
1. Conditions before shock wave
V* = C = 1.080(1 X 287 x 313)'" = 324 m/s
D, = 25 x 1.2 = 30 mm
V, = 1.536 X 324 = 498 mls
T, = 0.6066 X 313 = 190 K = 190  273 = 83C
(1.43)
212
Chapter S
(k)
0)
(9
3. Exit conditions
(9)
(9
(P)
Solution
Gas Dynamics
213
Shock
Wave,
Tank
I
I
I
PO4
8
Receiving
Tank
I
I
t
t
t
t
t
a
I
I
tank pressure
I
I
M = 1.953
P i P o = px31po = 0.1378
214
or
poy4 = 059%po
U.S. Units
pw4 = 0.5996 X 100 = 59.96 psia
SI Units
pW4 = 0.5996 x 700 = 419.7 kPa
small) with respect to large mass flowrates so that the heat transfer
is negligible.
2. The pipes are insulated.
In adiabatic flow with friction, the gas may enter the pipe either with
subsonic or supersonic velocity as shown in Figure 5.8.
In case (a) the gas enters the pipe witha subsonic velocity.The second
law ofthermodynamics requiresthat for an adiabatic process the entropy
may not decrease. The effect of friction is to limit the expansion of the
gas fromp a to p * and sonic velocity.For this reason supersonic flowcan
not exist in a pipe if the initial flow is subsonic.
In case (b) the gas enters the pipe with a supersonic velocity. Again,
the second lawof thermodynamics requires that for an adiabatic process
the entropy maynot decrease. The effect of friction is to limit the compression of the gas fromp b to p* and sonic velocity.For this reason subsonic
flow can not exist in a pipe if the initial flow is supersonic.
The limiting velocity in either case is sonic.
General Considerations
Adiabatic compressible flow of an ideal gas with friction in a constant
area duct must satisfy the following requirements:
Gas Dynamics
215
M0
M c l
Stagnation
g ["a1 :
"
"_
I
I
"""_
M1
Sonic flow
l
l
l
M>1
I
I
I
I
I
I
l
I
I
Entropy
I
I
'b
'a
5.
1. The ideal gas law. The equation of state for an ideal gas (1.42) is
pv = RT
2. Constant area duct. The flow area must be the same at all sections,
= A,.
that is, A = A l = A Z =
3. Conservation of mass. Thecontinuityequation (3.11) maybe expressed as
 e 
m. = AV
=  AV2
=AV1
V
4.
V1
v2
Chapter 5
216
sults in:
V dV
v7
+vdp+dL=O
gc
Rh
6 . Constant friction factor.
(5.56)
Conventional engineering practice is to use a friction factor f to calculate friction losses in pipes. The friction factor f is defined as follows:
(5.57)
+"()
Rhfv2
dL = 0
Rh
which reduces to
(5.59)
which reduces to
(5.60)
Gas Dynamics
217
For an ideal gas from the equation of state (1.42) p v = RT. Substituting
for p v in equation (5.60),
(5.61)
Derivation of Equations
All of the terms of equation (5.61) can be expressed as functions of Mach
number. If the first term of equation (5.61) is multiplied by V/V and the
relation V = kgcRTM2 from equation (5.6) is substituted, the following
expression results:
dV=
RTgc
()
v

V RTgc
d V =   V dV  (kgcRTM2) dV
RTgc V
RTgc
V
(5.62)
RkT
k k l l
V
+ 2gc
(5.63)
Differentiating equation(5.63),
kR d T +  V
dV
=O=
k  l
kgcR dT
k  l
gc
+ V dV
or
(5.65)
dT
T
=
 ( k  1)M
T + 2 log, M
dT
  2   2 V
T
dM
M
(5.66)
Chapter 5
218
Substituting for dT/T from equation (5.66) in equation (5.65) and simplifying:
dT =

T V
(k
which reduces to
dV
=
1
dM
[(k  1)/2]M2
.

kM
dM
[(k  1)/2]MZ
or
dp  dT dV
P
T
V
Substituting dT/T from equation (5.65) and dV/V from equation (5.67) in
equation (5.69) and simplifying:
"
which reduces to
'=[ +
(k
+ 1)M2 + 1
(ki1)
MZ
dM
M
(5.70)
Gas Dynamics
219
v2 dL
"
2 0 RTg,
f (kgcRTM2) dL
2 0 RTgc
f kM2 dL
20
(5.71)
Substituting equations (5.68), (5.69), and (5.70) for the first, second, and
third terms of equation (5.61), respectively:
(5.72)
Solving equation(5.72) for f dLID,
2(1  M')
ZdL =
2dM
k M3
dM
r
k + l
"'l2[
:(A
f (L2  L 1 )= D
1dM
D 1 d L = j ; i2dM
Sk

+
(5.73)
+
l"'
( k 1 1 )
2
(5.74)
;I)
+
2k
l loge
[()M:
(k  1)MI + 2
MI (k  1)M: + 2
The maximum length L* is obtained at the point in the pipe where the
velocity is sonic. Substituting in equation (5.74) L* for L2  L I , M for
M1,and 1 for M2 results in:
Chapter 5
220
( k  1)12
( k  1)M2
=
(k
kM2
+2
+2
+ 1)M2
2k
1
(5.75)
Texts and reference sources that use the Fanning friction factor expr
thefirst term of equation (5.75) as 4fL*lD.
For adiabatic flow the total energy at each section isa constant whether
or not frictionis involved, so that equation (5.10) may be applied. Writing
this equation for T I = T , TZ = T*, M I = M , and M 2 = 1 results in:
or
(5.76)
Again writing the continuity equation for an ideal gas (3.15) noting from
equation (5.6)that V = M(kgcRT)lR,
(5.78)
Gas Dynamics
221
M, and
or
(5.79)
k+ 1
2
(5.80)
S*,
M1 = M, and
= 1
Chapter 5
222
 = log, R
M
S*
(5.81)
[l
which reduces to
(k  1) M:
l+
@ =M1
% [1 +M$
( k 2Z 1 )
p02
(~+IVZ(~I)
(5.82)
(5.83)
Gas Dynamics
223
(5.84)
k + l
(5.85)
(5.86)
or
v  P*
"_
v* P
Tabulated Values of Fanno! Flow Functions
As in the case of isentropic flow and normal shockfunctions, it has been
found useful to compute and tabulate certain standard Fanno flow functions. These functions are all dimensionless ratios and are functions of
the inlet Mach number M. Table 5.4 contains the following ratios:
Chapter 5
224
Function
Equation(s)
TIT*
(5.76)
(5.79)
(5.83)
(5.85), (5.86)
(5.75)
(5.81)
PIP *
PO/Pt
v/v* = p*lp
fL*/D
s*/R
In using Table 5.4 it should be again noted as in Tables 5.1 and 5.3 that
all data are based on the assumption that the gas is ideal and
the molecular
weight, specificheats, and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A2 gives valuesof k for ideal gases as a function of temperature. When the
temperature range is known before calculations the average value of k
should be used. If one of the temperatures is not known, usethe k value
for the known temperature and checkfor variation after the other is computed.
(5.87)
Gas Dynamics
225
+
L""""""""""*""""""""""."""~
L,'
Supply
Tank
To
Po
Receiving
Tank
PC+
Pipe
p.
I PY
Shock wave
(If formed)
IC
To
P2
PCQ
Chapter 5
226
Solution
1. Inlet Mach number
From geometry,
A = nD214
(e)
LP = LT  L
fLP/D = f(LT  L)lD
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and fLP/D, find M*.
Common data
From Table Al for air, M = 28.97. From Table A2, the value of k for
air at 122F (50C) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.
US. Units
To = 100
+ 460 = 560"R
x 560
= 0.15
1.4 x 32.17
(1.43)
Gas Dynamics
227
(e)
SI Units
To = 38 + 273 = 311 K
R = R J M = 8314/28.97 = 287 J/(kg.K)
(1.43)
A = ~ ( 2 2 7X 103)2/4 = 0.04047 m2
M1 =
287.0
8.25
0.04047 x 345 x IO3
(4
x 311
= 0.15
1.4 x 1
(e)
(0
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and fLP/D = 1.057 (interpolated), M:! = 0.50.
Example 5.9 The system shown in Figure 5.10 is to be designed to the
following specifications:
98 "F
126.5 psia
14.5 psia
3,825
lbm/hr
(0.482
kg/s)
2.5
1.2
0.012
(37C)
kPa)
(866
(1 00 kPa)
Chapter 5
228
Solution
This exampleis solved by application of Tables 5.1 and 5.4 and the theory
developed in this and preceding sections.
Common data
From Table Al for air, M = 28.97. From Table A2, the value of k for
air at 122F (5OOC) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.
1. Pipe diameter
For supersonic flow to be delivered to the pipe requires that the sonic
flow exists in the nozzle throat. The throat area is then calculated from
equation (5.21) or
1.4
Po
+ 1)
Po
From geometry,
D = (4Ah)ln
2. Pipe length
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and M1 = 2.5,
fL*/D = (fL*/D)l = 0.4320
LT = (fL*/D)z(D/f) = 0.4320(D/f)
 L2
(0
Gas Dynamics
229
3. Is design possible?
This design is possible if the receiving tank stagnation pressure is equal
to orless than pipe exit stagnation pressure 0rp03 2 pO2.From Table 5.4
at k = 1.4,
At M1 = 2.5po/pg
= pol/p$ = 2.637
At M2 = 1.2po/p$'
= p02/p$'
+ 1.030
p02/po1 = (PO~/P$')/(PO~/P$')
= 1.03012.637 = 0.3906
US.Units
To = 98 + 460 = 558"R
R = R,/M = 154Y28.97 = 53.33
(itlbf)/(lbm"R)
(1.43)
1. Pipe diameter
53.33
x 558
A* = 1.46 x (3825/3600)
= 0.373 i n 2
126.5
32.17
A = 2.637 X 0.373 = 0.9836 in.2
D = (4 X 0.9836/1~)'~
= 1.19 in.
2. Pipe length
L = 0.3984(1/0.012) = 33.2 in.
3. Is process possible?
Stagnation pressure at pipe exit:
p02
ok
SI Units
To = 37 + 273 = 310 K
R = RJM = 8314/28.97 = 287 J/(kgK)
(1.43)
1. Pipe diameter
x 310 = 2.424 x
m2
A* = 1.46 x 0.482 $87
866 X lo3
1
A = 2.637 x 2.424 x
= 6.392 x
m*
D = (4 x 6.392 x 104/7r)1n = 0.02858 m = 25.45mm
(b)
230
Chapter 5
2. Pipe length
L = 0.3984(25.4510.012) = 845mm
3. Is process possible?
Stagnation pressure at pipe exit:
p02 = 866 X 0.3906 = 338 kPa
Solution
To solve this examplethe use of all the gas tables is required, as well as
the application of most of the concepts presented in this chapter. The
procedure is as follows:
1. Mach number at pipe inlet M
US. Units
LT = 0.3573 X (12/12)10.012 = 29.78 ft
fL,*ID = 0.012(29.78  16.75)1(12112)
= 0.1564
Gas Dynamics
231
SI Units
LT = 0.3573 x (304.8 x 103)/0.012 = 9.075 m
fL,*/D = 0.012(9.075  5.105)/(304.8 X
= 0.1563
M , = 1.5
3. Mach numberjust after shock M,,
(c)
fL,*/D = 0.2479
US. Units
LT = 0.2479 X (12/12)/0.012 = 20.66 ft
(c)
(dl
0.9.
SI Units
LT = 0.2479 X (304.8 X 103)/0.012 = 6.30 m
 5.11
= 5.88 m.
 5.88)/(304.8 x
As is demonstrated in this section, the limiting Mach number for isothermal flow is l / f i . For Mach numbers less than this value the pipe
232
Chapter 5
must be heated, and for Mach numbersgreater than I / G the pipe must
be cooled. Flow in gas transmission piplines is essentially isothermal.
These lines are uninsulated and their flowing temperature is very close
to ambient temperature. Flow in these lines are at low Mach numbers
significantly less than l/G.Figure 5.11 shows relations for isothermal
flow.
General Conslderations
Isothermal compressible flow of an ideal gas with friction ina constant
area duct must satisfy the following requirements:
1. The ideal gas law. The equation of state for an ideal gas (1.42) is
p v = RT
(5.88)
=~RT2
3. Constantarea duct. The flow area must be the same at all sections,
that is, A = A1 = A2 =
= A,,.
:1
Heating and acceleration
deacceleration
""""
'T
Gas Dynamics
233
5. Equation of motion.
(5.59)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
Pressure Loss
An equation for the calculation of pressure loss for thermal flowmay be
developed as follows. Multiplying equation (5.59) by 2gc/Vz results in:
V dV
f v2
+vdp+dL=O=
D 2gc
gc
vdp
2
f
2gcv
dV+p+dL=O
V
v2
D
+
(5.90)
Chapter 5
234
= p? 
(h/A)2RT
gc
[2 loge
k)$1
+
(5.93)
Examination of equation (5.93) indicates that a reiterative solution is necessary to compute p2. In most cases the term 2 lo&(p1/p2) is small compared with f L / D and may be ignored for a first trial solution of p?.
235
Gas Dynamics
Maximum Length
In Section 5.9 the continuity equation for an ideal gas (3.15) was differentiated for a constant area duct resulting in equation (5.59). Application
of this equation for constant temperature dT = 0 results in:
dVdT="dp
P
T
or
dP
=o
iiV
V
(5.69)
dV

"
(5.96)
V
Substituting in the equation of motion (5.90) v = RT/p from the equation
of state (1.42), dplp =  dV/V from equation (5.96), noting that dV/V =
d" = dM2/2M2,and solving for f dLID results in
P
(5.97)
Integrating equation (5.97) between the limits of L = 0 and L = L*= and
M and M*= = l l a ,
LJL*'& =
D o
'I
k~
Ilvk
1  kM2 d M 2
M4
="fL*=  1
 kM2 + log,(kM2)
(5.98)
kM2
Entropy Change
A differential equationfor entropy change of an ideal gas was developed
in Section 5.8 as equation (5.53). Writing this equation in dimensionless
form and noting for an isothermal process dT = 0, we have:
(5.99)
From equation (5.%), dVIV = dp/p = d " ;
(5.99),
dV dp ds
 dM
R
P
V
M
substituting in equation
(5.100)
236
Chapter 5
SI for s * and
~
MI = M and M2 = 1 1 4 in equation
(5.102)
Heat Transfer
Examination of equation (5.89) indicates that the heat transfer needed to
maintain isothermal flowis the change in kinetic energy. Substitution of
V* = kgcRTM2 from equation (5.6) in equation (5.89) results in:
(5.103)
[(h)'
 M2] = RT
 (1
2
kM2)
(5.104)
(a)
(mlA) = VpIRT
e) g]
(mlA)'
RT 2 log,
gc
Gas Dynamics
237
3.Common data: From Table C3 for 18in. standard pipe, D = 1.438
ft (438.1 mm). From Table Al for CH4, M = 16.043.
US. Units
T = 68 + 460 = 528"R
R = R J M = 1545h6.043 = 96.30
(ftlbf)/(lbm"R)
(1.43)
1. (&/A) = 9.48 x (348 x 144)/(96.30 x 528) = 9.343lbm/(ft2sec)
2. p2:
(9.3431296*30
(348 X 144)'  32.17
X
0.0129(24.85 x 5280
1.438
+ 11771
(b)
T
R
20 + 273 = 293 K
= R,/M = 8314/16.043 = 518.2 J/(kg.K)
(1.43)
438.1 x
=
lo3)
+ 11781
238
Chapter 5
M'
= VN'
AIA'
PIP0
PIP.
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.000E02
2.000E02
3.000E02
4.000E02
5.000E02
6.000E02
7.000E02
8.000E02
9.000E02
6.066E+01
3.033E+01
2.023E+01
1.518E+01
1.215E+01
1.013E+01
8.686E+00
7.606E+00
6.767E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.000E01
1.500E01
2.000E01
2.500E01
3.000E01
3.500E01
4.000E01
4.500E01
6.096E+OO
4.089E+00
3.094E+00
2.503E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.842E+00
1.643E+00
1.491 E+OO
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.802E01
9.692E01
9.560E01
9.406E01
9.231 E01
9.037E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.802E01
9.692E01
9.560E01
9.406E01
9.231 E01
9.037E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.000E01
6.000E01
7.000E01
8.000E01
9.000E01
1.375E+00
1.210E+00
1.107E+00
1.044E+00
1.010E+00
8.825E01
8.353E01
7.827E01
7.261 E01
6.670E01
8.825E01
8.353E01
7.827E01
7.261 E01
6.670E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
1.100E+00
1.200E+00
1.300E+00
1.400E+00
1.500E+00
1.600E+00
1.700E+00
1.800E+00
1.900E+00
1.000E+00
1.010E+00
1.038E+00
1.086E+00
1.l
54E+00
1.245E+00
1.363E+00
1.513E+00
1.703E+00
1.g41E+OO
6.065E01
5.461 E01
4.868E01
4.296E01
3.753E01
3.247E01
2.780E01
2.357E01
1.979E01
1.645E01
6.065E01
5.461 E01
4.868E01
4.296E01
3.753E01
3.247E01
2.780E01
2.357E01
1.979E01
1M5E01
Gas Dynamics
239
NA'
PIP.
PIP.
