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FUNDAMNTAL

FLUID MeCHANlCS
FOR TH
PRACTICING NGlNR

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books


Editor

L. L. Faulkner
Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute
and Department of Mechanical Engineering
Ihe Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio

1.
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7.

g.

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17.
1g.

1 g,
20.

Spring Designer's Handbook, Harold Carlson


Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan
Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills
Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman
Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and C. Poli
Centrifugal Pump Clinic, lgor J. Karassik
Computer-Aided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan
Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part
A: Materials and Components;.Part B: ProcessesandDesign for Processes, edited by
Edward Miller
Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr.
Vibrations of Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel
FlatandCorrugatedDiaphragmDesignHandbook,
Mario Di
Giovanni
PractjcaI StressAnalysis in Engineering Design, Alexander Blake
An introduction to the Design and Behaviorof Bolted Joints, John
H. Bickford
Optimal Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James
N. Siddall
Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson
Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited
by Lewis H. Bell
GearsandTheir Vibration: ABasic Approach to Understanding
Gear Noise, J. Derek Smith
Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and
Applications Handbook, American Chain Association
Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook,edited bY Philip A *
Schweitzer
Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter LYnwander

21. Controlling ln-Plant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and


Calculations, John D. Constance

Charles S. Knox
22. CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation,
and Applications,
23. ProbabilisticEngineeringDesign:Principles
James N. Siddall

24. Traction Drives: Selection andApplication, Frederick W. Heilich Ill


and Eugene E. Shube

25. Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and


Chris E. Passerello

26. Mechanical Fastening


of Plastics: An Engineering Handbook,Bray27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

ton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden


Lubricationin Practice: Second Edition,edited by W. S. Robertson
Principles of Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan
Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini
Engineering Documentation
for CAD/CAMApplications, Charles S.
Knox
Design
Dimensioning
with Computer
Graphics
Applications,
Jerome C. Lange
Mechanism Analysis: Simplified Graphical and Analytical Techniques, Lyndon 0.Barton
CAD/CAM Systems: Justification, Implementation, Productivity
Measurement, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark
E. Coticchia
Steam Plant Calculations Manual, V. Ganapathy
Design Assurancefor Engineers and Managers, John A. Burgess
Heat Transfer Fluids and Systems for Process and EnergyApplications, Jasbir Singh
Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions,Robert H. Kirchhoff
Computer-Aided Graphics and Design: Second Edition, Daniel L.
Ryan
Electronically Controlled Proportional Valves: Selection and
Application, Michael J. Tonyan, edited by Tobi Goldoftas
Pressure Gauge Handbook, AMETEK, U.S. Gauge Division, edited
by Philip W. Harland
Fabric Filtration for Combustion Sources: Fundamentals
and Basic
Technology, R. P. Donovan
Design of Mechanical Joints, Alexander Blake
CAD/CAM Dictionary, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford,
and Mark E. Coticchia
Machinery Adhesives for Locking, Retaining, and Sealing, Girard
S. Haviland
Couplings andJoints: Design, Selection, and Application, Jon R.
Mancuso
Shaft Alignment Handbook, John Piotrowski

47. BASIC Programsfor Steam Plant Engineers: Boilers, Combustion,


Fluid Flow, and Heat Transfer,V. Ganapathy
48. Solving MechanicalDesignProblems with ComputerGraphics,
Jerome C. Lange
49. Plastics Gearing: Selection and Application, Clifford E. Adams
50. Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, William C. Orthwein
51. Transducersin Mechanical and Electronic Design,
Harry L. Trietley
52. Metallurgical Applications of Shock- Wave and High-Strain-Rate
Phenomena, edited by Lawrence E. Murr, Karl P. Staudhammer,
and Marc A. Meyers
53. Magnesium Products Design, Robert S. Busk
54. How to Integrate CAD/CAM Systems: Management and Technology, William D. Engelke
55. Cam Design and Manufacture: Second Edition; with cam design
software for the IBM PC and compatibles, disk included, Preben
W. Jensen
56. Solid-state AC Motor Controls: Selection and
Application, Sylvester Campbell
57. Fundamentals of Robotics, David D. Ardayfio
58. Belt Selection andApplication for Engineers, edited by Wallace D.
Erickson
Software with the IBM PC, C.
59. Developing Three-Dimensional CAD
Stan Wei
60. OrganizingData .for CIM Applications, Charles S. Knox, with
contributions by Thomas C. Boos, Ross S. Culverhouse, and Paul
F. Muchnicki
61. Computer-Aided Simulation in RailwayDynamics, by Rao V.
Dukkipati and Joseph R. Amyot
62. Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, P. K. Mallick
63. Photoelectric Sensors and Controls: Selection and
Application,
Scott M. Juds
64. finite Element Analysis with PersonalComputers, Edward R.
Champion, Jr., and J. Michael Ensminger
65. Ultrasonics:Fundamentals,Technology,
Applications: Second
Edition, Revised and Expanded,Dale Ensminger
66. Applied Finite Element Modeling: Practical Problem
Solving for
Engineers, Jeffrey M. Steele
67. Measurement andInstrumentation in Engineering: Princales and
Basic Laboratory Experiments, Francis S. Tse and Ivan E. Morse
68. Centrifugal Pump Clinic: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded,
lgor J. Karassik
69. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design: Second Edition,
Revised and Expanded, Alexander Blake

70. An Introduction to the DesignandBehavior of Bolted Joints:


Second Edition, Revised and Expanded,John H. Bickford
71. High Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Marsbed H. Hablanian
72. Pressure Sensors: Selection and Application, Duane Tandeske
73. Zinc Handbook: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, Frank
Porter
74. Thermal Fatigueof Metals, Andrzej Weronski and Tadeuz
Hejwowski
75. Classical and Modern Mechanisms for Engineers and Inventors,
Preben W. Jensen
76. Handbook of Electronic Package Design, edited by Michael Pecht
77. Shock- Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena
in Materials, edited
by Marc A. Meyers, Lawrence E. Murr, and Karl P. Staudhammer
78. Industrial Refrigeration: Principles, Design and
Applications, P. C.
Koelet
79. Applied Combustion, Eugene L. Keating
80. Engine Oils and
Automotive Lubrication, edited by Wilfried J. Bartz
81. MechanismAnalysis: Simplifiedand Graphical Techniques, Second
Edition, Revised and Expanded,Lyndon 0.Barton
82. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics for the Practicing Engineer,James
W. Murdock

Additional Volumes in Preparation


Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded,P. K. Mallick
Introduction to Engineering Materials: Behavior, Properties, and
Selection, G . T. Murray
Vibrations of ShellsandPlates:SecondEdition,Revisedand
Expanded, Werner Soedel

Mechanical Engineering Software


Spring Design with an IBM PC, AI Dietrich
Mechanical Design Failure
Analysis: With Failure Analysis System
Software for the IBM PC, David G . Ullman

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

PUNDAMNTAL
FLUlDMKHANICS
f 0 R TH
PRACTICING NGINR
J A M S WAURDOCK
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Marcel
Dekker,

Inc.

New
York.
Basel

Hong
Kong

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData


Murdock, James W.
Fundamental fluid mechanics for the practicing engineer/ James W.
Murdock.
p.
cm. -- (Mechanicalengineering ; 82)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8247-8808-7 (acid-free paper)
1. Fluid mechanics. I.
Title. II. Series:Mechanical
engineering (Marcel Dekker, Inc.) ; 82.
TA357.M88
1993
620.106-d~20
92-39547

CIP
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Copyright @ 1993 by MARCEL DEKKER, INC. All Rights Reserved.


Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmittedin any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system,
without permission in writing from the publisher.

MARCEL DEKKER,INC.
270 Madison Avenue, New York, New York

10016

Current printing (last digit):


l 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

To my friend
Dorothy M. Thompson

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

As the title suggests, this book is writtenfor the practicing engineer. Its
purpose isto bridge the gap betweenthe fundamentals presentedin modern mathematically oriented fluid mechanics textbooks and the needs of
practicing engineers.The minimum mathematical level required
for clarity
of concepts and academic integrity is used. It is essentially a self-study
book to be used by engineers with no to totally recalled knowledge of
this subject. It is also a thumb-through book-all required equations
are repeated with the derivation of each concept, eliminating the need to
refer to other sections. This book can be used and understoodby almost
anyone with an elementary knowledgeof calculus and physics.
This book uses a dual system of units, U.S. Customary Units (U. S . )
and Syst&meInternationaledUnites (SI). In keeping withthe practical
emphasis, lbf/in.2 (psi) is usedfor pressure in place of lbf/ft2 and Ibm/ft3
for density in place of slugs/ft3. The unit of slugs for mass is not used,
but conversion factors are provided. A step-by-stepprocedure is followed
throughout this book to eliminate any guessing games between
the author
and the reader. Each new concept is followed by at least one example.
An organized method of problem solving is presented. Each example is
solved by an approach statement, development of the needed equations
for the particular application, data sources, and numerical solutions in
U. S . and SI units. There are 76 fully solved tutorial examples to serve
as models.
V

vi

Preface

The book is organized into sixchapters. The first fivechapters, Basic


Definitions, FluidStatics, Fluid Kinematics, Fluid Dynamics and
Energy Relations, and Gas Dynamics. provide the basic theoretical
foundations. In wiifing Chapter 5, Gas DynamicTparticular care was
taken to consider the non-mechanical engineer who normally does not
take a course on this subject. Also, since gas dynamics involves some
thermodynamics concepts, these were includedto eliminate the necessity
to refer to a text on this subject. Last, Chapter 6, Dimensionless Parameters, was includedbecause this subject isone of the most powerful
tools of engineering, but is seldom used because itis usually skipped
to make way for other material. A step-by-step method of using Buckinghams I1 theorem as well as a format for dimensional analysis is presented.
There are three appendixes. Appendix A contains saturated, critical,
and gasproperties of 49 selected fluids, and viscosity and density
of compressed water and superheated steam. Appendix B is a history of units,
a description of SI and U. S. systems, and conversionfactors. Appendix
C contains properties of areas, pipes, and tubing. These appendixeswere
designed to provide hardto find fluidproperties and other information of
help to the practicing engineer.
It would be impossible to acknowledge the aid of all persons-professors, students at Drexel, and former associates at the Naval ShipSystems Engineering Center-who helped make this work possible.I am
indebted to Mr. Simon Yates of Marcel Dekker, Inc., for his encouragement and assistance. I am indebted to John Bloomer, a Drexel graduate
student, for checking the original manuscript.
James W. Murdock

Preface

Principal Symbols and Abbreviations


1. BasicDefinitions
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.1 1
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16

Introduction
Fluidsand other substances
Units
Pressure
Temperature scales
Mass, force, andweight
Gravity
Applications of Newtonssecond law
Density
Specificweight
Specificvolume
Specificgravity
Idealgas processes
Equations of state
Bulk modulus of elasticity
Acousticvelocity

xi
1
1
1
4
5
7
10
11
12
16
16
17
17
20
22
27
32

vii

Contents

viii
1.17 Viscosity
1.18 Surface tension and capillarity
1.19 Vapor pressure

References

2. FluidStatics
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12

Introduction
Fluid statics
Basic equation of fluid statics
Pressure-height relations for incompressible fluids
Pressure-sensing devices
Pressure-height relations for ideal gases
Atmosphere
Liquid force on plane surfaces
Liquid force on curved surfaces
Stress in pipes due to internal pressure
Acceleration of fluid masses
Buoyancy and flotation

3. FluidKinematics

34
38
42
45
46
46
46
47
49
51
62
64
70
77
81
86
97
105

Introduction
Fluid
kinematics
Steady andunsteadyflow
Streamlinesand streamtubes
Velocity
profile
Correction for kineticenergy
Continuity
equation

105
105
106

4. FluidDynamicsandEnergyRelations

124

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

Introduction
Fluid dynamics
Equation of motion
Hydraulic radius
One-dimensional steady-flow equation of motion
Specific energy
Specific potential energy
Specific kinetic energy
Specific internal energy
Specific flow work
Specific enthalpy

108

109
115
118

124
124
125
127
129
133
133
133
134
135
136

ix

Contents
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23

Shaft work
Heat and entropy
Steady-flow energy equation
Relation of motion and energy equations
Nonflow vs. steady-flow energy equations
Ideal gas specific heat and energy relations
Impulse momentum equation
Thermal jet engines
Rocket engines
Propellers
Flow in a curved path
Forces on moving blades

5. Gas Dynamics
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Introduction
Gas dynamics
Area-velocity relations
Frictionless adiabatic (isentropic) flowof ideal gases in
horizontal passages
5.5 Convergent nozzles
5.6 Adiabatic expansion factor Y
5.7 Convergent-divergent nozzles
5.8 Normal shock functions
5.9 Adiabatic flow in constant-area ducts with friction:
Fanno line
5.10 Isothermal flow in constant-area ducts with friction

6. DimensionlessParameters
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13

Introduction
Dimensionless parameters
Physical equations
Models vs. prototypes
Geometric similarity
Kinematic similarity
Dynamic similarity
Vibration
Similarity of incompressible flow
Similarity of compressible flow
Centrifugal forces
Similarity of liquid surfaces
Dimensional analysis

136
139
140
144
145
147
152
160
164
166
169
171
176
176
177
177
179
184
188
193
202
214
231
276
276
276
277
278
278
280
283
286
287
289
293
297
299

Contents

6.14 Lord Rayleighsmethod


6.15 The Buckingham ll theorem
6.16 Parameters for fluid machinery

300
302
306

AppendixA.FluidProperties

317

Table A-l Critical and saturated properties of selected fluids


Table A-2 Properties of selected gases
Table A-3 Density and viscosity of steam and compressed water

318
340
369

Appendix B. Dimensions, Unit Systems, and Conversion Factors

373

B.1 Introduction
B.2
Background
B.3
Dimensions
B.4 SI Units
B.5 U. S. Customary Units and relation to SI units
Table B-l Conversion factors

373
373
375
376
380
382

Appendix C. Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing

389

Table C-l Properties of areas


Table C-2 Values of flow areas A and hydraulic radius Rh for
various cross sections
Table C-3 Properties of wrought steel and stainless steel pipe
Table C-4 Properties of 250 psi cast iron pipe
Table C-5 Properties of seamless copper water tube
Table C-6 Allowable stress values for selected piping materials

390
393
394
404
405
408

Index

409

Symbol

Quantity or Description

A
A*
At

area, ft2 (m2)


area where Mach number is unity, ft2 (m2)
ANSI Code correction for additional pipe wallthickness,
in. (mm)
shear area, ft2 (m')
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers
American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
American Petroleum Institute gravity
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Baume gravity
acoustic (sonic) velocity, ft/sec (m/s)
polytropic specific heat for pvn = C , Btu/(lbm-"R),
(J/(kg-K))
specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/(lbm-"R),
(J/(kg-K))
specific heat at constant volume, Btu/(lbm-"R), (J/(kg-K))
specific heat for process "x," Btu/(lbm-"R), (J/(kg.K))
pressure coefficient, dimensionless

A S

ASHRAE
ANSI
API
"API
ASME
"Be
C
Cn

CP

xi

xii

go

Symbols and Abbreviations

inside pipe diameter, in. (mm)


diameter, ft (m)
outside pipe diameter, in. (mm)
equivalent diameter, ft (m)
Euler number, dimensionless
maximum (ideal) propulsion efficiency, %
system efficiency, %
bulk modulus of elasticity for process whose exponent is
n, lbf/ft2, psi, (kPa)
isentropic bulk modulus of elasticity, lbf/ft2,psi, (kPa)
isothermal bulk modulus of elasticity, lbf/ft2,psi, (kPa)
friction factor, dimensionless
frequency, sec (Hz)
wake frequency, sec (Hz)
natural frequency, sec (Hz)
foot
force, lbf (N)
Froude number, dimensionless
body force, lbf (N)
buoyant force, lbf (N)
drag force, lbf (N)
elastic force, lbf (N)
friction force, lbf (N)
gravity force, lbf (N)
vibratory force
inertia force, lbf (N)
lift force, lbf (N)
pressure force, lbf (N)
shear force, lbf (N)
thrust force, lbf (N)
force in x direction, lbf (N)
force in y direction, lbf (N)
viscous force, lbf (N)
centrifugal force, lbf (N)
specific flow work, ft-lbf/lbm (J/kg)
dimension of force
acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec2(m/s2)
proportionality constant, 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-sec2
(1 k g d N * s 2 )
standard acceleration due to gravity, 32.17 ftlsec
(9.807 m/s2)

Symbols
g4

h
h
hc
hF

Hf
H
10
IC

KE
Ibf
Ibm
L
L
L*
m
m
m
m*
m
,
mf

M
M
M
M*T
M,

MY
MOA

MOF
n

NS
Ns

acceleration due to gravity at sea level and latitude 4,


ft/sec2 (m/s2)
height of a liquid column, ft (m)
enthalpy, Btu/lbm (j/kg)
vertical distance from a liquid surface to the center of
gravity of a submerged object, ft (m)
vertical distance from a liquid surface to the center of
force of a submerged object, ft (m)
energy lost due friction, ft-lbf/lbm (J/kg)
geopotential altitude, ft (m)
area moment of inertia around a liquid surface, ft4 (m4)
area moment of inertia around the center of gravity of an
object, ft4 (m4)
isentropic exponent, ratio of specific heats, c&,
dimensionless
specific kinetic energy, ft-lbf/lbm (J/kg)
pound-force
pound-mass
dimension of length
length, ft (m)
length where Mach number is unity, ft (m)
mass, lbm (kg)
meter
mass flow rate, Ibm/sec (kg/s)
maximum mass flow rate, lbm/sec (kg/s)
mass flow rate of air, lbm/sec (kg/s)
mass flow rate of fuel, lbm/sec (kg/s)
molecular weight (molar mass), Ibm-mol (kg-mol)
dimension of mass
Mach number, dimensionless
limiting Mach number for isothermal pipe flow,
dimensionless
Mach number just before a shock wave, dimensionless
Mach number just after a shock wave, dimensionless
first area moment about a liquid surface, Ibf-ft (m.N)
moment of force about a liquid surface, lbf-ft (m-N)
exponent describing the pv relationship of an ideal gas
process, dimensionless
Newton
pipe schedule number, dimensionless
specific speed, dimensionless

XiV
NSPrJS
NSTUS

P
P*

Po
Po
Pr
Pv
Px
PY
PVr

psia
P a
P

Symbols and Abbreviations

pump specific speed (U. S . units) rpm x g ~ m ~ / f t ~ ~


turbine specific speed (U. S . units) rpm x b h ~ l f t ~ ~
pressure, lbf/in.2, lbf/ft2 (kPa)
pressure where Mach number is unity, lbf/in.2, lbf/ft2
(kW
atmospheric (barometric) pressure, lbf/in.2, lbf/ft2 (kPa)
critical pressure of a substance, lbf/in.2, (kPa)
gage pressure, psig (kPa gage)
measured pressure, lbf/in.2, lbf/ft2 (kPa)
pressure at the inner wall of a curved pipe, lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2 (kPa)
stagnation pressure, lbf/in.2, lbf/ft2 (kPa)
pressure at the outer wall of a curved pipe, lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2 (kPa)
reduced pressure, p/pc. dimensionless
vapor pressure, psia (kPa)
pressure just before a shock wave, psia (kPa)
pressure just after a shock wave, psia (kPa)
reduced vapor pressure, pv/pc. dimensionless
absolute pressure, Ibf/in.2
gage pressure, lbf/in.*
difference between internal andexternal pressure,
lbf/in.2 (kPa)
shear perimeter, ft (m)
power, ft-lbf/sec (W)
ideal power, ft-lbf/sec (W)
useful power, ft-lbf/sec (W)
power supplied, ft-lbf/sec (W)
Pascal
specific potential energy, ft-lbfflbm (J/kg)
heat-transfer at constant pressure, Btuflbm (J/kg)
heat-transfer at constant volume, Btuflbm (J/kg)
heat-transfer, Btu/lbm (J/kg)
volume rate of flow, ft3/sec (m3/$
radius, ft (m)
mean radius of Earth, 20.86 X lo6 ft (6357 km)
inner internal radius of a curved pipe, ft (m)
internal radius of a pipe, ft (m)
outer internal radius of a curved pipe, ft (m)
gas constant, Btuflbm-R, (J/kg.K)
hydraulic radius, ft (m)
distance along the tube of an inclined manometer, ft (m)

Symbols and Abbreviations

xv

universal gas constant, 1545 Btuhbm-mol-"R


(8 314 J/kg.mol.K)
Reynolds number, dimensionless
second
entropy, Btuhbm-"R (J/kg.s)
maximum entropy change Eq. (5.81), Btuhbm-"R (J/kg.s)
entropy just before a shock wave, Btuhbm-"R (J/kg.s)
entropy just after a shock wave, Btuhbm-"R (J/kg.s)
second
specific gravity, dimensionless
Strouhal number, dimensionless
Systkme Internationale d'Unites
inclined manometer scale, ft (m)
kinematic viscosity-Saybolt Seconds Furol
kinematic viscosity-Saybolt Seconds Universal
scale reading on a cistern-type manometer, ft (m)
stress, lbf/in.' (kPa)
maximum allowable stress, lbf/in.' (kPa)
circumferential stress, lbf/in.' (kPa)
longitudinal stress, lbf/in.2 (kPa)
time, sec (S)
measured temperature, "F, ("C)
Celsius scale temperature
Fahrenheit scale temperature
minimum pipe wall thickness, in. (mm)
schedule pipe wall thickness, in. (mm)
pipe wall thickness,. in. (mm)
absolute temperature, "R (K)
absolute temperature where Mach number is unity,
"R (K)
critical temperature of a substance, "R (K)
Kelvin scale temperature
reduced temperature, TIT, , dimensionless
Rankine scale temperature
stagnation temperature "R (K)
temperature just before a shock wave, "R (K)
temperature just after a shock wave, "R (K)
dimension of time
internal energy, Btuhbm (J/kg)
local velocity, ft/sec2 (m/s2)
maximum local velocity, ft/sec2 (m/s2)
United States Customary Units

XVi

Y
Y
Y C

YF
YG

Symbols and Abbreviations

velocity, ft/sec (m/s)


acoustic velocity, ft/sec (m/s)
jet velocity, ft/sec (m/s)
vehicle velocity, ft/sec (m/s)
velocity just before a shock wave, ft/sec (m/s)
velocity just after a shock wave, ft/sec (m/s)
velocity ratio, dimensionless
volume, ft3 (m3)
work ft-lbf (J)
nonflow shaft work, ft-lbfhbm (J/kg)
steady-flow shaft work, ftlbfhbm (J/kg)
Webber number, dimensionless
horizontal distance, ft (m)
horizontal distance to center of gravity of an object as
shown in Table C-l, ft (m) (page 390)
vertical distance, in., ft (m)
ANSI Code correction for material and temperature
linear distance from a liquid surface, ft (m)
linear distance from a liquid surface to the center of
gravity of a plane submerged object, ft (m)
linear distance from a liquid surface to the center of
force of a plane submerged object, ft (m)
vertical distance to center of gravity of an object as
shown in Table C-l, ft (m) (page 390)
adiabatic expansion factor Y, ratio
elevation above a datum, ft (m)
compressibility factor, dimensionless
acceleration, ft/sec2(m/s2)
kinetic energy correction factor, dimensionless
specific weight, lbf/ft3,(N/m2)
angle radians
dynamic viscosity, lbf-seclft (Pa.$
kinematic viscosity, fthec, m/s
density, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)
density where Mach number isunity, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)
stagnation density, Ibm/ft3 (kg/m3)
density just before a shock wave, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)
density just after a shock wave, lbm/ft3(kg/m3)
surface tension, lbf/ft (N/m)
unit shear stress, lbf/ft (kPa)
acentric factor, dimensionless
angular velocity, radians/second
O,

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with establishing the basic definitions needed


for the study of fluid mechanics and its applications. Included are fluid
properties, units, gravity, Newtons second law, and thermodynamic processes.
The reader who needs only definitionsof fluid properties sh,ould turn
to Table 1.1 at the end of the chapter. If only numerical values of fluid
properties are desired, then thischapter should be skipped andthe reader
should go to Appendix A.
This chapter may be usedas a text for tutorial or for refresher purposes.
Each concept is explained and derived mathematically as needed. The
minimumlevelof mathematics is used for derivations consistent with
academic integrity and clarityof concept. There are 17 examples of fully
solved problems.