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
2.241 E+W
2.620E+00
3.100E+00
3.714E+00
4.502E+00
5.522E+00
6.852E+00
8.600E+00
1.092E+01
1.402E+01
1.353E01
1.103E01
8.892E02
7.101E02
5.61 3E02
4394E02
3.405E02
2.612E02
1.984E02
1.492E02
1.353E01
1.l
03E01
8.892E02
7.101E02
5.613E02
4.394E02
3.405E02
2.612E02
1.984E02
1.492E02
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
1.820E+01
2.389E+01
3.172E+01
4.257E+01
5.776E+01
7.922E+01
1.098E+02
1.540E+02
2.1 81 E+02
3.123E+02
1.111E02
8.189E03
5.976E03
4.318E03
3.089E03
2.1 87E03
1.534E03
1.065E03
7.31 8E04
4.980E04
1.111E02
8.1 89E03
5.976E03
4.31 8E03
3.089E03
2.187E03
1.534E03
1.065E03
7.318E04
4.980E04
4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
4.520E+02
3.364E+03
3.255E+04
4.085E+05
6.637E+06
1.394E+08
3.784E+09
1.325E+11
5.987E+12
2.615E+16
3.355E04
4.007E05
3.727E06
2.700E07
1.523E08
6.692E10
2.290E11
6.102E13
1.266E14
2.577E18
3.355E04
4.007E05
3.727E06
2.700E07
1.523E08
6.692E10
2.290E11
6.102E13
1.266E14
2.577E18
10
20
30
3.145E+20
2.191E+85
5.473E+193
1.929E22
1.384E87
3.694E196
1.929E22
1.384E87
3.694E196
5.50
240
Chapter 5
M' = VN'
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.025E02
2.049E02
3.074E02
4.099E02
5.123E02
6.148E02
7.172E02
8.196E02
9.220E02
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
AIA'
TKO
PIP,
pip0
5.991 E+01
2.996E41
1.998E+01
1.499E+01
1.200E+01
l.000E+01
8.581 E+OO
7.514E+00
6.685E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.998E01
9.997E01
9.996E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.995E01
9.991 E01
9.986E01
9.980E01
9.973E01
9.965E01
9.956E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
1.024E01
1.536E01
2.047E01
2.558E01
3.067E01
3.575E01
4.082E01
4.588E01
6.023E+00
4.042E+00
3.059E+00
2.476E+00
2.093E+00
1.825E+00
1.629E+00
1.480E+00
9.995E01
9.989E01
9.980E01
9.969E01
9.955E01
9.939E01
9.921 E01
9.900E01
9.945E01
9.877E01
9.783E01
9.663E01
9.518E01
9.350E01
9.161E01
8.951 E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.802E01
9.693E01
9.561 E01
9.408E01
9.234E01
9.042E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.092E01
6.094E01
7.087E01
8.069E01
9.041 E01
1.365E+00
1.204E+00
1.l
04E+00
1.042E+00
1.01 OE+OO
9.877E01
9.823E01
9.761 E01
9.69OE01
9.61 1 E01
8.723E01
8.218E01
7.662E01
7.072E01
6.462E01
8.832E01
8.366E01
7.850E01
7.298E01
6.723E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
1.095E+00
1.188E+00
1.279E+00
1.369E+00
1.457E+00
1.544E+00
1.628E+00
1.71 1 E+OO
1.792E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.009E+00
1.036E+00
1.080E+00
1.142E+00
1.223E+00
1.326E+00
1.454E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1 .E01 E+OO
9.524E01
9.430E01
9.328E01
9.221 E01
9.107E01
8.989E01
8.865E01
8.737E01
8.606E01
8.471 E01
5.847E01
5.241 E01
4.654E01
4.097E01
3.576E01
3.095E01
2.658E01
2.266E01
1.91 7E01
1.61 2E01
6.139E01
5.558E01
4.989E01
4.443E01
3.926E01
3.443E01
2.999E01
2.593E01
2.228E01
1.903E01
0.04
Gas Dynamics
241
M' = VN'
NA'
Tnb
P/P,
PIP,
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.871 E+OO
1.948E+00
2.023E+00
2.096E+00
2.1 67E+00
2.236E+00
2.303E+00
2.368E+00
2.432E+00
2.493E+00
2.032E+00
2.312E+00
2.651 E 4 0
3.061 E+OO
3.560E+00
4.1 65E+00
4.901 E+OO
5.799E+00
6.896E+00
8.237E+00
8.333E01
8.193E01
8.052E01
7.908E01
7.764E01
7.619E01
7.474E01
7.329E01
7.184E01
7.040E01
1.346E01
1.l
17E01
9.21 9E02
7.566E02
6.179E02
5.022E02
4.064E02
3.276E02
2.630E02
2.1 04E02
1.61 5E01
1.363E01
1.145E01
9.568E02
7.959E02
6.592E02
5.438E02
4.470E02
3.661 E02
2.989E02
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
2.553E+00
2.61 1 E+OO
2.667E+00
2.721 E+OO
2.773E+00
2.824E+00
2.874E+00
2.921 E+OO
2.967E+00
3.012E+00
9.880E+00
1.190E+01
1.438E+01
1.743E+01
2.1 19E+01
2.583E+01
3.157E+01
3.866E+01
4.743E+01
5.829E+01
6.897E01
6.754E01
6.614E01
6.475E01
6.337E01
6.202E01
6.068E01
5.936E01
5.807E01
5.680E01
1.679E02
1.335E02
1.059E02
8.382E03
6.619E03
5.21 8E03
4.106E03
3.227E03
2.533E03
1.986E03
2.434E02
1.977E02
1.601 E02
1.295E02
1.045E02
8.41 4E03
6.767E03
5.436E03
4.362E03
3.497E03
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
3.055E+00
3.250E+00
3.416E+00
3.556E+00
3.674E+00
3.775E+00
3.862E+00
3.936E+00
4.000E+00
4.1 04E+00
7.175E+01
2.058E+02
5.977E+02
1.731 E+03
4.949E+03
1.388E+04
3.798E+04
1.01 2E+05
2.621 E+05
1.614E+06
5.556E01
4.969E01
4.444E01
3.980E01
3.571 E01
3.213E01
2.899E01
2.623E01
2.381 E01
1.980E01
1.556E03
4.559E04
l.337E04
3.970E05
1.206E05
3.765E06
1.21 3E06
4.043E07
1.394E07
1.836E08
2.801 E03
9.176E04
3.007E04
9.976E05
3.376E05
1.172E05
4.186E06
1.541 E06
5.855E07
9.270E08
10
20
30
4.1 83E+00
4.472E+00
4.532E+00
8.874E+06
2.290E+12
5.746E+15
1.667E01
4.762E02
2.1 74E02
2.756E09
2.855E15
5.125E19
1.654E08
5.995E14
2.357E17
Chapter S
242
M' = VN'
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.049E02
2.098E02
3.146E02
4.195E02
5.243E02
6.292E02
7.340E02
8.388E02
9.435E02
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
NA'
'
Trr,
PIP,
P~P,
5.921 E+01
2.961 E+01
1.974E+01
1.481 E+01
1.l
86E+01
9.887E+00
8.480E+00
7.426E+00
6.607E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.995E01
9.994E01
9.992E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.995E01
9.990E01
9.985E01
9.978E01
9.971 E01
9.962E01
9.952E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
1.048E01
1.571 E01
2.093E01
2.614E01
3.132E01
3.649E01
4.162E01
4.673E01
5.953E+00
3.996E+00
3.026E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.073E+00
1.809E+00
1.61 5E+00
1.469E+00
9.990E01
9.978E01
9.960E01
9.938E01
9.91 1 E01
9.879E01
9.843E01
9.802E01
9.940E01
9.866E01
9.763E01
9.633E01
9.477E01
9.296E01
9.092E01
8.867E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.802E01
9.693E01
9.562E01
9.409E01
9.237E01
9.046E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.180E01
6.183E01
7.168E01
8.134E01
9.079E01
1.356E+00
1.l
99E+00
1.00E+00
l
1.041E+OO
1.010E+00
9.756E01
9.653E01
9.533E01
9.398E01
9.251 E01
8.623E01
8.088E01
7.505E01
6.892E01
6.267E01
8.839E01
8.379E01
7.873E01
7.333E01
6.774E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90
1.000E+00
1.090E+00
1.177E+00
1.261 E+OO
1.343E+00
1.421 E+OO
1.497E+00
1.570E+00
1.641 E+OO
1.708E+00
1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.034E+00
1.075E+00
1.132E+00
1.205E+00
1.296E+00
1.407E+00
1.540E+00
1.697E+00
9.091 E01
8.921 E01
8.741 E01
8.554E01
8.361 E01
8.163E01
7.962E01
7.758E01
7.553E01
7.348E01
5.645E01
5.039E01
4.461 E01
3.918E01
3.41 7E01
2.959E01
2.547E01
2.180E01
1.856E01
1.573E01
6.209E01
5.649E01
5.104E01
4.581 E01
4.086E01
3.625E01
3.199E01
2.81 OE01
2.458E01
2.141E01
Do
Gas Dynamics
243
M'
= VN'
NA'
Trr,
PIP0
PIP0
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.773E+00
1.835E+00
1.894E+00
1 .g51
E+OO
2.005E+00
2.057E+00
2.106E+00
2.1 54E+00
2.199E+00
2.242E+00
1.884E+00
2.103E+00
2.359E+00
2.660E+00
3.01 1E+OO
3.421 E+OO
3.898E+00
4.455E+00
5.103E+00
5.858E+00
7.143E01
6.940E01
6.739E01
6.54OE01
6.345E01
6.154E01
5.967E01
5.784E01
5.605E01
5.432E01
1.328E01
1.117E01
9.363E02
7.826E02
6.526E02
5.431 E02
4.51 2E02
3.743E02
3.102E02
2.568E02
1.859E01
1.609E01
1.389E01
1.197E01
1.029E01
8.825E02
7.562E02
6.472E02
5.534E02
4.729E02
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
2.283E+00
2.322E+00
2.359E+00
2.395E+00
2.429E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.492E+00
2.521 E+OO
2.549E+00
2.576E+00
6.735E+00
7.755E+00
8.940E+00
1.032E+01
1.l91 E+01
1.376E+01
1.590E+01
1.838E+01
2.1 24E+01
2.454E+01
5.263E01
5.099E01
4.941 E01
4.787E01
4.638E01
4.494E01
4.355E01
4.221 E01
4.092E01
3.967E01
2.126E02
1.758E02
1.455E02
1.203E02
9.957E03
8.242E03
6.826E03
5.657E03
4.692E03
3.895E03
4.039E02
3.448E02
2.944E02
2.514E02
2.147E02
1.834E02
1.567E02
1.340E02
1.147E02
9.821 E03
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.602E+00
2.714E+00
2.803E+00
2.875E+00
2.934E+00
2.982E+00
3.023E+00
3.056E+00
3.084E+00
3.1 29E+00
2.836E+01
5.796E+01
1.l
63E+02
2.281 E+02
4.359E+02
8.108E+02
1.469E+03
2.593E+03
4.467E+03
1.238E+04
3.846E01
3.306E01
2.857E01
2.484E01
2.174E01
1.914E01
1.695E01
1.509E01
1.351 E01
1.099E01
3.237E03
1.305E03
5.440E04
2.352E04
1.055E04
4.91 5E05
2.371 E05
1.l
83E05
6.090E06
1.761 E06
8.41 7E03
3.948E03
1.904E03
9.466E04
4.855E04
2.568E04
1.399E04
7.836E05
4.507E05
1.602E05
10
20
30
3.162E+00
3.276E+00
3.298E+00
3.1 62E+04
2.196E+07
1.175E+09
9.091 E02
2.439E02
1.099E02
5.645E07
2.105E10
1.761 El2
6.209E06
8.631 E09
1.602E10
244
Chapter 5
M
0.00
M' = VN'
NA'
Trr,
PIP0
pip0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.072E02
2.145E02
3.217E02
4.289E02
5.361 E02
6.433E02
7.504E02
8.575E02
9.646E02
5.853E+01
2.927E+01
1.952E+01
1.464E+01
1.172E+01
9.774E+00
8.384E+OO
7.342E+00
6.533E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.995E01
9.993E01
9.990E01
9.988E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.997E01
9.994E01
9.99OE01
9.984E01
9.977E01
9.968E01
9.959E01
9.948E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.072E01
1.606E01
2.138E01
2.668E01
3.196E01
3.719E01
4.239E01
4.754E01
5.886E+00
3.952E+00
2.994E+00
2.426E+00
2.054E+00
1.793E+00
1.602E+00
1.459E+00
9.985E01
9.966E01
9.940E01
9.907E01
9.867E01
9.820E01
9.766E01
9.705E01
9.935E01
9.855E01
9.744E01
9.604E01
9.435E01
9.241 E01
9.023E01
8.784E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.803E01
9.694E01
9.563E01
9.41 1 E01
9.240E01
9.051 E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.264E01
6.267E01
7.245E01
8.195E01
9.1 14E01
1.348E+00
1.193E+00
1.097E+00
1.040E+00
1.009E+00
9.639E01
9.488E01
9.315E01
9.124E01
8.917E01
8.525E01
7.962E01
7.354E01
6.722E01
6.084E01
8.845E01
8.392E01
7.895E01
7.367E01
6.823E01
1.oo
1.l0
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
l.000E+00
1.085E+00
1.l67E+00
1.245E+00
1.320E+00
1.391 E+OO
1.458E+00
1.523E+00
1.583E+00
1.641E+OO
1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.032E+00
1.070E+00
1.123E+00
1.189E+00
1.271 E+OO
1.369E+00
1.484E+00
1.61 8E+00
8.696E01
8.464E01
8.224E01
7.978E01
7.728E01
7.477E01
7.225E01
6.976E01
6.729E01
6.487E01
5.457E01
4.854E01
4.285E01
3.757E01
3.273E01
2.836E01
2.446E01
2.100E01
1.797E01
1.533E01
6.276E01
5.735E01
5.21 1 E01
4.709E01
4.235E01
3.793E01
3.385E01
3.01 1 E01
2.671 E01
2.363E01
ea
245
Gas Dynamics
M' = VN'
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.696E+00
1.747E+00
1.796E+00
1.842E+00
1.885E+00
1.926E+00
1.965E+00
2.001 E+OO
2.036E+00
2.068E+00
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
AIA'
Tlr.
PJP~
PIP.
1.773E+00
l.g51E+OO
2.1 56E+00
2.388E+00
2.654E+00
2.954E+00
3.295E+00
3.681 E+OO
4.1 16E+00
4.607E+00
6.250E01
6.019E01
5.794E01
5.576E01
5.365E01
5.161E01
4.965E01
4.777E01
4.596E01
4.422E01
1305E01
1.l
08E01
9.393E02
7.955E02
6.731 E02
5.692E02
4.813E02
4.070E02
3.442E02
2.913E02
2.087E01
1.841 E01
1.621 E01
1.427E01
1.255E01
1.103E01
9.693E02
8.520E02
7.490E02
6.587E02
2.099E+00
2.128E+00
2.155E+00
2.181
E+OO
7.259E+00
2.205E+00
2.228E+00
2.250E+00
2.271 E+OO
2.290E+00
2.309E+00
5.160E+00
5.781 E+OO
6.478E+00
8.133E+00
9.1 1OE+OO
1.020E+01
1.142E+01
1.277E+01
1.427E+01
4.255E01
4.096E01
3.943E01
3.797E01
3.658E01
3.524E01
3.397E01
3.275E01
3.1 59E01
3.047E01
2.466E02
2.090E02
1.773E02
1.506E02
1.280E02
1.090E02
9.288E03
7.929E03
6.778E03
5.803E03
5.796E02
5.103E02
4.496E02
3.965E02
3.499E02
3.092E02
2.734E02
2.421 E02
2.146E02
1.904E02
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.326E+00
2.402E+00
2.460E+00
2.506E+00
2.543E+00
2.573E+00
2.598E+00
2.61 8E+00
2.635E+00
2.662E+00
1.594E+01
2.739E+01
4.596E+01
7.522E+01
1.201 E+02
1.872E+02
2.853E+02
4.258E+02
6.231 E+02
1.266E+03
2.941 E01
2.477E01
2.105E01
1.806E01
1.563E01
1.363E01
1.l98E01
1.060E01
9.434E02
7.605E02
4.977~03
2363E03
1.l
69E03
6.01 1 E04
3.210E04
1.775E04
1.014E04
5.965E05
3.606E05
1.41 7E05
1.692E02
9.542E03
5.551 E03
3.329E03
2.055E03
1.303E03
8.467E04
5.63OE04
3.822E04
1.863E04
10
20
30
2.681 E+OO
2.746E+00
2.759E+00
2.416E+03
2.042E+05
2.943E+06
6.250E02
1.639E02
7.353E03
6.055E06
1.835E08
5.684E10
9.689E05
1.119E06
7.730E08
Chapter 5
246
= VN'
NA'
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.095E02
2.191E02
3.286E02
4.381 E02
5.476E02
6.570E02
7.664E02
8.758E02
9.851 E02
0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
M'
TKO
PiPo
PIP,
5.787E+01
2.894E+01
1.930E+01
1.448E+01
1.159E+01
9.666E+00
8.292E+00
7.262E+00
6.461 E+OO
l.WOE+OO
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.997E01
9.995E01
9.993E01
9.990E01
9.987E01
9.984E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.997E01
9.994E01
9.989E01
9.983E01
9.975E01
9.966E01
9.955E01
9.944E01
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
1.094E01
1.639E01
2.1 82E01
2.722E01
3.257E01
3.788E01
4.313E01
4.833E01
5.822E+00
3.910E+00
2.964E+00
2.403E+00
2.035E+00
1.778E+00
1.590E+00
1.449E+00
9.980E01
9.955E01
9.921 E 4 1
9.877E01
9.823E01
9.761 E01
9.690E01
9.61 1 E01
9.930E01
9.844E01
9.725E01
9.575E01
9.395E01
9.188E01
8.956E01
8.703E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.803E01
9.694E01
9.564E01
9.413E01
9.243E01
9.055E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.345E01
6.348E01
7.318E01
8.251 E01
9.146E01
1.340E+00
1.l
88E+00
1.094E+00
1.038E+00
1.009E+00
9.524E01
9.328E01
9.107E01
8.865E01
8.606E01
8.430E01
7.84OE01
7.209E01
6.560E01
5.913E01
8.852E01
8.405E01
7.916E01
7.400E01
6.870E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
1.081 E+OO
l.158E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.300E+00
1.365E+00
1.425E+00
1.482E+00
1.536E+00
1.586E+00
1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.030E+00
1.066E+00
1.l
15E+00
1.l
76E+00
l.250E+00
1.338E+00
1.439E+00
1.555E+00
8.333E01
8.052E01
7.764E01
7.474E01
7.184E01
6.897E01
6.614E01
6.337E01
6.068E01
5.807E01
5.283E01
4.684E01
4.124E01
3.609E01
3.142E01
2.724E01
2.353E01
2.026E01
1.740E01
1.492E01
6.339E01
5.817E01
5.31 1 E01
4.829E01
4.374E01
3.950E01
3.557E01
3.197E01
2.868E01
2.570E01
Do
Gas Dynamics
247
M' = V N *
AIA'
Tlr,
PIP0
PIP0
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.633E+00
1.677E+00
1.71 8E+00
1.756E+00
1.792E+00
1.826E+00
1.857E+00
1.887E+00
1.91 4E+00
1.940E+00
1.688E+00
1.837E+00
2.005E+00
2.193E+OO
2.403E+00
2.637E+OO
2.896E+00
3.1 83E+00
3.500E+00
3.850E+00
5.556E01
5.313E01
5.081 E01
4.859E01
4.647E01
4.444E01
4.252E01
4.068E01
3.894E01
3.729E01
1.278E01
1.094E01
9.352E02
7.997E02
6.840E02
5.853E02
5.01 2E02
4.295E02
3.685E02
3.165E02
2.300E01
2.058E01
1.841 E01
1.646E01
1.472E01
1.317E01
1.179E01
1.056E01
9.463E02
8.489E02
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
1.964E+00
1.987E+00
2.008E+00
2.028E+00
2.047E+00
2.064E+OO
2.081 E+OO
2.096E+00
2.1 11E+OO
2.125E+00
4.235E+00
4.657E+00
5.121E+00
5.629E+00
6.1 84E+00
6.790E+00
7.450E+00
8.169E+00
8.951 E+OO
9.799E+00
3.571 E01
3.422E01
3.281 E01
3.147E01
3.019E01
2.899E01
2.784E01
2.675E01
2.572E01
2.474E01
2.722E02
2.345E02
2.023E02
1.748E02
1.51 2E02
1.31 1 E02
1.l
38E02
9.903E03
8.629E03
7.532E03
7.623E02
6.852E02
6.165E02
5.554E02
5.009E02
4.523E02
4.089E02
3.702E02
3.355E02
3.044E02
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.138E+00
2.1 94E+00
2.236E+00
2.269E+00
2.295E+00
2.31 6E+00
2.333E+00
2.347E+00
2.359E+00
2.377E+00
1.072E+01
1.656E+01
2.500E+01
3.687E+01
5.31 8E+01
7.513E+01
1.041 E+02
1.41 8E+02
1 .g01 E+02
3.272E+02
2.381 E01
1.980E01
1.667E01
1.41 8E01
l.220E01
1.058E01
9.259E02
8.163E02
7.246E02
5.814E02
6.586E03
3.455E03
1.890E03
1.075E03
6.334E04
3.855E04
2.416E04
1.554E04
1.024E04
4.739E05
2.766E02
1.745E02
1 .134E02
7.578E03
5.1 94E03
3.643E03
2.609E03
1.904E03
1.414E03
8.150E04
10
20
30
2.390E+00
2.434E+00
2.443E+00
5.359E+02
1.538E+04
1.l44E+05
4.762E02
1.235E02
5.525E03
2.356E05
2.091 E07
l.254E08
4.948E04
1.694E05
2.269E06
248
Chapter 5
M' = UN'
AIA'
Tlr,
PIP.
P/Po
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.l
18E02
2.236E02
3.354E02
4.471 E02
5.588E02
6.705E02
7.821 E02
8.937E02
1.005E01
5.725E+01
2.863E+01
1.909E+01
1.433E+01
1.147E+01
9.562E+00
8.203E+00
7.1 84E+00
6.393E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.994E01
9.991 E01
9.988E01
9.984E01
9.980E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.997E01
9.993E01
9.988E01
9.981 E01
9.973E01
9.963E01
9.952E01
9.939E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.117E01
1.672E01
2.225E01
2.774E01
3.317E01
3.855E01
4.385E01
4.908E01
5.760E+00
3.870E+00
2.934E+00
2.380E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.764E+OO
1.579E+00
1.439E+00
9.975E01
9.944E01
9.901 E01
9.846E01
9.780E01
9.703E01
9.615E01
9.518E01
9.925E01
9.833E01
9.706E01
9.546E01
9.354E01
9.135E01
8.890E01
8.623E01
9.950E01
9.888E01
9.803E01
9.695E01
9.565E01
9.415E01
9.246E01
9.060E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.423E01
6.425E01
7.387E01
8.305E01
9.1 76E01
1.332E+00
1.l
83E+00
1.092E+00
1.037E+00
1.009E+00
9.412E01
9.174E01
8.909E01
8.621 E41
8.316E01
8.337E01
7.722E01
7.070E01
6.407E01
5.751 E01
8.858E01
8.417E01
7.936E01
7.432E01
6.91 6E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.000E+00
1.078E+00
1.l
50E+00
1.21 9E+00
1282E+00
1.342E+00
1397E+00
1.448E+00
1.496E+00
1.54OE+00
1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.029E+00
1.063+00
1.108E+00
1.l
65E+00
1.232E+00
1.31 E
1+OO
1.402E+00
l.504E+00
8.000E01
7.678E01
7.353E01
7.030E01
6.71 1E01
6.400E01
6.098E01
5.806E01
5.525E01
5.256E01
5.120E01
4.526E01
3.975E01
3.474E01
3.023E01
2.621 E01
2.267E01
1.957E01
1.686E01
1.452E01
6.400E01
5.894E01
5.407E01
4.942E01
4.504E01
4.096E01
3.718E01
3.370E01
3.052E01
2.763E01
1.80
1.90
Gas Dynamics
249
M' = VN'
AIA'
Tlr,
PIP,
PIP.
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.581 E+OO
1619E+00
1.655E+00
1.687E+00
1.71 8E+00
1.746E+00
l3772E+0O
1.797E+00
1.820E+00
1.841 E+OO
1.61 9E+00
1.747E+00
1.889E+00
2.046E+00
2.21 8E+00
2.407E+00
2.613E+00
2.838E+OO
3.082E+00
3.347E+00
5.000E01
4.756E01
4.525E01
4.306E01
4.098E01
3.902E01
3.717E01
3.543E01
3.378E01
3.223E01
1.250E01
1.076E01
9.265E02
7.982E02
6.884E02
5.943E02
5.137E02
4.447E02
3.856E02
3.349E02
2.500E01
2.262E01
2.047E01
1.854E01
1.680E01
1.523E01
1.382E01
1.255E01
1.l41 E41
1.039E01
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
1.861 E+OO
1.879E+00
1.896E+00
1.912E+00
1.927E+00
1 .g41
E+OO
1.955E+00
1.967E+00
1.979E+00
1.990E+00
3.633E+00
3.943E+00
4.278E+00
4.638E+00
5.025E+00
5.441 E+OO
5.886E+00
6.363E+00
6.874E+00
7.41 9E+00
3.077E01
2.939E01
2.809E01
2.686E01
2.571 E01
2.462E01
2.358E01
2.261 E01
2.169E01
2.082E01
2.913E02
2.539E02
2.21 6E02
1.939E02
1.699E02
1.491 E02
1.31 2E02
1.l 56E02
1.021 E02
9.028E03
9.467E02
8.638E02
7.890E02
7.21 7E02
6.608E02
6.059E02
5.562E02
5.1 13E02
4.705E02
4.336E02
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.000E+00
2.043E+OO
2.076E+00
2.1 01E+OO
2.121 E+OO
2.137E+00
2.150E+00
2.161 E+OO
2.169E+00
2.183E+00
8.000E+00
1.151E+01
1.620E+01
2.233E+01
3.017E+01
4.004E+01
5.226E+01
6.721 E+01
8.526E+01
1.324E+02
2.000E01
1.649E01
1.379E01
1.168E01
1.000E01
8.649E02
7.547E02
6.639E02
5.882E02
4.706E02
8.000E03
4.488E03
2.624E03
1.593E03
1.000E03
6.469E04
4.299E04
2.926E04
2.035E04
1.042E04
4.000E02
2.721 E02
1.902E02
1.364E02
1.000E02
7.480E03
5.696E03
4.408E03
3.460E03
2.21 5E03
10
20
30
2.193E+00
2.225E+00
2.231 E+OO
1.973E+02
2.934E+03
1.465E+04
3.846E02
9.901 E03
4.425E03
5.690E05
9.706E07
8.663E08
1.479E03
9.803E05
1.958E05
Chapter 5
250
M'
= VN'
AIA*
TKO
PIP0
pip0
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.000E+00
1.l
55E02
2.309E02
3.464E02
4.618E02
5.771 E02
6.924E02
8.076E02
9.228E02
1.038E01
5.625E+01
2.813E+01
1.876E+01
1.408E+01
1.127E+01
9.398E+00
8.062E+00
7.061 E+OO
6.284E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.997E01
9.995E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.984E01
9.979E01
9.973E01
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.997E01
9.993E01
9.987E01
9.979E01
9.970E01
9.959E01
9.947E01
9.933E01
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.996E01
9.992E01
9.988E01
9.982E01
9.976E01
9.968E01
9.960E01
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.153E01
1.726E01
2.294E01
2.857E01
3.413E01
3.961 E01
4.500E01
5.029E01
5.663E+00
3.806E+00
2.888E+00
2.345E+00
1.989E+00
1.741 E+OO
1.560E+00
1.424E+00
9.967E01
9.926E01
9.868E01
9.796E01
9.709E01
9.608E01
9.494E01
9.368E01
9.917E01
9.815E01
9.674E01
9.498E01
9.288E01
9.048E01
8.782E01
8.493E01
9.950E01
9.889E01
9.803E01
9.695E01
9.566E01
9.417E01
9.250E01
9.067E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
5.547E01
6.547E01
7.494E01
8.386E01
9.222E01
1.320E+00
1.176E+00
1.088E+00
1.035E+00
1.008E+00
9.231 E01
8.929E01
8.596E01
8.242E01
7.874E01
8.186E01
7.533E01
6.851 E 4 1
6.167E01
5.502E01
8.869E01
8.437E01
7.970E01
7.482E01
6.987E01
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.so
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
1.072E+00
l.139E+00
1.201 E+OO
1.257E+00
1.309E+00
1.357E+00
1.401 E+OO
1.441 E+OO
1.478E+00
1.000E+00
1.007E+00
1.027E+00
1.058E+00
1.098E+00
1.1 48E+00
1.208E+00
1.275E+00
1.352E+00
1.437E+00
7.500E01
7.126E01
6.757E01
6.397E01
6.048E01
5.714E01
5.396E01
5.093E01
4.808E01
4.539E01
4.871 E01
4.286E01
3.753E01
3.272E01
2.845E01
2.468E01
2.139E01
1.851 E01
1.603E01
1.388E01
6.495E01
6.015E01
5.554E01
5.116E01
4.704E01
4.320E01
3.963E01
3.635E01
3.334E01
3.058E01
00
Gas Dynamics
251
M' = VN'
NA'
Trr,
PIP,
P/P.
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
1.512E+00
1.543E+00
1.571 E+OO
1.598E+00
1.622E+00
1.644E+00
1.664E+00
1.683E+00
1.701E+OO
1.717E+00
1.531 E+OO
1.634E+00
1.746E+00
1.868E+00
1.998E+00
2.139E+00
2.290E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.623E+00
2.806E+00
4.286E01
4.049E01
3.827E01
3.619E01
3.425E01
3.243E01
3.074E01
2.915E01
2.768E01
2.629E01
1.202E01
1.043E01
9.058E02
7.878E02
6.863E02
5.990E02
5.238E02
4.589E02
4.029E02
3.545E02
2.806E01
2.576E01
2.367E01
2.177E01
2.004E01
1.847E01
1.704E01
1.574E01
1.456E01
1.348E01
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
1.732E+00
1.746E+00
1.759E+00
1.771E+OO
1.782E+00
1.793E+00
1.802E+00
1.81 1
E+OO
1.820E+00
1.828E+00
3.000E+00
3.206E+00
3.424E+00
3.654E+00
3.897E+00
4.1 53E+00
4.422E+00
4.705E+00
5.003E+00
5.314E+00
2.500E01
2.379E01
2.266E01
2.160E01
2.060E01
1.967E01
1.880E01
1.797E01
1.720E01
1.647E01
3.125E02
2.761 E02
2.444E02
2.1 68E02
1.927E02
1.71 6E02
1.532E02
1.370E02
1.227E02
1.102E02
1.250E01
1.160E01
1.079E01
l.004E01
9.353E02
8.725E02
8.150E02
7.621 E02
7.134E02
6.687E02
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
1.835E+00
1.867E+00
1.890E+00
1.908E+00
1.922E+00
1.933E+00
1 .g41
E+OO
1.949E+00
1.955E+00
1.964E+00
5.641 E+OO
7.508E+00
9.800E+00
1.256E+01
1.584E+01
1.969E+01
2.414E+01
2.925E+01
3.507E+01
4.900E+01
1.579E01
1.290E01
1.071 E01
9.023E02
7.692E02
6.630E02
5.769E02
5.063E02
4.478E02
3.571 E02
9.906E03
5.981 E03
3.758E03
2.445E03
1.641 E03
1.132E03
7.995E04
5.769E04
4.242E04
2.41 OE04
6.274E02
4.635E02
3.507E02
2.710E02
2.133E02
1.707E02
1.386E02
1.139E02
9.475E03
6.749E03
10
20
30
1 .g71
E+OO
1.993E+00
1.997E+00
6.631 E+01
5.075E+02
1.699E+03
2.913E02
7.444E03
3.322E03
1.448E04
4.781 E06
6.362E07
4.971 E03
6.423E04
1.915E04
Chapter 5
252
Beta
Specific
Ratio
Heat Ratio
0.00
0.1 0
0.20
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.10
1.40
1.50
1.67
Critical
Val
p4Jp1
0.6065
0.5847
0.5645
0.5457
0.5283
0.51 20
0.4871
0.6065
0.5847
0.5645
0.5457
0.5283
0.51 20
0.4872
0.6067
0.5849
0.5647
0.5459
0.5285
0.5122
0.4873
0.6070
0.5851
0.5649
0.5462
0.5288
0.51 25
0.4876
0.6074
0.5856
0.5654
0.5467
0.5293
0.51 30
0.4882
IS
Y*
0.6837
0.6895
0.6949
0.7000
0.7050
0.7097
0.7170
0.6837
0.6894
0.6949
0.7000
0.7050
0.7096
0.7170
0.6835
0.6893
0.6947
0.6998
0.7048
0.7095
0.71 68
0.6833
0.6890
0.6944
0.6996
0.7045
0.7092
0.71 65
0.6827
0.6885
0.6939
0.6991
0.7040
0.7087
0.71 61
PJP,
0.60
PJP,
0.70
0.7633
0.7021 0.7821
0.7229 0.7981
0.7409 0.81 20
0.7568 0.8241
0.7709 0.8347
0.791 0 0.8498
0.7632
0.7021 0.7820
0.7228 0.7981
0.7409 0.81 20
0.7568 0.8240
0.7709 0.8347
0.791 0 0.8498
0.7630
0.701 8 0.781 8
0.7225 0.7978
0.7406 0.81 17
0.7565 0.8238
0.7706 0.8344
0.7907 0.8496
0.7625
0.701 3 0.7813
0.7220 0.7974
0.7401 0.81 13
0.7560 0.8234
0.7701 0.8341
0.7903 0.8492
0.761 7
0.7004 0.7805
0.721 2 0.7967
0.7393 0.8106
0.7552 0.8227
0.7693 0.8334
0.7895 0.8486
PJPl
PJP,
0.80
0.8450
0.8580
0.8689
0.8783
0.8865
0.8936
0.9037
0.8450
0.8580
0.8689
0.8783
0.8865
0.8936
0.9037
0.8448
0.8578
0.8687
0.8781
0.8863
0.8934
0.9035
0.8444
0.8574
0.8684
0.8778
0.8860
0.8932
0.9033
0.8438
0.8568
0.8678
0.8773
0.8855
0.8927
0.9028
0.90
0.9238
0.9305
0.9361
0.9408
0.9449
0.9485
0.9535
0.9238
0.9305
0.9361
0.9408
0.9449
0.9485
0.9535
0.9237
0.9303
0.9359
0.9407
0.9448
0.9484
0.9534
0.9235
0.9302
0.9358
0.9405
0.9447
0.9482
0.9533
0.9231
0.9298
0.9354
0.9402
0.9444
0.9480
0.9530
PJP,
l.oo
1.om0
Gas Dynamics
253
:al
Ratio
es
Y'
0.6806
0.5877 0.6864
0.5676 0.691 8
0.5489 0.6970
0.531 5 0.7019
0.51 53 0.7066
0.4905 0.7140
0.61 37 0.6760
0.5921 0.681 8
0.5721 0.6872
0.5536 0.6924
0.5363 0.6974
0.5201 0.7020
0.4954 0.7094
0.6219 0.6672
0.6006 0.6730
0.5809 0.6785
0.5625 0.6836
0.5454 0.6886
0.5294 0.6933
0.7008
0.6641
0.6699
0.6753
0.6805
0.6854
0.6902
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.625
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
il 0.6976
0.6513
0.70
0.6570
0.6625
0.6677
0.6727
0.6774
PdPl
PdPl
PdPl
PdP1
1.oo
0.6966
0.7175
0.7357
0.751 7
0.7659
0.7863
0.6884
0.7094
0.7278
0.7441
0.7585
0.6939
0.7292
0.6882
0.6651
0.7170
0.7393
0.7772
0.7935
0.8075
0.81 98
0.8306
0.8460
0.7506
0.7699
0.7865
0.8008
0.8133
0.8244
0.8542
0.8654
0.8750
0.8833
0.8906
0.9283
0.9341
0.9390
0.9432
0.9469
0.8486
0.8601
0.8700
0.8785
0.8860
0.9251
0.931 1
0.9362
0.9405
0.9444
0.7557
0.7728
0.7876
0.8006
0.8121
0.8286
0.7305
0.7505
0.7677
0.7828
0.7960
0.8076
0.8244
0.7083
0.7290
0.7470
0.7627
0.7765
0.7889
0.8066
0.8374
0.8495
0.8599
0.7126
0.8690
0.8770
0.7440
0.8883
0.7653
0.8189
0.8333
0.8456
0.7071
0.8562
0.8655
0.7238
0.7387
0.8736
0.8851
0.7603
0.8007
0.8161
0.8292
0.6844
0.8406
0.701
6
0.8506
0.8593
0.871 9
0.91 86
0.9250
0.9305
0.9352
0.9394
0.9452
0.9084
0.91 62
0.9228
0.9284
0.9333
0.9375
0.9435
0.8973
0.9059
0.9131
0.9193
0.9247
0.9294
0.9361
1.OOO(
Chapter 5
254
Specific
Heat Ratio
P
0.75
k
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00
p'lp,
0.6482
0.5750
0.6441
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.OO
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
Critical
Ratio
Values
0.5927
0.5776
0.5544
0.6495
0.7184
0.6699
0.6421
1
0.7599
0.7213
PJPl
Y4
0.60
0.6389
0.6447 0.6279
0.6502 0.6091
0.6554 0.5915
0.6622
0.6603
0.6651 0.5596
0.6955
0.6726 0.5359
0.7185
0.6220 0.6638
1.10
0.6277
0.6332 0.6258
0.6384 0.6087
0.6433
0.6481 0.6653
0.6556 0.6890
0.5980 0.6857
0.6037 0.6670
0.6090
0.6142 0.6331
0.6191 0.6177
0.6239 0.6033
0.6313 0.5809
0.6458
0.5614
0.5670 0.7012
0.5722 0.6850
0.5773
0.5822 0.6556
0.5868
0.5942 0.621
0.4963 0.7743
0.5015
0.5065 0.7463
0.51 13 0.7335
0.5158
0.5202 0.7097
0.5272 0.6917
PdPl
PdPt
0.70
0.80
0.6865 0.7824
0.7078 0.7986
0.7263 0.81 25
0.7426 0.8246
0.7571 0.6797
0.8353
0.7700 0.8447
0.7886 0.8582
0.6560 0.7559
0.6779 0.7732
0.6971 0.7882
0.7141 0.801 3
0.81 29
0.7292 0.6491
0.7428 0.8231
0.7627
0.61 17
0.6341 0.7346
0.6540 0.7509
0.6717 0.7653
0.6877 0.7781
0.7021
0.7234
0.5860
0.6043
0.6209
0.6361
0.6587
0.5344
PdPl
0.90
0.8857
0.8951
0.9030
0.9098
0.91 58
0.921 0
0.9283
0.8683
0.8788
0.8878
0.8955
0.9022
0.9081
PdPl
1.oo
0.8528
0.8632
0.8722 1.om0
0.8801
0.8871 0.7895
Gas Dynamics
255
1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
l.25
1.30
l.35
1.40
1.45
1 .000E+00
9.524E01
9.091 E01
8.696E01
8.333E01
8.000E01
7.692E01
7.407E01
7.1 43E01
6.897E01
l.OOOE+OO
03E+OO
1.l
1.21OE+OO
1.323E+00
1.440E+00
l.563E+00
1.690E+00
1.823E+00
1.960E+00
2.1 03E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.OOOE+W
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.103E+00
1.21 OE+OO
l.323E+00
1.440E+00
1.563E+00
l.690E+00
1.823E+00
1.960E+00
2.103E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.988E01
9.964E01
9.91 9E01
9.851 E01
9.759E01
9.640E01
9.494E01
9.321 E01
1.649E+OO
l.735E+OO
1.829E+OO
1.930E+00
2.038E+00
2.152E+00
2.272E+00
2.398E+00
2.530E+00
2.667E+OO
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
6.667E01
6.250E01
5.882E01
5.556E01
5.263E01
5.000E01
4.762E01
4.545E01
4.348E01
4.1 67E01
2.250E+00
2.560E+00
2.890E+00
3.240E+00
3.61 OE+OO
4.000E+00
4.41 OE+OO
4.840E+00
5.290E+00
5.760E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00
2.250E+O0
2.560E+00
2.890E+00
3.240E+00
3.61 OE+OO
4.000E+00
4.41 OE+OO
4.840E+00
5.290E+00
5.760E+00
9.122E01
8.653E01
8.1 00E01
7.482E01
6.820E01
6.1 34E01
5.446E01
4.772E01
4.129E01
3.527E01
2.81OE+OO
3.1 12E+00
3.436E+00
3.781 E+OO
4.146E+00
4.533E+00
4.939E+00
5.367E+00
5.81 4E+00
6.282E+00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
4.000E01
3.333E01
2.857E01
2.500E01
2.222E01
6.250E+00
9.000E+00
1.225E+01
1.600E+01
2.025E+01
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
6.250E+00
9.000E+00
1.225E+01
1.600E+01
2.025E+01
2.975E01
1.057E01
2.791 E02
5.538E03
8.31 6E04
6.771 E+OO
9.514E+OO
1.276E+O1
1.651 E+01
2.076E+O1
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
2.000E01
2.500E+01
1.667E01
3.6OOE+Ol
1.429E01
4.900E+01
1.250E01
6.400E+01
1 1 E01 8.1 00E+01
1.l
1.000E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
2.500E+01
3.600E+01
4.900E+01
6.400E+01
8.100E+01
9.505E05
5.559E07
1.133E09
8.169E13
2.100E16
2.551 E+O1
3.65OE+Ol
4.95OE+Ol
6.45OE+Ol
8.1 5OE+Ol
10.00
20.00
30.00
1.000E01
5.000E02
3.333E02
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+02
4.000E+02
9.000E+02
1.938E20
5.543E85
3.326E193
l.005E+02
4.005E+02
9.005E+02
1.OOOE+02
4.000E+02
9.000E+02~
256
Chapter 5
1.oo
1.OOOE+OO
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
9.526E01
9.099E01
8.712E01
8.360E01
8.038E01
7.743E01
7.471 E01
7.221 E01
6.989E01
1.000E+00
1.107E+00
1.220E+00
1.338E+00
1.461 E+OO
1.589E+00
1.723E+00
1.862E+00
2.006E+00
2.1 55E+00
1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.018E+00
1.027E+00
1.036E+00
1.044E+00
1.053E+00
1.061E+OO
1.070E+00
1.079E+00
1.000E+00
1.097E+00
1.l98E+00
1.302E+00
1.41 OE+OO
1.522E+00
1.636E+00
1.754E+00
1.874E+00
l.998E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E01
9.989E01
9.964E01
9.921 E01
9.856E01
9.768E01
9.656E01
9.51 9E01
9.358E01
1.71OE+OO
1.804E+OO
1.906E+OO
2.015E+OO
2.1 32E+00
2.255E+00
2.384E+00
2.520E+00
2.662E+00
2.810E+00
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
6.773E01
6.386E01
6.048E01
5.750E01
5.487E01
5.252E01
5.042E01
4.853E01
4.682E01
4.527E01
2.31 OE+OO
2.634E+00
2.980E+00
3.347E+00
3.734E+00
4.143E+00
4.572E+00
5.023E+00
5.494E+00
5.987E+00
1.088E+00
l.l
05E+00
1.l
24E+00
1.l43E+00
1.l63E+00
1.l
84E+00
1.205E+00
1.228E+00
1.251 E+OO
1.275E+00
2.124E+OO
2.383E+00
2.651 E+OO
2.928E+00
3.21 1E+OO
3.500E+00
3.794E+00
4.092E+00
4.393E+00
4.696E+00
9.174E01
8.744E01
8.242E01
7.686E01
7.093E01
6.483E01
5.869E01
5.267E01
4.687E01
4.1 38E01
2.964E+OO
3.289E+OO
3.637E+OO
4.008E+OO
4.401 E+OO
4.81 7E+OO
5.254E+00
5.713E+OO
6.1 94E+00
6.697E+OO
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
4.385E01
3.837E01
3.466E01
3.203E01
3.009E01
6.500E+00
9.381 E+OO
1.279E+01
1.671 E+01
2.1 17E+01
1.300E+00
1.439E+00
1.603E+00
1.791 E+OO
2.003E+00
5.000E+00
6.517E+00
7.977E+00
9.333E+00
1.057E+01
3.627E01
1.707E01
7.1 26E02
2.751 E02
1.01 4E02
7.222E+OO
1.017E+01
1.366E+01
1.768E+01
2.225E+01
5.00
6.00
7.00
9.00
2.863E01
2.661 E01
2.531 E01
2.443E01
2.381 E01
2.614E+OI
3.767E+01
5.129E+OI
6.700E+01
8.481 E+01
2.241 E+OO
2.790E+00
3.439E+00
4.1 88E+00
5.036E+00
1.167E+01
1.350E+01
1.491 E+01
1.600E+01
1.684E+01
3.655E03
4.722E04
6.446E05
9.651 E06
1.606E06
2.735E+01
3.91 6E+01
5.312E+01
6.923E+OI
8.749E+OI
10.00
20.00
30.00
2.336E01
2.1 85E01
2.156E01
1.047E+02
4.190E+02
9.428E+02
5.984E+OO
2.095E+01
4.589E+01
1.750E+01
2.000E+01
2.054E+01
2.974E07
1.228E12
4.956E16
1.079E+02
4.301 E+02
9.672E+02
8.00
Gas Dynamics
257
1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.OWE+OO
9.528E01
9.106E01
8.726E01
8.383E01
8.071 E01
7.787E01
7.527E01
7.288E01
7.067E01
l.000E+00
l.l
12E+00
l.229E+00
l.352E+00
1.480E+00
l.614E+00
l.753E+00
1.897E+00
2.047E+00
2.203E+00
l.OWE+W
1.01 8E+00
1.035E+00
1.052E+00
1.069E+00
1.086E+00
1.l
02E+00
.l 19E+00
.l
1.l
36E+00
1.l
53E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.092E+00
l.l
87E+00
l.285E+00
1.385E+00
l.486E+00
1.590E+00
1.696E+00
1.803E+00
1.91 1
E+OO
l.OOOE+W
9.998E01
9.989E01
9.965E01
9.924E01
9.861 E01
9.777E01
9.671 E01
9.542E01
9.391 E01
1.772E+OO
l.873E+OO
1.982E+OO
2.1OOE+OO
2.224E+OO
2.356E+OO
2.495E+OO
2.641 E+OO
2.793E+00
2.951 E+OO
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
6.864E01
6.501 E01
6.186E01
5.91 2E01
5.671 E01
5.458E01
5.268E01
5.099E01
4.947E01
4.81 OE01
2.364E+00
2.702E+00
3.062E+00
3.444E+00
3.847E+00
4.273E+00
4.720E+00
5.189E+00
5.680E+00
6.193E+00
1.l
70E+00
1.205E+00
1.241 E+OO
1.279E+00
1.31 9E+00
1.360E+00
1.402E+00
1.446E+00
1.492E+00
1.540E+00
2.020E+00
2.242E+00
2.466E+00
2.692E+00
2.918E+00
3.143E+00
3.366E+00
3.588E+00
3.806E+00
4.020E+00
9.220E01
8.822E01
8.362E01
7.856E01
7.320E01
6.767E01
6.21 3E01
5.667E01
5.139E01
4.636E01
3.1 16E+OO
3.464E+OO
3.836E+00
4.232E+00
4.652E+00
5.096E+00
5.563E+OO
6.053E+OO
6.567E+00
7.1 04E+OO
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
4.686E01
4.21 4E01
3.904E01
3.690E01
3.536E01
6.727E+00
9.727E+00
1.327E+01
1.736E+01
2.200E+01
1.590E+00
1.867E+00
2.192E+00
2.565E+00
2.988E+00
4.231 E+OO
5.21 lE+OO
6.056E+00
6.769E+00
7.364E+00
4.1 62E01
2.298E01
1.198E01
6.096E02
3.093E02
7.664E+OO
1.081 E+O1
1.453E+O1
1.883E+O1
2.37OE+Ol
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
3.421 E01
3.267E01
3.1 70E01
3.106E01
3.061 E01
2.71 8E+01
3.91 8E+01
5.336E+01
6.973E+01
8.827E+01
3.460E+W
4.551 E+OO
5.841 E+OO
7.329E+00
9.016E+00
7.857E+00
8.609E+00
9.136E+00
9.514E+00
9.791 E+OO
1.586E02
4.408E03
1.343E03
4.498E04
1.644E04
2.91 5E+01
4.176E+O1
5.666E+O1
7.386E+O1
9.335E+01
10.00
20.00
30.00
3.029E01
2.923E01
2.903E01
1.090E+02
4.363E+02
9.81 7E+02
1.090E+01
4.065E+01
9.024E+01
l.OOOE+Ol
1.073E+01
l.088E+01
6.499E05
9.665E08
1.81 8E09
1.l
51 E+02
4.591 E+02
1.032E+03
258
Chapter 5
l.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.OOOE+OO
9.530E01
9.1 12E01
8.739E01
8.403E01
8.100E01
7.825E01
7.575E01
7.346E01
7.136E01
1.OOOE+OO
1.l
16E+00
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
3.00
1.237E+00
1.365E+00
1.497E+00
1.636E+00
1.78OE+OO
1.930E+00
2.085E+00
2.246E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.026E+00
1.051E+OO
1.075E+00
1.i00E+00
1.l
24E+00
1.l
48E+OO
72E+00
1.l
97E+00
1.l
1.222E+00
1.000E+00
1.088E+00
1.l
78E+00
l.269E+00
1.362E+00
1.456E+00
1.55OE+OO
1.646E+00
1.742E+00
1.838E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.989E01
9.966E01
9.926E01
9.866E01
9.786E01
9.685E01
9.563E01
9.421 E01
1.832E+OO
1.g41 E+OO
2.058E+00
2.1 83E+OO
2.31 6E+00
2.457E+00
2.605E+OO
2.760E+00
2.922E+00
3.09OE+OO
6.942E01
6.599E01
6.304E01
6.048E01
5.825E01
5.629E01
5.455E01
5.301 E01
5.163E01
5.040E01
2.413E+00
2.763E+00
3.137E+00
3.532E+OO
3.950E+00
4.391 E+OO
4.855E+00
5.341 E+OO
5.850E+00
6.381 E+OO
1.247E+00
1.299E+00
1.353E+OO
1.409E+00
1.467E+00
1.527E+00
1.591 E+OO
1.656E+00
1.725E+00
1.796E+00
1.935E+00
2.127E+00
2.318E+00
2.507E+00
2.693E+00
2.875E+00
3.052E+00
3.225E+00
3.392E+00
3.554E+00
9.261 E01
8.891 E01
8.466E01
8.001 E01
7.51 OE01
7.006E01
6.499E01
6.000E01
5.515E01
5.050E01
3.265E+OO
3.635E+OO
4.031 E+OO
4.452E+00
4.899E+00
5.370E+00
5.866E+OO
6.387E+00
6.933+00
7.503E+00
4.00
4.50
4.929E01
4.51 1 E01
4.241 E01
4.058E01
3.927E01
6.935E+00
1.004E+01
1.372E+01
1.796E+01
2.276E+01
1.869+00
2.280E+00
2.763E+00
3.318E+00
3.946E+00
3.71 O+OO
4.404E+00
4.965E+00
5.41 2E+00
5.768E+00
4.61 OE01
2.822E01
1.677E01
9.933E02
5.939E02
8.098E+OO
1.l
44E+01
1.539E+Ol
1.996E+01
2.513E+01
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
3.832E01
3.704E01
3.625501
3.573E01
3.536E01
2.81 3E+01
4.057E+01
5.526E+01
7.222E+01
9.143E+01
4.648E+00
6.271 E+OO
8.189+00
1.040E+01
1.291 E+01
6.053E+00
6.469E+00
6.749E+00
6.943E+00
7.084E+00
3.61 3E02
1.422E02
6.098E03
2.827E03
1.404E03
3.092E+01
4.431 E+O1
6.014E+01
7.84OE+Ol
9.910E+01
10.00
20.00
30.00
3.51 OE01
3.426E01
3.410E01
1.l
29E+02
4.520E+02
1.01 7E+03
1.571 E+01
5.994E+O1
1.337E+02
7.188E+00
7.541 E+OO
7.61 OE+OO
7.402E04
8.945E06
6.232E07
1.222E+02
4.875E+02
1.096E+03
3.50
Gas Dynamics
TABLE 5.3
259
1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.OOOE+OO
9.531 E01
9.1 18E01
8.750E01
8.422E01
8.126E01
7.860E01
7.61 8E01
7.397E01
7.196E01
1.000E+00
1.120E+00
1.245E+00
1.376E+00
1.51 3E+00
1.656E+00
1.805E+00
1.960E+00
2.1 20E+00
2.286E+00
1.000E+00
1.033E+00
1.065E+00
1.097E+00
1.l28E+00
1.l
59E+00
1.l
91 E+OO
1.223E+00
1.255E+00
l.287E+00
1.000E+00
l.O84E+OO
1.169E+00
1.255E+OO
1.342E+00
1.429E+00
1.51 6E+00
1.603E+00
1.690E+00