1.2 FLUIDS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES


Substances may be classified by their response when at rest to the imposition of a shear force. Consider the two very largeplates, one moving,
1

Chapter 1

the other stationary, separated by a small distance y as shown in Figure


1.1. The space between these plates is filled witha substance whose surfaces adhere in such a manner that the upper surface of.the substance
moves at the same velocity as the upper plate and the bottom surface is
stationary. As a result of the imposition of the shear force F,, the upper
surface of the substance attains a velocity U. As y approaches dy, U
approaches dU and the rate of deformation of the substance becomes
dUldy. The unit shear stress T = F,A,, where A , is the shear area. Deformation characteristics of various substances are shown in Figure l .2.
An ideal or elastic solid will resist the shear force and its rate of deformation will be zero regardless of loading and hence is coincident with
the ordinate (vertical axis) of Figure 1.2.
A plastic will resist shear until its yield stress is attained, and thenthe
application of additional loading will cause it to deform continuously or
flow. If the deformation rate is directly proportionalto the applied shear
stress less that required to start flow, then it is called an ideal plastic.
If the substance is unable to resist even the slightest amount of shear
force without flowing, then isitcalled afluid. An idealfluid has no internal
friction, and hence its deformation rate coincides with the abscissa (horizontal axis) of Figure 1.2. All real fluids have internal friction, so that
their rate of deformation is a function of the applied shear stress. If the
rate of deformation is proportional to the applied shear stress, then it is
called a Newtonian fluid,and if not, it is a non-Newtonian fluid.

Kinds of Fluids
For the purposes of the application of fluid mechanics to design it is
convenient to consider two kinds of fluids: compressible and incompresU

Figure 1.1 How of a substance between parallel plates.

Basic Definitions
Elastic solid

Rate of deformation (dU/dy)

Figure 1.2 Deformation characteristics of substances.

sible. These characteristics are determined by molecular spacing and arrangement or phase of the substance. The phase relationsof a pure substance are shown withrespect to temperature andpressure in Figure 1.3.
Liquids are considered to be incompressible exceptat very high pressures and/or temperatures and unless otherwise specifiedwill be treated
as such throughout this book.
Vapors are gases below their critical temperatures and are very compressible, but their temperature-pressure-volume relationshipscannot be
expressed by simple mathematical equations. Vapor properties are usually tabulated, as, for example, in steam and refrigeration tables.
The flow
of vapors is not usually included in fluid mechanics
texts, but is considered
in this book as being essentiakfor complete design coverage.
Gases are compressible fluids. As the ratio of the temperature of the
substance T to the critical temperature Tc approaches infinity and the
ratio of the pressure p to the critical pressure pc approaches zero, all
substances tend to behave as ideal gases-that is, their pressure-volumetemperature relations may be expressed by the equation of state for ideal
gases (Section 1.14). No real gas follows this law exactly, and a simple

Chapter 1

Figure 1.3 Phase diagram of a pure substance.

non-ideal gas equation of state is also presented in Section 1.14. Fluid


mechanics texts do not usuallycover non-ideal gases, but non-ideal gases
are included in this book because they
are sometimes neededin the design
of fluid systems.

1.3

UNITS

For the foreseeable future designers in the United States will be faced
with the problems involved in converting fromits customary units(U.S.)
of measure to the Syst6me Internationale dUnites(SI) units. During this
long period, which will probably span the professional life of those who
use this book, both systems will be employed. This makes it mandatory
that those engaged in design and application be proficient in the use of
both systems.
Both systems of units are used in this volume. Although equal weight
is given to each system, all basic physical constants and standards are
defined by international agreements in SI units. This sometimes results
in the use of precise but inexact values for physical constants and standards in U.S. units.
Appendix C explains the SI system of units in regard to fluid mechanics
and provides conversion factors. The U.S. system is not really
a system,
since its units are based on customary use.Insofar as practical, the units
used in this book are those traditionally used in mechanics, the foot (ft)

Basic Definitions

for length, the second (sec)for time, and the pound-force (Ibf)for force.
Although the slug is the customary unit for mass in fluid mechanics, the
pound-mass (lbm) was chosen for the mass unit in because it is used in
general engineeringpractice.
This book follows the SI practice [l]* of leaving a space after each
group of three digits, counting fromthe decimal point. This is done with
metric units only, because in many countries a comma is used to signify
a decimal point.Thus 5,720,626 is written 5 720 626and 0.43875 is written
as 0.438 75. A four-digit number, for example, 5,280, is written either as
5 280 or 5280.

1.4

PRESSURE

Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Force per
unit

area

FL- or MLT-2
US.:lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2

SI: N/m2 or Pa

Fluid forces that can act on a substance are shear, tension,and compression. By definition, fluids in a static state cannot resist any shear force
without flowing. Fluids willsupport small tensileforces due to the property of surface tension (Section 1.17). Fluids can withstand compression
forces, commonly called pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure
The actual atmospheric pressure is the weight per unit area of the air
above a datum and varies with weather conditions. Since this
pressure is
usually measured with a barometer, it is commonly called barometric
pressure.

Standard Atmospheric Pressure


By international agreement the standard atmospheric pressure is defined
as 101.325 kN/m2 (kPa). Converting this value into common units, we
have 14.696 lbf/in.2 and29.92 in. of mercury at 32F. For most practical
purposes 14.70 lbf/in.2 may be used for atmospheric pressure.

* Numbers in brackets are those of references at the end of this chapter.

Chapter 1

6
P

Gdge

(Negatfve

Actual
Atmospheric
Pressure

Absolute

+
+
Gauge)
Vacuum

Atmospheric

Absolute

Figure 1.4 Pressure relations.

Observed Pressures
Most pressure-sensing devices (Section2.5) (the barometer is an exception) indicate the difference between the pressure to be measured and
atmospheric pressure. As shown in Figure 1.4, if the pressure being sensed
is greater than atmospheric it is called gage pressure, and if lower (negative gage) it is called a vacuum. The algebraic sum of the instrument
reading and the actual atmospheric pressure is the true or absolute pressure. Thus:
where p is the absolute pressure, Pb the atmospheric (barometric) pressure, and pi the instrument reading (positivefor gage pressure, negative
for vacuum). All instrument readings mustbe converted to absolute pressure before they are used in calculations.
Conventional American engineeringpractice is to use the unit lbf/in.*
(psi) for pressure. Gage pressures are indicated by psig andabsolute pressures by psia. Vacuums are almost always reportedin inches of mercury
at 32F. There is no equivalentof gage pressure in the SI system, so.that
all pressures are absolute unless gage is specified.
Example 1.1 During the test of a steam turbine the observed vacuum in
the condenser was 27.56 in. (700 mm) of mercury at 32F (OOC) and the
actual atmospheric pressure was 14.89 psia (102.7 kPa). What was the
absolute pressure in the condenser?

Basic Definitions

Solution

Since the vacuum is given in units of the height of a liquid column and
the atmosphericpressure in unitsof force per unit area, the vacuum should
be converted to force per unit area units using conversion factors from
Appendix B. Equation (1.1) should then be applied notingthat a vacuum
is a negative gage.

US. Units
pi = (-27.56) x (4.912 x 10")
p = 14.89

- 13.54 psig

+ (- 13.54) = 1.35 psia

SI Units
p i = (-700) X 133.32 = -93 324 Pa = -93.3 kPa
p = 102.7 - 93.3 = 9.4 kPa

1.5 TEMPERATURE SCALES

Unlike the other properties discussed in this book, temperature is based


on a thermodynamic concept that is independentof the physical properties
of any substance. The thermodynamic temperature can be shown to be
related to the equation of state of an ideal gas (Section 1.14). The thermodynamic temperature is called an absolute temperature because its
datum is absolute zero. The thermodynamic temperature scale has little
practical value unless numbers can be assigned to the temperatures at
which real substances freeze or boil so that temperature sensing devices
may be calibrated. The International Practical Temperature Scale is a
document which defines and assigns numbers to fixed points (freezing,
tiiple, and/or boiling) of selected substances and prescribes methods and
instruments for interpolating between fixed points. Although the International Practical Scale is dependent on the physical properties of substances, it attempts to reproduce the thermodynamic temperature scale
within the knowledge of the state of the art. For a detailed explanation
of the International Practical Scale, reference [2] by R. P. Benedict is
recommended.
The Fahrenheit temperature scale is used in the United States for ordinary temperature measurements. It was invented in 1702 by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), a German physicist. On this scale water
freezes (ice point) at 32F and boils at 212F (steam point) and standard
atmospheric pressure.

Chapter 1

Figure 1.5 Temperature scales.

The Celsius temperature scale(formerly centigrade) was


first proposed
in 1742 by Anders Celsius (1701-1742), a Swedish astronomer. On the
Celsius scale the ice point is 0C and the steam point 100C.
The Kelvin temperature scaleis named in honorof the English scientist
Lord Kelvin (William Thompson, 1826-1907) and is the absolute Celsius
scale. The kelvin (K with no degree sign) is defined
as the SI unit of
temperature as 1/273.16 of the fraction of the thermodynamic temperature
of the triple point of water. The International Practical Temperature Scale
assigns a value of 0.01"C to the triple point of water.
The Rankine temperature scale is named in honor of the Scottish engineer William J. Rankine (1820-1872) and is the absolute Fahrenheit
scale.
Temperature scale relations are shown in Figure1.5. The Celsius scale
has 100 degrees betweenthe ice and steam points and
the Fahrenheit 180.
The relation between the scales may be shown as AtF/Atc = 180/100 =
1.8, where tF is the Fahrenheit temperature and tc is the Celsius. At the
ice point tF = 32F and tc = O"C, so that
AtF
tF "Atc
tc

"

- 32
-0

1.8

Solving first for tF and then for tc,


tF = 1.8tc

+ 32

Basic Definitions

and

The triple point of water on the Celsius scale is fixed at O.Ol"C, and
on the Kelvin 273.16 K, so that TK = tc
(273.16 - 0.01) or

TK(1.4)
= tc

+ 273.15

where TK is the absolute temperature in kelvins.


Because the Kelvin and Rankine scales are the absolute scales of the
Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, respectively, with the same differences
between the steam and ice points, we can write &/At,
= ATRIATK =
1.8, where TR is the temperature in degrees Rankine. Since both are to
absolute zero,
(1.5)

TR = 1.8TK

From the above, the following relations can be derived:


(1.6)
TR =

459.67

t
F

and
TR

1.8tc

+ 491.67

For most engineering calculations:


TK = tc

+ 273

and
TR =

t
F

+ 460

Example 1.2 Convert 45F to (a) degrees Rankine, (b) degrees Celsius,
and (c) kelvins.

Solution

For engineering accuracy apply equations (1.9)to convert to Rankine,


(1.3)to Celsius, and (1.8)to kelvins.

US. Units
TR = 45

+ 460 = 505"R

SI Units
tc = (45 - 32)/1.8 = 7.22"C

TK = 7

+ 273 = 280 K

10

Chapter 1

If an exact conversion is desired then equation (1.6) would then be used


for conversion to Rankine and (1.4) for conversion to kelvin:

U.S.Units
TR = 45

+ 459.67 = 504.67R

(1.6)

SI Units
(1.4)

TK = 7.22 3- 273.15 = 280.37C

1.6 MASS, FORCE, AND WEIGHT


A muss is a quantity of matter. Its value is the same any place in the
universe. Force and muss are related by Newtons second law
of motion.
Weight is the force exerted by a mass due to the accelerationof gravity.
Newtons second law ofmotion states that an unbalanced force acting
on a body causes the body to accelerate in the direction of the force, and
the acceleration is directly proportional to the unbalanced force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. This law may be expressed
mathematically as:

F = -ma

(1.10)

gc

where F is the unbalanced force, m is the mass of the body, cx is the


acceleration, and g, is the proportionality constant.
The numerical value of gc depends upon the units used in Eq. (1.10).
The Newton is defined as the force produced by the acceleration of the
mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 &S. Solving equation(1.10) for these units:
ma

g,==1-

kg-m
N*s

(1.11)

In US units the pound-muss is defined by international agreementto be


equal to 0.453 592 37 kg. The pound-force is definedas the weight of one
pound-mass when subjected
to the standard accelerationof gravity (32.174
ft/sec*). Again solving equation(1.10) for units of g,:
g, =

1 lbm(32.174
lbm-ft
ft/sec)

lbf

= 32.174 -

lbf-sec

(1.12)

Example 1.3 What acceleration is produced on a body whose mass is


500 lbm (225 kg) when it is subjectedto a force of 100 lbf (450 N)?

Basic

11

Solution

Rearranging equation (1.10)to solve for acceleration results in:


(1.10)

a = FgJm

U.S. Units
a = 100 x 32.1741500 = 6.435ft/sec
S I Units
= 450 X

11225 = 2 m/s2

1.7 GRAVITY
The standard acceleration due to gravity of the earth is fixed as g , =
9.806 65 m/s2 by international agreement. For engineering calculations:
g , = 32.17 ft/sec2
(1.13)
m/s2
= 9.807

Standard gravity occurs at alatitude of 4 = 453233. For other latitudes


at sea level the acceleration due to gravity, g+ may be calculated from:
g+

g,(l - 0.0026373 COS 2+

+ 5.9 X

COS

24)

(1.14)

Variation of gravity at sea level is less than0.30% so that unless extreme


accuracy is requiredthe assumption that g4 = g , is good enoughfor most
engineering purposes. For elevations above sea level, gravity must be
estimated using:
(1.15)
where re is the mean radius of Earth, 20.86 x lo6 ft (6 357 km), and z is
the elevation above sea level.
Example 1.4 Estimate the acceleration due to Earths gravity on a satellite orbiting at 100 miles (161 km) above sea level.
Solution

This example is solved using equation


(1.15) assumingg , = g+, and noting
that U.S. units must be converted to feet:

12

Chapter 1

US. Units
32.17 x (20.86 x
+ 100 x 5280)2 = 30.60 ft/sec2

g = (20.86 x lo6

(1.15)

SI Units
9.807 x 6 3572
= 9.329 m / s 2
g = (6 357 + 161)2

(1.15)

1.8 APPLICATIONS OF NEWTONS SECOND LAW


Newtons second law may be used to establish the relationship between
(a) force, mass, and acceleration, (b) work and energy, and/or impulse
and momentum. Force, mass, and acceleration relationships wereestablished in Section 1.6 by equation (1.10).

Work and Energy


Work is defined as the amount of energy required to exert a constant force
on a body which moves through a distance in the same direction as the
applied force, or

work = force X distance


Mathematically,
W = L F d x

(1.16)

where W is the work, and F is the applied force through the distance dx.
Substituting equation (1.10) for force in equation (1.16),
(1.17)

Potential Energy
Potential energy is defined as the energy required to lift a body to .its
present height from some datum. Substituting PE (specific potential energy) for Wlm, g for a,and dz (elevation change)for dx in equation (1.17),

(1.18)

.20)

Basic Definitions

13

For a field of constant gravity equation (1.18) integrates to:


PE = gz
-

(1.19)

8c

If the gravity fieldis not constant, then equation (1.15) is substituted for
g in equation (1.18),

(l .20)

Example 1.5 A Boeing 727jet aircraft has a mass of 145,000 lbm (64 400
kg) and is flying at an altitude of 33,000 ft (10 km) above sea level. Calculate the potential energy of the aircraft, assuming (a) constant gravity
and (b) variation of gravity with elevation. (c) Compareresults.
Solution

The specific potential energy for part (a) is calculated using equation
(1.19), and equation (1.20) for part (b). The total energy is calculated in
each case by multiplyingthe specific potential energy bythe mass of the
aircraft. The difference in results may be calculated from the following:

A%

= 100(PEa - PEb)/PE,

(x)

U.S. Units

1.

PE = (32.17/32.17)(33,000)
(1.19)
= 33,000 ft-lbf/lbm
mPE = 145,000 X 33,000 = 4.785 X lo9 ft-lbf

PE = 32.17 x 33,000/(32.17)(1 + 33,000/20.86 x lo6))


2.
ft-lbf/lbm = 32,948
mPE = 145,000 X 32,948 = 4.777 X lo9ft-lbf
3.

Differencebetween 1 and 2

100(33,000 - 32,948)/33,000 = 0.16%

(x)

S I Units

1.

PE = (9.807/1)(10 OOO)
= 98.07 kJkg
mPE = 64 400 X 98.07 = 6316 MJ

(1.19)

Chapter 1

14

2.

3.

9.807 x 10
OOO/l X (1 + 10/6357)
= 97.92 kJkg
mPE + 64 400 X 9792 = 6 306 MJ

PE

(1.20)

Differencebetween 1 and 2
A = lOO(98.07 - 97.92)/98.07 = 0.15%

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of a body due to its motion. It is equivalent
to the work required to impart this motion from rest in the absence of
friction. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time, or
a = -dV

(1.21)

dt

where V is the velocity and t is the time.


Substituting equation (1.21) in equation (l.lO),
(1.22)

and equation ( l .22) in equation ( l . 17),


W
1
KE = - = - l a d .

gc

(1.23)

where KE is the specific kinetic energy.


Example 1.6 Determine the kinetic energy of a 140,000 lbm (62.2 Mg)
hircraft cruising at a speed of 500 ft/sec (150 d s ) .
Solution

The specific kinetic energy is calculated using equation(1.23). The total


kinetic energy is calculated by multiplying the specific kinetic energy by
the mass of the aircraft.

15

Basic Definitions
U.S. Units
KE = 5002/2 x 32.17 = 3886 ft-lbf/lbm
mKE = 140,000 x 3886 = 544.0 x lo6 ft-lbf

(1.23)

SI Units
KE = 1502/2 X 1 = 11 250 J k g
mKE = 62 600 x 11 250 = 704.3 MJ

(1.23)

Impulse and Momentum


Equation (1.22) may be written in the following form:
Fdt =

m dV
gc

The impulse of a force is the integral of the left-hand sideof this equation:
Impulse of a force =dt

J]:
J]: J]:
F

(1.24)

For a constant force applied between tl and t 2 ,


Impulse of a force =

F dt = F

dt = F(tz - t , )

(1.25)

Momentum is the product of mass times velocity and may be obtained


by integrating the right-hand side of equation (1.22):

Momentum change = m

gc

gc

Jvy

dV =

m(V2 - V , )

(1.26)

Equating equations (1.25) and (1.26),


(1.27)

or
Impulse of a force = momentum change
For constant mass and force between t l and t2 equation (1.27) may be
written in the following form:
(1.28)

where ri? is the mass flow rate.

16

Chapter 1

Example 1.7 Compute the thrust (force) produced when 20 lbdsec (9

kg/s) of fluid flows through a jet propulsion system if its inlet velocity is
100 ft/sec (30 d s ) and its exit velocity is 400 ft/sec (120 ds).
Solution

This example is solved using equation(1.28).

US.Units
F = 20(400 - 100)/32;17 = 186.5 lbf

(1.28)

SI Units
F = 9(120 - 30)/1 = 810 N

(1.28)

1.9 DENSITY
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Mass per unit volume


p (rho)
M L - 3 or F p L - 4
U.S.: lbdft
SI: kg/m3

Density is mass per unit volume and its numerical value is the same
any place in the universe because (Section 1.6) it represents a quantity
of matter.

1.10 SPECIFIC WEIGHT


Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Weight (force) per unit volume


Y (gamma)
F L P 3or ML-T-=
U.S.: lbf/ft3
SI: N/m3

Specific weightis the weight or force (F,) exerted by mass ofa substance
per unit volume (density) dueto the local accelerationof gravity. Unlike
density, the numerical value of specific weight varies with local gravity.
Equation (1.10) related force to mass, and sinceboth density and specific weight have the same volume (V) units:
(1.29)

Example 1.8 A liquid has a density of 50 lbdft (800 kg/m3). Compute


its specific weight in a space station where the gravity is 16 ft/sec3 (5
ds)

17

Basic Definitions
Solution

This example is solved by the application of equation (1.29).

US. Units
Y = 16 x 50132.17
SI Units
y =

(1.29)

= 24.87 Ibf/ft3

(1.29)

800/1 = 4 O00 N/m3 = 4 kN/m3

1.l1 SPECIFIC VOLUME


Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Volume per unit mass


V

L3M or FL4T-2
U.S.: ft3/lbm
SI: m3/kg

Specific volume, likedensity, has the same numerical value any placein
the universe.