1.776E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.989E01
9.967E01
9.928E01
9.871 E 4 1
9.794E01
9.697E01
9.582E01
9.448E01
1.893E+OO
2.008E+OO
2.133E+OO
2.266E+00
2.408E+OO
2.557E+OO
2.71 4E+00
2.878E+OO
3.049E+OO
3.228E+OO
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
l.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
7.01 1 E01
6.684E01
6.405E01
6.1 65E01
5.956E01
5.774E01
5.61 3E01
5.471 E01
5.344E01
5.231 E01
2.458E+00
2.820E+00
3.205E+00
3.61 3E+00
4.045E+00
4.500E+00
4.978E+00
5.480E+00
6.005E+00
6.553E+00
1.320E+00
1.388E+00
1.458E+00
1.532E+00
1.608E+00
1.688E+00
1.770E+00
1.857E+00
1.947E+00
2.040E+00
1.862E+00
2.032E+00
2.198E+00
2.359E+00
2.516E+00
2.667E+00
2.812E+00
2.951 E+OO
3.085E+00
3.212E+00
9.298E01
8.952E01
8.557E01
8.1 27E01
7.674E01
7.209E01
6.742E01
6.281 E01
5.833E01
5.401 E01
3.413E+OO
3.805E+OO
4.224E+OO
4.67OE+OO
5.142E+OO
5.64OE+OO
6.1 65E+OO
6.71 6E+OO
7.294E+OO
7.897E+00
2.50
3.00
4.00
4.50
5.1 30E01
4.752E01
4.51 2E01
4.350E01
4.236E01
7.1 25E+00
1.033E+01
1.41 3E+01
1.850E+01
2.346E+01
2.1 38E+00
2.679E+00
3.315E+00
4.047E+00
4.875E+00
3.333E+00
3.857E+00
4.261 E+OO
4.571 E+OO
4.812E+00
4.990E01
3.283E01
2.1 29E01
1.388E01
9.1 70E02
8.526E+OO
1.206E+01
1.624E+01
2.1 07E+01
2.654E+01
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
4.152E01
4.042E01
3.974E01
3.929E01
3.898E01
2.900E+01
4.1 83E+01
5.700E+01
7.450E+01
9.433E+01
5.800E+00
7.941 E+OO
1.047E+01
1.339E+01
1.669E+01
5.000E+00
5.268E+00
5.444E+00
5.565E+00
5.651 E+OO
6.172E02
2.965E02
1.535E02
8.488E03
4.964E03
3.265E+O1
4.682E+01
6.355E+Ol
8.287E+01
1.048E+02
10.00
20.00
30.00
3.876E01l
3.804E01l
3.790E01l
1.l
65E+02
4.665E+02
1.050E+03
2.039E+01
7.872E+01
1.759E+02
5.714E+00
5.926E+00
5.967E+00
3.045E03
1.078E04
1.453E05
1.292E+02
5.1 55E+02
1.l
59E+03
3.50
Chapter 5
260
1.oo
1.OOOE+OO
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
l.35
1.40
1A5
9.533E01
9.123E01
8.761 E01
8.438E01
8.150E01
7.890E01
7.655E01
7.442E01
7.248E01
1.OOOE+OO
1.23E+00
l
1.252E+00
1.387E+00
1.528E+00
1.675E+00
1.828E+00
1.987E+00
2.1 52E+00
2.323E+00
1.000E+00
1.039E+00
1.078E+00
1.l16E+00
1.l
54E+00
1.l
93E+00
1.231 E+OO
l.270E+00
1.309E+00
1.349E+00
1.000E+00
1 .O8OE+00
1.l
61 E+OO
1.242E+00
1.324E+00
1.404E+00
1.485E+00
1.565E+00
1.644E+00
1.723E+00
l.000E+00
9.999E01
9.990E01
9.968E01
9.930E01
9.875E01
9.801 E01
9.709E01
9.600E01
9.473E01
1.953E+OO
2.075E+00
2.207E+00
2.348E+00
2.498E+OO
2.656E+OO
2.821 E+OO
2.995E+00
3.1 76E+00
3.364E+OO
1.50
1.60
l.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
7.071 E01
6.759E01
6.494E01
6.266E01
6.069E01
5.898E01
5.747E01
5.61 5E01
5.497E01
5.393E01
2.500E+00
2.872E+00
3.268E+00
3.688E+00
4.1 32E+00
4.600E+00
5.092E+00
5.608E+00
6.148E+00
6.71 2E+OO
1.389E+00
1.472E+00
1.558E+00
1.648E+00
1.742E+00
1.840E+00
1.942E+00
2.049E+00
2.159E+00
2.275E+00
1.800E+00
1 .g51E+OO
2.097E+00
2.238E+OO
2.372E+00
2.500E+00
2.622E+00
2.738E+00
2.847E+00
2.951 E+OO
9.331 E01
9.006E01
8.637E01
8.237E01
7.81 6E01
7.384E01
6.951 E01
6.523E01
6.1 06E01
5.703E01
3.56OE+OO
3.973E+OO
4.414E+OO
4.884E+OO
5.382E+00
5.907E+00
6.461 E+OO
7.041 E+OO
7.649E+00
8.285E+00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.299E01
4.953E01
4.734E01
4.588E01
4.486E01
7,3OOE+OO
1.060E+01
1.450E+01
1.900E+01
2.41 OE+Ol
2.394E+00
3.062E+00
3.847E+00
4.750E+00
5.772E+00
3.049E+OO
3.462E+00
3.769E+00
4.000E+00
4.175E+00
5.31 8E01
3.691 E01
2.547E01
1.773E01
1.253E01
8.948E+OO
1.267E+01
1.708E+Ol
2.21 6E+01
2.792E+O1
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
4.41 2E01
4.31 3E01
4.253E01
4.21 4E01
4.186E01
2.980E+01
4.300E+01
5.86OE+Ol
7.660E+01
9.700E+01
6.914E+00
9.556E+00
1.268E+O1
1.628E+01
2.036E+01
4.31OE+OO
4.500E+00
4.623E+OO
4.706E+00
4.765E+00
9.01 8E02
4.928E02
2.877E02
1.776E02
1.l
50E02
3.437E+O1
4.928E+O1
6.691 E+O1
8.726E+01
1.l
03E+02
10.00
20.00
30.00
4.1 67E01
4.104E01
4.092E01
1.l
98E+02
4.798E+02
1.080E+03
2.492E+01
9.692E+01
2.1 69E+02
4.808E+00
4.950E+00
4.978E+00
7.743E03
5.270E04
1.058E04
1.361 E+02
5.430E+02
1.221 E+03
Gas Dynamics
261
M,
PdP,
PJPZ
1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
l.30
l.35
1.40
l.45
1.OOOE+OO
9.535E01
9.131 E01
8.776E01
8.463E01
8.1 84E01
7.935E01
7.71 1 E01
7.509E01
7.325E01
l.OOOE+OO
1.128E+00
1.263E+00
1.403E+00
l.550E+00
1.704E+00
1.863E+00
2.029E+00
2.201 E+OO
2.379E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.050E+00
1.099E+00
1.l47E+00
1.l96E+00
1.244E+00
1.293E+00
l.343E+00
1.393E+00
1.445E+00
1.000E+00
1.075E+00
1.149E+00
1.223E+OO
1.297E+00
1.369E+00
1.441 E+OO
1.51 1 E+OO
l.580E+00
1.647E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E01
9.990E01
9.969E01
9.934E01
9.882E01
9.81 3E01
9.728E01
9.627E01
9.51 1 E01
2.055E+00
2.1 89E+00
2.333E+OO
2.487E+OO
2.650E+00
2.822E+00
3.002E+00
3.191 E+OO
3.388E+00
3.592E+00
l.50
l.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
7.158E01
6.866E01
6.620E01
6.41 OE01
6.229E01
6.073E01
5.936E01
5.817E01
5.71 1 E01
5.61 7E01
2.564E+00
2.951 E+OO
3.364E+00
3.802E+00
4.265E+00
4.753E+00
5.266E+00
5.804E+00
6.367E+00
6.954E+00
l.497E+00
1.604E+00
1.71 6E+00
1.833E+00
1.955E+00
2.083E+00
2.216E+00
2.355E+00
2.499E+00
2.650E+00
1.71 3E+00
1.840E+00
1.960E+00
2.074E+00
2.181 E+OO
2.282E+00
2.376E+00
2.465E+00
2.548E+00
2.625E+00
9.381 E01
9.087E01
8.754E01
8.395E01
8.01 9E01
7.634E01
7.248E01
6.866E01
6.493E01
6.131 E01
3.805E+OO
4.254E+OO
4.733E+OO
5.243E+OO
5.784E+00
6.354E+00
6.954E+OO
7.584E+OO
8.244E+00
8.934E+00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.534E01
5.227E01
5.036E01
4.91 OE01
4.822E01
7.567E+00
1.l
01 E+01
1.507E+O1
1.976E+01
2.508E+01
2.806E+00
3.678E+00
4.704E+00
5.885E+00
7.221 E+OO
2.697E+00
2.993E+OO
3.204E+OO
3.358E+00
3.473E+00
5.782E01
4.283E01
3.1 77E01
2.384E01
1.81 6E01
9.653E+00
1.369E+O1
l.847E+01
2.398E+01
3.024E+01
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
4.758E01
4.674E01
4.623E01
4.589E01
4.566E01
3.560E+00
3.680E+00
3.756E+00
3.807E+OO
3.843E+00
1.406E01
8.831 E02
5.854E02
4.059E02
2.920E02
3.722E+O1
5.340E+01
7.253E+O1
9.459E+01
1.l
96E+02
10.00
20.00
30.00
4.550E01
4.497E01
4.487E01
3.870E+00
3.956E+00
3.972E+00
2.167E02
2.885E03
8.684EL04
1.476E+02
5.889E+02
1.324+03
1.248E+02
5.001 E+02
1.l
26E+03
3.226E+01
1.264E+02
2.834+02
Chapter 5
262
T T
0.00
0.09
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+02
5.000E+01
3.333E+01
2.500E+01
2.000E+01
1.667E+01
1.429E+01
1.250E+01
11 E+01
1.l
6.066E+01
3.033E+01
2.023E+01
1.51 8E+01
1.21 5E+01
1.01 3E+01
8.686E+00
7.606E+00
6.767E+00
1.000E02
2.000E02
3.000E02
4.OOOE02
5.000E02
6.000E02
7.OOOE02
8.OOOE02
9.OOOE02
9.990E+03
2.491 E+03
03E+03
1.l
6.176E+02
3.930E+02
2.71 2E+02
1.978E+02
1.502E+02
76E+02
1.l
4.105E+OO
3.41 2E+00
3.007E+00
2.720E+00
2.497E+00
2.31 5E+00
2.1 62E+00
2.029E+00
1.912E+OO
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+01
6.667E+00
5.000E+00
4.000E+00
3.333E+00
2.857E+00
2.500E+00
2.222E+00
6.096E+00
4.089E+00
3.094E+00
2.503E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.842E+00
1.643E+00
1.491 E+OO
1.00OE01
1.5OOE01
2.000E01
2.5OOE01
3.000E01
3.5OOE01
4.000E01
4.500E01
9.439E+01
3.965E+01
2.078E+01
1.223E+O1
7.703E+00
5.064E+00
3.41 7E+Ob
2.341 E+OO
1.808E+00
1.408E+00
l.l
29E+00
9.1 75E01
7.490E01
6.1 1 1 E01
4.963E01
3.998E01
0.50
0.90
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
2.000E+00
1.667E+00
1.429E+00
1.250E+00
11E+OO
1.l
l.375E+00
l.21 OE+W
1.107E+00
1.044E+00
1.01 OE+OO
5.000E01
6.000E01
7.000E01
8.000E01
9.000E01
1.61 4E+00
7.561 E 4 1
3.275E01
62E01
1.l
2.385E02
3.181 E01
1.908E01
1.01 7E01
4.31 4E02
1.036E02
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.091 E01
1.000E+00
8.333E01
1.000E+00
7.692E01
1.OOOE+OO
7.143E01
1.000E+00
6.667E01
1.000E+00
6.25OE01
1.000E+00
5.882E01
l.000E+00
5.556E01
l.000E+00
5.263E01
1
1.000E+00
1.01 OE+OO
1.038E+00
1.086E+OO
l.l
54E+00
1.245E+00
1.363E+00
1.51 3E+00
1.703E+00
.W1 E+OO
1 .000E+00 0.000E+00
00E+00
1.l
1.707E02
1.200E+00
5.909E02
1.l
64E01
1.300E+00
1.831 E01
1.400E+00
2.554E01
1.500E+00
3.306E01
1.600E+00
1.700E+00
4.073E01
1.800E+00
~.
4.842E01
1.900E+00
5.607E01
0.000E+00
9.690E03
3.768E02
8.264E02
1M5E01
2.1 95E01
3.100E01
4.144E01
5.322E01
6.631 E01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.60
0.70
0.80
PIP'
0
pJpo*
m
VN' = p'lp
0.000E+00
~~~~
f L*/D
OD
S'/R
m
Gas Dynamics
263
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
5.OOOE01
4.762E01
4.545E01
4.348E01
4.167E01
4.OOOE01
3.846E01
3.704E01
3.571 E01
3.448E01
2.241 E+OO
2.620E+OO
3.100E+OO
3.71 4E+00
4.502E+00
5.522E+00
6.852E+00
8.600E+00
1.092E+01
l.402E+01
6.363E01
7.106E01
7.835E01
8.549E01
9.245E01
9.926E01
1.059E+00
24E+OO
1.l
1.l
87E+00
1.248E+00
8.069E01
9.631 E01
32E+OO
1.l
1.312E+OO
1.505E+00
1.709E+00
1.924E+00
2.1 52E+00
2.390E+00
2.640E+00
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
3.333E01
3.226E01
3.1 25E01
3.030E01
2.941 E01
2.857E01
2.778E01
2.703E01
2.632E01
2.564E01
1.82OE+Ol
2.389E+01
3.1 72E+01
4.257E+01
5.776E+O1
7.922E+01
1.098E+02
1.540E+02
2.181 E+02
3.123E+02
1.308E+00
1.367E+00
1.424E+00
1.480E+00
1.534E+00
1.587E+00
l.639E+00
1.690E+00
1.739E+00
1.788E+00
2.901 E+OO
3.1 74E+OO
3.457E+00
3.751 E+OO
4.056E+00
4.372E+00
4.699E+00
5.037E+00
5.385E+00
5.744E+OO
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
2.5OOE01
2.222E01
2.000E01
1.81 8E01
1.667E01
1.538E01
1.429E01
1.333E01
1.250E01
1.111E01
4.520E+02
3.364E+03
3.255E+04
4.085E+05
6.637E+06
1.394E+08
3.784E+09
1.325E+11
5.987E+12
2.61 5E+16
1.835E+00
2.058E+00
2.259E+00
2.443E+00
2.61 1E+OO
2.767E+OO
2.91 2E+00
3.048E+00
3.175E+00
3.407E+00
6.1 14E+00
8.1 21 E+OO
l.039E+01
1.292E+01
1.571 E+01
1.875E+01
2.205E+01
2.561 E+01
2.942E+01
3.780E+01
10
20
30
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE01
5.000E02
3.333E02
3.145E+20
2.191 E+85
5.468E+193
3.61 5E+W
4.994E+00
5.804E+00
4.720E+01
1.965E+02
4.461 E+02
Chapter 5
264
(Continued)
k = 1.1
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
1.050E+00
l.050E+00
oa
OD
0.09
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.025E+02
5.123E+01
3.41 6E+01
2.562E+01
2.049E+01
1.708E+01
1.464E+01
1.281 E+01
1.l
38E+01
5.991 E+O1
2.996E+O1
1.998E+01
1.499E+01
1.200E+01
1.000E+01
8.581 E+W
7.51 4E+00
6.685E+00
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.049E+00
1.049E+00
1.048E+00
1.047E+00
1.045E+00
1.044E+00
1.042E+00
1.039E+00
l.024E+Ol
6.827E+00
5.1 18E+00
4.092E+00
3.408E+00
2.91 9E+00
2.552E+00
2.266E+00
6.023E+OO
4.042E+W
3.059E+00
2.476E+00
2.093E+00
1.825E+00
1.629E+00
1.480E+00
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90
1.037E+00
1.031 E+OO
1.025E+00
1.017E+00
1.009E+00
2.037E+00
1.693E+00
1.446E+00
1.261 E+OO
1.l
16E+00
1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90
1.OOOE+OO
9.901 E01
9.795E01
9.682E01
9.563E01
9.438E01
9.309E01
9.174E01
9.036E01
8.895E01
1.000E+00
9.046E01
8.247E01
7.569E01
6.985E01
6.477E01
6.030E01
5.634E01
5.281 E01
4.964E01
0.08
0.80
O.OOOE+OO
1.025E02
2.049E02
3.074E02
4.099E02
5.123E02
6.148E02
7.1 72E02
8.196E02
9.220E02
00
9.081 E+03
2.264E+03
1.003E+03
5.61 2E+02
3.571 E+02
2.463E+02
1.796E+02
1.364E+02
1.068E+02
4.093+00
3.400E+00
2.995E+00
2.707E+00
2.485E+00
2.303E+00
2.1 50E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.900E+00
2.047E01
2.558E01
3.067E01
3.575E01
4.082E01
4.588E01
8.565E+01
3.592E+01
1.879E+01
1.103E+Ol
6.936E+W
4.549E+00
3.062E+00
2.093E+00
1.796E+W
1.397E+00
1.l
18E+00
9.068E01
7.388E01
6.01 6E01
4.877E01
3.920E01
1.365E+OO
l.204E+00
1.104E+OO
1.042E+00
1.01 OE+OO
5.092E01
6.094E01
7.087E01
8.069E01
9.041 E01
1.439E+OO
6.705E01
2.887E01
1.01 9E01
2.078E02
3.1 13E01
1.858E01
9.853E02
4.158E02
9.928E03
l.WOE+W
1.009E+00
1.036E+00
1.080E+00
1.142E+00
1.223E+00
1.326E+00
1.454E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1 .e01
E+OO
1.OWE+OO
O.WOE+W
1.095E+00
1A8E02
1.l 88E+00
5.050E02
1.279E+00
9.885E02
1.369E+00
1.544E01
1.457E+00
2.138E01
2.749E01
1.544E+00
3.362E01
1.628E+00
1.71 1 E+OO 3.969E01
1.792E+00
4.563E01
1.024E01
l.536E01
O.OOOE+W
9.168E03
3.541 E02
7.709E02
1.329E01
2.01 6E01
2.824E01
3.742E01
4.764E01
5.882E01
Gas Dynamics
Table 5.4
265
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
8.75OE01
8.603E01
8.454E01
8.304E01
8.1 52E01
8.000E01
7.848E01
7.695E01
7.543E01
7.392E01
4.677E01
4.417E01
4.1 79E01
3.962E01
3.762E01
3.578E01
3.407E01
3.249E01
3.1 02E01
2.965E01
2.032E+00
2.31 2E+00
2.651 E+OO
3.061 E+OO
3.560E+00
4.165E+00
4.901 E+OO
5.799E+00
6.896E+00
8.237E+00
1B71E+OO
1.948E+00
2.023E+00
2.096E+00
2.1 67E+00
2.236E+00
2.303E+00
2.368E+00
2.432E+00
2.493E+00
5.140E01
5.698E01
6.237E01
6.754E01
7.251 E01
7.726E01
8.182E01
8.617 E a l
9.034E01
9.432E01
7.089E01
8.380E01
9.748E01
1.l
19E+00
1.270E+00
1.427E+00
1.590E+00
1.758E+00
1.g31 E+OO
2.1 09E+00
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
7.241 E01
7.092E01
6.944E01
6.798E01
6.654E01
6.512E01
6.371 E01
6.233E01
6.098E01
5.964E01
2.837E01
2.71 7E01
2.604E01
2.499E01
2.399E01
2.306E01
2.217E01
2.1 34E01
2.055E01
1.980E01
9.880E+00
1.190E+01
1.438E+01
1.743E+01
2.1 19E+01
2.583E+01
3.157E+01
3.866E+01
4.743E+01
5.829E+01
2.553E+00
2.61 1E+OO
2.667E+00
2.721 E+OO
2.773E+00
2.824E+00
2.874E+00
2.921 E+OO
2.967E+00
3.01 2E+00
9.812E01
1.017E+00
1.052E+00
1.085E+00
1.l
17E+00
1.l
47E+00
l.176E+00
1.204E+00
1.230E+00
1.256E+00
2.291 E+OO
2.476E+00
2.666E+00
2.858E+00
3.054E+00
3.252E+00
3.452E+00
3.655E+00
3.859E+OO
4.066E+00
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
9.00
5.833801
5.217E01
4.667E01
4.1 79E01
3.750E01
3.373E01
3.043E01
2.754E01
2.500E01
2.079E01
1.909E01
1.605E01
1.366E01
1.l
75E01
1.021 E01
8.936E02
7.881 E02
6.997E02
6.25OE02
5.066E02
7.175E+01
2.058E+02
5.977E+02
1.731 E+03
4.949E+03
1.388E+04
3.798E+04
1.01 2E+05
2.621 E+05
1.61 4E+06
3.055E+00
3.25OE+OO
3.41 6E+00
3.556E+00
3.674E+00
3.775E+00
3.862E+00
3.936E+00
4.000E+00
4.1 04E+00
1.280E+00
1.386E+00
1.472E+00
1.543E+00
1.601 E+OO
1.649E+00
1.689E+00
1.723E+00
1.752E+00
1.798E+00
4.273E+OO
5.327E+00
6.393E+00
7.456E+00
8.507E+00
9.538E+00
1.054E+01
1.l
52E+01
1.248E+01
1.429E+01
10
20
30
1.75OE01
5.OOOE02
2.283E02
4.1 83E02
1.118E02
5.036E03
8.874E+06
2.290E+12
5.746E+15
4.1 83E+00
4.472E+00
4.532E+00
l.832E+00
1.600E+Ol
2.846E+01
3.629E+01
8.00
1.953E+00
1.977E+00
266
Chapter 5
Til*
0.00
0.01
0.02
l.l
00E+OO
1.l
00E+00
1.l
OOE+OO
0.03
PIP'
m
PdPo'
V N ' = p*/p
fL*tD
s*m
m
0.09
1.100E+00
1.l
00E+00
1.100E+00
1.100E+00
1.099E+00
1.099E+00
1.099E+00
1.049E+02
5.244E+01
3.496E+01
2.622E+01
2.097E+01
1.748E+01
1.498E+01
1.31 1 E+01
1.165E+01
5.921 E+01
2.961 E+01
1.974E+01
1.481 E+01
1.186E+01
9.887E+00
8.480E+00
7.426E+00
6.607E+00
0.000E+00
1.049E02
2.098E02
3.146E02
4.195E02
5.243E02
6.292E02
7.340E02
8.388E02
9.435E02
8.324E+03
2.075E+03
9.188E+02
5.142E+02
3.271 E+02
2.256E+02
1.644E+02
1.248E+02
9.772E+01
4.081 E+OO
3.388E+00
2.983E+00
2.696E+00
2.473E+00
2.291 E+OO
2.138E+00
2.005E+00
1.888E+00
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.099E+00
1.098E+00
1.096E+00
1.093E+00
1.090E+00
1.087E+00
l.083E+00
1.078E+00
1.048E+01
6.984E+00
5.234E+00
4.182E+00
3.480E+00
2.978+00
2.601 E+OO
2.307E+00
5.953E+00
3.996E+00
3.026E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.073E+00
1.809E+00
l.615E+00
1.469E+00
1M8E01
1.571 E01
2.093E01
2.614E01
3.1 32E01
3.649E01
4.162E01
4.673E01
7.837E+01
3.281 E+01
1.71 3E+01
1.004E+01
6.298E+00
4.121 E+OO
2.768E+00
1.887E+00
1.784E+00
1.385E+00
1.l
07E+00
8.964E01
7.290E01
5.926E01
4.794E01
3.846E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.073E+00
1.062E+00
1.049E+00
1.034E+00
1.01 8E+00
2.072E+00
1.71 7E+00
1.463E+00
1.271 E+OO
1.l21 E+OO
1.356E+00
99E+00
1.l
1.100E+00
1.041 E+OO
1.01 OE+M
5.180E01
6.183E01
7.168E01
8.134E01
9.079E01
1.294E+00
5.999E01
2.570E01
9.01 6E02
1.828E02
3.048E01
1.811E01
9.557E02
4.01 3E02
9.530E03
1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
9.813E01
9.615E01
9.41OE01
9.197E01
8.98OE01
8.758E01
8.534E01
8.308E01
8.082E01
1.000E+00
9.005E01
8.1 72E01
7.462E01
6.85OE01
6.31 7E01
5.849E01
5.434E01
5.064E01
4.732E01
1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.034E+00
1.075E+00
1.l
32E+00
1.205E+00
1.296E+00
1.407E+00
1.540E+00
1.697E+00
1.000E+00
l.O9OE+00
1.l
77E+00
1.261E+OO
1.343E+00
1.421E+OO
1.497E+00
1.570E+00
1.641 E+OO
1.708E+00
0.000E+00
1.277E02
4.367E02
8.500E02
1.320E01
1.81 7E01
2.323E01
2.825E01
3.316E01
3.791 E41
0.000E+W
8.7OOE03
3.339E02
7.225E02
1.237E01
1.865E01
2.594E01
3.41 4E01
4.31 6E01
5.291 E41
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
Gas Dynamics
267
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
7.857E01
7.634E01
7.412E01
7.194E01
6.98OE01
6.769E01
6.563E01
6.362E01
6.1 66E01
5.975E01
4.432E01
4.1 60E01
3.913E01
3.688E01
3.481 E41
3.291 E01
3.1 16E01
2.954E01
2.804E01
2.665E01
1.884E+00
2.103E+OO
2.359E+00
2.660E+00
3.01 1E+OO
3.421 E+OO
3.898E+00
4.455E+00
5.103E+00
5.858E+00
1.773E+00'
1.835E+00
1.894E+00
1.g51 E+OO
2.005E+00
2.057E+00
2.1 06E+00
2.1 54E+00
2.1 99E+00
2.242E+00
4.247E01
4.683E01
5.099E01
5.493E01
5.868E01
6.222E01
6.557E01
6.874E01
7.173E01
7.456E01
6.332E01
7.432E01
8.584E01
9.783E01
1.l
02E+00
1.230E+00
1.361 E+OO
1.494+00
1.630E+00
1.768E+00
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
5.789E01
5.609E01
5.435E01
5.266E01
5.1 02E01
4.944E01
4.791 E01
4.643E01
4.501 E01
4.363E01
2.536E01
2.416E01
2.304E01
2.1 99E01
2.1 01 E01
2.009E01
1.923E01
1.842E01
1.765E01
1.694E01
6.735E+00
7.755E+00
8.940E+00
1.032E+01
1.l91 E+01
1.376E+O1
1.590E+Ol
1.838E+01
2.124E+01
2.454E+01
2.283E+00
2.322E+OO
2.359E+00
2.395E+00
2.429E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.492E+00
2.521 E+OO
2.549E+00
2.576E+00
7.724E01
7.977E01
8.215E01
8.441 E01
8.655E01
8.857E01
9.048E01
9.229E01
9.401 E01
9.563E01
1.907E+00
2.048E+00
2.191 E+OO
2.334E+00
2.477E+00
2.622E+00
2.766E+00
2.91 1 E+OO
3.056E+00
3.200E+00
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
4.231 E41
3.636E01
3.143E01
2.733E01
2.391 E01
2.1 05E01
1.864E01
1.66OE01
1.486E01
1.209E01
l.626E01
1.340E01
1.l
21 E01
9.505E02
8.1 50E02
7.059E02
6.1 68E02
5.433E02
4.819E02
3.863E02
2.836E+01
5.796E+01
1.163E+02
2.281 E+02
4.359E+02
8.108E+02
1.469E+03
2.593E+03
4.467E+03
1.238E+04
2.602E+00
2.714E+00
2.803E+00
2.875E+00
2.934E+00
2.982E+00
3.023E+00
3.056E+00
3.084E+00
3.1 29E+00
9.718E01
1.038E+00
1.090E+00
1.l
30E+00
1.163E+00
1.l
90E+00
1.21 2E+00
1.230E+00
1.245E+00
1.268E+00
3.345E+00
4.060E+00
4.757E+00
5.430E+00
6.077E+00
6.698E+00
7.292E+00
7.861 E+OO
8.404E+00
9.424E+00
1.000E01
2.683E02
1.209E02
3.162E02
8.1 9OE03
3.665E03
3.162E+04
2.196E+07
1.175E+09
3.1 62E+00
3.276E+00
3.298E+00
l.344E+00
8.00
9.00
10
20
30
1.286E+00
1.356E+00
Chapter 5
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
1.15OE+OO
1.l
50E+00
1.15OE+OO
1.150E+00
l.l
50E+00
1.150E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00
1.072E+02
5.853E+01
5.362E+01
2.927E+01
3.574E+01
1.952E+O1
2.681 E+01 1.464E+Ol
2.144E+01
1.l
72E+01
1.787E+01
9.774E+00
1.531 E+01 8.384E+00
1.340E+01
7.342E+00
1.l91 E+01
6.533E+00
O.OWE+OO
1.072E02
2.145E02
3.21 7E02
4.289E02
5.361 E02
6.433E02
7.504E02
8.575E02
9.646E02
7.684E+03
1.91 6E+03
8.479E+02
4.744E+02
3.01 7E+02
2.081 E+02
1.51 6E+02
1.l
51 E+02
9.006E+01
4.069E+00
3.376E+OO
2.971 E+OO
2.684E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.280E+00
2.1 26E+00
1.994E+00
1.877E+00
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.148E+OO
1.146E+00
1.143E+00
1.139E+OO
1.135E+00
1.129E+00
1.123E+00
1.116E+00
1.072E+01
7.137E+OO
5.346E+00
4.270E+00
3.551 E+OO
3.036E+00
2.649E+00
2.348E+00
5.886E+00
3.952E+00
2.994E+00
2.426E+00
2.054E+00
1.793E+00
1.602E+00
1.459E+00
1.072E01
1.606E01
2.138E01
2.668E01
3.196E01
3.71 SE01
4.239E01
4.754E01
7.22OE+Ol
3.01 8E+01
1.573E+01
9.201 E+OO
5.759E+00
3.760E+00
2.520E+00
1.71 4E+00
1.773E+00
1.374E+00
1.097E+00
8.863E01
7.1 96E01
5.839E01
4.714E01
3.775E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.l
08E+00
1.091 E+OO
1.071 E+OO
1.049E+00
1.025E+00
2.106E+OO
1.741 E+OO
1.479E+00
1.280E+00
1.125E+00
1.348E+00
1.l
93E+00
1.097E+00
1.040E+00
1.009E+00
5.264E01
6.267E01
7.245E01
8.195E01
9.1 14E01
1.l
72E+00
5.409E01
2.305E01
8.045E02
1.623E02
2.985E01
1.767E01
9.280E02
3.878E02
9.164E03
1.oo
1.OOOE+OO
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
9.733E01
9.457E019.1 74E01
8.887E01
8.598E01
8.309E01
8.022E01
7.739E01
7.460E01
1.000E+00
8.969E01
8.1 04E01
7.368E01
6.734E01
6.1 82E01
5.697E01
5.269E01
4.887E01
4.546E01
1.000E+00
l.008E+00
1.032E+00
1.070E+00
l.l
23E+00
1.189E+00
1.271E+OO
1.369E+00
l.484E+00
1.61 8E+00
1.000E+00
1.085E+00
1.l
67E+00
1.245E+00
1.320E+00
1.391 E+OO
1.458E+00
1.523E+00
1.583E+00
1.641 E+OO
0.000E+00
22E02
1.l
3.816E02
7.388E02
1.142E01
1.564E01
1.990E01
2.408E01
2.81 4E01
3.203E01
0.000E+OO
8.278E03
3.160E02
6.798E02
1.l58E01
1.735E01
2.400E01
3.141 E01
3.948E01
4.81 3E01
l.eo
l.90
OD
Gas Dynamics
TABLE 5.4
269
FannoLineFunctions (Continued)
k = 1.3

VN*=p*Ip
fL'D
s*m
1.773E+00
1.g51E+OO
2.156E+00
2.388E+00
2.654E+00
2.954E+00
3.295E+00
3.681 E+OO
4.1 16E+00
4.607E+00
1.696E+00
1.747E+00
1.796E+00
1.842E+00
1.885E+00
1.926E+00
1.965E+00
2.001 E+OO
2.036E+00
2.068E+00
3.573E01
3.924E01
4.255E01
4.567E01
4.860E01
5.135E01
5.394E01
5.636E01
5.864E01
6.077E01
5.728E01
6.686E01
7.68OE01
8.707E01
9.759E01
1.083E+00
l.l
93E+00
1.303E+W
1.41 5E+00
1.528E+OO
2.332E01
2.214E01
2.104E01
2.002E01
1.908E01
1B19E01
1.736E01
1.659E01
1.586E01
1.51 8E01
5.160E+W
5.781 E+W
6.478E+00
7.259E+00
8.1 33E+00
9.1 1 OE+OO
1.020E+01
1.142E+01
1.277E+01
1.427E+01
2.099E+00
2.128E+00
2.1 55E+00
2.1 81 E+OO
2.205E+00
2.228E+00
2.250E+00
2.271 E+OO
2.290E+00
2.309E+00
6.277E01
6.465E01
6.642E01
6.808E01
6.964E01
7.1 10E01
7.248E01
7.379E01
7.501 E01
7.617E01
1.641 E+W
1.755E+OO
1.868E+00
1.982E+00
2.096E+00
2.209E+00
2.322E+00
2.435E+00
2.547E+00
2.658E+00
3.382E01
2.848E01
2.421 E01
2.077E01
l.797E01
1.567E01
1.377E01
l.219E01
1.085E01
8.745E02
1.454E01
1.l
86E01
9.841 E02
8.286E02
7.065E02
6.091 E02
5.302E02
4.654602
4.1 17E02
3.286E02
1.594E+01
2.739E+01
4.596E+01
7.522E+01
1.201 E+02
1.872+02
2.853E+02
4.258E+02
6.231 E+02
1.266E+03
2.326E+W
2.402E+00
2.460E+00
2.506E+00
2.543E+OO
2.573E+00
2.598E+00
2.618E+00
2.635E+00
2.662E+00
7.726E01
8.189E01
8.543E01
8.81 9E01
9.037E01
9.212E01
9.355E01
9.472E01
9.570E01
9.722E01
2.769E+W
3.31OE+OO
3,828E+00
4.320+00
4.788E+00
5.232E+00
5.654E+00
6.054E+00
6.435E+00
7.143E+00
7.188E02
1.885E02
8.456E03
2.681 E02
6.865E03
3.065E03
2.416E+03
2.042E+05
2.943E+06
2.681 E+W
2.746E+00
2.759E+00
9.832E01
1.020E+00
1.027E+00
7.79OE+OO
1.223E+01
1.489E+01
Tff
PIP'
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
7.188E01
6.921 E01
6.663E01
6.412E01
6.1 7OE01
5.935E01
5.71OE01
5.493E01
5.285E01
5.085E01
4.239E01
3.962E01
3.71OE01
3.482E01
3.273E01
3.082E01
2.906E01
2.745E01
2.596E01
2.459E01
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
4.894E01
4.71OE01
4.535E01
4.367E01
4.206E01
4.053E01
3.906E01
3.766E01
3.632E01
3.504E01
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
10
20
30
p&;
Chapter 5
270
(Continued)
k = 1.4
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.l99E+00
1.l99E+00
1.199E+00
1.198E+00
1.198E+00
5.787E+01
2.894E+01
1.930E+01
1.448E+01
1.l
59E+01
9.666E+00
8.292E+00
7.262E+00
6.461 E+OO
0.000E+00
1B95E02
2.191 E02
3.286E02
4.381 E02
5.476E02
6.570E02
7.664E02
8.758E02
9.851 E02
1.095E42
5.477E+01
3.651 E+01
2.738E+01
2.190E+01
1.825E+01
1.564E+Ol
1.368E+01
1.21 6E+01
7.1 34E+03
1.778E+03
7.871 E+02
4.404E+02
2.800E+02
1.930E+02
1.407E+02
1.067E+02
8.350E+01
4.058E+00
3.365E+00
2.96OE+OO
2.673E+00
2.450E+00
2.269E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.983E+00
1.866E+00
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.l
98E+00
1.l
95E+00
1.l
90E+00
1.185E+00
1.179E+00
1.l
71 E+OO
1.163E+00
1.153E+00
1.094E+01
7.287E+00
5.455E+00
4.355E+00
3.61 9E+00
3.092E+00
2.696E+00
2.386E+00
5.822E+00
3.91OE+OO
2.964E+00
2.403E+00
2.035E+00
1.778E+00
1.590E+00
1.449E+00
1.094E01
1.639E01
2.182E01
2.722E01
3.257E01
3.788E01
4.31 3E01
4.833E01
6.692E+01
2.793E+01
1.453E+01
8.483E+00
5.299E+00
3.452E+00
2.308E+00
1.566E+00
1.762E+00
1.364E+00
1.086E+00
8.766E01
7.105E01
5.755E01
4.638E01
3.706E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.l
43E+00
1.l
19E+00
0.90
1.093E+00
1.064E+00
1.033E+00
2.138E+00
1.763E+00
1.493E+00
1.289E+00
1.129E+00
1.340E+00
1.l
88E+00
1.094E+00
1.038E+00
1.009E+00
5.345E01
6.348E01
7.31 8E01
8.251 E01
9.146E01
1.069E+00
4.908E01
2.081 E01
7.229E02
1.451 E02
2.926E01
1.724E01
9.01 8E02
3.752E02
8.824E03
l.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90
1.000E+00
9.662E01
9.31 7E01
8.969E01
8.621 E01
8.276E01
7.937E01
7.605E01
7.282E01
6.969E01
1.OOOE+OO
8.936E01
8.044E01
7.285E01
6.632E01
6.065E01
5.568E01
5.1 30E01
4.741 E01
4.394E01
1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.030E+00
1.066E+00
1.l
15E+00
1.176E+00
1.250E+00
l.338E+00
l.439E+00
l.555E+00
1.000E+00
1.081 E+OO
1.l
58E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.300E+00
1.365E+00
1.425E+00
1.482E+00
1.536E+00
1.586E+00
0.000E+00
9.935E03
3.364E02
6.483E02
9.974E02
1.361 E41
1.724E01
2.078E01
2.41 9E01
2.743E01
0.000E+00
7.894E03
2.999E02
6.420E02
1.088E01
l.623E01
2.233E01
2.909E01
3.639E01
4.41 6E01
0.80
00
Gas Dynamics
271
(Continued)
k = 1.4
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
6.667E01
6.376E01
6.098E01
5.831 E01
5.576E01
5.333E01
5.1 02E01
4.882E01
4.673E01
4.474E01
4.082E01
3.802E01
3.549E01
3.32OE01
3.1 11 E01
2.921 E01
2.747E01
2.588E01
2.441 E01
2.307E01
1.688E+00
1.837E+00
2.005E+00
2.1 93E+00
2.403E+00
2.637E+00
2.896E+00
3.1 83E+00
3.500E+00
3.850E+00
1.633E+00
1.677E+00
1.71 8E+OO
1.756E+00
1.792E+00
1.826E+00
1.857E+00
1.887E+00
1.91 4E+00
l.940E+00
3.050E01
3.339E01
3.609E01
3.862E01
4.099E01
4.320E01
4.526E01
4.718E01
4.898E01
5.065E01
5.232E01
6.081 E01
6.956E01
7.853E01
8.768E01
9.695E01
1.063E+00
1.l
58E+00
1.253E+00
1.348E+00
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
4.286E01
4.1 07E01
3.937E01
3.776E01
3.623E01
3.478E01
3.341 E01
3.21OE01
3.086E01
2.969E01
2.182E01
2.067E01
1 .g61 E01
l.862E01
1.77OE01
1.685E01
1.606E01
1.531 E01
1.462E01
1.397E01
4.235E+00
4.657E+M)
5.121 E+OO
5.629E+OO
6.184E+00
6.790E+00
7.450E+00
8.169E+OO
8.951 E+OO
9.799E+00
1.964E+OO
1.987E+00
2.008E+00
2.028E+00
2.047E+00
2.064E+00
2.081E+OO
2.096E+00
2.1 11 E+OO
2.1 25E+00
5.222E01
5.368E01
5.504E01
5.632E01
5.752E01
5.864E01
5.970E01
6.068E01
6.161E41
6.248E01
1.443E+00
1.538E+OO
1.633E+00
1.728E+00
1.822E+00
1.91 5E+00
2.008E+00
2.1 00E+00
2.1 92E+00
2.282E+00
4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.857E01
2.376E01
2.000E01
1.702E01
1.463E01
1.27OE01
1.111E01
9.796E02
8.696E02
6.9n~o2
1.336E01
1.083E01
8.944E02
7.501 E02
6.376E02
5.482E02
4.762E02
4.1 73E02
3.686E02
2.935E02
1.072E+01
1.656E+01
2.500E+01
3.687E+01
5.31 8E+01
7.51 3E+01
1.041 E+02
1.41 8E+02
1 .g01 E+02
3.272E+02
2.138E+00
2.1 94E+00
2.236E+00
2.269E+00
2.295E+00
2.316E+00
2.333E+00
2.347E+00
2.359E+00
2.377E+00
6.331 E41
6.676E01
6.938E01
7.140E01
7.299E01
7.425E01
7.528E01
7.612E01
7.682E01
7.790E01
2.372E+OO
2.807E+00
3.219E+00
3.607E+00
3.974E+00
4.31 9E+00
4.646E+00
4.955E+00
5.248E+00
5.791 E+OO
l0
20
30
5.71 4E02
1.481 E02
6.63OE03
2.39OE02
6.086E03
2.714E03
5.359E+02
1.538E+04
1.l
44E+05
2.390E+OO
2.434E+00
2.443E+00
7.868E01
8.126E01
8.176E01
6.284E+W
9.641 E+OO
65E+01
1.l
5.50
Chapter 5
272
0.09
1.250E+00
1.250E+00
l.250E+00
l.250E+OO
1.250E+00
1.249E+00
1.249E+00
1.248E+00
1.248E+00
1.247E+00
1.l
18E+02
5.590E+01
3.726E+O1
2.795E+01
2.235E+01
1.863E+01
l.596E+01
1.396E+01
1.241 E+01
5.725E+01
2.863E+01
1.909E+01
1.433E+01
1.147E+O1
9.562E+00
8.203E+00
7.1 84E+00
6.393E+00
0.000E+00
1.l
18E02
2.236E02
3.354E02
4.471 E02
5.588E02
6.705E02
7.821 E02
8.937E02
1.005E01
6.659E+03
1.660E+03
7.344E+02
4.1 08E+02
2.61 2E+02
1.800E+02
1.31 1 E+02
9.948E+01
7.781 E+01
4.047E+OO
3.354E+00
2.949E+00
2.662E+00
2.439E+OO
2.258E+00
2.1 04E+00
1.972E+00
1.855E+00
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.247E+00
1.243E+00
1.238E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.222E+00
1.213E+00
1.202E+OO
1.190E+00
1.l
17E+01
7.433E+00
5.562E+00
4.438E+00
3.686E+00
3.147E+00
2.741 E+OO
2.424E+00
5.760E+00
3.870E+00
2.934E+00
2.380E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.764E+00
1.579E+OO
1.439E+00
17EOl
1.l
1.672E01
2.225E01
2.774E01
3.31 7E01
3.855E01
4.385E01
4.908E01
6.235E+O1
2.598E+01
1.350E+01
7.863E+00
4.902E+00
3.1 87E+00
2.1 26E+00
1.439E+00
1.751 E+00
1.353E+00
l.076E+OO
8.672E01
7.01 7E01
5.674E01
4.565E01
3.641 E01
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90
1.176E+00
1.147E+00
1.l
14E+OO
l.O78E+OO
1.040E+00
2.169E+00
1.785+00
1.508+00
1.298E+00
1.133E+OO
1.332E+00
1.183E+00
1.092E+00
1.037E+00
l.009E+OO
5.423E01
6.425E01
7.387E01
8.305E01
9.176E01
9.802E01
4.479E01
1.891 E01
6.536E02
1.306E02
2.868E01
1.684E01
8.771 E02
3.633E02
8.508E03
1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1.000E+00
9.597E01
9.1 91 E01
8.787E01
8.389E01
8.000E01
7.622E01
7.257E01
6.906E01
6.57OE01
1.000E+00
8.906E01
7.989E01
7.21 1E01
6.542E01
5.963E01
5.456E01
5.01 1 E01
4.61 7E01
4.266E01
1.000E+00
l.O08E+OO
l.029E+00
1.063E+00
1.108E+00
l.165E+00
1.232E+00
1.31 1E+OO
1.402E+00
1.504E+00
1.000E+00
1.078E+00
1.l
50E+00
1.21 9E+00
1.282E+00
1.342E+00
1.397E+00
1.448E+00
1.496E+00
1.540E+00
0.000E+00
8.863E03
2.988E02
5.736E02
8.790E02
1.195E01
1.508E01
1.812E01
2.103E01
2.377E01
O.OOOE+OO
7.545E03
2.853E02
6.082E02
1.026E01
1.524E01
2.089E01
2.71 OE01
3.377E01
4.082501
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.80
00
00
00
OD
273
Gas Dynamics
(Continued)
k = 1.5
TTT'
pdp,'
PIP'
viv*=p*/p
fL*/D
s*m
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
6.250E01
5.945E01
5.656E01
5.382E01
5.123E01
4.878E01
4.647E01
4.429E01
4.223E01
4.029E01
3.953E01
3.672E01
3.419E01
3.190E01
2.982E01
2.794E01
2.622E01
2.465E01
2.321 E01
2.1 89E01
1.61 9E+W
1.747E+00
1.889E+00
2.046E+00
2.21 8E+00
2.407E+00
2.61 3E+00
2.838E+OO
3.082E+00
3.347E+00
1.581E+W
1.61 9E+00
1.655E+OO
1.687E+00
1.71 8E+00
l.746E+00
1.772E+00
1.797E+00
1:820E+00
1.841 E+OO
2.636E01
2.877E01
3.103E01
3.313E01
3.508E01
3.690E01
3.858E01
4.01 5E01
4.160E01
4.296E01
4.81 9E01
5.58OE01
6.362E01
7.1 58E01
7.967E01
8.783E01
9.605E01
l.043E+W
1.l
25E+00
1.208E+00
3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
3.846E01
3.674E01
3.51 1E01
3.358E01
3.21 3E01
3.077E01
2.948E01
2.826E01
2.71 lE01
2.603E01
2.067E01
1.955E01
1.852E01
l.756E01
1.667E01
1.585E01
1.508E01
1.437E01
1.37OE01
1.308E01
3.633E+W
3.943E+00
4.278E+00
4.638E+00
5.025E+00
5.441 E+OO
5.886E+00
6.363E+00
6.874E+00
7.41 9E+00
1.861 E+OO
1.879E+00
l.896E+00
1.91 2E+OO
1.927E+00
1.g41 E+OO
1.955E+00
1.967E+00
1.979E+00
1.990E+00
4.422E01
4.539E01
4.648E01
4.750E01
4.846E01
4.935E01
5.01 8E01
5.096E01
5.169E01
5.238E01
1.290E+W
1.372E+00
1.453E+00
1.534+00
1.61 4E+00
1.694E+00
1.773E+00
1.851 E+OO
1.928E+00
2.004E+00
4.00
4.50
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.5WE01
2.062E01
1.724E01
1.460E01
1.25OE01
1.081 E01
9.434E02
8.299E02
7.353E02
5.882E02
1.25OE01
1.009E01
8.305E02
6.947E02
5.893E02
5.058E02
4.388E02
3.841 E02
3.39OE02
2.695E02
8.000E+W
1.l
51 E+01
1.620E+01
2.233E+O1
3.01 7E+Ol