Relation to Density
Since specific volume isthe inverse of density, it follows that:
v = -

(1.30)

Relation to Specific Weight


Substituting equation (1.30) in equation (1.29) for density results in:
(1.31)

1.12 SPECIFIC GRAVITY


Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:
Referencefluids:

Fluid densitylreference fluid density


S

Dimensionless ratio
None
Solidsandliquids: water

Gases: air

Chapter 1

18

Specific Gravity of Liquids


Since the density of liquids varies withtemperature and at high pressures
with pressure, for a precise definition of the specific gravity of a liquid,
the temperatures and pressures of the liquid and water should be stated.
In actual practice two temperatures are stated, for example, 60/60"F
(15.56/15.56"C),where the upper temperature pertains to the fluid andthe
lower to water. The density of water at 60F (15.56"C) is 62.37 lbm/ft3
(999.1 kg/m3). If no temperatures are stated it should be assumed that
reference is made to water at its maximum density. Themaximum density
of water at atmospheric pressure is at 39.16"F (3.98"C)and has a value
of 62.43 lbm/ft3 (1000.0 kg/m3). Based on the above, the specific gravity
of liquids can be computed using:
&*W

Pf
-

(1.32)

Pw

where pfis the density of the fluid at temperature rfand pw is the density
of water at temperature tw.

Specffic Gravity of Gases


For gases it is common American engineering practiceto use the ratio of
molecular weight (molar mass) of the gas to that of air (28.9644), thus
eliminating the necessity of stating the pressures and temperatures for
ideal gases.

Hydrometer Scale Conversions


In certain fields of industry hydrometer scales
are used that havearbitrary
graduations. In the petroleum and chemical industries, the Baume ("Be)
and the American Petroleum Institute ("API) are used. Conversions are
as follows
Baume Scale

Heavier than water:


S60tWF (15.56t15.56'C)

145
145 - "Be

(1.33)

140
130 + "Be

(1.34)

Lighter than water:

S60/60F(15.56t15.56'C)

Basic Definitions

19

American Petroleum Institute Scale


saO/WF (15.5f315.56"C) =

141.5
131.5 + "API

(1.35)

The BaumC scale for liquids lighter than water is very nearly
the same
as the American Petroleum Institute Scale, both being 10"for a specific
gravity of unity. The use of the American PetroleumInstitute (API) scale
is recommended by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Standardized hydrometers are available in various ranges from - 1"API
to 101"API for specificgravityranges of 1.0843 to 0.6068 at 60/60"F
(15.56/15.56"C). For detailsconcerningstandardizedhydrometers
the
ASTM standard [3] should be consulted.
Example 1.9 A liquid has a density of 55 lbm/ft3 (879 kg/m3) at 60F
(1536C). Calculate (a) its American PetroleumInstitute gravity, and (b)
its BaumC gravity.
Solution

1. The specific gravityis calculated using equation (1.32) noting that the
density of water at 60F (1536C) is 62.37 lbm/ft3 (999.1 kg/m3).
2. For Part (a) solve equation (1.35) for "API:

"API = 141.5/Sr/t - 131.5

(1.35)

3. Since by inspection it is obvious that the liquid is lighter than water,


equation (1.34) is solved for "Be:

"Be = 140/Sr/t - 130

(1.34)

US.Units
(1)

S~O/~
= *5Y62.37
F
= 0.8818
"API = 141.5/0.8818 - 131.5
= 29.0
(3) (b)
"Be = 140/0.8818 - 130
= 28.8

(1.32)

(2) (a)

(1.34)
(1.32)

SI Units
(1)
(2) (a)

8811999.1 = 0.8818
"API = 14130.8818 - 131.5
= 29.0

S15.5f315.5aoc

(1.32)
(1.32)

Chapter 1

20
(3)

(b)

"Be = 140/0.8818 - 130

(1.34)

= 28.8

1.13 IDEAL GAS PROCESSES

The state of a substance is the condition of its existence and is determined


by any two independent properties. Consider the p-v diagram shown in
Figure 1.6. In this case state point 1 is determined by p1 and v l . If one
or more properties are changed, the fluid is said to have undergone a
process. If, for example, the pressure in Figure 1.6 is changed from p1
to p2 the resulting specific volumeis v2. The manner in which this change
takes place determines the path of the process. If the fluid can be made
to return to its original state by exactly returningits path thenthe process
is said to be reversible. A reversible process is frictionless and cannot
occur in nature, so that reversible processes serve as ideals.

Polytropic Process
All ideal gas processes are polytropic processes, and the processes discussed below are all special cases of the polytropic. For an ideal gasthe
relation between pressure and specific volume is given by:
pv" = c

P1

P2

Figure 1.6 Process diagram.

(1.36)

Basic

If equation (1.36) is written in logarithmic form (log,p

+ n log, v = log,

c) and differentiated,

dp
ndv
or
n = - - v dP
(1.37)
P dv
P
V
Equation (1.37) indicates that n is the slope of thep-v curve and establishes
the pressure-specific volume relationshipfor the process. The value of n
for a polytropic process ranges from + W to - W , depending upon the
nature of the process.
-+-=O

Isentropic Process
If a process takes place without heat transfer and is reversible (frictionless) then it follows a path of constant entropy ( S ) , and hence it is called
isentropic. This same process is also called a reversible adiabatic and
sometimes (incorrectly) an adiabatic process. The path of this process is
given by:
(S

= c)

pv" = pvk = c

(1.38)

where k is the isentropic exponent ( k = c,/c,), c, is the specific heat at


constant pressure, and c, is the specific heat at constant volume.

Isothermal Process
If a process takes place at constant temperature it is called an isothermal
process. From the equation of state for an ideal gas, pv = RT [equation
(1.42), Section 1.141. Differentiating equation (1.42) for T = c, we have
d ( p v ) = 0 or v dp = - p dv; substituting this relation in equation (1.37),
(1.39)

Isobaric Process
If a Process takes place at constant pressure it is called an isobaric process. For a constant pressure process, dp = 0, and substituting this relation in equation (1.37),
(1.40)

Chapter 1

22

Isometric Process
If a process takes place at constant volume it is called an isometric process. The path of this process is given by:
(1.41)

Example 1.10 In an ideal gas reversible process the pressure at initial


state was 50 psia (345 kPa) and the specific volume is 400 ft3/lbm (25
m3/kg).The pressure at the final state was 125 psia (860kPa) andthe final
specific volume 200 ft3/lbm (12.5 m3kg). Compute the value of the exponent of the process path pv".
Solution

Equation (1.36)may be written in logarithmic formas follows:


log,(pd + n log,(vd = log,(pz)
Solving equation (x) for n:

+ n log,(v2)

(x)

U.S. Units
n = log,(50/125)/log,(200/400) = 1.32
S I Units

n = log,(345/860)/log,(12.5/25) = 1.32

1.14

EQUATIONS OF STATE

An equation of state is one that defines the relationships of pressuretemperature and volume. Reid et al. [4]present and evaluate a number
of proposed equations of state and provide an excellent sourceof information on this subject.

Equation of State for an Ideal Gas


An ideal gas is one that obeys the equation of state (1.42)and whose
internal energyis a function of temperature. The equationof state for an
ideal gas is
pv = RT

(1.42)

Basic

23

where p is pressure, lbf/ft2 (Pa); v is specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg);


R
is the gas constant, ft-lbf/lbm-"R (J/kg*K);and Tis temperature, "R (K).
The gas constant R may becomputed usingthe molecular weight (molar
mass) from the following:
(1.43)

where R, is the universalgas constant, 1545 ft-lbf/lbm-mol-"R, (8314


J/kgmol.K), and M is molecular weight (molarmass), lbm-mol (kg-mol).
For computation of density, substitution of equation (1.30) for v in
equation (1.42) yields:
P

P=@

Other p-v-T relations for ideal massesmay be obtained by combingthe


equation of state p v = RT (1.42) with the polytropic relation pv" = c
(1.41) to produce the following:
For pressure,
(1.45)

For specific volume,


(1.46)

For temperature,
Tz

n- 1

(n- I)/n

(1.47)

Example 1.11 A tank with a fixed volume of 62.42 ft3 (1.77 m3) initially
contains carbon monoxide at 15 psia (105 Pa) and 70F (21C). Three
pounds (1.33 kg) of carbon monoxide are added to the tank. If the final
temperature is 75F (24"C), what is the final pressure?

Solution
1. The temperatures must be converted to absolute.
2. The density equation of state (1-44) maybe converted to solve for

mass using the basic definition of density.

"

V - p = -RT

or

m = -v,

24

Chapter 1

3. Applying the principle of conservation of mass:

Final mass = initial mass

+ mass added

US.Units
From Table A-l and equation (1.43), R = 154Y28.010 = 55.16 ft-lbf/lbm"R for CO:
Ti = 70 + 460 = 530"R
Tf=75
pi = 144 X 15 = 2160 Ibf/ft2
pf

+ 460 = 535"R

(1.9)

535 X (21601530 55.16 X 3/62.42)


= 3598 lbf/ft2 = 3598/144 = 24.99 psia

SI Units

From Table A-l and equation (1.43), R = 8 314/28.010 = 296.8 J/kg.K


for CO:
Ti = 21 + 273 = 294 K
Tf = 24
pi = 105 X 1000 = 105 000 Pa

+ 273 = 297

(1.8)

pf = 297(105000/294
296.8 X 1.3311.77)
= 172308 Pa = 172.3 MPa

Equation of State for a Real Gas


The equation of state of an ideal gas (1.42) may be modified for a real
gas as follows:
p v = ZRT

or

PV

Z =RT

(1.48)

where Z is the compressibility factor.Note that when Z is unity the substance is in the ideal gas state. Thus the deviation of the compressibility
factor from unity is a measure of non-idealness of the state of the substance.

Basic Definitions

25

Principle of Corresponding States


The principle of corresponding states assumes that all substances obey
the same equation of state expressed in terms of critical properties. Consider the phase diagram of Figure 1.3. If the pressure were divided by
the critical pressure and the temperature by the critical temperature and
the data replotted, then we would have a dimensionless diagram where
the critical point C would be unity. The pressure would then be stated
as:
p = -P
pc

(1.49)

and the temperature as:


T
T, = (1 S O )
Tc
where P , is the reduced pressure and T, the reduced temperature.
Values of P , and T, for selected fluids are given in Table A-l and for
almost all substances in references [5] and [6]. The value of 2 using P,
and T, may be obtained from compressibilitycharts found in every thermodynamics text.

Redlich-Kwong Equation of State


The most successful two-parameter equation of state was formulated in
1949 by Redlich and Kwong [5]. The equation requires onlythat the critical pressure, critical temperature, and molecular weight (molar mass) be
known about the substance. The equation is as follows:
p = - -RT
V

-b

a
T'"v(v - b )

(1.51)

where
a =

Q.4275R2Tz"

(1.52)

Pc

and

b=

Q.08664RTc
Pc

(1.53)

In this form of the Redlich-Kwong equation, only the pressure can be


solved directly usingtemperature and specific volume. Solution
for either

Chapter 1

26

temperature or specific volume requires a trial and


error process. By
combing the definition of compressibility factor of equation (1.48) with
equation (1.51) and solving for Z the following cubic expression can be
obtained:
2 3

z
2

+ (A

B2 - B)Z

- AB

= 0

(1.54)

where
A =

0.4275~~
T;I2

(1SS)

0.08664~~
T,

(1.56)

and

B =

Example 1.12 A rigid tank whose volume


is 100 ft3 (2.83m3)isfilled
with 430 Ibm (190 kg) of Refrigerant 12 (CCI2F2) at 400F (200C).Estimate the pressure exerted by the refrigerant on the tank, using (a) the
ideal gas equation state and (b) the Redlich-Kwong equation of state.
Compare results with published data.

Solution

1. Obtain critical data from Table A-l .


2. Compute specific volume from definitionv = Vlm and absolute temperature.
3. For part (a) solve equation (1.42) for pressure.
4. For part (b) solve equation (1.52) for constant U , equation (1.53) for
constant b, and finally equation 1.51 for pressure.

US.Units
1.FromTable A-l and equation (1.43), R = 15451120.914 = 12.78 ftlbf/lbm-"R, Tc = 233.24 + 460 = 693"R, pc = 598.3 psia, p c = 598.3
X 144 = 86,155lbf/ft2.
2. v = 100/430 = 0.2326ft3Abm, T = 400 + 460 = 860"R.
3. For part (a), ideal gas pressure,
Pi = 12.78 X 86010.2326 = 47,252 lbf/ft2
= 47,2521144 = 328 psia
4.

(1.42)

For part (b), Redlich-Kwong pressure,


U =

0.4275 x 12.7fI2 x 693'"


86,155

10,246

(1.52)

Basic

27

b =

0.08664 x 12.78 x 693 = o.08906


86,155

(1.53)

1210,246
.78 x 860 0.2326 - 0.008906 8601X 0.2326(0.2326 - 0.008906)
(1.51)
= 42,418lbf/ft2
= 42,4181144= 295 psia
From ASHRAE tables [6]the value of pressure at 400F and 0.2326
ft3/lbm is 300 psia. The error using the ideal gas equation is 9.33%,
and the error using the Redlich-Kwong equation is1.7%.
PRK

SI Units
1. FromTable A-landequation (1.43),R = 8314/120.914 = 68.76
Jkg-K., T, = 111.80 + 273 = 385 K,pc = 4.125 X lo6 Pa.
2. v = 2.831190 = 0.01489,T = 200 + 273 = 473 K.
3. For part (a), ideal gas pressure,
pi = 68.76 x 473/0.01489= 2 184 25Pa
0
(1.42)
= 2 184
250/1000
= 2 184 kPa
4. For part (b), Redlich-Kwong pressure,
0.4725 x 68.762 x 385
a =
(1.52)
= 1425
4.125 x lo6
0.08664 x 68.76 x 385
b =
= 0.00056
(1.53)
4.125 x IO6
168.76
425 x 473 PRK =
0.01489 - 0.00056 473 X 0.01489 X (0.01489- 0.00056)
= 1 962 534
Pa
= 1 962
534/1000
= 1 963 kPa
Converting ASHRAE tables [6]to SI Units the value of pressure at
200C and 0.01489 m3/kg is 1 988 kPa. The error using the ideal gas
equation is 9.86%, and the error using the Redlich-Kwong equation
is 1.88%.
1.15 BULKMODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Definition:
Symbol:

Stress/volumetric strain
E

Chapter 1

28

Dimensions:
Units:

FL- or ML- T - 2
U.S.: lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2

SI: kN/m2 or Pa

Derivation of Basic Equations


Consider the piston and cylinder of Figure 1.7. A fluid originally under
a pressure ofp had a volume of V . An additional pressure of dp is imposed,
resulting ina decrease of volume - dV. From the definition of bulk modulus,

E = -stress
strain

"=

dP
-dVN

(1.57)

Substitution of the definition of specific volume (v = V/m)in equation


(1 S7)results in
(1.58)

Equation (1 58) cannot be evaluated unlessthe process is known,so that


the pressure-specific volume relationship can
be established and equation

Figure 1.7 Notation for bulk modulus.

Basic Definitions

29

(1.58) should be written as:

En = -v

(3

(1.59)

where En is the bulk modulus of elasticity for process n and (~3pldv)~


indicates the pressure-specific volume for that process. Although any number of process are possible, conventional practice isto use only the isothermal bulk modulus (ET)and the isentropic bulk modulus (E,).

Ideal Gases
If equation (1.37) is writtenas np = - v(dp/dv),,and substituted in equation
(1 S9):

E,,

= -v

(3

np

(1.60)

For an ideal gasthe bulk modulusof elasticity isthe product of the process
exponent and the pressure.
For an isothermal process, n = 1 so that from equation (1.60),
ET = np = p

(1.61)

For an isentropic process n = k, so that from equation (1.6),

E,

np = kp

(1.62)

The relationship of E, and ET is establishedby dividing equation(1.61)


by (1.62), resulting in

It has been demonstrated that the relationship expressed by equation


(1.63) can be applied to all fluids, notjust ideal gases.

Liquids
At constant temperature the bulk modulusof most liquidsdecreases with
temperature. Water is one exception and increases to a maximum value
at 120F (49C) and decreases in value above that temperature at atmospheric pressure. At constant temperature the bulk modulus increases with
pressure for all liquids.No simple relationship similar
to pv" = c for ideal
gases exist for liquids. For liquids equation (1.59) may be approximated

Chapter 1

30

over small intervals as follows:


E, = -v

rg)n

= -v1

(g)n

= v1

r?)

- V2 n
Some handbooks and other sources use equation (1.64) as a definition of
liquid bulk modulus. In obtaining and using data from other sources the
type of equation used to define bulk modulus should be verified.
Example 1.13 The data shown in Figure 1.8 were obtained from Table
3 or reference [7]at 600F (316C).A least-squaresfit of these
data resulted
in the following equation:
v =A

+ Bp + Cp2 + Dp3

(U)

where:
specific volume, ft3/lbm (m3/kg)
= pressure, psia (kPa)
= 2.464 X
ft3/lbm (1.538 X lo- m/kg)
= -7.707 x 10 [ft3/lbm]/psia(-6.979 x
= 5.324 x lo- [ft3/lbm]/psia2
(6.991 x
= - 1.579 X
[ft3/lbm]/psia3(-3.008 x

v =

A
B
C
D

[m3/kg]/kpa)
[m3/kg]/kpa2)
[m3/kg]/kpa3)

(316C)comEstimate the isothermal bulk modulus of elasticity of 600F


pressed liquid at 10,000 psia (70 Mpa).

Solution

Differentiating equation (U) results in:

(g)T

=B

+ 2Cp + 3Dp2

or
T

1
2Cp

+ 3Dp2

(W)

Multiplying equation (U) by equation (W) results in the definition of bulk


modulus of elasticity given by equation (1.64).
ET=

= -A

-V($)
T

+ Bp + Cp2 + Dp3
+ 2Cp + 3Dp2

Basic

31

Specific Volume

- RsAb m

Figure 1.8 Specific volume vs. pressure.

U.S.Units

(g)T

+ 2 x 5.324 x

= -7.707 x

+3X
=
ZI =

2.464

(- 1.579 X lo"')

- 1.796 x
X

10-11

IO-'' x 10,OOO

X 10,0002

(v)

[ft3/lbm]/psia

+ (-7.707 X
10,0002 + (-1.579

10,000

X 10-15)

+ 5.324

X 10,0003

= 0.020678 ft3/lbm

ET

= -v($)

=
T

0.020678
-1.796 x

= 115,lOo psia

(U)

Chapter 1

32

SI Units

(g)T

+ 2 X 6.991 X

= -6.979 X

+3X

(-3.008

= - 1.613 X

v = 1.538 x
X 10-14

70000

10-19) X 700002

(v)

[m3/kg]/kpa

+ (-6.979 X
X 70
+ (-3.008
0002

x 70,000
X 10-19)

+ 6.991
70 0003

= 0.001289 m3/kg

(v)

1.l6 ACOUSTIC VELOCITY


Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Speed of a small pressure (sound) wavein a fluid


C

LT"
U.S.: ft/sec

SI: m/s

Derivation of Basic Equations


Consider an elastic fluid in a rigid pipe fitted with a piston as shown in
Figure 1.9. The pipe hasa uniform cross-sectionalarea of A . As the result
of the application of force dF the piston is suddenly advanced with a
velocity of Vfor a time dt. The fluid pressure p is increased by
the amount
of dp which travels as a wave front with a velocity of c. During the application timedt, the piston moves a distance of V dt and the wave front
advances a distance of c dt. The result of this piston movement is to
decrease the volume c dt A by the amount of the volume V dt A .
From Section 1.15, equation (1.57), the bulk modulus of the fluid is

E =dP-stress
- - - - dP - strain
- dVN
( V dt A ) / ( cdt A )

c dP
V

or
VE
c = -dP

(1.65)

Basic

33
1

*
2

Odt

dF

Figure 1.9 Notation for acoustic velocity.

The force dF imposed is (p + dp) A - PA = dp A. The mass of fluid


accelerated in time dt is pc dt A, so that the mass flow rate is riz = m/dt
= (pc dt A) dt = p d . The velocity change is from V to 0. From the
impulse-momentum equation (1.28), F = riz(V2 - VJ)/gc:
dF = dp A = p c 4 0 - v)

or

dP g c

c = --

gc

PV

(1.66)

Multiplying equation ( l .65) by equation (1.66),

or
(1.67)

c =

The numerical value of E depends on the process. It is assumed that a


small pressure (sound) wave will travel through the fluid without either
heat transfer or friction. With these assumptions the process becomes
isentropic and equation (1.67) becomes
c =

(1.68)

Equation (1.68) may be used for any fluid whose value of E, and p are
known.

Chapter 1

34

Ideal Gases
From equation (1.62) E, = kp and from equation (1.44) p = p/RT. Substituting these values in equation (1.68),
(1.69)
Example 1.14 Estimate the acoustic velocity of air at 68F (20C).

Solution

1. From Table A-l, M

28.96, Table A-2, k = 1.400, R = R,/M


(1.43)
2. Convert temperature to absolute.
3. Solve equation (1.69) for acoustic velocity
=

U.S. Units
1. R = 154Y28.96 = 53.35 ft-lbfAbm
2. T = 68 460 = 528"R.
3. c = (1.400 x 32.17 x 53.35 x 528)O.' = 1126ftlsec.

(1.43)
(1.69)

SI Units
1. R = 8314/28.96 = 287.0 J/kg*K,
2. T = 20
273 = 293 K.
3. c = (1.400 x 1 x 287 x 293)O.' = 343 m/sec.