4.004E+01
5.226E+01
6.721 E+01
8.526E+Ol
1.324E+02
2.0WE+W
2.043E+00
2.076E+OO
2.101 E+OO
2.1 21 E+OO
2.1 37E+00
2.150E+00
2.1 61 E+OO
2.1 69E+00
2.1 83E+00
5.302E01
5.572E01
5.775E01
5.931 E01
6.052E01
6.149E01
6.227E01
6.291 E01
6.344E01
6.426E01
2.079E+W
2.443E+00
2.785E+00
3.1 06E+00
3.407E+00
3.690E+00
3.956E+00
4.208E+00
4.446E+00
4.886E+00
10
20
30
4.808E02
l.238E02
5.531 E03
2.193E02
5.562E03
2.479E03
1.973E+02
2.934E+03
1.465E+04
2.1 93E+W
2.225E+00
2.231 E+OO
6.485E01
6.679E01
6.71 6E01
5.285E+OO
7.984E+00
9.592E+00
5.00
Chapter 5
274
T P
PIP'
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.332E+00
1.332E+00
1.331 E+OO
1.330E+00
1.330E+00
1.155E+02
5.773E+01
3.848E+01
2.886E+01
2.308E+01
1.923E+01
1.648E+01
1.442E+01
1.281 E+01
0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
1.329E+00
1.323E+00
1.316E+00
1.306E+00
l.294E+00
1.281 E+OO
1.266E+00
1.249E+00
1.l
53E+01
7.669E40
5.735E40
4.571 E+OO
3.793E+00
3.234E+00
2.81 3E+00
2.484E+00
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.231 E+OO
1.190E+00
1.146E+00
1.099E+00
1.050E+00
2.219E40
1.81 8E+00
1.529E+00
1.31 OE+OO
1.l
38E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
8.861 E41
7.910E01
7.1 04E01
6.414E01
5.819E01
5.301 E01
4.848E01
4.448E01
4.094E01
0.08
0.80
0.90
1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
9.501 E01
9.009E01
8.529E01
8.065E01
7.619E01
7.1 94E01
6.791 E01
6.41 OE01
6.051 E01
00
PdPo*
VN' = p*/p
fL*m
OD
5.625E+Ol
2.81 3E+01
1.876E+Ol
1.408E+01
1.127E+01
9.398E+00
8.062E+00
7.061 E+OO
6.284E+00
0.000E+00
1.155E02
2.309E02
3.464E02
4.61 8E02
5.771 E02
6.924E02
8.076E02
9.228E02
1.038E01
5.992E+03
1.493E+03
6.607E+02
3.695E+02
2.348E+02
1.61 8E+02
1.178E+02
8.934E+01
6.985E+01
4.030E+00
3.337E+00
2.932E+00
2.645E+00
2.422E+00
2.240E+00
2.087E+00
1.955E+00
1.838E+00
5.663E+W
3.806E+00
2.888E+00
2.345E+00
1.989E+00
1.741 E+OO
1.560E+00
1.424E+00
1.153E01
1.726E01
2.294E01
2.857E01
3.41 3E01
3.961 E01
4.500E01
5.029E01
5.594E+Ol
2.326E+01
1.204E+01
6.996E+00
4.347E+00
2.81 6E+00
1.873E+00
1.263E+00
1.734E+00
1.337E+00
1.061 E+OO
8.522E01
6.877E01
5.545E01
4.448E01
3.538E01
1.320E+00
1.088E+00
1.035E+00
1.008E+00
5.547E01
6.547E01
7.494E01
8.386E01
9.222E01
8.571 E41
3.888E01
1.629E01
5.592E02
1.110E02
2.779E01
1.621 E01
8.389E02
3.452E02
8.030E03
1.000E+00
1.007E+00
1.027E+00
1.058E+00
1.098E+00
1.148+00
1.208E+00
l.275E+00
1.352E+00
1.437E+00
1.000E+00
1.072E+00
1.l
39E+00
1.201 E+OO
1.257E+00
1.309E+00
1.357E+00
1.401 E+OO
l.441 E+OO
1.478E+00
0.000+00
0.000E+00
7.026E03
2.640E02
5.591 E02
9.375E02
1.384E01
1.886E01
2.433E01
3.01 6E01
3.627E01
1.l
76E+W
00
7.429E03
2.489E02
4.750E02
7.239E02
9.786E02
1.229E01
1.470E01
1.699E01
1.913E01
OD
Gas Dynamics
275
TIT'
PIP'
p&<
V N ' = p'lp
fL'/D
s'lR
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
5.71 4E01
5.398E01
5.1 02E01
4.825E01
4.566E01
4.324E01
4.098E01
3.887E01
3.690E01
3.506E01
3.78OE01
3.499E01
3.247E01
3.02OE01
2.816E01
2.63OE01
2.462E01
2.309E01
2.169E01
2.042E01
1.531 E+OO
l.634E+00
1.746E+00
1.868E+00
1.998E+00
2.139E+00
2.290E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.623E+00
2.806E+00
1.51 2E+W
1.543E+00
1.571 E+OO
1.598E+00
1.622E+OO
1.644E+00
1.664E+00
1.683E+OO
1.701 E+OO
l.717E+00
2.1 13E01
2.299E01
2.471 E01
2.631 E01
2.778E01
2.914E01
3.040E01
3.156E01
3.264E01
3.363E01
4.261 E01
4.91 1E01
5.574E01
6.246E01
6.923E01
7.604E01
8.285E01
8.965E01
9.643E01
1.032E+OO
3.00
3.90
3.333E01
3.1 72E01
3.021 E01
2.88OE01
2.747E01
2.623E01
2.506E01
2.397E01
2.294E01
2.1 97E01
1.925E01
1.817E01
1.71 8E01
1.626E01
1.542E01
1.463E01
1.391 E01
1.323E01
1.260E01
1.202E01
3.000E+00
3.206E+OO
3.424E+00
3.654E+00
3.897E+00
4.1 53E+00
4.422E+00
4.705E+00
5.003E+00
5.31 4E+00
1.732E+OO
1.746E+00
1.759E+00
1.771E+OO
1.782E+00
1.793E+OO
1.802E+00
1.B1 1 E+OO
1.820E+00
1.828E+00
3.456E01
3.541 E01
3.621 E41
3.695E01
3.764E01
3.828E01
3.888E01
3.943E01
3.996E01
4.045E01
1.099E+00
1.l
65E+OO
1.231 E+OO
1.296E+00
1.36OE+OO
1.424E+00
1.487E+00
1.549E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1.670E+00
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
2.1 05E01
1.720E01
1.429E01
1.203E01
1.026E01
8.84OE02
7.692E02
6.751 E02
5.970E02
4.762E02
1.147E01
9.217E02
7.559E02
6.306E02
5.338E02
4.574E02
3.962E02
3.464E02
3.054E02
2.425E02
5.641 E+OO
7.508E+00
9.800E+00
1.256E+01
1.584E+01
1.969E+01
2.414E+01
2.925E+01
3.507E+01
4.900E+01
1.835E+00
1.867E+00
1.89OE+OO
1.908E+00
l.922E+00
1.933E+00
1.g41 E+OO
1.949E+00
1.955E+00
1.964E+00
4.091 E41
4.281 E01
4.424E01
4.532E01
4.617E01
4.684E01
4.737E01
4.781 E01
4.81 8E01
4.873E01
1.730E+00
2.01 6E+00
2.282E+00
2.531 E+OO
2.763E+00
2.980E+00
3.1 84E+00
3.376E+00
3.557E+00
3.892E+00
10
20
30
3.883E02
9.926E03
4.430E03
1.g71 E02
4.981 E03
2.219E03
6.631 E+01
5.075E+02
1.699E+03
l.g71E+OO
1.993E+00
1.997E+00
4.914E01
5.046E01
5.070E01
4.1 94E+00
6.230E+00
7.438E+00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Standard dimensionless numbers are developed for use in model testing
by two methods. The first is the force ratio method and the second is
Buckinghams II theorem. A very formal procedure and formatfor using
the later method is provided in the event that the reader could use it in
some practical application.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are either familiar with
or have no interest in this subject.
This chapter may be used as a text for tutorial or for refresher purposes.
Algebra is highest level
of mathematics needed.There are 14 tutorialtype
examples of fully solved problems.
Dimensionless
277
6.3
PHYSICAL EQUATIONS
Good engineering practice demands that all physical equations be dimensionally consistent. All terms in an equation must have the same
dimensions. Dissimilar quantities cannot be added or subtracted when
forming a true physical equation. For example,
coffee
may be true, but this is not the type of relationship being considered.
Dimensionless parameters may be derived by simply dividingone side
of any physical equation bythe other. A minimum of two dimensionless
parameters will be formed, one being the inverse of the other.
Example 6.1 What two dimensionless numberswill be formed by dividing the equation for the velocity of sound by itself?
Solution
c =
(1.68)
(4
Chapter 6
278
N2
N1 = NF'
Figure 6.1 shows a pipe whose length isL , internal diameter isD , and
absolute surface roughness is E. Standard values of E and EIDare given
in Table C3for wrought steel and iron pipe, Table C4 for 250 psi cast
iron pipe, and Table C5for seamless copper water tube.
Dimensionless
279
f
is the average absolute
surface roughnessof the
piping material
1. Common data
~
Internal diameter
Roughness
Source
c3
c3
c4
c5
ft
(mm)
2.438
0.2557
0.8517
0.08292
(742.9)
(77.82)
(259.5)
(25.28)
EID
lo6
61S 3
588.6
998.0
60.30
Chapter 6
280
Model
(do),,,
X lo6
588.6
61.53
10
988.0
61 .S3
16
60.30 .S3
61
The only way that the first two pipes could be used for geometric
similarity would be to machine their internal surfaces to achieve the required relative smoothnessEID of 61.53. The seamlesscopper water pipe,
on the other hand, has almost
the required relative smoothness and should
be used.
3. Model length
For similarity, the LID ratio of the model must equalthe LID ratio of the
prototype, or:
(LID), = 100/2.438 = (30.48)/(742.9 X
L , = (L/D)pDm = 410,
= 41
(a)
(b)
US. Units
L , = 41 x 0.08292 = 3.40 ft
S I Units
6.6
(b)
KINEMATIC SIMILARITY
281
Dimensionless Parameters
(b)
(c)
am
L,T,~ L,T,~
CL, L,T,"
ar =  
(6.3)
v, L,T,'
V , =  = = L,T,"
V,
L,T,"
Qr =
Qm
LLT,"
=  L?T,"
Qp
JZT,"
Example 6.3 Ethanol at 68F (20C) is to flow in a tube with a 12 in. (300
mm) inside diameter and with an average velocity of 0.05 ft/sec (15 mm/
S). To predict the performance of the 12 in. (300 mm)
tube, a geometrically
similar 4 in. (75 mm) tube is to be tested using 104F (40C) benzene. If
the flow in the 12 in. (300 mm tube) is laminar (kinematic viscosity determines the velocity gradient), at what average velocity shouldthe benzene flow in the 3 in. (75 mm) tube for kinematic similarity?
Chapter 6
282
Solution
When kinematic viscosity determines the velocity gradient, then for kinematic similarity
L , ( V , L ; ~ )= V,L;I =
=
VP
(?)(?)
v = gcph
US. Units
From TableA 1:
Ethanol at 68F
Benzene at 104F
,,p =
49.44 ibm/ft3
p
,
, =
53.55 lbm/ft3
23.87 x
lbfsec/
ft2
p
,
,
, = 10.36 x
lbfsec/ft2
pp =
(b)
SI Units
From Table Al:
Ethanol at 20C
pp = 791.9 kg/m3
Benzene at 40C
p
,, = 857.7 kg/m3
Vm
pp = 1 143 x
Pas
p
,
,
, = 496 x 106 Pa.s
(dl
283
Dimensionless
6.7
DYNAMIC SIMILARITY
UBm
(6.4)
Vr
UBp
F1
284
Chapter 6
Consider nextthe forces acting on pointC of Figure 6.3 without specifying their nature. From the geometric similarityof their vector polygons
and Newton's law, whichof course applies to both model andprototype.
for dynamic similarity,
Fluid Forces
The fluid forces that are considered here are those acting on a fluid element whose mass = pL3, area = L2, length = L , and velocity = (LIT).
Inertia force
Fi =
(mass) X (acceleration)  ( p L 3 ) ( L / P )
proportionality constant
gc
(6.9)
gc
Viscous force
F,
(6.10)
Dimensionless
Gravity force
Fg
285
(6.11)
Pressure force
Elastic force
Surfacetension forceF,
Vibratory force
(6.14)
= (surfacetension) X (length) = uL
(6.15)
F 
(6.16)
Standard Numbers
With eight fluid forces that can act inflow situations, the number of
dimensionless parameters that can be formed from
their ratios is 56. How
Chapter 6
286
ever, conventional practice is to take the ratio of the inertia force to the
other fluid forces, because the inertia force is the vector sum of all ofthe
other forces involved in a given flow situation. Results obtained by dividing the inertia force by each of the other forces are shown in Table
6.1 compared with the standard numbers that are used in conventional
practice.
Example 6.4 A seaplane is to take off at 80 mph (129 km/h). At what
speed should a 1/60 model be towed to insure similarity of inertia and
gravity forces?
Solution
From Table 6.1 it is evident that for similarity of the inertia and gravity
forces the Froude number of the model and the prototype must be the
same or
V
=
(G),,,
=
= (G),
which reduces to
US. Units
V,,, = 0.1291 x 80 = 10.33mph
SI Units
V,,, = 0.1291 X 129 = 16.65km/h
6.8 VIBRATION
In the flow of fluids aroundobjects and inthe motion of bodies immersed
in fluids, vibration may occur because of the formation of a wake caused
by alternate shedding of eddies in a periodic fashion or by the vibration
of the object or the body. The Strouhal number S is the ratio of the velocity
of vibration L7 to the velocity of the fluid V. Since the vibration may be
fluid induced or structure induced, two frequencies mustbe considered,
the wake frequency f,, and the natural frequency of the structure f,,.
Fluidinduced forces are usually of small magnitude, but as the wake
frequency approaches the natural frequencyof the structure, the vibratory
forces increase very rapidly. When f, = f,,, the structure will go into
Dimensionless
287
Reynolds Number
This number was named in honor of Osborne Reynolds (18421912), an
English engineer who developed it analytically and verified itby experiments. In Section 6.7, Table 6.1, the Reynolds number was derived as:
R =
"
(6.18)
p = vp/gc, we
(6.19)
Euler Number
This number was named in honor of Leonhard Euler (17071783). Conventional practice (Table 6.1) is to use the pressure coefficient, which is
Chapter 6
288
"
(6.20)
(6.22)
pL2V
PV2
lbm/ft3
(1028 kg/m3)
(1.886 X
Pa.$
(998.3 kg/m3)
(1.002 x
Pas)
Solution
1. Speed
For dynamic similaritythe Reynolds numberof the model must equalthat
of the prototype, so that
(6.18)
or
2. Power
For dynamic similaritythe force coefficient of the model must equalthat
of the prototype, so that
(6.22)
Dimensionless
289
or
P, = FpV,
(C)
US.Units
From Table B.l, V, = 10 x 1.6878 = 16.88 ft/sec.
1.Model towing speed
64.18
20.92
20
(G)(T)(
x
39.40 x
16.88
20
64.18
= 45,000
(G)(T)*(G)
= 155,023
hp
SI Units
From Table B.l, V, = 10~0.51444= 5.144 m/s.
1. Model towing speed
(K)
(E)
(i)'
Chapter 6
290
M =
inertia force
elastic force
V
m
(6.23)
Solution
In this example
the model andprototype are the same pieceof equipment,
the 6in. valve. It is the prototype when hydrogen is flowing, and the
model when air is flowing. For dynamic similarity the modelprototype
relationship must satisfy the following:
Mach number similarity
Reynolds number similarity
Euler number similairty(pressure coefficient)
1. The air velocity for Mach number similarity
The velocity of the prototype may be computed from
the continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas:
Dimensionless Parameters
291
*PTP
v, = 
(a)
APPP
Mm
( m T ) m =
(d&)p
(6.23)
PLV
4. Common data
From Table C3, for 6in. pipe, Schedule 80, A , = 0.1810 ft2 (16830
mm2).
292
Chapter 6
US. Units
T, = T,,, = 122
+ 460 = 582"R
From Table Al, for H ZM, = 2.016, and for air M,,, = 28.97.
From Table A2 for H z at 122"F, k, = 1.399 and p
,
,
= 0.196 x
lbfseclft2. For air at 122"F, k,,, = 1.401 and p,, = 0.410 x
Ibfsec/
ft2.
From equation (1.43),
R = R,IM
R,,, = 1545128.97 = 53.33ftlbfI(lbm'R)
R, = 154512.016 = 766.4ftlbf/(lbm"R)
1. Velocity of the model V,,,
x 766.4 x 582 = 589.5 ft/sec
v, = (12,400/3600)
0.1810(144 x 100)
J()
1.402 ()
53.33
1.399
766.4
Vm = 589.5
= 155.7 ft/sec
Pm
= loo
(E)(%)
(0.196 X 10"j = 55.11 psia
(dl
9.05 psia
SI Units
Tp =
Tm =
50
+ 273 = 323K
From Table Al, for H Z M, = 2.016, and for air M,,, = 28.97. From
Table A2 for H Z at 50"C, k, = 1.399 and pp = 9.4 x
Pass. For air
at 50"C, km = 1.401 and p,, = 1.96 x
Pavs.
From equation (1.43),
R = R,IM
R,,,
Dimensionless Parameters
293
v, =
16
830
V,,, = 178.9
J(=)r=)
1.399
4124
= 47.23 mls
(g)*(%)(=)
690
287.0
62.71
kPa
centrifugal force
(6.24)
Chapter 6
294
Absolute fluid
the runner
Tangential velocity
W
Figure 6.4 Notation for velocity ratio.
Dimensionless
295
impeller diameter of12 in. (300 mm)and rotates at 100 rps. It is proposed
to test a geometrically similar 3in.(75 mm) compressor withair. The air
source is 32F (OOC) and 5 atmospheres. At what speed shouldthe model
be tested for dynamic similarity?
Solution
or
U.S. Units
Tp = 122
+ 460 = 582"R
T, = 32
+ 460 = 492"R
Table Al for CH4, MP = 16.043; for air M, = 28.97. From Table A2
lbfsec/ft2;for air
for CH4 at 122"F, k p = 1.293 and p p = 0.248 x
Chapter 6
296
= 0.360 X
lbfsec/ft2.
From
equation
R = R,/M
R , = 154Y28.97 = 53.33ftlbf/(lbm"R)
R, = 1545A6.043 = 96.30ftlbfl(1bm"R)
1. Determine rotational speed for Machnumber similarity
(Y)d(EiiJ(G)(582)
1.401
53.33
492
N m = loo
285rPs
0.360
100
285
0.248
= 3.8 at mos
= 1x
492
53.33
SI Units
Tp = 50
+ 273 = 323 K
T, = 0
+ 273 = 273 K
From Table Al for CH4, M, = 16.043; for air M , = 28.97. From Table
Pass; for air at
A2, for CH4 at 20"C, kp = 1.293and p, = 11.9 x
O T , km = 1.401 and p
,
,
= 17.2 x
Pass.Fromequation (1.43):
R = R,IM
R , = 8314128.97 = 287.0 J/(kgK)
RP = 8314116.043 = 518.2 J/(kg.K)
0 ) d(E&ic2)(323)
1.401
287.0
273
Nm = loo
= 285rPs
x
273
287.0
11.9 x 106)
(F)*(%)( (518.2)(323)
17.2
100
= 3.8 atoms
297
Dimensionless Parameters
inertia force
 pLV2
surface tension force
ug,
(6.27)
inertia force  V
Jgravity
force
6
(6.28)
Example 6.7 An ocean vessel 500 ft (152.4 m) long isto travel at a speed
of 15 knots. A 1/25 model of this ship is to be tested in a towing tank
using sea water at design temperature. Determine (a) the model speed
298
Chapter 6
required for wave resistance similarity, (b) viscousor skin friction similarity, (c) surface tension similarity, and (d) the model size required for
complete dynamic similarity.