(1.43)
(1.69)

1.l7 VISCOSITY
Dynamic Viscosity
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Shearing stredrate of shearing strain


P (mu)
FL-'T or ML"T"
U.S.: Ibf-sec/ft2
SI: N d m 2 or Pa-s

Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to motion-its internal friction. As


discussed in Section 1.2, a fluid in a static state is by definition unable
to resist even the slightest amount of shear stress. Application of shear
force results in the continual and permanent distortion knownas flow.
In Section 1.2, consideration of Figure 1.1 led to the development of
the unit shear stress 7 = F,/A,, where F, is the shear force and A , is the
shear area. Also developed from considerationof Figure 1.1 was the rate
of deformation (shearingstrain) as dU/dy, where U is the velocity and y
is the distance perpendicular to the shear. The definition of viscosity can

Basic

35

be expressed mathematically as follows:


shearing stress
= rate of shearing strain

FJA,
dU
dUldy

dy

=p=-

(1.70)

where p is the viscosity. It is customary to write equation (1.70) in the


following form:
(1.70)

.=P($)

In this form various publications call


p the (a) coefficient of viscosity, (b)
absolute viscosity, or (c) dynamic viscosity (used in this book).

Kinematic Viscosity
DeJinition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Dynamic viscosityldensity
v (nu)
L2 T"
U.S.: ft'lsec
SI: m2/s

Kinematic viscosity is defined


as the ratio of the dynamic viscosity tothe
density. Because the dynamic viscosity is in force units and the density
is in mass units in both U.S. and SI systems it is necessary to introduce
the proportionality constant (Section 1.6, equations (1.11) and (1.12) to
relate dynamic and absolute viscosities, thus:
v = - gc P

(1.71)

US. Units
v = - g=c P
P

(lbm-ft/lbf-sec2)(lbf-seclft2)= -ft2
(lbm/ft3)
sec

SI Units

Characteristics
In a flowing fluid tangential(shear) stresses arise from two different molecularphenomena. The firstis the cohesive (attractive) forces of the
molecules, which resist motion. The second is the molecular
activity,
which causes resistance to flow due to molecular momentum transfer.

Chapter 1

36

Molecularmomentum transfer may bevisualizedbyconsidering


two
trains made upof coal cars moving inthe same direction on parallel
tracks
but at different speeds. As these trains pass each other coal is thrown
from one train to the other and viceversa. From considerationsof impulse
and momentum, each will tend to resist the motion of the other to some
degree, and the slower train will tend to speed up and the faster train to
slow down.

Liquid Viscosities
In liquids cohesive forces predominate. Since cohesive forces decrease
with increasing temperatures, so do the liquid viscosities.

Gas Viscosities
In ideal gases, cohesive forces are absent. Molecular activity increases
with temperature and so does viscosity.

Other Units of Viscosity


A unit of dynamic viscosity names
after Jean Louis Poiseuille (17991869), a French scientist, apoise is definedas one dyne-second per
square
centimeter. In the SI system this is equal to 0.1 N d m 2 or 0.1. Pass. The
poises. Because
viscosity of water at 20C is 1 .002 p,Pa.s or 1.002 x
of the magnitude of the poise, the centipoise, 1/00 poise, is used. The
conviscosity of water at 20C is thus approximately one centipoise. The
lbf-sec/ft/centipoise.
version factor for U.S. unitsis 2.089 X
A unit of kinematic viscosity named
after George GabrielStokes (18191903), an English scientist, a stoke is defined as one square centimeter
m%. In U.S. units
per second. In SI units the stoke is equal to 1 x
ft3/sec. Like the poise, the centistoke
the stoke isequal to 1.076 X
is used because of size.
The standard viscometer for industrial workin the United States is the
Saybolt universal viscometer [8]. It consists essentially of a metal tube
and an orifice built to rigid specifications and calibrated with fluids of
known viscosity. The time required for a gravity flow of 60 cm3 is a
measure of the kinematic viscosity ofthe fluid and is called
SSU (Saybolt
Seconds Universal). Approximate conversions
of SSU to centistokes may
be made using the following equations:
195
centistokes = 0.226SSU - -

ssu

32 < SSU < 100

(1.72)

Basic

37

centistokes = 0.22OSSU

135
-ssu

ssu
(1.73)
> 100

For very viscous oils a larger orifice is used in the Saybolt viscometer
and the time in seconds is called SSF (Saybolt Seconds Furol).The term
furol is an contraction of fuel and road oils. Approximate conversions
of
SSF to centistokes may be made using the following equations:

184
centistokes = 2.24SSF - SSF
6o
centistokes = 2.16SSF - SSF

25 < SSF (1.74)


< 40
(1.75)
SSF > 40

For exact conversions reference [8] should be consulted.


Example 1.15 An oil istested in an industrial laboratoryat a temperature
of 60F (15.6"C). It took 400 sec for 60 cm3 of this oil to flow through a
standard Saybolt universal viscometer. A standard hydrometer indicated
that the oil had a gravity of 20"API. Compute the dynamic viscosity of
this oil.
Solution
1. The specific gravity of the oil is calculated from equation (135):
S = 141.5/(131.5
S = 141.5/(131.5

+ "API)
+ 20) = 0.9340

(1.35)

2. The kinematic viscosity is computed using equation (1.73):

> 100
centistokes = 0.22OSSU - 135/SSUSSU
v = 0.220 X 400 - 135/400 = 87.66 centistokes

(1.73)

3. The density of the oil is calculated using equation (1.32):


Po

= SPW

(1.32)

4. The dynamic viscosity is computed from equation (1.71):


P=

VPkC

US. Units
3. The density of water at 60F is 62.37 lbm/ft3 (Section 1.12):
p. = 0.9340 x 62.37 = 58.25
lbm/ft3
(1.32)

(1.71)

Chapter 1

38

4. The conversion factor from centistokes to ft2/sec is 10.76 x lod6:


p = (87.66 x 10.76 x
x 58.2Y32.17
= 1.708 X
lbf-sec/ft2

(1.71)

SI Units
3. The density of water at 20C is 999.1 kglm3 (Section 1.12):
.
p =

0.9340 x 999.1 = 933.2 kg/m3

(1.32)

4. The conversion factor from centistokes to m2/s is 1 X


p=

(87.66 X 1 X

933.2/1

(1.71)

= 0.081 80 Pass

1.18 SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARITY


Liquid su$uce characteristics are dependent on molecular attraction.
Cohesion is the attraction of like molecules and adhesion the attraction
of unlike molecules for each other. A liquid surface is able to support a
very small tensile stress because of adhesion. Su$uce tension is the work
done in extending the surface of a liquid one unit area.

Surface Tension
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Workfunit area
U (sigma)
FL" or M T - 2
U.S.: lbf/ft
SI: Nlm

Frame

I
I

+ Slider

I
I
$

S Surface of
one slde of film

dS=Ldx

l
*X-dX-l

Figure 1.10 Notation for surface tension.

2F,

39

Basic

Consider Figure 1.10, which shows a soap film between a wire frame,
equipped with a slider which can move in the x direction. Moving the
slider the distance dx to the right increases the surfaceS by the amount
L dx. The force required to increase both (the film has two sides) surfaces
2L dx is 2F,. The work of extension is 2F, dx. From the definition of
surface tension,
U =

work
unit area

dW - 2F, dx
dS

2L dx

F,
L

or
(1.76)

F, = uL

The numerical value of surface tension depends on the temperature and


the fluids in contact at the interface, for example, water-air, water-steam,
water-carbon dioxide, etc.

Capillarity
Liquid surfaces in contact with a solid will rise at the point of contact if
adhesive forces predominate and will depress when cohesive forces are
the strongest as shown in Figure 1. l 1. Capillarity is the elevation or
depression of a liquid surface in contact with a solid.

(a) Adhesive

forces predominate

Figure 1.11 Capillarity.

(b) Cohesive

forces predominate

40

Chapter 1

L-ZD

FP Gravity Force

Figure 1.12 Free body diagram.

Consider the free body diagram shown in Figure 1.12. The angle 8 is
the contact angle betweenthe liquid and solidsurfaces. The liquid shown
in Figure l.ll(a) has strong adhesive forces and rises at the liquid-solid
interfaces. When the contact angle is less than 90 then the liquid is said
to wet the tube walls. Note from Figure 1.12 that if 8 is greater than
90 the surface tension force is exerted downward as in Figure l.ll(b)
when cohesive forces predominate. The curved portionof the liquid surface in the tube is called the meniscus.
The rise or fall h of a liquid columnof diameter D can be derived from
the free diagram of Figure 1.12. For equilibrium inthe vertical ( z ) direction

C F,

= F, COS I- Fg = 0

or
F,

COS

F*

(1.77)

Basic Definitions

41

If the small mass of the fluid above the meniscus is neglected, then the
mass of the fluid in the tube above (or below) the surface of the tank is
m = ph.rrD2/4.From equation (l.lO), F = m d g c and Fg = mg/gc, so that
the gravity force is Fg = (ph.rrD2/4)g/gc = pgh.rrD2/4gc.The portion of
the surface tension force acting in z direction isF, cos 8. From equation
(1.76), F, = uL.
The length L is the circumference of the tube, so that F, = UL =
UTD. Substituting the above in equation (1.77),
F~ COS e =

COS

F* =

pgh.rrD2
4gc

or
(1.78)

From equation (1.78) it is evident that as the tube diameter approaches


zero, the elevation (or depression) of the meniscus approaches infinity
and there is no theoretical limit to the rise (or fall) of a liquid tube due
to capillarity. Mercury is
the only manometer fluidthat has a angle 8 other
than zero. For mercury, 8 = 140".
Example 1.16 What is the minimum diameter of a glass tube in contact
with water at 68F (20C)in air requiredfor an elevationof the meniscus
of 0.1 in. 2.54 mm)?
Solution

1. The contact angle for water, 8 = 0".


2. Obtain values of p and U from Table A-l.
3. Calculate the diameter using equation (1.78):
D = 4(coS B)g,/pgh

(1.78)

U.S. Units

3. From Table A-l, for water, U = 4.985 X

lbf/ft, p = 62.32 lbm/ft3.

4. D = 4 x 4.985 x ~O"(COS 0) x 32.17/[62.32 X 32.17 X (0.1/12)]


= 0.0384 ft = 0.0384 X 12 = 0.46 in. = $ in.
(1.78)

SI Units
3. From Table A-l, for water, U = 72.75 X

N/m, p = 998.3 kg/m3.

4. D = 4 X 72.7510-3(cos 0) X 1/(998.3 X 9.807 X 2.54 X


= 0.0117 m = 0.0117 x 1000 = 11.7 mm = 12 mm

(1.78)

42

Chapter 1

1.19 VAPORPRESSURE
Definition:

The pressure exerted when a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with its own vapor.

Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Pv

FL- or ML"T-2
U.S.: lbf/in.2,
lbf/ft2

SI: N/s2 or Pa

Vapor pressure is a function of the temperature of a given substance. The


temperature-pressure relation is shown as line ABC of Figure 1.3.

Cavitation
If at some point inthe flow of a liquid the existing fluidpressure is equal
to less than p u , the liquid will vaporize and a cavity or void will form.
Fluctuations of liquidpressures above and belowthe vapor pressure result
in the formation and collapse
of vapor bubbles. The combination
of sometimes violent collapse of these bubbles and related chemical reactions
results not only in poor performance but also at times in severe damage
to equipment. It is necessary in the design of fluid equipment to avoid
this phenomenon.

Cavitation Velocity
The velocity at which cavitation takes place in a steady flow system may
be determined by considering Figure 1.13. The fluid mass shown has a
length of dx, an area normal to its motion of dA, and the movement of
this mass is horizontal. The mass of this fluid element is p dA dx. For
frictionless movement the pressure forces opposing each other must be
equal to the fluid mass timesits acceleration, or from equation(l.lO), F,

Figure 1.13 Notation for cavitation study.

Basic

43

= ma,/&, and from equation(1.21) a, = dV/dt. Substituting these values


in equation (1. IO),

(1.79)
Noting that by definition V = dx/dt, and substituting in equation (1.79),

F,

(y)($)
P&
dV = p dA V d V
gc

(1.80)

From Figure (1.13) the sum of the pressure forces is

CF, = p d A

- (p

+ dp)dA= -dpdA

=F,

or

F,

(1.81)

-dp dA

Substituting equation (1.81) in equation (1.79),


F, = -dp dA =

p dA VdV
gc

which reduces to
pV dV
dp+-=O

(1.82)

gc

Integrating equation (1.82) for a liquid (p constant) between the limits of


ps (pressure when at rest) and p , and from 0 to V,,
dp

!c

I""

V dV = ( p ,

- p,) + P

E - 02)
2gc

which reduces to

v, =

p
P

- P,)

(1.83)

where V , is the velocity at which a liquid with a pressure of ps at rest


will begin to vaporize.
Example 1.17 Water at 68F (20C) is at rest at standard atmosphere. At
what velocity will vaporization start?

Solution
1.

Obtain p , and p from Table A-l and p , from Section 1.4.

Chapter 1

44
2. Calculate velocity using equation (1.81):

vu = [2gc(Ps - Pu)/Plo.5

(1.83)

US.Units
1. From Table A-l, p = 62.32 lbm/ft3, p , = 4.880 lbf/ft2, and fromSection 1.4, ps = 14.696 psia = 144 X 14.696 = 2116 lbf/ft2
2. V , = [2 x 32.17 x (2116 - 4.8800)/62.32]0.5 = 46.74 ft/sec
(1 33)
SI Units
1.FromTable A-l, p = 998.3kg/m3, p , = 2.337 X lo3 Pa, and from
Section 1.4, p s = 101.325 X lo3 Pa.
2. V , = [2 X 1 x (101.325 X lo3 - 2.337 x 103)/998.3]0.5= 14.08
m/S
(1.83)

REFERENCES
1. Murdock, James W., and Smith, Leo T., ASME Text Booklet: S I
Units in Fluid Mechanics, ASME SI-5 1st Ed. American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y. 1976.
2. Benedict,Robert P., International practical temperature scale of
1968, Instruments and Control Systems, October 1969, pp. 85-89.
3. ASTM Hydrometers, AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials
Standard Specification E-100-66.
4. Reid, R. C., et al., Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, New York, N.Y. 4th Ed., 1977.
5. Redlich, O., and Kwong, J., Chemical Review, Vol.44, p. 233,1949.
6. ThermodynamicProperties of Refrigerants, AmericanSocietyof
Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers,
Atlanta, Ga.,
1969.
7. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Steam: ASME Steam
York,
Tables, AmericanSociety of MechanicalEngineers,New
N.Y., 3rd Ed., 1967.
8. A Methodof Testfor Kinematic Viscosity,American Societyfor Testing and Materials D445-7 1, 1971.

Basic Definitions
Table 1.1 Summary of Fluid Mechanics Properties

45

2.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with establishing the basic relations of fluid


statics. Included are the basic equation of fluid statics, pressure-height
relations for incompressible fluids and for ideal gases, pressure-sensing
devices, liquid forces on plane and curved surfaces, stress in pipes due
to internal pressure, acceleration of fluid masses, and finally buoyancy
and flotation.
The following sections of this chapter may be of special interest to
designers: Section 2.5, Pressure-Sensing Devices; Section2.7, which describes the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere; and Section 2.10, which
includes ANSUASME Code equations for pipe stress.
This chapter may be usedas a text for tutorial or for refresher purposes.
Each concept is explained and derived mathematicallyas needed. As in
Chapter 1, the minimum level ofmathematics is usedfor derivations consistent with academic integrity and clarity
of concept. There are 16tutorial
type
examples of
fully
solved
problems.

2.2

FLUIDSTATICS

Fluid statics is that branch of fluid mechanics that deals with fluids that
are at rest with respect to the surfaces that bound them. The entire fluid
mass may be in motion, but all fluid particlesare at rest with each other.

46

Fluid

Statics
47

There are two kinds of forces to be considered: (1) surface forces,


forces due to direct contact with other fluid particlesor solid walls (forces
due to pressure and tangential, that is, shear stress), and (2) bodyforces,
forces acting on the fluid particles at a distance (e.g., gravity, magnetic
field, etc.). Since there is no motion of a fluid layer relative to another
fluid layer, the shear stress everywhere in the fluid must be zero and the
pressure force.
only surface force that can act on a fluid particle is normal
Because the entire fluid mass may beaccelerated, body forces other than
gravity may act in any direction on a fluid particle.
The great French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal
(16231662) is given credit for the first definite statement that the pressure in a
static fluid is the same in all directions.

2.3 BASIC EQUATION OF FLUID STATICS


Body Forces
The infinitesimal fluid cube shown in Figure 2.1 has a mass of p dx dy
dz. This cube is a particle in a large container of fluid where all
the particles

dx

l a
Fu = P & *

Figure 2.1 Notation for basic equation of fluid statics.

48

Chapter 2

are at rest with respect to each other. The entire fluid mass is subjectto
body force accelerations of a,, a,, and a,,opposite the directions of x ,
y , and z, respectively. In addition, the acceleration due to gravity, g , acts
opposite to the direction of z. Although, for clarity, only the z direction
forces are shown in Figure 2.1, forces also act in the x and y directions.
From equation (1. lo), F = ma/gc, the body forces are Fbx = (p dx dy
and the gravity
dz)a,/g,, Ft., = (pdx dy dz)a,/g,, Fbz = (pdx dy dz)az/gc,
force Fg = (p dx dy dz)g/g,.

Vertical Forces
By definition of pressure F = PA,the upward pressure force is F,, = p
dx dy and the downward pressure force is
Fd = ( p

+ dp) dx dy

Considering the cube of Figure 2.1 to be a free body and only vertical
components acting:

2 F,

dp =

= F, - Fd - Fbz - Fg = 0

g ) dz

gc

( x , y constant)

Combined Forces
In a like manner, itmay be shownthat with only y directionforces acting,

and with only x direction forces acting,


pax dx
dp = -( y , z constant)
$?c
Forces may be combined by consideringthe pressure differences between
points 2 and 1 of Figure 2.1. In path 1 * a , x is vaned and y and z are
held constant so that equation (2.3) applies to the difference between a
and 1. In a like manner, equation (2.2) may be used for path a -+ b and

Fluid Statics

49

equation (2.1) for path b + 2. The total difference is the sum of each
component or
dp =
gc

pa dx

pay d~ - p(az + g) dz
-

gc

or

Equation (2.4) is the basic equation of fluid statics.

2.4

PRESSURE-HEIGHTRELATIONS FOR
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

For a fluid at rest and subject only to gravitational force, ax,ay, and a,
are zero, reducing equation (2.4)to:

Integrating equation(2.5) for an incompressible fluid


in a field of constant
gravity* and substituting y = pg/gc from equation (1.29),

= -Y(ZZ

- zl) = h

which reduces to

(PI - P Z ) = AP = yh
(2.6)
where h = (z2 - z l ) , or the height of a liquid column. The relationships
of equation (2.6) are shown in Figure 2.2.
Example 2.1 The large closed tank shown in Figure 2.3 is partly filled
with benzene at 68F (20C). If the pressure on the surface is saturation,
what is the absolute pressure of the benzene 10 ft (3 m) below the liquid
surface?

* If equation (1.15) is solved for z, z = r,[(g+/g)'" - 11. For a 0.1% change in


theearth'sgravitationalattraction, z = 20.9 X lo6 [(1.001)'" - l] = 10,OOO ft
3 km. In any practical engineering application involving liquid columns, constant gravity may be assumed.

50

Figure 2.2 Pressure equivalence.

Figure 2.3 Notation for Example 2.1.

Chapter 2

51

Fluid Statics

Solution

This example is solvedby noting that the absolute pressure at any depth
below a liquid surface is the sum of the surface pressure and pressure
equivalent due to the liquid depth.
1. Obtain fluid data from Table A- 1.
2. Calculatespecificweightusingequation
(1.29), assuming standard
gravity.
3. Calculate pressure due to liquid depth using equation (2.6).
4. Add vapor pressure to the liquid pressure.

US.Units
1. From Table A-l at 68"F, p u = 1.453 psia, pf = 54.79 lbm/ft3.

2. y = 54.79 X 32.17132.17 = 54.79 lbflft3

(1.29)

3. p = 10 x 54.79 = 547.9 lbflft2 = 547.91144 = 3.805 psi.


4.
= 1.453 + 3.805 = 5.26 psia.

cp

SI Units
1. From Table A-l at 20C p u = 10.04 kPa pf = 877.7 kg/m3.
2. y = 877.7 x 9.80711 = 8 608 N/m3

(1.29)

3. p = 3 x 8 608 = 25823 = 25.58 kPa.


4. cp = 10.04 + 25.58 = 35.62 kPa.

2.5 PRESSURE-SENSING DEVICES


Bourdon tube gages are used for measuring pressure differences. The
essential features are shown in Figure 2.4. The Bourdon tube is madeof
metal and has an elliptical cross section. The tube is fixed at B and free
to move at C.' As the difference between the internal and the external
pressures increases, the elliptical cross section tends to become circular,
and the free end of the tube (point C ) moves outward, moving the pointer
D through suitable linkage. It should be notedthat when the outside pressure is atmospheric, the Bourdon tube indicatesgage pressure and when
the internal pressure is less than the atmosphere, then a negative gage
pressure or vacuum is sensed. Refer to Figure 1.4 for these relationships.
Example 2.2 A precision Bourdon gageis used to measure the pressure
of steam in a horizontal pipe whose centerline is20 ft (6 m) above floor
level. The gage is mounted on a panel board with its centerline 4 ft (1.2

52

Chapter 2
40

50
I

60

80

I1 0

0 -

0
7

Section AA

Figure 2.4 Bourdon tube gage.

m) above floor level. The tubing connecting the pipe to the gage runs
horizontally for a short distance from the pipe before descending.to the
gage. The horizontal portion of the tubing is finned and allof the tubing
is uninsulated to insure condensation to protect the gage from the steam
temperature. The average temperature of the water in the tubing is 86F
(30C). The barometric pressure is 30.00 in. Hg at 32F (101.59kPa). The
local gravity is 32.10 ft/sec2 (9.805 m / s 2 ) . The gage indicates 100.22 psi.
(691.00 kPa). What is the absolute pressure of the steam in the pipe?
Solution

This problem is solved by noting that the gage indicates the sum of the
pressure due to the height of the water column above the gage and the
steam pressure less the barometric pressure, or:
Solving (a) for steam pressure:
1. Obtain fluid data from Table A-l.

Fluid Statics

53

2. Calculate specific weight using equation


3. Solveequation (b).

(1.29).

US. Units
1. From Table A-l for water at 86"F, pf = 62.15 lbm/ft3
2. y = 62.15 X 32.10/32.17 = 62.01 lbf/ft3
3.