Solution
The model speed for wave resistance requires equality of Froude numbers. The speed for skin frictionrequires Reynolds number similarity and
for surface tension similarity requires Weber number equality.
1. Wave resistance similarity
V
=
or
V,,, = V,
(&)p
= 15
&
3 knots
R,
or
= 15(1)(7)(1)
= 375 knots
pLV2
(x),,,
(x)
=
WP
or
4. Complete similarity
For Reynolds and Froude number similarity, setting equation (b) equal
to equation (a),
Dimensionless Parameters
299
which reduces to
For the same fluid, L,/L, = 1, or model and prototype must be the
same size. No practical way has been foundto model for complete similarity. Engineeringpractice is to model for wave resistance and to correct
by calculation for skin friction resistance.
Example 6.8 A U256 model of a reservoir is drained in 5 min by opening
the sluice gate. How long should it take to empty the prototype?
Solution
Since, from priordiscussion, complete dynamic similaritycannot be obtained, it is evident in this case that although viscous forces must be
present the dominatingforces are inertia and gravity and
the Froude number should be used for similarity. From equation (6.28),
or
(g), (h),
=
or
Chapter 6
300
The method developed by Lord Rayleigh uses algebra to determine interrelationships between variables. While this method may be used for
any number of variables, it becomes relatively complex and is not generally used for more than four. This method is most easily described by
the next two examples.
Example 6.9 In laminar flow, the unit shear stress T is some function of
the fluid dynamic viscosityp,the velocity gradientd U , and the distance
between laminae dy. Develop a relationshipusing the LordRayleigh
method of dimensional analysis.
Solution
1. Write a functional relationship of the variables:
2. Write a dimensional equation in the FLT or MLT system obtaining
data from Table 6.2:
(FL*) = f(FL2T)u(LT')b(L)"
(b)
Dimensionless Parameters
301
Force F
Length L
Time T
CL
dU
dY
Solution
l =
a + O + O
2 =  2 ~ b + C
O =
a  b + O
a =
b =
b=
C
c = 1
The functional relationshipcannot be obtained from dimensional analysis. Only physical analysis andlor experiments can determine
this. From
the physical analysis of Section 1.18, equation (1.70),
Example 6.10 The velocity of sound c in a gas depends upon fluid density
p, pressure p , and dynamic viscosityp.Develop a relationship usingthe
Lord Rayleigh method'of dimensional analysis.
Solution
(4
f(ML3)"(ML"TZ)b(ML1T"l)c
(b)
Mass M
LengthL
Time T
M + L
L  T
M
P/&
O =
a
 1 = 3a
O =
0
Solution
b + c
 b  c
2b  C
1 = 2a
+ 0 +0
1 =  3 a
+ b + O
1 = 3(112) + b + 0
o =
112  112 + c
a = 112
b=
 112
c = o
302
Chapter 6
compared with
fm
6.15
Dimensionless Parameters
303
Description
Dimensions
Number
Symbol
Geometric
Kinematic
Dynamic
Kinematic
Dynamic
Dynamic
D
V
p/gc
g
U
Basic group
Bubble
diameter
Bubble
velocity
Liquid
density
Remaining variables
Acceleration of gravity
Surface tension
Liquid
viscosity
L
LTML3
BG
Bk
BD
LT'
MT~
ML"T'
A1
AZ
A3
(6.29)
n1 = ( B G Y 1 ( B ~ ) Y 1 ( B ~ ) Z 1=( A(DY'(v)Y'(p/gc)Z'(g)
1)
( M " L o p )= (Lx1)(Ly'Ty1)(W1L321 )(LT')
304
Chapter 6
n1
0 =
O = x 1  2
x1
o = o
n1
o = o
0 =
0 = x2
o = o
n~
x2
o = o
z1
+ o
y2
+

+ o
22
3z2
0
3(1)
PkC
z3
y ] = 2
X] =
1
+ l
PkC
 y 2 +
 2
+ y3  3z3
o = o y3+ 0
0 = x3  2  3(1)
0 = x3
Solution
Z ] + O
y1  321
1
 y 1 +
0  2
Mass, M
Length L
Time T
o = o + o
Mass, M
Length L
Time T
Mass, M
Length L
Time T
PkC
Solution
+ l
z2= 1
y2
0
 2
0
= 2
x2=  1
Solution
+ l
z3=
 1
+0
y3=  1
x3 =  1
+ o
1
Dimensionless
305
=0
(6.30)
Equation (6.30) is mathematical shorthand for a functional statement. It
could be written, for example, as
n2
fml , n3,
,K )
* *
(d)
Equation (d) states that 112 is some function of l l ~and l l ~ sthrough ll,,,
but it is not a statement of what functionll2 is of the other ll ratios. This
can only be determined by physical and/or experimental analysis. Thus
we are free to substitute any function in equation (6.29); for example, II,
may be replaced with 2 l l i or ll,, with all:.
The procedures set forth in this section are designed to produce ratios
containing the same terms as those resulting from the application of the
principles of similarity so that the physical significance may be understood. However, any other combinations might have been used. The only
real requirement for a basic group is that it contain the same number
of terms as there are dimensions in a problem and that each of these
dimensions be represented in it.
The maximum number of combinations C or ll ratios that can be obtained fromV independent variablesin B fundamental dimensionsis given
by
V!
(6.31)
C(V,B + 1) =
( b 1)!(V  B  l)!
5
6
7
8
C Combinations
5
15
35
70
9
10
210
306
Chapter 6
The ll ratios derived for this example may be converted into conventional practice as follows:
ll, = D&?
V2
This is recognized from Section6.7, Table 6.1, as the inverse of the square
of the Froude number F, and
ll2
DVp
W
U1
m 2 ,
Then
V = K(Dg)
where
K = f(W,R)
(g)
Equation (g) tells us that the experimental program must include
the variation of the three ll ratios instead of the six original variables.
To conserve space, the format for dimensional analysis shownin Table
6.3 will be used throught the balance of this book.
6.16 PARAMETERS FOR FLUID MACHINERY
Dimensional Analysis
Consider any fluid machine (turbine, pump, compressor, fan, etc.) handling a fluid at a volume rate of flow of Q, density p, viscosity p, bulk
modulus of elasticity of E , and with an energy transfer rate (head) per
unit mass of H . The power developedor supplied isP,the characteristic
machine diameter is D, and the machine operates at a rotational speed
of N . Determine the parameters that define machine characteristics.
Application of the Buckingham II theorem is shown in Table 6.4. Let
n1 = m
2 ,
Dimensionless
307
Then
(6.32)
Q
n, = D3N
(6.33)
or
First Law
D=N*
or
(6.34)
H = f(DZN2)
Head (energy transfer per unit mass) varies directly with the square
of the speed and diameter, as shown in equation (6.34).
rI3
D5N3p
or
f(DSN3)
(6.35)
Third Law
Power varies directly with the cube of the speed and the fifth power
of the diameter, as shown in equation (6.35).
Example 6.12 A centrifugal pump has the following characteristics.
Capacity
Speed
Head
Power
Impeller diameter
500 gpm
1750 rpm
60 ftlbf/lbm
15 bhp
8 in.
(3.155 x
m3/s)
(29.17 rps)
(180 J/kg)
(11bkW)
(200 mm)
308
Chapter 6
US. Units
D2 = 8(211/500) = 6 in.
H2 = 60(6/8)2 = 33.75 ftlbfhbm
Pz = 15(6/8)5 = 3.56 bhp
SI Units
Dimensionless
309
or
L o p = (L3T1)a(L2T2)C(T1)
For Pumps
"PR
FT3I4
(6.38)
310
Chapter 6
Design specific speeds for pumps ranges from 500 to 15,000 depending
on the type of impeller as follows:
speed
of specific
Range
Type
500 to 3,500
3,500 to 10,000
10,OOO to 15,000
Radial flow
Mixed flow
Axial flow
This problem is solved by noting that the head per stage must be that
necessary to produce a impeller specific speed of 2,500. Solve equation
(6.37) for H .
US.Units
Himpeller
=
() NSPUS
43
For Turbines
All of the conditions for pumps apply except that in the case of hydraulic turbines interest is in power developedrather than fluid displace
Dimensionless
311
Nh
~ 3 1 4
(6.40)
~ 5 1 4
Note again that this specific speed is not dimensionless. In obtaining data
from foreign publications make sure of the units used to compute the specific
speed.
Some characteristics of hydraulic turbines are:
Type
Impulse wheels
Reaction turbines
Axial flow turbines
Specific
speed
0 to 4.5
10 to 100
80 to 200
Head, ft Average
efficiency,
over 800
15 to 800
below 100
82
90
90
312
Chapter 6
Solution
= 151.3048 = 49.21 ft
N=Ix60=ijOrpm
Po = 37 500 X 1000/745.70 = 50,288 hp
Calculate the specific speed:
NSTUS=
RPMFTsi4
 60= 103
49.2lSi4
(6.42)
Dimensionless Parameters
313
I
Foroe
Ratio
Inertia
Vibration
;1
Equations
17
5
Conventional Practioe
I Symbol I Name
Form
pL'V'/ g
pLVE
pL2V2/gc
Result
L'r'
V2
9
V
Strouhal
314
0
0,
>
Dimensionless Parameters
ac,
a
c
a,
v)
h
.
ti
a,
.E,
n
cu
Q n
315
2 5
%
316
(U
c
a
c
o
.
(U
CV
2.
c
0
m
a$ P
CV
Chapter 6
317
318
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
319
320
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
322
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
323
324
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
LI
325
326
Fluid Properties
327
328
Fluid Properties
330
Appendix A
P
n
..
Fluid Properties
331
332
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
333
334
N C
21
N
.
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
335
336
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
337
338
r
l.
e5
1#f139
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Appendix A
339
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Appendix A
Fluid Properties
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0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
342
l
N N N N N
3833%
""
d o o r
Appendix A
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99499
N N N N N
49949
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343
344
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
N N
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
N N N N N
F!!
Q9
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wwwww
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????Q ???Q?
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mmlu0
345
346
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w w w w w
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0 0 0 0 0
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0 0 0 0
00
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00
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00
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00
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0 0 0
Fluid Properties
" " F
" C "
.
.
347
. . . .
" .  V
348
ti
b
6
a
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.
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0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
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C " "
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l
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Appendix A
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0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluid Properties
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0 0 0 0 0
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PEBE
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
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ivmt5
349
r a m 0 0
.OkNPI
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0 0 0 0 0
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
351
352
e5s3g
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r
Appendix A
0 0 0 0 0
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Fluid Properties
cr
c
0 0 000000 0 0
353
0 0 0 0 0
354
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0 0 0 0
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Appendix A
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Fluid Properties
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Fluid Properties
357
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wwwww
"
. . . . .
"
"
"
. . . . .
. . . .
""
0 0 0 0
8888
Fluid Properties
0 0 0 0 4
359
360
"
"
. " . .
IDIDWIDW
b b b b b
22222
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
" " V
z z z z z wz wz wz wz wz zw zw zw zw
wwwww
" V C
Q 0 0 0
uido'mm
rirrirrirrirrir
Appendix A
RRRRR
22222
0 0 0 0 0
Fluid Properties
361
362
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
363
364
wM
""
lDu?lD8
NNOI
b b b b
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
Appendix A
Fluid Properties
3sqrn"
"F=
. . .
"
.rnbcub
C " "
7
ZK
0 0
. .
" " F
. . .
. .
"
"
"
365
. . . . .
366
q
$wwc?ln
" " F
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
8+ 8+ 8+ 8+ 8+
Ulwwww
F
"
"
O Q ?
rC?s.!.
Appendix A
F
"
"
0 0 0 0 0
85830
Fluid Properties
U,
0"
L
(D31$""
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
$!@g$
367
368
$!!$$
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Appendix A
369
Fluid Properties
1.0001 3.422E07
1.0003 4.374E07
1.0004 5.336E07
1000
0.001
150
1200
0.001012
1.0004 6.286E07
1.0004 7.216E07
1400
0.000903
10 psia
1.926E05
5.472E05
32
5.472E04 62.42
1.926E05 3.737E05
7.385E06
100
61.35
1.432E05 7.510E06
4.892E04
7.26OEO61(193.21)1
60.2614.268E041 6.604E061 3.525E06
2.302E031(193.21)1 0.026031
0.98841
2.490E071
3.078E04
1.0005 6.115E07
14.696 psia
1.926E051
7.432E06
3.396E06
32
100
200
I 1 I 1 I
3.166E061(26l.O2)l
2.211E04 (261.02)l
800
1000
1200
32
100
200
300
[327.82)1
[327.62)1
400
600
800
1000
1200
0.1014
300 psia
32
100
200
62.03
300
57.34
400
(417.35)
(417.35)
600
800
52.94
0.01085
0.4097
0.3498
1000
0.2721
1400
1.962E061(381.80)1
4.325E051(381.60)1
5.375E05
400
0.9641 0.2026
600
8.724E05
0.9852 0.1609
1000
8.298E07 5.792E05
0.9867
1200 1200
7.233807 7.607E05
0.9924 0.3059
1400
8.136E07 9.619E05
0.9956
4.327E05
5.695E05
7.209E05
3.346E07 0
4.350E07 0.
5.335E07 0
6.295E07 0.
7.227E07 0
3.724E05 0
1.423E05
6.350E06 0
3.641 E06
2.733E06 0
2.424E06 0
6.302E07
7.240E07
8.143E07
0
0
0
Appendix
370
Table A3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)
I Z=pWRT I U l b f  d l
v~/sac
taF
p l b d
Z=pvlRT p I b f d I v ( r h
500 psia
1000 psia
32
62.54 0.02731
1.914E05 323.721E05
0.05455 3.705E05
62.62 1.904E05
100
62.07
1.423E05 7.376E06
0.02417
62.19 0.04826
100 1.423E05 7.362E06
200
60.20 0.02114
3.396E06 2006.354E06
0.04221 6.372E06
60.31 3.399806
300
57.41 0.01926
2.155E06 3003.646E06
0.03842
57.54 2.160E06
3.862E
400
0.01618 2.736E06
53.73 1.638E06 400
0.03624
53.91 1.643E06
2.753E
'467.01)l
50.631
0.017901 2.294E06) 1.458E06)(544.58)1
46.321 0.036111 1.912E061 1.326E06
2.2381 0.74741 3.971E071 5.710E06
:467.01)] 1.078051] 0.84061 3.608E071 1.077E051(544.58)1
0.86326
600
0.9180
1.609E05 600
4.318E07
1.947
0.8142
7.061E06
4.264E
600
0.9598 5.332E07
0.694569
2.470E05 600
1.455
5.341E07 1.181E05
0.9167
1000 0.566512
0.9776
3.446E05 1000
6.307E07
1.206
6.335E07 1.691E05
0.9544
1200
0.9870
0.512636
4.546E05 1200
7.246E07
1.039
0.9737
2.255E05
7.264E
1400
0.9924
0.455021
5.763E05
8.151E07
0.9845
0,91735
1400
2.873E05
8.192E
1500 psia
2000 psia
62.74
32
3.690E05 1.692E05
0.08168 32
0.1087
62.85 1.681E05
3.675E
0.07229
62.27 7.358E06
100
62.38
100
1.424805
7.344E06
1.424E200
3.403E06 2006.390E06
0.06320
60.42
0.08417
60.50 3.408E06
6.406E
300
2.165E06 300
3.679E06
0.05754
57.64
0.07654
57.77 2.170E06
3.697E
400
400
1.626E060.07205
2.733E06
0.05419
54.08
54.23 1.653E06
2.786E
0.05594
42.63 1.270E06 6001.663E06
42.88
1.271E06
1.694E
(596.90)
3.821E06(635.80)
4.284E07
36.99 0.6610 1.507E05
3.608 1.244E05
0.07865
(596.90)
600
3.571
4.296E07 3.872E06
0.6657(635.80)
0.5774
5.311 2.796E06
4.615E
800
7.514E06 600
5.369E07
0.6700
2.299 5.358E06
5.421E
1000
0.9310
1.654
0.9072 6.427E07
2.537 8.151E06
l000
1.106E05
1200
7.329E07
0.9604 1200
1.581 1.492E05
2.137
1.11lE05
7.381E
1400
0.9767
1.367
1.431 E05
6.289E2500 psia
3000 psia
32
62.93
1.872E05 323.661E05
0.1357
0.1625
63.05 1.660E05
3.646E
100
62.46
7.331E06
1.425E
60.68
200
60.61
0.1050
6.427806
3.418E06
6.446E
3.412E06
200
300
2.177E06 300
3.915806
0.0955
57.87 2.182E06
3.933E
0.1074
54.55 1.664E06
400
54.41
0.0898
1.658E06 4002.804E06
2.821E
43.44
600
1.273E06 600
1.719E06
0.0912
1.29ZE06
1,746E
0.1496 34.98
29.17 1.228E06
1.228E06 (695.33)
1.335E06
0.1064
1.113E
1668.10)
2.131E06 (695.33)
5.068E07
0.4866
7.651
1.633E06
5.968E(668.10)
3.194E06
5.642E600
4.361
5.507E07 4.063E06
0.7643 800
5.259E06
6.573E
0.9340
7.510E07 7.329E06
0.9208
3.297
1200
2.709
1200
6.640E06
7.442E07
2.840
1400
1.144E05
8.345E07 9.524E06
0.9616
2.348
8.407E
4000 psia
5000 psia
0.2159
32
63.29
1.640E05 323.619E05
1.827E05
3.594E
7.300E06 1001.427E05
0.1909
0.2386
62.89
62.89 7.306E06
100
1.426E
6.485E06
0.1670 200
6.525E06 3.443E06
0.2088
60.98
60.98
3.422E06
200
0.1519
58.82
300
58.22
300
2.194505
3.970E05
2.193E06
4.009E
400
1.685E06
2.894E
0.1415
600
44.82
1.294E06 600
1.803E06
1.314E06
1.865E
6.205E07 2.101E06
0.5613 8009.502
1.526E06
6.026E
800
2.994E06
7.092E
1000
5.708
4.347E06
7.875E
1200
0.9398
8.704E
1400
1400
7.152506
8.545E07 5.741E06
3.644
t'F
pRr"
"

Fluid
371
Table A3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)
tOC
(8.98)
(6.98)
25
50
100
200
300
pWm5
Zpv/RT
0.01Bar(1kPa)
999.80 7.934E06
0.007271
0.003781
p Pa%
v m71s
1%
pWmJ
.OOOO
0.002482
1.01325
(101,325 kPa)
Bar
999.83
997.06 7.385E04
25
958.39
0.59750
0.46645
300
400
500
600
700
0.25156
0
25
1000.29
50
100
700
50
100
200
(212.42)
(212.42)
300
1.314E02 3.261E05
600
1
1.0000 3.261E05
0.024816
1.642E02 3.655E05
700
0.022266
1.0000 0.002227
.OOOO
5 Bar (500 kPa)
1.782E06 1.782E03
0
8.039E04
1.791E03
25
8.934E07 8.908E04
997.24 3.644E03
3.216805 1.278E04
0.9995
0.9997 0.22567 1.620E04
10 Bar (1 MPa)
179.92
(179.92)
m7/s
1.314E03
1.642E03 3.655E05 1
3.966E03
1.791E06
8.932E07
50
5.536E07
5.471E04 5.537807
6.876E04 988.03
2.946E07
3.784E04 6.469E04 974.86
1.959E07 1.793E04 2.785E03 915.31
6.139E04 2.823E042.946E07 (151.87)
5.282E06
0.9847 1.228E05 2.055E05(151.87)
0.9728
0.9948 1.618E05
2.3537 200
3.469E05
1.607E05 6.828E06
0.9877
1.9137
1.058E05
300
2.029E05 5.284E05
0.9976 0.38398
400
1.509E05
0.9935 1.6200
2.445E05 7.487E05
0.9987 0.32657
2.032E05
2.857E05 1.005E04
0.9993 0.28418
50
75
(100.00)
(100.00)
200
1.789E06
7.289E05 997.02
8.932E07
6.863E05
5.948E07
0.9968 0.068150
1.539E04
1.579E04 1.062E05
0.9986 0.058150
2.122E04
0.9995 0.045818
3.536E04
5.369E04 2.030E05 0.
2.445E05 7.595E04
0.9999 0.032192 400
0.9999 0.028027 1.019E03
500 1.019E02
2.857E
2.857E05
400
500
800
700
2pvlRT
p Paa
0.1 Bar (10 kPa)
1.789E06 1.789E03
0
7.934E05 1.789E03
999.78
1.428E03 1.428E06
7.736E06 999.89
25
8.905E04
"
0.9993 9.385E06
0.007740 1.213E03 (45.82)
989.82
5.888E04
0.9995
9.87lE06 1.358E03 (45.82)
1.049E05
0.9997 0.006707 1.585E03 1.063E05
50
0.9970 0.067250
1.235E05 2.127E03
0.9998 0.005808
100
1.234E05
3.539E03 1.621E05
200
0.9999 0.0045801.620E05
5.370E03 2.030E05
300
1.0000
0.037813
1.790E03
7.286E03 997.47
5.472E04
2.826E04
600
1.2437
3.855E05
700
1.1149
15Bar (1SMPa)
0
1.789E06
7.930E03
25
8.905E04
8.929E07 8.906E04
5.536E07
0
988.64
8.784E03 5
988.42
2.827E04
2.947E07
100
6.056E03 958.81
2.624E05
3.280E05
1000.03
8.907E04
5.471804
2.824E04
3
3
1.409E05
2.025E05
2.444E05
2.858E05
3.263E05 0
3.657E05 0.