(1.29)

= 30.00 x .49115 = 14.745(Table


psia

ps = 100.22 - 62.01(20 - 4)/144

17.1)

+ 14.73 = 108.04 psia(b)

SI Units
1. From Table A-l for water at 30"C,pf = 995.6 kg/m3
2. y = 995.6 x 9.805/1762
= 9

N/m3

3. ps = 691.00 - 9762(6 - 1.2)/1000

(1.29)

+ 101.59 = 745.73 kPa(b)

Credit for the discovery of the barometer is given to Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), an Italian scientist who related barometric height to
weight of the atmosphere. Figure 2.5 shows the essential features of an
elementary barometer. In its most primitiveform, the barometer is made

Figure 2.5

Barometer.

Chapter 2

54

by filling a long glass tube with mercury and inverting it in a pan of


mercury. If the height of the mercury column isless than the tube, then
mercury vapor will form at the top of the tube. Application of equation
(2.6) yields
(2.7)

pb = y h -t p v

The vapor pressure of mercury is very small; from Table


A-l we findthat
vapor pressure of mercury at 32F (0C) is 3.957 x
psia (2.728 X
Pa). For all practical purposes, P b = yh.
When a barometer type arrangement is filled with a fluid other than
mercury, then the vapor pressure must be taken into account as shown
in Example 2.3.
Example 2.3 A barometer of the type shown in Figure 2.5 is filled with
carbon tetrachloride at 68F(20C).How high willthe carbon tetrachloride
rise in the tube when the barometric pressure is 14.696psia (101.325 kPa)?
Solution

This problem is solved by the application of equation (2.7):

h = (Pb - Pv)h
1. Obtain fluid data from Table A-l.
2. Calculatespecificweightusingequation
gravity.
3. Solve equation (a) for height.

(a)
(1.29) assuming standard

US. Units
1. From Table A-l for carbon tetrachloride at 68"F, p v = 1.76 psia,
=

pf

99.42 Ibm/ft3.

2. y = 99.42 x 32.17/32.17 = 99.42 lbf/ft3

3. h

(14.696

1.76) X 144/99.42 = 18.74 ft

(a)

SI Units
1. From Table A-l for carbon tetrachloride at 20"C,p,, = 12.13 kPa, pf
= 1 592.5 kg/m3.

2. y = 1 592.5 x 9.807/1 = 15 618 N/m


3. h = (101.325 - 12.13) X 1000/15
618

5.71 m

(a)

Manometers are one of the oldest means of measuring pressure. They


were used as early as 1662 by Robert Boyleto make precise measurements

Fluid Statics
P1

Area A

p2

Figure 2.6 U-Tubemanometer.

of steady fluid pressures. Because it is direct application


of the basic
equation of fluid statics and also because of its inherent simplicity, the
manometer serves as a pressure standard in the range of 1/10 in. of water
to 100 psig (2.5 Pa to 790 kPa).
The arrangement of the U-tube manometeris shown in Figure 2.6.The
manometer isacted upon by a pressure p1 on the left and p 2 on the right.
If p , > p 2 , then the fluid in the left legof the manometer will be displaced
to the right by a volume of zlAl, resulting in an increase of volume of
z2A2 in the right leg. Application of equation (2.6) for equilibrium in the
U-tube manometer results in

Chapter 2

56
p1

Area A

Figure 2.7 Well or cistern type manometer.

where -ym is the specific weight of the manometer fluid and-yfthat of the
fluid whose differential is being sensed.
One of the disadvantages of the U-tube manometer is that unless A I
= A2 exactly, then both legs must be observed simultaneously.For this
reason, the well or cistern type shown in Figure 2.7 is sometimes used.
In the well or cistern type of manometer, the areas A , and A2 are controlled to give a maximum deflection of z2 and a minimum for zl. From
consideration of volumetric displacementof the liquid fromone leg to the
other:
Z I A I= ~ 2 A 2

57

Fluid Statics

or
ZI = z ~ A ~ A I

Substituting in equation (2.8),


P1 -

P2

(a, + )

= (Ym

- Yf)

= (Ym

- Yf) ( I +

z2A2

22

2)

22

Note that as A I + W, A2/A1+ 0. By making the area A I very large, the


designer of a well type of manometer cancreate a condition wherezz +
h. The difference in area ratios is usually taken care of by scale graduations.
Commercial manufacturersof the well type of manometer correct for
the area ratios so that (pI- p * ) = (ym - yf)S,,,where S,, is the scale
reading and is equal to z2(1 A 2 A I ) .For this reason, scales should not
be interchanged between U-tube or well type, nor between well types
without consulting the manufacturer.
The inclined manometer, as shown in Figure 2.8 is a special form of
the well type. It is designed to enhance the readability of small pressure
differentials. From consideration of the geometry of this device, for displacement,

Z I A I= RiA2

or

and for slope


z2 = Ri sin 6
Substituting in equation (2.8),
(2.10)

where Ri is the distance along the inclined tube. Commercial inclined


manometers also have special scales so that
(PI -

=)

- Yf)Si

where Si is the inclinedmanometer scale andisequal


sin ))Ri.

to (A2A1 +

58

Chapter 2

keaA2

k e a A 7

7
7I

Fill line

Figure 2.8 Inclinedmanometer.

In actual practice, inclined manometers are used for measurement of


small air pressures. Their scales are usually graduated to read in inches
of water, but they use many other fluids. Care must be takento level
these instruments and to insure that the correct liquid is usedas specified
by the manufacturer. Scales should never be interchanged.

Application
The equations derived above are simple, but actual installationsmay require more complex ones. Since there is almost an infinite number of
combinations and arrangementsthat can be used, it is better to derive an
equation for each actual case, as will be shown the
in examples that follow.

Fluid Statics

59

Example 2.4 The U-tubemanometershown


inFigure 2.9 connects
to a height zA
closed tanks A and B . Tank A is partly filled with benzene
of 3 ft (915 mm) above the manometer fill line. The elevation ofthe mercury column ZIis 4 in. (100 mm) above the fill line. Tank B is partly filled
with carbon tetrachloride to a height of zB of 2.5 ft (760 mm) above the
manometer fill line. The depressionof the mercury columnz2 is 4 in. (100
mm) below the fill line. All fluids are at 68F (20C). Compute the difference of air pressures pA - pB;
Solution

This problem is solved by developing an equation


based on static equilibrium.
PA

+ YA(ZA - ZI) + y

A =

PB

for this application

+ YB(ZB + 2 2 )

(4

Solving for p A - p B ,

- PB = Y B ~ B+ 2 2 ) - YA(ZA - ZI) - Y ~ Z +
I ~ 2 )
(b)
1. Obtain fluid data from Table A-l
2. Calculatespecificweightsusingequation
(1.29) assuming standard
gravity.
3. Calculate PA - PB using equation (b)
PA

I
Carbon
Tetrachloride

J
B

Figure 2.9 Notation for Example 2.4.

60

Chapter 2

US. Units
1. From Table. A-1 at 68F;

Benzene
PA = 54.79 lbm/ft3
Carbon tetrachloride
pB = 99.42 lbm/ft3
pm = 845.67 lbm/ft3
Mercury
2. ?A = 54.79 X 32.17/32.17 = 54.79 lbf/ft3
?B

= 99.42 X 32.17/32.17 = 99.42


lbf/ft3
(1.29)
= 845.67 X 32.17/32.17 = 845.67 lbf/ft3

3.

PA

PA

(1.29)

- PB
- PB
PB

+ 4/12) - 54.79(3 - 4/12)


-845.67(4/12 + 4/12)

(1.29)

99.42(2.5

(b)

-428.2 lbf/ft2 = -428.2/144 = -2.97psi

>PB

S.I. Units
1. From Table A-l at 20C:

Benzene
PA = 877.7 kg/m3
Carbon tetrachloride
pB = 1592.5kg/m3
pm = 13546.3kg/m3
Mercury
2. ?A = 877.7 X 9.807/1 = 8N/m3
(1.29)
608
TB

= 1592.5 x 9.807/1 = 15N/m3


(1.29)
618

y m =546.3
13

3.

PA

X 9.807/1 = N/m3
849
132
(1.29)

= 618(760
15

+ 100 X

- 8608(915

PA

- 132 849(100 x
- pB = -20.15kPa

PB

>PA

- 100 x
+ 100 x

Example 2.5 Tanks 1 and 2 of Figure 2.10 are filled with air. The barometric pressure is 14.50 psia (100 kPa). Gauge A indicates 30 psi (206.9
kPa) and he = 71.50 in. (1 .816 m). Both manometers contain mercury at
68F (20C). Compute the value of h,.
Solution

This example is solved by derivingan equation for this application. The


absolute pressure in tank 1 is given by equation (1.1).

Fluid Statics

0-

Tank No.1

Tank No.2

Figure 2.10 Notation for Example 2.5.

PI = P b

+ PA

The difference in tank pressures is sensed by manometer B , so that from


equation (2.6):
PI - P2 = yhB

(b)
Manometer C senses the difference between the pressure in Tank 2 and
the atmosphere, so that from equation (2.6):
Pb - P2 = y h c

(c)

Subtracting equation (a) from equation (c):


PI -

p2

PA

+ ?he

Equating equation (d) and equation (c):


yhc = PA

+ yhe

or

hc = he - PAIT

(e)

1. Obtain fluid data from Table A-l.


2. Calculate specific weight using equation (1.29) standard gravity.
3. Solve equation (e) for height.

US.Units
1. From Table A-l for mercury at 68"C, p = 845.67 lbdft.
2. y = 845.67 x 32.17132.17 = 845.67 lbf/ft3

(1.29)

3. hc = 71.50112 - 30 X 1441845.67 = 0.8500 ft = 0.8500 X 12 =


10.20 in.
(6)

Chapter 2

62

SI Units
1. From Table A-l for mercury at 20C, p = 13546.3 kg/m3.
2. y =546.3
13

X 9.80711 = 849
132

3. hc = 1.816 - 206.9

2.6

N/m3

(1.29)

1000/132
849 = 0.259 m = 259 mm

(e)

PRESSURE-HEIGHT RELATIONS FOR IDEAL GASES

The equation for a static fluid in a gravitational fieldmay be written as

To integrate the left-hand term of this equation, the functional relationship between pressure and density must be established for a compressible fluid.The right-hand termrequires that the relationship between
the acceleration due to gravity and altitude be established.
We may proceed to establish these by noting from equation (1.30):
P=;

(1.30)

e)

From equation (1.37):


lln

v =

VI

(1.37)

From the equation of state of an ideal gas:


RTI
(1.42)
v1 = P1
Substituting the above when in the left-hand side of equation (2.5):

or
(2.11)

(1.15)

Fluid Statics

63

Substituting in equation (2.11):


(2.12)

Integrating the right-hand term of equation (2.12):


(2.13)

We see from equation (2.13) that mathematically there are only two values
of l/n that need be considered, one when n = 1 and when n # 1. Since
the value of n for an isothermal processof an ideal gas is1 (Section 1.13),
we have two equations, one for isothermal processes and another for
nonisothermal processes.

Isothermal Process
Integrating the left-hand term of equation (2.13) for n = 1:
(2.14)

Nonisothermal Processes
For all other processes, the left-hand term of equation (2.13) integrates
as follows:

(2.15)

Temperature relations may be established from equation(1.47):


(1.47)

Substituting equation (1.47) in equation (2.15),

64

Chapter 2

(2.16).

2.7

ATMOSPHERE

The atmosphere is a gaseous envelopethat surrounds the Earth, extending


from sea level to an altitude of several hundred miles. The altitude for
near space has been set arbitrarily at 50 miles (80 km).
The earth's atmosphere is divided into five levels basedtemperature
on
variation. The troposphere extends from sea level to 54,000 ft (16.5 km)
at the equator, decreasing to 28,000 ft (8.5 km) at the poles, and is composed of approximately 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. With increasing
altitude from sea level, the temperature decreases from 59F (15C) to
-69.7"F (-56.5"C). Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which
extends to approximately 65,000 ft (19.8 km) and exists at a relatively
constant temperature of -69.7"F (- 59.5"C). The mesosphere extends
from nearly65,000 ft (10.8 km) to 300,000 ft (91.4 km), and itstemperature
increases from - 69.7"F( - 565C) to + 28.67"F(- 1.85"F),then decreases
to - 134F (92."C). The mesosphere is characterized by an ozone layer,
which absorbs the ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Above the mesosphere is the thermosphere, also called the ionosphere, which extends
from approximately 300,000 ft (19.4 km) to 1,OOO,OOO ft (305 km). The
temperature in this layerincreases from - 134F ( - 92C) to nearly 2200F
(1200C). The composition is primarily ionized atoms of the lighter gases.
The last level is the exosphere, which extends to the space environment.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere


Because of wide variations in the atmosphere, a standard atmosphere is
used for design purposes. The United States Standard Atmosphere formulated in 1976 extends from sea level to 3,280,840 ft (1 000 km). For
altitudes above 282,152 j i (86 km) the hydrostatic equilibrium of the atmosphere gradually breaks down due todiffusion and vertical transport
of the individual gas species.For this reason the pressure-height relations
given in this section arevalid only for altitudes below 282,152ft (86 km).
The standard assumes that gravity is constant at all sea-levellocations
or g+ = go = 32.1740 ft/sec2 (9.80665 m/s2).For altitudes from sea level
to 282,152 ft (86 km) the atmosphere is divided into seven layers based
on geopotentialaltitude H (the altitude if gravitational accelerationis con-

Fluid Statics

65

stant). The relationship between geometric altitude and geopotential altitude is given by equation (2.17) as follows:
(2.17)
The temperature at any altitudez may be computed using equation (2.18):

where Tz is the temperature at altitude z, "R (K),Tb is the base temperature, from Table 2.l(c) for z, "R (K), dT/dz is the temperature gradient,
from Table 2.1(c)
for z, "R/ft (Wm), and z b is the base altitude, from Table
2.l(c) for z, ft (m). The pressure at any altitudez may be computed using
equations (2.19) or (2.20) as applicable:

(2.20)
where pt is the pressure at altitude z, psia (Pa), P b is the base pressure,
2.l(c)
from Table2.l(c) for z, psia (Pa), n is the process slope, from Table
at z, ratio, P b is the base pressure, from Table2.l(c) for z, psia (Pa), and
n is the process slope, from Table 2.l(c) at z, ratio.
The value of sonic velocity is calculated using equation (1.69) and assuming that k has a constant value of 1.4. The value of dynamic viscosity
is calculated from the Sutherland equation:
(2.21)
where pzis the dynamic viscosity at altitudez, lbf-sec/ft2 (Paes),(3 is the
Pa-s/K'"), T, is the tem3.045 x IO-' lbf-secl(ft2-"R'")(1.458 x
perature at altitude z, "R (K), and S, is the Sutherland constant, 198.72"R
(110.4 K).
Tables 2.l(a) and (b) contain pertinent data on the U.S. Standard Atmosphere up to 352,272 ft (86 km). Figure 2.11 shows the temperaturealtitude profile of this altitude range.
Example 2.6 Assuming that the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 is correct, estimate the error in temperature and pressure made at 16,400 ft (5
km) by assuming that the atmosphere fromsea level to that altitude is (a)
incompressible, (b) isothermal, and (c) isentropic.

66

Chapter 2

180
18'0

200

220

240

260

280

I
300

Temperature (K)
Figure 2.11 Temperature-altitudeprofile, U.S. StandardAtmosphere
1976.

Solution

This example is solved by application of pertinent equations of Section


2.6. Solution steps are as follows:
(a) U.S. Atmosphere
For the U.S. units solutiontemperature is calculated using equation (2.18)
and pressure from equation (2.20). For the SI unit solution pressure and
temperature values may be obtained from Table2.l(a).

Fluid Statics

67

(b) Incompressible
1. Obtain fluid data from Tables 2.1, 18.1, and 18.3.
2. Integrating equation (2.5) for constant density and variable gravity
results in:

or

3. For a constant-density process for an ideal gas:

(c) Isothermal
4. By definition, Tz = To.
(c)
5. The term pz is calculated using equation (2.19) modified as follows:

(d) Isentropic
6. The term Tzis calculated using equation (2.16) as follows:
k - l

Tz =

To -

1"":

(7
[g,R( )
dre)]

7 . The term pz is calculated using equation (2.20) as follows:

(2)

Wk- 1

Pz = Po

US.Units
(a) U.S. Atmosphere

-0.00356(16,400 - 0) = 460.29"R
460.29 ~.234%9/(1.234%9-~)
pz = 14.696 (518.67)
= 7.85-psia
Tz = 518.67

Chapter 2

68

(b) Incompressible
1. FromTable 2.l(b), TO = 518.67"R, p. = 14.70 psia, p. = 0.07647
lbm/ft3. From Table A-l, M = 28.97 lbm-mol. From Table 18.2, k =
1.4.
R = 154Y28.97 =ft-lbf/(lbm-"R)
53.33 (1.43)

2. pz = 14.70
=

0.07647 x 32.17 x 16,400


[32.17 X (1 + 16,400/20,860,000)](&)

Error = 100 x (6.00


3.Tz

(a)

6.00 psia
-

7.85)/7.85 = -23.57%

= 518.67 X (6.00 h4.70) = 211.93"R

Error = 100 x (211.93 - 460.29)/460.29 = -54.10%


(c) Isothermal
4.Tz

= To = 518.67"R

Error = 100 X (518.67 - 460.29)/460.29 = 12.68%

-32.17 X 16,404
32.17 X 53.33 X 518.67 X (1 + 16,400/20,860,000)

5. pz = 14.70exp
= 8.13psia

Error = 100 x (8.13 - 7.85)/7.85 = 3.57%

(dl

(d) Isentropic
6. Tz=518.67-

'1 [

32.17 x 16,400
[l*;.;
32.17 x 53.33 x (1 + 16,400/20,860,000)

= 430.88"R

(e)
Error = 100 x (430.88 - 460.29)/460.29 = -6.39%
=

7.68 psia

Error = 100 x (7.68 - 7.85)/7.85 = -2.17%

SI Units
(a) U.S. Atmosphere

From Table 2.l(a), Tz = 255.71 K, pz = 54 090 Pa.


(b) Incompressible

1. FromTable2.1(a),To = 288.15K,po = 101 300Pa,po = 1.225kg/m3.

Fluid Statics

69

From Table A-l, M = 28.97 kg-mol. From Table 18.2, k = 1.4.

R = 8314/28.97 = 287.0 J/(kg*K)


2. pz = 101300 -

(1.43)

1.225 x 9.807 x 5 000 = 41 279 Pa


1 x (1
5 000/6357 000)

(a)

Error = 100 x (41279 - 54090)/54090 = -23.68%


3. Tz = 288.15 X 2791101
(41300)
Error = 100 x (117.42

= 117.42 K

- 255.71)/255.71

(b)

= -54.08%

(c) Isothermal
4.

Tz = To

288.15 K

(c)

Error = 100 x (288.15 - 255.71)/255.71 = 12.68%


5. p z = 101 300 Exp
=

-9.80 7 X 5 000

1 X 287.0 X 2 88.15 X (1

+ 5 000/6357 000)

56 015 Pa

(dl

Error = 100 x (56 015 - 54090)/54 090 = 3.56%

(d) Isentropic

'1 [

6.807 x 5 000
6. Tz = 288.15 - le4l.;
1 X 287.0 X (1 + 5 00016357 000)
= 239.37 K

Error = 100 x (239.37 - 255.71)/255.71 = -6.39%


(e)
7. p z = 101 300

928
= 52

Pa

Error = 100 x (52928 - 54090)/54 090 = - 2.18%


Summary

Pressure error (%)


Process
Incompressible
Isothermal
Isentropic

U.S.

SI

U.S.

SI

- 54.10
- 12.68
- 6.39

- 54.08
- 12.68
- 6.39

- 23S 7
3.57
2.17

- 23.68
3.56
-2.17

Chapter 2

70

2.8 LIQUID FORCE ON PLANE SURFACES


Pressure-Height Relations
The total or absolute pressure on the vertical side of the tank shown in
Figure 2.12 at a depth h below the surface is p t . Let the liquid pressure
be denoted as p , and then:

Centroids of Plane Areas


Figure 2.13 shows a plane submerged object in an open tank partly filled
with a liquid. Area A is the area of this object in contact with the liquid.
The first area moment about the axis 0-0 (liquid surface) is
MOA =

(2.22)

7 dA

The centroid of an area is the point at which the area might be concentrated and still leave unchanged the first moment of the area around any

Atmospheric
Pressure
surface

Liquid

Liauid

/
/

____)

Figure 2.12 Notation for liquid pressure study.

Fluid Statics

71
0

Liquid level

Figure 2.13 Notation for liquid force on plane submerged surfaces.

axis. The centroid of an area is also its center ofgravity, thus,


MOA =

dA = Si,A

(2.23)

where yc is the distance from the liquid surface0-0 to the center of gravity
of the area.

Force Exerted
The force F exerted at a depth h from the liquid surface is
(2.24)

Chapter 2

72

From geometry h = y sin 8, so that equation (2.24) becomes


F=yIhdA=ysineIjjdA

(2.25)

From equation (2.23),


dA = jj,A

and again from geometry h, = y, sin e, so that

Fe)(y,A)
= (y sin

= yh,A

(2.26)

where h, is the vertical distance from the liquid surface to the center of
gravity. Equation (2.26) is a very important statement of fluid statics.
Example 2.7 The cylindrical tank shown in Figure 2.14 is 3 ft (914 mm)
in diameter and has its axis horizontal. Atthe middle of the tank, on top,
is a pipe 4 in. (102 mm) in diameter, which extends vertically. The tank
and pipe are filled with an oil whoseAPI gravity is 15.6 and whose temperature is 60F (15.66"C). The tank ends are designed for a maximum
force of 9000 lbf (40 kN). What is the safe maximum level of the free
surface of the oil in the pipe above the tank top?

Figure 2.14

Notation for Example 2.7.

73

Fluid Statics
Solution

This example is solved by


the application of equation (1.35) to obtain the
specific gravity of the oil and equation (2.26) to calculate the maximum
oil level. The specific gravity at 60F (15.56"C) is calculated as follows
S = 141.5/(131.5

+ 15.6) = 0.9619

(1.35)

The specific weight is calculated using equations (1.29) and (1.32).


SPwg
Pg
v
=
=gc
gc

From equation (2.23),

F
c
?A
From Figure 2.14,
h

=-

z = h . - -d
c
2

and

ITd'
A =4

so that

z="-

4F
ymd'

d
2

1. Obtain density of water from Table A-l and compute specific weight

using equation (a).


2. Calculate height using equation (c).

US.Units
1. From Table A-l at 60C, p
, = 62.37 lbm/ft3.
y = 0.9619 X 62.37 X 32.17/32.17 = 59.99 lbf/ft3

2. z = 4 X 9OOO/(59.99 X

IT

3') - 3/2 = 19.72 ft

SI Units
1. From Table A-l at 15.56"C, pw = 999.1 kg/m3.
y = 0.9619 X 999.1 X 9.807/1 = 9 425 N/m3

2.

= 4 X (40 X 103)/[ 9 425 X

IT

(914 X 10-3)21
- 914 x 10-3/2

(a)
=

6.01 m

(c)

74

Chapter 2

Location of Liquid Force


If the moment offorces around the axis 0-0 (liquid surfaceof Figure 2.13)
is taken, then
I d M O = J J d F = YFF

or
(2.27)

where Y F is the distance from the liquid surface to the point where F
would act if it were concentrated in one location (center of force). From
equation (2.25), dF = ?(sin 8)y dA and from equation (2.26), F = y c A
sin 8. Substituting in equation (2.27),

Noting that Jy2 dA is the second moment or moment of inertia or Io, and
substituting in equation (2.28),
(2.29)

Because equation (2.29) requires that the moment of inertia around the
liquid surface be known, it is not always convenient
to apply. To transfer
the moment of inertiato the center of gravity of the area, we mayproceed
as follows, using the parallel axis theorem:
dl0d=
A y2

= ( J J , - Ay)

dA

(2.30)

Integrating equation (2.30)


(2.31)

By definition of a centroid, the first moment aroundthe center of gravity


= 0, and the second moment or moment of inertia around the
center of gravity ZG = J Ay2 dA; substituting in equation (2.31),

J Ay dA

(2.32)

Fluid Statics

75

Substituting for Io in equation (2.29),

or

Properties of areas for selected shapes are given in Table C-l.


Example 2.8 The rectangular gate shown in Figure 2.15 is 20 ft (6.10 m)
high and 16 ft (4.88 m) wide and placed vertically on the side of an open
rectangular container of water at 68F (20C). The free water surface is
10 ft (3.05 m)above the upper edgeof the gate. Whatforce must be applied
at the upper edge of the gate to keep it closed if the gate is hingedat the
lower edge?

Water surface

FgateG
b

Figure 2.15

Notation for Example 2.8.

Chapter 2

76

Solution

This exampleis solved by applicationof the concepts of this subsection,


geometrical data from TableC-l, and the properties of water from Table
A - l . From Table C-l (rectangle),

(a)

ab

From Figure 2.16 and equation (c),


h, = y , = b - y ~ + ~ = b - b 1 2 + ~ = b 1 2 + ~

(4

The force exerted by the water on the gate is computed using equation
(2.26) and substituting values from equations (a) and (d):
Fwater = yhJ

y(b12

+ c)ab

(e)

The location of the force exerted by the water is computed using equation
(2.33) and substituting values from equations and (d).

IC
b
b2112
y F = y , + F = - + c + ycA
2
b12 + c

= -b - -

b2112
b12 + c

Taking moments aroundthe hinge (Figure 2 . 1 3 ,


or
Substituting from equation (i) for Fwater, equation (g) for Z in equation
(h), and simplifying results in:
FGate =

yab(b + 3c)
6

1. Obtain density from TableA-l and calculatethe specific weight using


equation (1.35).

2 . Solve example using equation (i).

77

Fluid Statics

US.Units
1. From Table A-l at 68"F, p = 62.31 lbm/ft3.
(1.29)

2. Force on gate:
FGate

62.31 x 16 x 20 x (20
6

+3x

10) = 166,160 Ibf

(9

SI Units
1. From Table A-l at 20C, p = 998.2 kg/m3.
y = -gp
=

gc

9'807 x 998*2 = 9 789 NIm3


1

(1.29)

2. Force ongate:
FGate

2.9

9 789 x 4.88 x 6.10 x (6.10


6

+ 3 x 3.05) = 740 639

LIQUID FORCE ON CURVED SURFACES

Liquid forces on curved surfaces may be readily calculated by considering


their horizontal and vertical components separately and resolving them.
Consider the curved surface A E shown in Figure 2.16, whose width is W
submerged in a liquid so that its upper edge EE' is a distance c below the
liquid surface.
There are two vertical forces acting on the surface AEw. The first is
the weight of the liquid above line BE. The volume of the liquid above
line BE is acw, so that from the definition of specific weight in equation
(1.29,

Fzl = y V

= yacw

(2.34)

The second vertical force is the weight of the liquid below line BE and
above the curved line M.
Again fromthe definition of specific weightin
equation (1.29),
FZz = yV = y(areaME)w = yAw

(2.35)

The total vertical force acting on the surface AEw is the sum of these
two, or
Fz = Fz1

+ Ft2

(2.36)

Chapter 2

78

Liauidsurface

hFx

hFx

1""""""""""-."CO

F*

Fz
Side view

End view

Figure 2.16 Notation for liquid force on curved surfaces.

The upper vertical force Fzl acts through the center of gravity of area
BCDE, or from line AC, a distance of a/2. The lower vertical force Fz2
acts through the center of gravity of area ABE or a distance of x, from
line AC. The location xF where the combined force acts may be determined by taking moments around line AC:

or

XF

(aFz1/2) + ~ G F z ~
Fz

(2.37)

Substituting for FzI from equation (2.34), Fz2 from equation (2.35), and
F, from equation (2.36) in equation (2.37) and simplifying,
YF

+ XcA
+A

(a2c/2)
ac

(2.38)

The horizontal force F, on the curved surface AEw may be obtained by


application of equation (2.26):

Fluid Statics

79

F, = &Ap
(2.39)
where h, is the distance from the liquid surface to the center of gravity
of the projected area AEE'A'. From Figure 2.16, h, = c + b/2, and the
projected area Ap = bw. Substituting in equation (2.39),
F,

yhcxAp = y(c +
(2.40)
b/2)bw

Location ofhorizontalforce may bedetermined by application


of equation (2.33), noting that for a vertical distance h, = h, and Y F = h,=,,
(2.41)

From Table C - l , ZG/A for a rectangle isb2/12;again from Figure2.16, h,


= c + b/2, and substituting in equation (2.41),
(2.42)

The magnitude of the resultantforce F may be determined by noting that


F is the hypotenuse of the right triangle formed by F, and F, in Figure
2.16. From trigonometry,

F = -

(2.43)

This force F will act at the intersection of hFxand xG, shown in Figure
2.16 as CF (center of force).
Example 2.9 The curved surface shown in Figure 2.16 is immersed in a
tank filled with a liquid whose specific weight is 50 lbf/ft3 (7 850 N/m3).
The edge EE' is horizontal and is30 ft (9.14 m) below the liquid surface.
The curved surface is a parabola whose vertex is at A . The horizontal
distance a is 20 ft (6.10 m), the vertical distance b is 24 ft (7.32 m), and
the width W is 10 ft (3.05 m). Calculate (a) the magnitude and (b) location
of the total liquid force on the surface AEw.

Solution

This example is solved by applicationof the concepts of this subsection


and geometrical data from Table C - l .
From Table C-l for a half parabola,
A = -2ab
3
=jG

3a
8

Chapter 2

80

1. The total vertical force is calculated by substituting equation (a) in

equation (2.35) and then substituting in equation (2.37):

The total vertical force is computed from equation(2.40):


F, = ybw(c

+ b)/2

( 4

The combined force is computed by substitutingequations (c) and(d)


in equation (2.43):
F = d F m = y w

+b2 c + -

a2 c + 236)2

2. The location of the vertical force is computed by substituting equations (a) and (b) in equation (2.38):
a2c
a2c
+
ZGA - + (3a/8)(2ab/3)
2
FF =
ac + A
ac + (2ab/3)

(C

):

2b
c+3

(0

The location of the horizontal force is calculated using equation


(2.42).

U.S.units
1. The total force is

+ 24
=

599,213 lbf

2. For location of vertical force,


ZF

(20/2)(30 2412)
= 9.13 ft
30 + 2 x 24/3

Location of horizontal force is


hFx =

30

+ 2412 + 3024212
+ 24/2 = 43.14 ft

(20

T)

Fluid Statics

81

SI Units
1. The total force is

F = 7 850
2 X 7.32)2
3

+ 7.329.14(

7
2
;)
+-

= 3 037298 N = 3 037 kN

2. For location of vertical force,


FF

(6.1012)(9.14
7.3212)
= 2.78 m
9.14
2 x 7.3213

Location of horizontal force is


hFx = 9.14

+ 7.3212 + 9.147.32112
+ 7.3212 = 13.18 m

(2.42)

2.10 STRESS IN PIPES DUETO INTERNAL PRESSURE


Stress
When a fluid is contained the forces due to fluid pressure produce equal
but opposite resisting forces in the container. These resistingforces produce stress in the material of the container.
Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:,

Force per unit area


S

FL- or ML-T-
U.S.: lbflin
SI: kPa

Tensile Stress
When the internal pressure exceeds the external, the size of the container
is increased because of the elasticity of the container material. This increase in size produces tension .in the structure, and hence the material
is subjected to tensile stress.

Thin Wall
All stress relations developedin this chapter are based onthe assumption
that stress in a given cross section is uniform. For this to be valid it is

Chapter 2

82

necessary that the thickness of the walls with respect to the size of the
container be small. For the purpose of defining thin, pipes whose wall
thickness is less than one-tenth of their internal diameters will be considered thin-walled.

Pipes
Figure 2.17 shows a cylinder subjectedto an internalpressure. The stress
produced may be reduced to longitudinal (3,) and circumferential (S,)
components. Figure 2.17(a) shows the circumferential areas and 2.17(b)
shows the forces. The fluid force FP = FAp, where F is the difference

(C)

Figure 2.17

Stress in pipes.

Fluid Statics

83

between the internal andexternal pressures and A, is the projected area,


and is equal to DL. The resisting force F, = S,A, where A , is the circumferential stress area and is equal
to 2twLwhere t, is the wall thickness.
From the free-body diagramof Fig. 2.17(b)the resisting forces must equal
the fluid forces, or

FP = FAp = F DL

F, = S,A, = S,2twL

which reduces to
(2.44)
For the longitudinal component, Figure 2.17(c) shows
the areas and Figure
2.18(d) showsthe stresses. The fluid force F = FA, where A is the crosssectional area and equal to nD2/4. The resisting force FL = S A L where
AL is the area of the annulus and is equal to the difference between the
cross-sectional areas (D + 2tw)2/4and nD2/4, which reduces to ntw(D+
t,). Since twis small with respect to D, AL = ntwD. From the free-body
diagram of Figure 2.17(d)the resisting forces must equalthe fluid forces,
or
F = FA = pnD2/4 = FL = S A L = SLTtw(D t,) = SLntwD

which reduces to
(2.45)
Dividing equation (2.44) by equation (2.45),
S,
-=- 2t,D
or
SL = FISL 4twD
2

Fsc

Because the longitudinal stress is only halfthe circumferential stress, the


circumferential stress is the determining one for thickness calculations.
Equations (2.44) and (2.45) were derived to show only theoretical relations
and should not be used for design.

Design Equations
The American National Standard ANSIIASME B.31.1 Codefor Pressure
Piping recommends an equation which may be derived from equation
(2.44) as follows: replace t,by t, - A,, where t, is the minimum wall
thickness and A, is additional wall thickness required to compensate for
material removed in threading, grooving, etc., and to provide for me-

Chapter 2

84

chanical strength, replace D by Do - 2y(t,,, - At) where DOis the outer


diameter and y is a correction factor for material and temperature; also
replace 3, by 3, where 3, is the allowable stress. Substitutingthese values
in equation (2.44),
(2.46)
For service at and below 900F (482"C), y = 0.4 and equation (2.46)
becomes:
(2.47)

Piping Schedules
Table C-3 shows someproperties of wrought steel and wrought iron pipe
from American NationalStandard ANSI B36.10-1970. In 1939 the B36.10
committee surveyed the pipe sizes then in use and assigned schedule
numbers to them. These numbers were based on an allowanceof 0.1 for
A,, y = 0, and r,,, = 7t,/8, where t, is schedule thickness, and the factor
7/8 to allow for a 124% variation in wallthickness. Substitutingin equation
(2.461,

F
Sa

2(7ts/8 - 0.1)
=- N s
Do - 2(0)(7tS/8 - 0.1) 1000

"
"

or
(2.48)
where N , is the schedule number.
The relationship N , = 1000p/~aisveryapproximateowing to the
rounding off of values of existing sizes andthe variation between equations (2.47) and (2.48) and should not be used for design. Schedule numbers always give conservative values. In using piping schedules, values
of t,,, must be increased by wall thickness tolerance to obtain t, and the
values of ts selected must alwaysbe equal to or greater than the calculated
value of t,. For design the AmericanNational Standards Codes must be
used.
Example 2.10 A carbon steel pipe is required for 1800 psig (12.4 MPa
gage) and 300F (149C) service. The pipe must have a minimum flow

Fluid Statics

85

area of 0.6 ft2 (55 750 mm2). The ANSVASME B31.1-1986 gives a value
of A, = 0, y = 0.04, and an allowable stress of 15.0 x IO3 psi (103.4
MPa). For a mill tolerance of 12.5% for wall thickness, what pipe size
and schedule should be used?
Solution

This example is solved by applicationof the equations given in this section.


1. The approximate pipe size is computed using
7

2. The approximate schedule numberis computed using

3. Compute minimum wall thickness by solving equation (2.47) for t ,


t, =
4.

23,

+ 2y7i + A,

From Table C-3 select the schedule number that satisfies both the
minimum area and thickness requirements.

U.S.Units
1. The approximate pipe size is
D = (4 x 0.6 x 144/,rr)0.5 = 11 in.

Since there is no 11 in. pipe, 12 in. pipe should be


Table C-3, Do = 12.750 in.
2. The approximate schedule number is

selected. From

N, = IO00 x 1800/15000 = 120

(b)

3. Compute the minimum wall thickness:


t, =

1800 x 12.750
2 x 15,000 + 2 x 0.4 x 1800

For 12.5% mill tolerance,


t, =

8t,/7 = 8 X .730/7 = 0.834 in.

+ 0 = 0.730 in.

Chapter 2

86

4. From Table C-3 for 12 in. pipe (Schedule loo),

> 0.834 in.


A = 0.6674 ft2 > 0.6 ft2
f, = 0.844 in.

Note that Schedule 120 with ts = 1.00 in. and A = 0.6303 ft2 would
have also met the requirements but would be a very conservative
design.

SI Units
1. The approximate pipesizeis

D = (4

55 75O/~r)O.~
= 266 mm

From Table C-3, Do = 332.9 m.


2. The approximate schedule number is
N , = IO00 x 12.4h03.4 = 120
3. Computeminimumwallthickness:
fm =

12.4 x 323.9
2 x 103.4 + 2 x 0.4 x 12.4

+ 0 = 18.53 mm

For 12.5% mill tolerance,

mm
4. From Table C-3for 323.9 mm Do pipe (Schedule loo),
f,= 8tJ7 = 8 X .18.53/7 = 21.18

> 21.18 mm
62 020 mm2 > 55 750 mm2

f, = 21.44 mm

A =

Note that Schedule 120 with f, = 25.40 mm and A = 58 580 mm2


would have also met the requirements but would be a very conservative design.
2.11 ACCELERATION OF FLUID MASSES
Static Acceleration
Fluid masses may be subject to various types of uniform acceleration
without relative motion occurring betweenthe fluid particles or between
fluid particles and their boundaries. As was discussedin Section 2.2, shear
stress must be absent, thus permitting the accelerated fluid mass to be
treated as a static fluid. Under these conditions the basic equation for
fluid statics, equation (2.4), applies. Integrating equation (2.4) for an in-

Fluid Statics

87

compressible fluid( p constant) in a field of constant gravity ( g constant),


for uniform acceleration (ax,a y ,and a, constant), results in

DAlemberts Principle
Jean Le Rond dAlembert (1717-1783), a French scientist, noted that
Newtons second law couldbe written as
f - =ma
O
(1.10)
gc
where - m d g , is a fictitious force and is sometimes called the reversed
effective force or the inertia force. This principlemay be used to reduce
a problem of dynamics to one of statics. In the derivation of the basic
equation of fluid statics, equation (2.4), the body force accelerations ax
a,,,and a, were assumed to act opposite the directions x , y , and z, respectively. With the employment of the inertia force concept then the
accelerations maybe assumed to act in the directions of x , y , and z,
respectively, in equation (2.49).

Translation
Consider the liquid mass shown in Figure
2.18 being uniformlyaccelerated
upward at an angleof p and a rate of a.The acceleration in the y direction
ay is zero. Letting p2 - pl = ps - p (where ps is the surface pressure),
x2 - x1 = - L , z2 .- z 1 = h, and ay = 0. Equation (2.48) becomes:

which reduces to
P
Ap = p - ps = - [(a,+ g ) h - axLI
gc

At the liquid surface


p = ps

or

Ap = 0, h = ho, L = LO

(2.49)

Chapter 2

88

Figure2.18

Notation for translation.

which when substituted in equation (2.48) becomes


0 =

P
[(az + g)ho - ad01
gc

which reduces to
h0
= -= tan0
Lo a, + g

AP

(?)($)

[(az+ g)h - aX,(O)l = y

(2.50)

+-

h ( L = 0)
(2.51)

Fluid Statics

89

Comparing equation (2.51) with equation (2.6), b p = yh for an unaccelerated liquid, it becomes evident that the ratio of the two is 1 + =,/g.
The horizontal force may be obtained by multiplying equation (2.39) by
this ratio, or:

(2.52)

In a like manner the vertical force is the effective weight of the liquid
above the bottom and may be obtained by multiplying equation(2.34) by
the same ratio:
(2.53)
Example 2.11 The open tank shown in Figure 2.18 contains 200 ft3 (5.66
m3) of water whose specific weightis 62.42 lbf/ft3 (9 790 N/m3). The tank
is 6 ft (1.83 m) high, 5 ft (1.52 m) wide, and 10 ft (3.05 m) long. The angle
of the incline is 30". Determine (1) the maximum acceleration to which
the tank may be subjected without spilling any water, (2) the maximum
end force during the acceleration, and (3) the total force required to acceleiate the fluid mass.

Solution

This exampleis solved by the application of the equations of this section


and the principles of geometry.
1. The maximum acceleration without spilling water. Letting V, H , Lo,
and W represent the volume, height, length, and width of the tank
respectively, then the height of the water in the tank without acceleration becomes:
H , = - volume
-- V
area
LOW

The maximum rise of water on rear end of the tank is H


the drop on the forward end will be the same, so that

- H,

and

Noting from geometry that a, = a cos p and a, = a sin p, and


substituting in equation (2.50), results in:
ho - ax
Lo a, + g
"
"

a cos
a sin p

+g

90

Chapter 2

Solving equation (c) for a and substituting from equation (b)for ho:
g
a = (Lo/ho)cos p - sin

[(Lo/2(H - VLoW)] cos p - sin

P
( 4

2. The maximum end force during the acceleration. The maximum end
force will occur on the end A (maximum height of water) and may
be calculated using equation (2.52) noting that h, = H12 and A, =
WH.

3. The total force required to accelerate the fluid mass: The total force
may be calculated from equation (1 .lo) and noting from equation
(1.29) that y = pg/g,:

US.Units
Given: H = 6 ft, W = 5 ft, Lo = 10 ft, V = 200 ft3, p = 30".
1. The maximum acceleration without spilling water:
a =

32.17
= 19.32 ft/sec2
[10/2(6 - 200/10 x 5) cos 30" - sin 30"

a, = 19.32 cos 30" = 16.73 ft/sec2

a, = 19.32 sin 30" = 9.66 ft/sec2


2. The maximum end force during acceleration:

F, = 62.42 1

9'66
+ 232.17)

x 62 - 7305 1bf

3. The total force required to accelerate the fluid mass:

F = 62.42

SI Units
Given: H

200 X 19.32/32.17 = 7496 lbf

(0

1.83 m, W = 1.52 m, Lo = 3.01 m, V = 5.66 m3, p = 30".

Fluid Statics

91

1. The maximum acceleration without spilling water:


a =

9.807
[(3.0512(1.83 - 5.6613.05 x' 1.52)] cos 30" - sin 30"

= 5.88 m/s2
a, = 5.88 cos 30" = 5.09 d s 2

az = 5.88 sin 30" = 2.94 m/s2


2. The maximum end force during acceleration:

F, = 9790 1

2.94
1.52
+9.807)

x 1.83*
= 32 386 N
2

3. The total force required to accelerate the fluid mass:

= 9 790 x 5.66 x 5.8819.807 =223


33

(0

Example 2.12 The U-tube manometer shownin Figure 2.19 with vertical
legs 20 in. (508 mm) apart is partly filled with a liquid to be used as an
accelerometer. I t is installed on an automobile that is accelerated uniformly from 15 mph (6.71 d s ) to 50 mph (22.35 4 s ) on a level road.
What is the difference in level between the two legs during the acceleration?
Solution

This example is solved


by the application of equation (1.21), which defines
acceleration, andequation (2.50).For uniformaccelerationequation

a X

Figure 2.19 Notation for horizontal acceleration.

Chapter 2

92

(1.21) may be written as:

ax =

dV AV
- ="
dt
At

V2

- V1
t

For a level road


a, = 0 so that equation (2.50) may be modifiedas follows:
(2.50)

or

US.Units

15 Is) (

h0

5280 ftlmi
= 3.422 ft/sec2
3600 seclhr

ax =

20 x 3.422
= 2.13 in.
32.17

SI Units
ax =

22.35 - 6.71
= 1.043 m/s2
15

h0 =

508 x 1.043
= 54.01 mm
9.807

Rotation
Consider the fluid mass shown in Figure2.20 being rotated around the z
axis at a constant angular velocity of W radians per second. The acceleration of the fluid mass p dy dx dz is -w2x (radially inward). The acceleration in the y direction a,,is zero, and gravity is the only force in
the z direction, so that a, is also zero. Using the inertia force concept
discussed in conjunction withtranslation, ax = -w2x and equation (2.4)
for rotation becomes
dp = --P (-o*x dx
gc

+ g dz)

(2.54)

Fluid Statics

93

ccelerated liquid

Line of
constant
pressure

I
I

Figure 2.20 Notation forrotation.