1.788E06 1.789E03
8.926E07
1.093E02 997.69
5.536E07 5.473E04
2.948E07
9.082803 959.05
400
500
6.614
800
5.010
700
4.479
0
1.786E06
8.915E07 8.898E04
1.820E02 998.14
8.923E07
25
5.539E07 5.479E04
1.695E02 989.08
5.536E07
1.356602 5 0
2.836E04 2.956E07
1.513E02 959.52
2.949E07
1.211E02 100
1.554E07 1.345E04 1
1.548E07 1.339E04 865.47 200
1.424E07 1.189E04
1.305E02 835.19
1.478E07
1.050E02 (223.99)
1.330E06 1.663E05
1.814E06 (223.99)
1.621E05 12.508
0.8888
1.964E06 1.986E05
0.9345 10.113
300
2.009E05 2.52OE06
0.9485
2.439E05 2.929E06
0.9664
3.689E06 2.440E05 8.327 400
0.9733
2.861E05 4.005E06
0.9807
500
7.144
5.024E06 2.860E05
0.9845 5.693
3.270E05 5.209E06
0.9882 8.278
600
3.268E05 6.523E06
0.9906
3.666E05 6.537E06
0.9926
700
5.608
3.665E05 8.182E06
0.9941
372
'
Table A3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)
tc
~Z = P V ~ T
50 Bar (5 MPa)
pa.6
v mz/s
25
50
100
200
"

(263.98)
300
400
14.586
500
600
12.709
700
25
11.299
150 Bar (15 MPa)
1007.28 1.181E01 1.759E03 1.746E06
1003.67 1.086E01 8.881E04 8.849E07
50
100
200
300
25
50
100
200
300
(342.19)
400
500
600
l
1001.48 7.257E02 8.889E04 8.876E07
25
50
1.749E03 1.732E06
1.571E01
1005.84 1.445E01 8.874E04 8.822E07
996.53 1.346E01 5.504E04 5.523E07
100
200
300
2.927605 6.088E07
0.8743
500
40.15
34.94
600
700
1009.73
100.54
71.93
2.582E07
0.7792 2.982E05 4.146E07
0.8539 3.391E05 5.834E07
0.1959 1.739E03
1012.14 1.718E06
25
58.12
0.8935 3.788E05 7.600E07
49.84
300 Bar (30 MPa)
0.1955 1.73lE03 1.706E06
1014.53
0.1799 8.864E04 8.775E07
1010.11
700
48.08
ZPpvmT
pa*
v mz16
100 Bar (10 MPa)
1004.81 7.894E02 1.769E03 1.761E06
pkgld
500
600
(342.19)
25
(263.98)
700
tc
0.1679 5.513E04
998.60
5.521E07
50
1000.66
l00
969.68
100
971.86
200
881.40
1.580E07
300
743.300
400
166.630
500
89.900
600
700
70.900
60.080
50
1.588E07
200
884.70
1.393E04
0.1299 0.'1294
0.1259 9.318E05 1.241E07
300
750.90
4.383E05 1.224E07
0.2247
400
358.05
1.405E04
2.751E07
0.7092 3.520E05 4.024E07
0.7601
5.316E07
3.171E05
500
600
25
1012.22
25
1014.30
50
1002.69
974.00
50
1004.70
5.517E07
100
976.12
700
115.26
87.48
73.23
400 Bar (40 MPa)
1019.23
1.682E06
1.714E03
8.858E04
5.543E04
0.1805 1.416E04
887.90
1.595E07
200
891.00
300
758.00
300
784.60
400
474.90
400
523.70
6.129E05 1.170E07
0.2459
500
144..43
500
177.97
600
105.15
600
123.81
700
86.78
700
100.71
200
3.893E05
8.733E07
0.2379 2.928E04 3.000E07
0.2056 1.428E04 1.603E07
100
2.596E05
B.l
INTRODUCTION
8.2
BACKGROUND
374
Appendix B
Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Unit
Factors
375
Dimensions represent physical quantities, and units describe their magnitudes. The inch, foot, cubit, yard, fathom, rod, chain, mile, and meter
all describe different magnitudesof the physical quantity whose dimension
is length.In the study of fluid mechanics,interest centers on the following
dimensions:
Dimension
Length
Time
Mass
Force
L
T
M
F
Dimensions for other physical quantities may be established by application of the above dimensions to the definition of the physical quantity,
as shown by the following examples.
Physical quantity
Velocity
Acceleration
Force
Mass
Derivation
Definition
Lengthhime
Velocityltime
Massacceleration
Forcelacceleration
LIT = LT"
LT"IT = L T w 2
M s L T  ~= MLT2 = F
FILT2 = FL"T2 = M
From this table isitevident that force and massare related by Newton's
second law of motion, so that, in any consistent dimensional system, if
one is chosen as a fundamental dimension,the other is a derived dimension. Two dimensional systems are used in fluid mechanics, the force
system, FLT, and the mass system, MLT. Again, one may derive dimensions for physical quantities by applying themto the definition of the
physical quantity, as shown in the following examples.
Appendix B
376
Physical
Definition
quantity
Force
system
Mass
system
Pressure
Forcelarea
Work
Forcelength
F.L = FL
Power
Workltime
FLIT = FLT
Masslvolume
FL" P / L 3 =
FL4P
FL" T2/T =
FL" T
Density
'
Mass flow
Massltime
MLT~IL~
FIL2 = FL2
ML~T~
M L T  ~  L=
M L T~ML2TW2/T=
ML2T3
MIL3 = ML'
MIT = MT"
8.4 SI UNITS
The 1960 Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures defined
an international systemof units, the Syst&meInternationale d'Unites (designated as SI in all languages). This system, with six base units, was
adopted by the official representatives of the 36 participating nations,
including the United States. The seventh base unit, the mole, was adopted
by the fourteenth CIPM in 1972. Since 1964, it has beenthe policy of the
U.S. National Bureauof Standards to use these SI units in its publications,
except where communications mightbe impaired. At present, the American National Standards Institute, the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and most
other American professional engineering societies are requiring that SI
unitsbe included in their codes and standards along with the U.S. customary units as new documents are being prepared or old ones revised.
The SI system includes three classes of units: base units, supplementary units, and derived units. The seven base units are as follows:
~~
Name
quantity
Physical
Length
kg
Mass
Time
Electric current
Temperature
Luminous intensity
mol of substance
Amount
Symbol
of unit
meter
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
candela
mole
m
S
A
K
cd
377
Name of unit
Symbol
radian
steradian
rad
sr
of interest in the
There are 15 derived units with special names. Those
field of fluid mechanics are
Frequency
Force
Pressure and stress
Work, energy, quantity of
heat
wattPower
hertz
newton
pascal
joule
1 HZ = 1 S  '
1 N = Ikgm/s2
1 pa = 1 N/m2
1 J = 1 N.m
1 W = 1 J/s
Appendix B
378
nation
a Unit quantity
Physical
Prefix
Area
m2
Volume
m3
meter
Angular velocity
Velocity
Acceleration
Rotational frequency
Momentum
Density
Dynamic viscosity
Kinematicviscosity
Surface tension
Specific heat capacity
Specific energy
square meter
cubic
radians perradts
second
meters
secondper
meterstsecond
squared
revolutions per second
kilogrammeter
second
perkgmts
kilogram
cubic
per
meter
kg/m2
pascalsecond
square meters per second
newtonstmeter
joules per kilogramkelvin
J/(kg.K)
joules per Jtkg
kilogram
m/S
m/S2
s
Pas
m2/s
N/m
The SI system requires no conversionfactors, since all physical quantities are described in terms of the base units. Decimal multiples and
submultiples of SI units are formed by means ofthe prefixes givennext.
Factor by which unit is
multiplied
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
C
m
P (mu)
n
P
f
a
Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit
379
Prefixes are to be used only with base units, except in the case of the
SI mass unit, which contains the prefix symbol k. Multiples and submultiples of mass are formed by adding the prefixes to the word gram:
for example, milligram (mg) insteadof microkilogram (pkg).
The symbol of a prefix is considered to be combined with the unit
symbol to which it is directly attached, forming with it a symbol for a
new unit, which can be provided with a positive or negative exponent
and which can be combined withother unit symbols to form symbolsfor
compound units. Compound prefixes should not be used; for example,
write nm (namometer) insteadof mpm. Considerthe following examples:
1 cm3
1
( 1 0  ~ m ) ~= iod6m3
= (106s)"
= 106s"
=
SI units
Value
Symbol
Name
min
Minute
Hour
Day
Degree
Minute
Second
Liter
ton
Metric
h
d
0
l
I1
1 min = 60 S
l h = 60min = 3600s
I d = 24h = 86400s
1" = (d180) rad
1' = (1/60)6 = ( d l 0 800)rad
1" = (1/60)' = (d648 000)rad
1C = 1 dm3 =
m3
1 t = IO3 kg
Other units of interest that are to be temporarily accepted for international use are:
Nautical mile
Knot
Bar
Standard atmosphere
Appendix B
380
CGS units of interest with special names that are not to be used internationally are:
Erg
Dyne
Poise
Stoke
1 erg = 10 J
1 dyn =
N
1 P = 1 dyns/cm2 = 0.1 Pass
1 St = 1 cm2/s =
m2/s
dYn
P
St
Torr
Kilogramforce
Calorie
torr
kgf
cal
Length
By agreement in 1959 among the national standards laboratories of the
Englishspeaking nations 1 yard was fixed as 0.9144 meters, whence 1
foot equals 0.9144/3, or 0.3048 meters; and 1 inch equals 0.3048 X 100/
12, or 2.54 centimeters.
381
Time
The second used in the United States is identical to the SI second.
Mass
The same 1959 agreement that fixed the value of length of the meter also
fixed the value of the pound mass (lbm) as 453.592 37 grams. This same
value wasalso adopted by the Sixth International Steam Table Conference
in 1967 and is the exact conversion for SI units.
382
Appendix B
MULTIPLY
I
by
appropriate
factor
U.S. Unit
to
OBTAIN
feet
per second
per second
1
9.1 134x10'
3.2808
1.4667
3.21 74x1O1
SI Unit
meters
per second
per second
3.048~1
01
01
2.7778~1
1
4.4704~1
01
9.8067
Area
OBTAIN
square miles
square millimeters
2.7878~1O7
1.0764~1
05
square yards
25900x1OS"
lx106
8.3613~10~
Density
US. Unit
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
pound mass per
OBTAIN L cubic foot
6.2428~10'
grams per cubic centimeter
6.2428~10~
kilograms Der cubic meter
O3
pound mass per cubic inch
pound mass per cubic foot
pound mass per U.S. gallon
slugs per cubic foot
7.4805
3.2174~10'
SI Unit
kilogram per
cubic meter
1x103
1
2.7680~10~ 1.728~1
1.6018~10~ 1
1.1983~10~
5.1538~10~
Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit
383
7.7817~10~
3.0880
7.3756~10l
newtonmeter)
x103
1.0551
4.1 868
1.3558
I 1
Energy,specific
SI Unit
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
7.7817~10~
1.4007~1O3
3.3455~10"
2.326~10'
2.9891
Energyhassnltemperature
Gas Constant, Specific Entropy and Specific Heat
MULTIPLY
SI Unit
by appropriate factorto
OBTAIN
U.S. Unit
footpound force
per pound mass
perdegree
Rankine
barxcubiccentimeter
gram x kelvin
British thermal units
w u n d mass xdearees Rankine
footpoundforce
pound mass xdegree Rankine
joule
kilogram x kelvin
1.8588~10'
7.7817~10'
joule per
kilogram
per
keIvin
1x1o2
4.1868~1O3
5.3803
1.8588~10"
384
Appendix B
Table Bl
ConversionFactors (Continued)
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factorto
OBTAIN
kilograms
persecond
1x1 03
1 2.2046
per minute
per hour
persecond
3 . 6 7 4 3 ~ 0'
1
6.1239x1 0"
1.6687xlO*
2.7778~1
4.5359~10
per second
1.4594~10'
3.2174~10'
grams persecond
per second
kilograms
pounds
mass
slugs
Force
MULTIPLY
by appropriatefactor to
OBTAIN
dyne
Newton
pound force
poundal
U.S. Unit
SI Unit
pound force
Newton
2.2481~10~
2.2481x10'
1
3.1081~10~
l~lO~
1
4.4482
1.3826x10'
Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit
385
I 4
by appropriate
faclor b
ORTAIN
. _..  L

centimeters
~~
feet
inches
meters
32808x1 0*
1
8.3333~10"
nautical
miles
(international)
3.2808~1
O3
3.2808
5.280~1
O3
3.2808~10"
8.0781~1
O3
yards
kilometers
meters
miles
millimeters
Mass
1x102
3.048~10"
2 . 5 4 ~ O'
1
1x1 o3
1
1 .B093x1
o3
1x1012352x1 O3
0"
9.1 44x1
Appendix B
by appropriatefacbrto
I MULTIPLY
U.S. Unit
by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN
atmospheres, standard
water
SI Unit
pound force
Pascals
per squareinch
1.4696~10'
bars
inches of
1 . 0 1 3 2 5 ~O5
1
1.4504~10'
1XI 05
3.6128x1 Ot
2.4908~10'
at 68 "F(20 "C)
3.6005~10~
2.4886~10'
2 . 9 8 9 0 ~O3
1
"
feet of
at 39.1 6 "F(3.98 C)
4.3354~10"
water
at 68 "F(20 "C]
4.3278~10" 2.9839~1
mercury
at32 "F
centimeters
0C
millimeters
1
4.91 15x10"
inches
O3
.3332xG3
Ot
1.3332~10' 1.9337~1
1.4504~10"
6.9444~101
4.7880~10'
6.8948~1
O3
Pascals
1.9337~10"
3.3884~10'
Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit
Table'Bl
387
Specific Volume
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factorb
OBTAIN
I
L
cubiccentimeter .Deraram
cubic inch per pound mass
cubicfoot per poundmass
cubic meter per kilogram
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
v
OBTAIN
pounds force per foot
Newton per meter
US. Unit
cubic foot per
pound mass
1.6018~1
o~
5.7870~10"
1
1.6018~10'
1.3368~10~
U.S. Unit
pound
force
per foot
1
6.8522~1
02
SI Unit
cubic meter
per kilogram
1x1 03 . 6 1 2 7 ~ O'
1
6.2428~1
o 1
8.3454xlO'
I SI Unit
I Newton per
meter
1.4594~10'
1
Appendix B
388
by appropriate factorbo
Viscosity, Kinematic
~~
~~~~~
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN ___)
SI Unit
square feet
square meters
1.0764~1
0S
centistokes 1x1
second
per feet
square
U.S. Unit
9.2903~10
1.0764~10
1
Volume
MULTIPLY SI Unit
U.S. Unit
by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN
barrels
(42
___)
U.S. gallons)
cubic feet
cubic feet
5.6146
cubicmeters
1.5899~10
2.831 7x102
cubic inches
5.7870~1O
1.6387~1O
cubic meters
3.531 5x10
Gallons, Imperial
1.6054~10
4.5461 x1 03
Gallons, U.S.liquid(231in.3)
liters
1.3368x10
3.7854~103
1x103
389
390
Appendix C
CI
391
392
Appendix C
393
$ 3 1
Flowing
h10 = 1
ISquarebD
1
:A 1
h 1
a 2
a26.34'
a30.
A = bD
RA bD/l(b
+D)
AD'
RA= Dl4
1
I I
I 
A(b+Zh)h
&(b+%)hl(b+4.472h)
A = ( 6 + 1.732h)h
R I = ( b + 1.732h)h/(b+4h)
A ( 6 + 1.5h)h
&(b+l.Bh)h/(b+3.606h)
A(b+h)h
R A ( 6 h)h/(b 2.828h)
e=m
e  46
860
e9o
R.
A
A
0.26798'
0.4142h'
RI
A = 0.5774h'
Rk
RI
h'

0.1294h
0.191Sh
0.2500h
0.3536h
Appendix C
3%
Appendix C
398
v)
v)
Q)
cd
.M
31
Appendix C
400
Appendix C
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 00 0
NmlOPImocum
N
. bW. '9 m. 0 o? '?
d m m c u " 0 m
mmmmmmmOI
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
.E
O
.c
D
403
cu
405
c?
!
1
2
l
g.!.!
Em
tj
cu
2
W
v)
cu
I
m
l
2
m
v)
N
v)
cu
c:
v)
cd
0
I
cu
4
cu
r
(
cu
r(
407
Appendix C
408
Grade
Temperature,
"F
Stress,
psi
Temperature,
"C
Stress,
MPa
82.7
80.0
62.0
103.4
98.6
74.5
94.4
94.4
92.4
86.2
42.7
103.4
90.3
44.8
20.7
103.4
101.3
90.3
44.8
19.3
103.4
89.6
53.8
29.0
128.9
118.6
110.3
103.4
96.5
92.4
88.9
87.6
86.9
86.2
62.7
42.1
Stress values are for the solution of text problems only. For actual piping design ANSI
B31.1 "Power Piping" values must be used.
Absolute
pressure, 5
temperature, 79
viscosity, 3435
Acceleration of fluid masses
rotation, 9297
static, 87
translation, 8792
Acoustic velocity, 3234
definition, 32
Adiabatic expansion factor Y,
definition, 190
table, 252254
Adiabatic flow withfriction,
214231
Areavelocity relations,
compressible fluids, 178179
incompressible fluids, 177178
Areas, properties of table,
391393
Atmosphere
pressure, 5
standard U.S., 6469
table, 103104
Average velocity, 110
Barometer, 5355
Barometric pressure, 5
BaumC gravity (Be), 1820
Benedict, Robert P., 7
Bernoulli, Daniel, 130
Bernoulli equation, 130
Blades
efficiency, ideal, 174175
forces on, 171174
409
410
Index
Compressibility factor of
compressed water and
steam, table, 370372
Compressible flow, similarity of,
289293
Compressors, 143144,160,
294296
411
Index
motion, 124126,129132
physical, 277278
real gas, 2425
RedlichKwong, 2527
Equations of state
ideal gas, 2224
real gas, 2425
RedlichKwong, 2527
Equivalent diameter, 127129
Euler, Leonhard, 106,125,277
Eulers
equation, 125
number, 287288
Exosphere, 64
Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel, 7
Fahrenheit, temperature, 79
Newtonian, 2
nonNewtonian, 2
one dimensional, 111
rate, mass, 118123
rate, volumetric, 109110
similarity of compressible,
289293
similarity of incompressible,
287289
steady, 106108
three dimensional, 111
two dimensional, 111
unsteady, 106108
work, 135 136
Fluid
dynamics, 124175
forces, 284285
ideal, 2
kinematics, 105123
machinery parameters,
306311
Newtonian, 2
properties, table, 317371
statics, 46104
Foot, definition, 380
Force@)
buoyant, 9899
centrifugal, 285, 293296
Index
412
[Force(s)]
coefficient, definition, 288
curved surfaces, liquid, 7781
elastic, 285
fluid, 284285
gravity, 285
inertia, 284
moving blades, 171174
plane areas, liquid, 7176
pressure, 285
relation to mass, 10
shear, 2
surface tension, 285
vibratory, 285
viscous, 284
Freebody analysis, 99100
Frequency
structure, 286
wake, 286
Friction factor
DArcyWeisbach, 216
Fanning, 216
Froude
number, definition, 297
William, 297
Gage pressure, 6
Gallon, definition, 380
Gas dynamics, 176275
Gas turbine, 160
Gasses
definition, 3
properties of selected, table,
339368
[Half]
ellipse, properties of, 391
parabola, properties of, 392
Heat, 139140
History of units, 373375
Hydraulic radius
definition, 127
description, 127129
selected cross sections, table,
393
Hydrometers, 1820,101102
Ideal
jet engine, efficiency, 161
plastic, 2
rocket engine, efficiency, 164
Ideal fluid, 2
Ideal gas(es)
bulk modulus of elasticity, 29
continuity equation, 123
equation of state, 2224
isentropic
energy relations, 150152
flow, 179184
process, 2
isobaric
process, 21
specific heats, 148149
isometric
process, 22
specific heat, 148
isothermal process, 21
polytropic
process, 2021
specific heart, 150
pressureheight relations,
6264
processes, 2022
ratio of specific heats,
149150
sonic velocity, 34
specific heat, 148150
viscosity, 36
413
Index
table, 238249
ideal gases, 179184
process, 21
Isobaric process, 21
Isometric process, 22
Isothermal
flow with friction, 231237
process, 21
Jet engine, 160163
efficiency, ideal, 161
system efficiency', 161
thrust, 161
useful power, 161
Kelvin, Lord, 8
Kelvin temperature, 810
Kilogram, 377, 381
Kinematic similarity, 280282
Kinematic viscosity, 3536
Kinetic energy, 1415,133134
correction, 1151 18
force
curved surfaces, 7781
location, 7477
plane areas, 7176
viscosity, 36
Mach, Emst, 178
Mach number, definition, 178
Manometers
applications, 5862
general, 5462
inclined, 5758
Utube, 5556,9192
welltype, 5658
Mass flow rate, 118123
Mass, definition, 10, 377, 381
Mesosphere, 64
Meter, definition, 377
Model prototype relations
compressor, 294296
definition, 278
linear, 297299
pipes, 279282
reservoir, 290293
seaplane, 286
submarine, 288289
valve, 299
Mole, definition, 377
Momentum and impulse, 1516,
152168
Newton, definition, 10
Newton's second law of motion,
1016
Newtonian fluid, 2
Nonflow shaft work, 137138
414
Index
NonNewtonian fluid, 2
Normal shock functions, 202,
214
table, 255261
Normal shock wave, entropy
increase, 207208
Nozzles
convergent, 184 188
convergentdivergent,
192203,
2092
14
Observed pressure, 6
One dimensional flow, 111
Parabola, properties of, 392
Pascal, Blaise, 47
Phase, 34
Physical equations, 277278
Pipe flow with friction
adiabatic, 214231
isothermal, 231237
Pipe properties
cast iron, table,404
seamless copper water tube,
table, 405406
stainless steel, table, 394403
wrought steel, table, 394403
Piping
allowable stress values for
selected materials, table,
408
Pressure
atmospheric, 5
barometric, 6
coefficient, definition, 288
definition, 5
force, 285
gage, 6
height relations
ideal gases, 6264
incompressible fluids,4951
sensing devices, 5162
standard atmospheric, 5
vapor, 4244
Propellers, 166169
Properties
fluid mechanics, table, 45
selected fluids, table, 317371
selected gases, table, 339368
Proportionality constant, 101 1
Prototypes, 278
Pump laws, 307308
Quarter circle, properties of, 391
Quarter ellipse, properties of,
391
415
Index
Stagnation, 180181
Stainless steel pipe, table,
394403
table, 103104
Standard numbers, 285286
table, 313
Steady flow
definition, 106108
energy equation, 140144
shaft work, 138
Steam, density and viscosity of
table, 370372
Steel pipe properties, table,
394403
Temperature
absolute, 79
Celsius, 810
Fahrenheit, 710
Kelvin, 810
Rankine, 810
Tensile stress in pipes, 81
Thermosphere, 64
Thin wall pipes, 8182.
416
Index
Thompson, William, 8
Three dimensional flow,111
Time, definition, 377, 381
Tomcelli, Evangelista, 53
Triangle, properties of, 3.90
Troposphere, 64
Tubing, copper water tube,
405406
Vacuum, 6
Vapor pressure, 4244
Vapors, 3
Velocity
acoustic, 3234
average, 110
[Velocity]
cavitation, 4244
profile, 109115
sonic, 3234
Vibration, 28
Vibratory force, 285
Viscosity
compressed water and steam,
table, 370372
dynamic, definition, 34
gases, 36
kinematic, definition, 35
liquid, 36
Saybolt, 3638
Viscous force, 284
Volume, specific, 17
Volumetric flow rate, 109110
Wake frequency, 286
Weber, Moritz, 297
Weber number, definition, 297
Weight, 10, 1617
Welltype manometers, 5658
Work, 1216,135138
Wrought steel pipe properties,
table, 394403
Yard, definition, 380