Integrating equation (2.54) and using the relation y = pg/gcof equation


(1.29,

I2

I2

YO2
dp = -

x dx - y

i2
dz

(2.55)

Lines of constant pressure occur whenp 2 = p l , reducing equation (2.55)


to:

Chapter 2

94

The liquid surface is a special case of constant pressure. From Figure

2.23, when x1 = 0, z1 = A. If we let x2 = r, then z2 - z1 = z - A and


equation (2.56) becomes:

At the wall of the container r = ro and h. = zo - A:


(2.58)

From equations (2.56) through (2.58), it may be seen that all constant
pressure lines includingthe surface are parabolic (Table C-l). The volume
of a paraboloid of revolution is one-half
that of its circumscribed cylinder.
If no liquid is spilled, then
zs =

h0
z

(2.59)

If some liquid is spilled then equation (2.59) represents the surface distance after rotation.
Pressure-height relations for the rotating fluid may be established by
letting X I = x2. Then equation (2.55) becomes

- P11

= -y(z2 - Zl)

b p = yh

( x constant)

(P2

or
Note that this is the same as for unaccelerated fluids.
Example 2.13 The open cylindrical tank shownin Figure 2.21 is 3 ft (914
mm) in diameter and 20 ft (6 096 mm) high. It is filled to the brim with
62.15 lbt/ft3 (9765 N/m3)androtated
water whosespecificweightis
around its vertical center line at 200 rpm. Determine (1) the volume of
water spilled and(2) the gage pressure exerted by the liquid onthe bottom
of the tank 1 ft (305 mm) from the center line.
Solution

This example is solved usingthe principles and equations from this section. The rotational speed is calculated as follows:
o = 21~(200/60) = 20.94 rad/sec

1.

Volume spilled. Since the tank wasfullbefore rotation, the crosshatched area in Figure 2.21 is a paraboloid of revolution representing

Fluid Statics

95

Figure 2.21 Notation for Example 2.13.

the volume spilled. From geometry:


wbr2 = v = -rhor8
2

Substituting for h0 from equation (2.58) in equation (a) results in

2. Gage pressure at bottom of tank. For an open tank, p1 = 0. Taking


the datum at the bottom of the tank, z1 = A = zo - ho, z2 = 0 , x1
=

0, then from equation (2.58):

21

= zo -

w2r$

2g

Substituting equation (c) in equation (2.55):

which reduces to

(c)

96

Chapter 2

US.Units
1.Volumespilled:

V =

IT

20.94 X (3/2)4
= 54.19 ft3
4 X 32.17

(b)

Gage pressure at bottom of tank:


62.15 x 20.94
[l - (3/2)]
2g
= 713.55 Ibf/ft
= 713.55/144 = 4.96 psig
SI Units
p2

+ 62.15 X

20

1. Volumespilled:

V =

IT

X 20.94 X (914 X 10-3/2)4

4 x 9.807

2. Gage pressure

+ 9765

1.53m3

at bottom of tank:

x 6
094 x
= 34.22 kPa (gage)

= 34
223
N/m

Example 2.14 The closed cylindrical tank shown in Figure 2.22 is 13 ft


(3.96 m) in diameter and 33 ft (10.16 m) high. It is rotated at 25 rad/sec
around a vertical axis 10 ft (3.05 m) from the tank center line. The tank
is filled with an oil whose specific weight is 58.81 lbf/ft3 (9 238 N/m3).
Compute the maximum differential pressure in the tank.
Solution

This problem is solved by the application of equation (2.55). Analysis of


this equation indicates thatthe minimum pressure will occur at minimum
radius of rotation and maximum elevation (point 1 of Figure 2.22) and
that the maximum pressure will occur at point 2. From Figure 2.22, x1
= r - ro, x
= r + ro, and zz - z1 = - ho. Substituting these values in
equation (2.55):

97

Fluid Statics

b - d

Axis of rotation

'

20

-+
x,

Figure 2.22 Notation for Example 2.14.

US.Units
2 x 25' x 10 x (1312)
32.17
= 150,474 lbf/ft'
= 150,174/144 = 1,045psi

p2 - p1 = 58.81 [

33]

SI Units
p2

- p1

2 x 25' x.3.05 x (3.96/2)

= 9 238

,.,]

9.807
= 7 204 631 Pa = 7 205 kPa
~

2.12 BUOYANCY AND FLOTATION


Principles
The elementary principlesof buoyancy and flotation were established by
Archimedes (287-212 B.c.). These principles are usually statedas follows:

Chapter 2

98

(1) a body immersedin a fluid is buoyed up bya force equal tothe weight

of fluid displaced by the body, and (2) a floating body displaces its own
weight of the fluid in which it floats. These principlesare readily proved
by the methods of Section 2.9.

Buoyant Force
Consider the body ABCD shown in Figure 2.23. Dashed linesAE and BF
are vertical projections. The force Fzd exerted by the fluid vertically on
the body is the weight of the fluid above ABC. This weight is
Fzd = Y ~ E A C B F

(2.60)

In a like manner, the upward vertical force is the weight above ABD, or
= YVEADBF

(2.61)

The net upward force is the buoyant force FB defined as follows:


FB = FZU- Fzd = Y ~ E A D B F- Y ~ E A C B F= Y ~ A B C D

(2.62)

Thus the buoyant force is the weight of the fluid displaced and always
acts upward.

Figure 2.23 Notation for submerged bodies.

Fluid Statics

99

Figure 2.24 Notation for floating bodies.

When an object floats as shown in Figure 2.24, the buoyant force FB


then becomes
(2.63)

FB = ~ V A B D

The weight of the body Fg acts downward, so that for vertical equilibrium
CFz=O=Fg-Fs

or
FB = FR

Free Body Analysis


The equation developed for flotation is a special case where the body is
lighter than the fluid it can displace. A more general approach is that of
the free body diagram. If an object immersed in a liquid is heavier than
the fluid it can displace, it will sink to the bottom unless an upwardforce
is applied to prevent it. A lighter-than-air shipor balloon will continueto
rise unless a downward force is applied or it reaches an altitude where
its density is the same as the atmosphere.
Figure 2.25 is a free-body diagram of an object immersed in a fluid.
For vertical equilibrium,
E F L = 0 = FB

- FB - F=

(2.65)

Chapter 2

Figure 2.25 Free bodydiagram.

where FB is the buoyant force, FR is the weight of body, FL is the force


required to prevent body from rising, and(- FL) is the force required to
raise the object.
Example 2.15 A cylindrical drum4 ft (1.22 m) in diameter and 9 ft (2.74
m) long floats half submerged in seawater whose specific weight is 64
lbf/ft3 (IO.1 kN/m3). It is proposed to anchor this drum submerged with
concrete whose specific weight is150 lbf/ft3(23.5 kN/m3). Determine the
minimum volumeof concrete required to completely submerge this drum.
Solution

This problem is solved by the application of the principles of buoyancy


and flotationpresented in this section. From equation (2.62) the buoyant
force is:
where yf is the specific weight of the sea water, V, is the volume of the
drum, and VC is volume of the concrete. The force due to gravity is the
weight of the drum andis equal to the water displaced when floating half

Fluid Statics

submerged, or:
Fg = Yfvd/2

The force required to anchor the drum is


FL = ?,Vc

Using the free body diagram of Figure 2.25 and equation (2.65):
FL = FB - F8 = YcVc = YAVd

+ VC) - Yfvd/2

Solving equation (d) for V,, noting that

v,

vd = .rrd2L/4:

.rr x 429
= 42.08 ft3
8(150/64 - 1)

SI Units

v,

1.222 X 2.74
= 1.21 m3
8(23.5/10.1 - 1)

IT

Example 2.16 The crude hydrometer shown in Figure 2.26 consists of a


cylinder 4 in. (13 mm) in diameter and2 in. (50 mm) in height surmounted
by a cylinder 4 in. (3 mm) in diameter and 10 in. (250 mm) high. Lead
shot is added until the total weight is 0.02 lbf (90mN). To what depth
(C) above the larger cylinder will this hydrometer float when immersed
in a liquid whose specific weight is 78 lbf/ft3 (12 250 N/m3)?
SoZution

Solving equation (a) for C:

C =

4 F g l ~ y- D2B
d2

102

Chapter 2

Figure 2.26 Notation for Example 2.16.

US.Units
(4 X 0.02/1~X 78) - (0.5/12)2 X (2112) = o.342 ft
(0.125/12)2
= 0.342 x 12 = 4.11 in.

C =

SI Units
(4 X 90 X IO-^)^ X 12250) - (13 X IO-^)^ X 50 X
(3 X 10-3)2
= 0.100 m
= 100

C =

(b)

Chapter 2

3.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with establishingthe basic relationshipsof velocity witharea in flowsystems and withthe continuity equation. Methods
of reducing two- and three-dimensional flowsto one-dimensional are illustrated.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are familiar with fluid
kinematics andlor the continuity equation. It is suggested that those who
are interested in boundary layer phenomena read this chapter first.
This chapter may be used as a text for tutorial or refresher purposes.
Each concept is explained and derived mathematically
as needed. In keeping with the concept of minimum mathematics, the vector approach is
not used.There are seven tutorial type examples
of fully solved problems.
3.2 FLUID KINEMATICS
Fluid kinematics is the branch offluidmechanics that deals with the
geometry of fluid motion without considerationof forces causing motion.
It will be assumedthat any fluid particle is very large in size with
respect
to a molecule and is hence continuous, so that we are concerned with a
continuum.
105

106

Chapter 3

A quantity such as velocity or fluid particle displacement must


be measured relativeto some convenientcoordinate system. Two methods have
been devised for representing fluid motion. One describes the behavior
of a single fluidparticle; the other is concerned with several fluid particles
passing by certain points or sections of a fluid.
The description of the behavior of individual fluid particles is called
the Lagrangian method after Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). This
method of analysis involves establishinga coordinate system relative to
a moving fluid particleas it moves through the continuum and measuring
all quantities relative to the moving particle.The behavior of the individual
fluid particle is of no practical importance in fluid mechanics, and this
method is seldom used.
The establishment of a fixed coordinate system andthe observation of
the fluid passing through this system is called the Euler method after
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783). The Eulerian method will be used for the
most part throughout this book.
3.3 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW

If at every point in the continuum the local velocity U,and any other
fluid property, remains unchanged with time,the flow is said to be steady
flow. Whileflow is generally unsteady by nature, many real cases of
unsteady flow may be reduced to the case of steady flow, a case that is
far easier to analyze mathematically. One technique for doing this is to
use a temporal mean or average.

Figure 3.1 Notation for unsteady flow.

Fluid

107

\\

Figure 3.2 Boat moving through still water.

Consider the velocity U' at a point in space and time shownin Figure

3.1. The temporal mean average of U' is U as defined by

More generally,
1

(Temporal fluid property) = t

(instantaneousfluid property) d t

This technique may be used for small cyclic variations of fluid properties such as in turbulent flow or for large but rapidly changing cycles
such as those producedbyhigh-speedreciprocatingmachinery.
The
amount of error produced will, of course, vary with the application.
Another technique that may be used that is free of error is to change
the space reference. Considerthe boat shownin Figure 3.2 moving in still
water with a speed of V,. As the boat passes point A located at xl, y1 the
wave produced will cause the fluid at point A to change froma velocity
of zero to a complicated variation with time until long
after the boat has
passed beforeit returns to zero again. If the point of reference is switched

Chapter 3

108

Figure 3.3 Water flowing around a boat.

to the boat, then point A has a velocity of - V , at all times, as shown in


Figure 3.3. This method may be used any atime
body is movedat constant
speed in an undisturbed fluid. Note that all that was actually done was
to reverse the direction of the velocity.
3.4 STREAMLINES AND STREAMTUBES
Velocityis a vector andhencehasbothmagnitudeanddirection.
A
streamline is a line that gives the direction of the velocity of the fluid at
of a flowing
each point. If an almost instantaneous photograph were made
fluid, the movements of a given particle would appear as a short streak

I(

4''

EL
*.*

I
Streak of a particle

..-.. Streamline of particles A t o E

Figure 3.4 Streamlines.

Fluid

109

on the photograph. The direction of the streak would be tangent to the


flow path at that point and at that instant, and the length of the streak
would be proportional to the instantaneous velocity of that particle. Figure
3.4 shows the construction of the streamline from the particle streaks.
This streamline is also tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors.
When streamlines are drawn through a closed curve in a steady flow,
they form a boundary, which the fluid particles cannot pass. The space
between streamlines becomes a tube or passage and is called a streamtube. The streamtube may be isolated from the rest of the fluid for analysis. The use of the streamtube concept broadensthe application of fluid
flow principles;for example, it allows treatingthe flow inside a pipe and
the flow aroundan object with the same laws.A streamtube of small size
approaches its own axis, a central streamline; thus equations developed
for a streamtube may also be applied to a streamline.

3.5 VELOCITYPROFILE
Volumetric Flow Rate
In the flow of real fluids, the individual streamlines will have different
velocities past a section. Figure 3.5 shows the steady flow of a fluid in a
circular pipe. The velocity profile is obtained by plottingthe velocity U
of each streamline as it passes section A-A. The streamtube that is formed
by the space between the streamlines is an annulus whose area normal
A

Figure 3.5

Velocityprofile.

Chapter 3

110

to the flow isdA as shown in Figure 3.5for the streamtube whose velocity
is U.
The volume rate of flow Q past section A-A is given by
Q = l U d A

(3.3)

Average Velocity
In many engineering applications,the velocity profile is nearly a straight
line or can be reduced to one so that the average velocity V may be used.
The average velocity V is defined as follows:

Methods of Flow Analysis


All flows take place between boundariesthat are three-dimensional. The
terms one-dimensional,two-dimensional, and three-dimensional flow
refer to the number of dimensions requiredto describe the velocity profile
of the streamtubes at a given section.
For one-dimensional flow, a line ( L ) is necessary to describe the velocity profile as shown in Figures 3.3 and 3.6(a).

(a) Onedimensional flow

(c) Three-dimensional flow

Figure 3.6 Types of flow.

(b) Two-dimensional
flow

Fluid

111

For two-dimensional flow, an area (L2)is necessary to describe the


velocity profile as shown in Figure 3.6(b)-for example, the flow of a
fluid between two parallelplates.
For three-dimensional flow,a volume (L3)is necessaryto describe the
velocity profile as shown in Figures 3.6(c) and 3.8. The usual example is
flow in a pipe, but the conduit or duct need not be circular for a threedimensional velocity profile. Three-dimensional flow, of course, is the
general case.
Example 3.1 An artificial canal is 100 ft (30.48 m) wide and is of rectangular cross section. Water flows in this canal to a depth of 25 ft (7.62
m). Measurements madeof the velocity profile at a typical sectionare as
follows:

Measurement station Velocity


Location
Number

Depth

ft

(m)

ftlsec

(&S)

surface

(0)

1.18

(0.360)

115 depth

(1.524)

1.26

(0.384)

215 depth
(3.048)

10

1.16

(0.354)

315 depth

15

0.95

(0.290)

415 depth
(6.096)

20

0.55

(0.168)

bottom(7.620)

25

(0)

(4.572)

Estimate (1) the volumetric flow rate and (2) the average velocity of
the water as it flows past this section.
Solution

In order to solve this example, itis necessary to evaluate U dA from test


data without knowing the functional relationship between the local velocity and area. One method for doing this is to plot the data and draw
a smooth curve of the velocity profile and measure the enclosed area
mechanically. Another methodis to use curve-fitting techniques
to derive
an equation that best represents the data and integrate this equation. A
third method is to use either the trapezoidal rule or Simpson's rule to
approximate the integral. Becausethe intent hereis to illustrate streamline

112

Chapter 3

and streamtube concepts rather than to obtain maximum numerical accuracy, the trapezoidal rule is used to solve this example.
(a) Apply the trapezoidal rule.
Divide the velocity profile into five evenly spaced depths Ay based on
the six measured velocities. The measured velocities may then be considered streamlines and the spaces between them streamtubes. Assume
that the velocity of a streamtube is the average of its bounding streamline
velocities.
1. Volumetric flow rate. For each streamtube, the volume flow rate is:
Q=

U d A = UW

2. For the average velocity, from equation (3.4):


V =

2 QIA = C QIWyo

US. Units
1. Volumetricflow rate:

C Q = [$(1.18 + 0) +

1.26

+ 1.16 + 0.95 + 0.551

x 100 x 2515
= 2255 ft3/sec

2. The average velocity:


V = 2255/(100 x 25) = 0.902 fdsec

SI Units
1. Volumetricflowrate:

cQ

= [$(0.360

+ 0) + 0.384 + 0.354 + 0.290 + 0.1681

x 30.48 x 7.62015 = 63.92 m3/s

2. The averagevelocity:
V = 63.92/(30.48 X 7.620) = 0.275 &S

(dl

113

Figure 3.7 Notation for Example 3.1.

Example 3.2 Experiments with the flow of viscous fluidsin circular conduits indicate that when viscous forces predominate and laminar flow
takes place, the velocity profile is a paraboloid of revolution with the
maximum velocity at the center of the conduit. Derive a relationship between the average velocity and the center line or maximum velocity.

From Table C-l the equation for a parabola (horizontal) is:


y 2 =

6).

From Figure 3.8, y = r, a = ro, b = U,,,, and x = U,,,


stituting in equation (a):

which reduces to

U = U,,, 1 -

Q2]

U , and sub-

114

Chapter 3

dAdr= 2nr

7-

Figure 3.8 Notation for three-dimensional flow in circular conduits.

From Figure 3.8, dA = 21rr dr; substituting this relationfor dA and also
for U from equation (b) in equation (3.4),

v = -urn
2

or

U,,, = 2V

Example 3.3 Velocity profile for turbulent flowin smooth circular pipes
may be empirically expressed by:
U

-=
urn

(I

- ;)a

where the value of exponent a varies from 2 to depending on the flow


conditions, f being used for wide ranges of turbulent flow. Derive a relationship between the average velocity and the center line or maximum
velocity and determine the numerical relationship when a = f.
Solution

This example is solved by application of the principles of geometry and


fluid kinematics. From equation (3.4) the average velocity is given as:

115

Fluid

From Figure 3.8, d A = 2nr dr, substituting this relation for d A and also
for U from equation (a) in equation (3.4):

Solving equation (b)for V/Urn:

Integrate by substitution. Let U = ro - r, then du = -dr and r = ro U:

-V
=-

ua(rO-

U)

(-du)

- (ro - r)a+2
a+2

Finally,

For a =

ro

urn

(dl

(a

4,

V Urn (V7

+ l ) ( a + 2)

+ l)(1/7 + 2) = 0.8167

3.6 CORRECTION FOR KINETIC ENERGiY


Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy of a body was shown in Chapter 1 to be


V2
-

(1.23)
2gc
For a streamtube, the kinetic energyKE flowing pasta section isthe sum
of the kinetic energies of all the streamtubes, or
KE =

1
-

U2(Ud A ) = - U3 d A
(3.5)
2gc
2gc
For one-dimensional flow U = V = constant, so that equation (3.5) becomes:

KE =

Chapter 3

116

Correction
Let a (alpha) be a correction factor to reduce the kinetic energyof twoand three-dimensional flowsto one-dimensional flow, or:

a =

V3A/2g,

KEone-dimensional

'I );(

a =A

(3.7)

dA

Values of (Y for three-dimensional flow range from2 for laminar flow


(Example 3.4) to nearly unity for turbulent flow (Example 3.5). As the
fluid velocity increases, the value of alpha approaches unity. The total
kinetic energyis small compared withother terms except at high-velocity
gas flows where (Y = 1. Because of this and the fact that the true value
of alpha is not always known, this correction is often neglected.
Example 3.4 Determine the value of (Y for three-dimensional laminar flow
using the information developed in Example 3.2.
Solution

This exampleis solved by usingthe relation betweenV and U,,,


developed
in Example 3.2 and using this relationship in equation (3.7). From Example 3.2,

(-$

U = Urn [ l so that

Um/2

1 -

(3'1

V =u2rn

and

=2

1 - LJ2]

Substituting equation (a) in equation (3.7),

1-

( 9 2 ] 3

dr

Equation (b) may be integrated by substitutions as follows. Let U = [l


- (r/rO)*],then du = -(2r/r$) dr and J du = u4/4 = (1/4)[1 - ( r / r ~ ) ~ ] ~ .
Substitution of the above in Eq. (b) yields:

Fluid Kinematics

a =

a =

117

1-

(92]3

dr = (-8)

[l - ro

- (S)];= -2{[1-$]

-($)[l

- [I

($)

dr

-;l}

Example 3.5 Determine the value of (Y for three-dimensional turbulent


flow using the information developedin Example 3.3.

Solution
This exampleis solved by usingthe relation betweenV and U,,,
developed
in Example 3.3 and using
this relationship in equation (3.7). From equation
(e) of Example 3.3:
V -

"

U,

(a

+ l)(a + 2)

Substituting equation (a) in equation (3.7):

From equation (a) of Example 3.3:

Substituting equation (d) in equation (b):

Integrate by substitution. Let u = ro - r, then du = -dr, and r = ro


- U:

a =

[(a

l)(a + 2)i3 ro(ro - r)3a+' - (ro3i


4r02 3a
3a+1

;3;+2];

(8)

118

Finally,
a =

[(a

4(3a

+ 211~

+ 1)(3a + 2)

For a = f,
a =

[(1/7 + I)(l/7 + 2)13


= 1.058
4(3/7 + 1)(3/7 + 2)

3.7 CONTINUITY EQUATION


Mass Flow Rate
Consider the volume of fluid ds dAmoving in a streamtube witha velocity
of U as shown in Figure 3.9. By definition, m = pV or dm = p ds dA.
Dividing bythe time d t for this volume to move the distanceds and noting
that by definition U = ds/dt,

Figure 3.9 Mass flow rate.

119

Fluid Kinematics

Figure 3.10 Continuity equation.

Continuity Equation
This equation is a special case of the general physical lawof the conservation of mass. It may be stated simply that the mass flow rate entering
a system is equal to the mass rate of storage in the system plusthe mass
flow rate leaving the system. Consider the flow system shown in Figure
3.10. Fluid is being suppliedto the tank by means of the pipe at the rate
rizl = plAIVl and leaves the system at the rate of riz2 = p2A2V2. If the
amount supplied is greater than that leaving, then the tank level z will
i
z
,= pA(dz/dt). We
rise and fluidwill be stored in the tank at the rate of r
can now state:
Mass rate entering = mass rate of storage + mass rate leaving

h,= r
i
z
, h*

Chapter 3

120

Steady State
If the amount supplied is equal to the amount removed, then dz is zero
or there is no storage. Equation (3.10) becomes:
rit = plAlVl = pzAzV2 =

(3.10)

= pnAnVn = PAV

The relationship of density to specific volume p = l/v (equation (1.30))


allows the equation of continuity to be written as:
= pAV =

VA
-

(3.11)

The mass flow rate is constant any place in a steady-state system. For
compressible fluid, it is sometimes convenientto use a differential form
of equation (3.11), which may be obtained by writing it in logarithmic
form and differentiating, notingthat rit is a constant:
loge V
dV
v

+ log, A - loge V = loge rit


dA

dv

(3.12)
(3.13)

-0

""

Using the equation (1.30) relationship v = l/pagain, equation (3.14) may


be written as:
(3.14)

Example 3.6 A 12 in. size schedule 40 steel pipe reduces to a 6 in. size
schedule 40 pipe and then expands to an 8 in. size schedule 40 pipe, as

All schedule 40 steel pipe

Figure 3.11 Notation for Example 3.6.

Fluid Kinematics

121

shown in Figure 3.11. If the average velocity in the 12 in. size pipe is
13.12 ft/sec (4 m/s), compute the average velocity in the 6 in. size and
the 8 in. size pipes, for any incompressible fluid.
Solution

This example is solved by the application of the continuity equation to


an incompressible fluid. Writing equation(3.11) in the notation of Figure
3.11:

(a)
Noting that for an incompressible fluid p is a constant and that the pipe
area = rd2/4. Substituting in equation (a) and simplifying:
h = p12AnVn = P&vn

PsAsVs

dT2V12 = dgv6 = d f v s

(b)

Solving equation (b)for Vs and

v6

v
8

(c)

VI~(~IZ&)~

and

vs = V 1 2 ( d n / d s ) ~

( 4

Note that for incompressible flow in circular pipes, the velocity varies
inversely with the square of the diameter.
From Table C-3, Schedule 40, steel pipe:

Pipe size
6 in.
8 in.
12 in.

Internal diameter, ft

(mm)

0.5054
0.6651
0.9948

(154.1)
(202.7)
(303.3)

U.S. Units

v6 = V12(d12/d6)~
= 13.12(0.9948/0.5054)2 = 50.83 ft/SeC
vs = V12(d12/ds)~
= 13.12(0.9948/0.6651)2 = 29.35 ft/sec

(c)
(dl

S I Units

v6 = V12(dlz/ds) = 4(303.3/154.1)2
vs = V12(d12/ds)~
= 4(303.3/202.7)2

= 15.50 m/S

(c)

= 8.96 m / S

( 4

Example 3.7 Air discharges froma 12in. size standard steel pipe through
a 4 in. (100 mm) inside diameter nozzle into the atmosphere, as shown

Chapter 3

122
12 in. size Std S t e e l p i p e 7

Figure 3.12 Notation for Example 3.7.

in Figure 3.12. The pressure in the duct is 20 psia (140 kPa), and atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psia (101 kPa). The temperature of the air in the
pipe just upstream of the nozzle is 140C (60C), and the velocity is 18
ft/sec (5.5 m/s). For isentropicflow, compute (1) the mass flow rate and
(2) the velocity in the nozzle jet. (Assume that the isentropic exponent
of air has a constant value of 1.4.)
Solution

This example is solved using


the continuity equation, ideal gas processes
(Section 1.13), and the ideal gas equation of state (Section 1.14).
1. The mass rate of flow may be calculated using equation (3.1 1):

The specific volume of the air in the pipe may be calculated from
equation (1.42), pv = RT, and Eq. (1.43), R = R,/M
RuTp
PP
MPP
Substituting equation (b) in equation (a):

v,=-=-

RTp

2. Solvingequation(a)

for the velocity of the jet, note that for an


isentropic process from equation (1.38) pvk = c and that A = 7rd2/4:
vj =

v,

($p)(;)

v,

($)2

Fluid Kinematics

123

3. Common data. From Table C-3for a 12 in. size standard steel pipe,

d,

= 1 ft (304.8

A, = 0.7854 ft (72
970

mm)

m')

From Table A-l for air, M = 28.97. From Section 1.14, R, = 1545
ft/lbf/(lbm-mol-"R) (8 314 Jkg.mo1.K).

US.Units
T, = 140

+ 460 = 600"R

Aj = ~(4/12)~/4
= 00873 ft2

1. Massflow rate:

m = 0.7854 x 18 x 28.97 x (20 x 144)


1545 x 600

= 1.272 lbm/sec

(c)

2. Jet velocity:
Vi = 18

= 201.8

ft/sec

SI Units
Tp = 60

+ 273 = 333 K

Aj = ~ ( 1 0 0X 10-3)2/4
= 7 854 x

m'

1. Massflow rate:

x 5.5 x 28.97 x 140 x IO3


8 314 x 333

m = 72 970 x
= 0.588

kg/s

2. Jet velocity:
Vj = 5.5

(100)
(E)
~
111.4

304.8

= 64.52 m/s

Ideal Gas Relations


Two useful relations for ideal gases were developed
Example 3.7. For mass flow rate:
AVMp
m=-=-

AVp

(ideal gas only)

RT
RUT

e)@

in the solution of
(3.15)

and for velocity variation with passagearea:


V2 =

VI

'ln

(idealgasonly)

(3.16)

4.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with establishing the basic relationships for


energy and force. Equations for these relations are developed for use in
the application chapters to follow.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are familiar with
the
energy equation and the impulse momentum equation.
This chapter may be used as text for tutorial or refresher purposes.
Each concept is explained and derived mathematically
as needed. In keeping with the concept of minimum level of mathematics, the vector approach is not used. There are 11 tutorial type examples of fully solved
problems.
4.2

FLUID DYNAMICS

Fluid dynamics is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with energy
and force. This chapter considers the equation of motion, the energy
equation, and the impulse-momentum equation. The continuity equation
was developed inChapter 3 as a special case of the principle of the conservation of mass. The equation of motion is an applicationof Newtons
second lawto fluid flowin a streamtube. The energy equationis a special
124

and
Dynamics
Fluid

125

case of the principle of the conservation of energy. Theimpulse-momentum equationwas developedin Chapter 1 as a special case of the equation
of motion.
The equation ofmotionwas first developedin 1750 by Leonhard Euler
and is sometimes called the Euler equation, although Eulers equations
were writtenfor a frictionless fluid. Eulers equation laid
the groundwork
for an analytical approach to the study
of fluid dynamics. The introduction
of viscous effects allowsfor a more general interpretationof the equation
and makes it more applicableto the solution of practical problems.
The energy equation for steady flow is simply an accounting of all of
the energy enteringor leaving a control volume. Althoughan energy equation may be developedto consider all formsof energy, in fluid mechanics,
chemical, electrical, and atomic energies are not normally considered.
The impulse-momentum equation, along with the continuity equation
and energy equation, provides a third basic tool for the solution of fluid
flow problems. Sometimes
its application leads to
the solution of problems
that cannot be solved by the energy principle alone; more often it is used
in conjunction with the energy principle to obtain more comprehensive
solutions of engineering problems.
4.3 EQUATION OF MOTION
Derivation

Consider the fluid element flowing steadily in


a streamtube shown in Figure 4.1. This element has a length of dL, an area normal to the motion
p dA dL.The increase
of dA, and a perimeter of dP. The elemental mass is
in elevation of this mass is dz, and the motion of the element is upward.
Forces tending to change the velocity U of this fluid mass are:
1. Pressure forces on the ends of the element:

2.

Gravity force due to the component of weight in the direction ofmotion:


dF, = -

pg dA dLdz
gc

pg dA dz
= gc

(x)

3. Friction force on the outer surface of the element:

dFf =

-7

dP dL

(4.3)

Chapter 4

126

dP

AFQ

dz

Figure 4.1 Elements of a streamtube.

4. The combined force becomes:

C dF

dFp

+ dF, + dFf =

-dA ( d p

-dp dA

dA dz - 7 dP dL

gc

+(4.4)

With application of Newton's second law (equation 1. lo):


.

- p dAdUdL
gc

Substitutingfromequation (4.4) for


written as

(x)

(p dA)(UdU)
gc

2 dF, equation (4.5) may be

Simplifying equation (4.6) and setting it equal to zero, results in


"g d z
gc

Udp
dU
dL dP
+gc + - +
PP(;j;i)=o
7

(4.7)

127

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations


Substituting v = l/p from equation (1.30) results in
-gd z
8c

4.4

+-U d U + v d p + m d L
gc

(g)

=0

(4.8)

HYDRAULIC RADIUS

Definition:
Symbol:
Dimensions:
Units:

Fluid flow aredshear perimeter


Rh
L
US.:ft
SI: m

In the derivation of the equation of motion, the shape of the streamtube


cross section was not specified.The ratio of the fluid area (dA)to shear
area dP dL is a function of streamtube flow shape and is a constant for
a given geometry. The hydraulic radius Rh maybe used to define this
ratio per unit of Iength as follows:
Hydraulic radius =

flow
fluid
area = R - dA
h"=shear perimeter
dP

A
P

(4.9)

The hydraulic radius is used


to compute flowlosses in noncircular flow
passages and circular conduits flowing partly fullof liquids. For this reason, it is important to relate the hydraulic radius to the diameter D of a
circular pipe:
(4.10)

The equivalent diameter D, is


D , = 4Rh

(4.11)

Example 4.1 A liquid flows in the rectangular duct shown in Figure 4.2
to a depth of 2 ft (0.61 m). If the duct is 6 ft (1.83 ,m) wide and 3 ft (0.91
m) deep, compute ( 1 ) the hydraulic radius Rh and (2) the equivalent diameter D,.
Solution

This example is solved by noting


that the shear perimeter consists of that
portion of the fluid that is in contact with the walls of the duct.
1. The hydraulic radius. From Figure 4.1, the fluid flow area is
A

bh

(4

128

l-

Chapter 4

Figure 4.2 Notation for Example 4.1.

and the shear perimeter is


P=h+b+h=2h+b
From equation (4.9):
R h =A
- = - bh
P
2h+b
2. Equivalentdiameter:

D, = 4Rh

US. Units
1. The hydraulicradius:
6 x 2
R = 1.2ft
h - 2 x 2 + 6

(c)

2. Equivalentdiameter:

D, = 4

1.2 = 4.8 ft

SI Units
1. The hydraulicradius:

Rh =

1.83 x 0.61
= 0.366 m
2 x 0.61 + 1.83

(4.1 1)

and
Dynamics
Fluid

129

2. Equivalentdiameter:

D,

= 4 x 0.366 = 1.464

(4.11)

Values of the fluid flowarea A and the hydraulic radiusR h and equivalent diameter D, for various cross sections are given in Table C-2.
4.5 ONE-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-FLOW EQUATION OF
MOTION

When the flow is one-dimensional, V = U.Substituting this value of U


and the definition of hydraulic radius of equation (4.9) in equation (4.8),

gd z
&?c

+-V dV
gc

m
+vdp+-dL=O

(4.12)

Rh

Integrating equation (4.12) between sections 1 and 2,


g

- (22 gc

Zl)

- v: + 1 2 v d p
+ vf2gc

+-I
1

Rh

mdL = 0

(4.13)

Let
(4.14)

where Hfis the energy lost due to friction. Substituting this


in equation
(4.13) results in
(4.15)

For an incompressiblefluid (v1 =

VZ),

equation (4.15) becomes


(4.16)

For frictionless flow of an incompressible fluid(Hf= 0), equation (4.16)


reduces to
(4.17)

Multiplying equation (4.17) by gc/g and noting from equation (1.31) that
v = g/ygc results in

Chapter 4

130

(4.18)

or

Thisis the equationproposed byDanielBernoulliinhis


namica published in 1738.

Hydrody-

Example 4.2 The system shown in Figure 4.3 consists of a 12 in. size
Type L seamless copper water tube that reduces to a 6 in. size tube and
then expands to an 8 in. size tube. Water (y = 62.31 lbf/ft3, 9 790 N/m3)
flows steadily and without friction through this system. At section 1 in
the 12 in. size, the pipe center line is 10 ft (3.05 m) above the datum, the
pressure is 20 psia (138 kPa), and the velocity is 4 ft/sec (1.22 m/s). At
section 2 in the 6 in. size, the center line is15ft (4.57 m) above the datum.
At section 3 in the 8 in. size, the center line is 20 ft (6.10 m) above the
datum. Find (1) the volumetric flow rate, (2) the velocity, and (3) the
pressure at sections 2 and 3 of Figure 4.3.
Solution

This example is solved


by the application of Bernoullis equationfor frictionless flow and the continuity equation.
1. For frictionless flow, the fluid energy is the same at all sections of
the system, so that equation (4.18) may be written as:

where H, is the total fluid energy at each section. The term H1 may
be calculated from section 1data:

2. The continuity equation (3.11) for steady flow of an incompressible


fluid (p = c),

m = PAIVI= pA2V2 = pA3V3

(c)

reduces to
mlp = Q = AIVI = A2V2 = A3V3

The volume flow rate is calculated from section 1 data:

(dl

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

131

Figure 4.3 Notation for Example 4.2.

3. At section 2,
V2

4.

= QIAZ

Atsection 3,
V3

QIA3

5. Common data, from Table C-5, Type


L seamless copper water tubing:

Size

ft (mm)

Section
1
2
3

12 in.

in.
8 in.

0.7295 (67 790)


0.1863 (17 320)
0.3255 (30 250)

Chapter 4

132

U.S.Units
1. Totalhead:

Ht = 10

x 144
= 56.47 ft
62.31

+ 2 X 4'2032.17 "

2. Volumetric flow rate(all sections):

Q = 0.7295

4 = 2.918 ft31sec

3. At section 2:

V2 = 2.918/0.1863 = 15.66fVsec

4.

At section 3:
V, = 2.91810.3255 = 8.96 ftlsec

SI Units
1. Totalhead:

Hr = 3.05

138
+ 2 x1.22'
9.807

103

9 790

= 17.22 m

2. Volumetric flow rate(all sections):


Q = 67790 x 10-6.x 1.22 = 0.0827 m3/s

3. At section 2:

V2 = 0.0827117320

p2 = 9 79017.22

10"j = 4.77 m / ~

- 4.57 -

4*772
2 x 9.807

= 112.5 kPa
(g)

4.

At section 3:
V3

= 0.0827/(30
250

= 2.74

m/~

2x
9.807
2.742

(h)
= 105.1 kPa

(i)

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

133

4.6 SPECIFIC ENERGY


Definition:
Dimensions:
Units:

Energy per unit


mass
FLM" = (MLT-') L"'
= L2P
U.S.: ft-lbf/lbm
SI:
Jkg

Before developing the energy equation, a general discussionof energy is


in order. Two sets of energy will be considered. The first is the energy
of the fluid at a section, and the second is the energy added to or taken
from the fluid between sections. The total energy possessed by a fluid at
a section is dependent on the net energy added toor taken fromthe fluid
between it anda prior section, but the individual energiesare independent
of their counterparts at the prior section. For this reason, fluid energies
are called point functions. The energies added to or taken from the fluid
between sections depend on the manner or process, and these transitional
energies are called path functions because of their dependence on the
process undergone. The total amount of energy in a system cannot be
measured but must be referenced to some arbitrary datum. In fluid mechanics, we are interested in energy change, and any convenient datum
may be used.

4.7

SPECIFIC POTENTIALENERGY

The potential energy of a fluid mass is the energy possessed by itdue to


its elevation relative to some arbitrary datum, as stated in Section 1.8. It
is equivalent to the work that would be required to lift it from the datum
to its elevation in the absence of friction.
The change in specific potential energy(APE) may be computed from
equation (1.18) for a field of constant gravity as follows:
(4.18)

Note that equation (4.18) is the same as the first term of equation (4.13).

4.8

SPECIFIC KINETICENERGY

The kinetic energy of a fluid mass is the energy possessed by it due to


its motion, as stated in Section 1.8. It is equivalent to the work required
to impart the motion from rest in the absence of friction.

134

Chapter 4

The change in specific kinetic energy (AKE) may be computed from


equation ( l .23) as follows:
(4.19)

Note that equation (4.19) is the same as the second termof equation (4.13).
Equation (4.19) may be used only for one-dimensional flow. As was
shown in Section 3.6, the correction factor CL should be applied for twoand three-dimensional flows. Application of equation (3.7) to equation
(4.19) results in
AKE =

a2v;

- CL1v:

2gc

(4.20)

where a1 and a2 are the kinetic energycorrection factors for the velocity
distributions at sections 1 and 2 respectively.
Note that equation (4.20) is seldom used in engineering practice. For
turbulent flow in pipes where the velocity is high the kinetic energy correction factor is nearly unity (see Example 3.5) and when the flow is
laminar the velocity is low and the kinetic energy correction factor is 2
(Example 3.4) the changein specific kinetic energy is usually insignificant.

4.9 SPECIFIC INTERNAL ENERGY


The internal energy of a body is the sum total of the kinetic and potential
energies of its molecules, apart from any kinetic or potential energy of
the body as a whole. The total kinetic internal energyis due primarily to
the translation, rotation, and vibration of its molecules. The potential
internal energy is due to the bonding or attractive forces that hold the
molecules in a phase.
The potential internal energy decreases as a substance changes from
solid to liquid to gaseous phases as the bonding forces decrease. In the
gas phase, the internal energy is mainly kinetic. As the ideal gas state is
approached and molecular activity increases with temperature increase,
the internal energy becomes wholly kinetic, andthus the internal energy
of an ideal gas is a pure temperature function.
The symbol for specific internal energy is
U , and the change in specific
internal energy is given by
Au =

l2

du = u2 - ut

(4.21)

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

135

Units
For the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram
is used. For the U.S. customary units, conventional practice isto use the
British thermal unit per pound mass (Btuhbm). For fluid mechanics, it
will be necessary to convert the Btu to.ft-lbf (778.2ft-lbf = 1 Btu).
4.10 SPECIFIC FLOW WORK
Flow work is the amount of mechanical energy required to push or
force a flowing fluidacross a section boundary. Considerthe steady-flow
system shown in Figure 4.4. Fluid enters the system at section 1, where
the flow area is A , and the pressure is p l , and leaves at section 2, where
the flow area is A2 and the pressure p 2 . The force acting to prevent the
System boundaries

Flow direction

Section boundaries

Figure 4.4 Flow work.

Chapter 4

136

fluid from crossing a section boundary is


F = pA

(4.22)

where p is the pressure at the section boundary andA is the flow area.
Substituting equation (4.22) in equation (1.16),
F W =m
-1J F d r = J $ &

(4.23)

where F W is the specific flow work. Noting


that A dr is the volume V of
fluid being pushed across a section boundary and by definition V =
mu, equation (4.23) may be written as
AFW =

1-=I;
d(:v)

4pmv) -

where A F W is the change in specific flow work.


4.11 SPECIFIC ENTHALPY

It is sometimes desirable to combine certain fluid properties to obtain a


new one. Enthalpy is a defined property combining internalenergy, pressure, and specific volume.
The symbol for specific enthalpy ish, and specific enthalpy is defined
by the following equation:
h=u+pv

(4.25)

The change in specific enthalpy becomes

Units
For the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram
is used. For the U.S. customary units, conventional practice is to use the
British thermal unit per pound mass (Btdlbm). For fluid mechanics, it
will be necessary to convert the Btu to ftllbf (778.2 ft-lbf = 1Btu).

4.12 SHAFT WORK


Definition
Shaft work is that form of mechanical energy which crosses the bound- shaft of a machine.
aries of a system by being transmitted through the

and
Dynamics
Fluid

137

The result of this transmission is to increase or decrease the total amount


of energy stored in a fluid.
Shaft work is mechanical energy intransition and cannot be stored as
such in a fluid. For example, consider a pump pumping water from a
lower level to a higher one. While the pump is in operation, shaft work
is transmitted to the water and this increase in energy causes the water
to rise to a higher elevation. Afterthe pump has stopped, the amount of
energy added to the fluid less losses is now stored in the water in the
form of increased mechanical potential energy.
Because the first engines built by humans were madeto extract work
from the fluid energy, conventionalpractice is to call shaft workdone by
a fluid positive work,and work doneon a fluid negative work.Shaft work
may also be classed as steady flow or nonfrow according to the type of
machine and process.

Nonflow Shaft Work


Process

Consider the cylinder and piston arrangement shown


in Figure 4.5. As
the piston advances from the state point 1 to point 2, the fluid in the

Figure 4.5

Nonflowshaftwork.

138

Chapter 4

cylinder expands and work is done by the fluid. If the piston were made
to retract, then the fluid would be compressed and work would bedone
on the fluid.

Equations
The force exerted by the fluid on the piston of Figure 4.5 is given by
F = pA

(4.22)

Substituting equation (4.22)in equation (1.16), noting that the area of the
piston A is a constant so that A dx = dV and that by definition V = mu,
results in

(4.27)
where Wnfis the specific shaft work.

Function
Equation (4.27)is a mathematical statement that the shaft work is the
area under the pressure-specific volumecurve of Figure 4.5.There are
an infinite number of ways that the fluid can change fromstate 1 to state
2. Shown in Figure4.5 are three curves which represent the paths of three
possible processes. Path 1-y-2was chosen to represent the actual path of
the process or state change. Had path 1-x-2been chosen, the amount of
work would have been greater; if 1-2-2,the work would have been less.
For this reason, shaft work is called a path function. Before equation(427) can be integrated, the pressure-specific volume relationship must be
known.

Steady-Flow Shaft Work


Equations
The specific steady-flow shaft work may be expressed as follows:

where W , is the steady-flow shaft work per unit mass. Because the differential of shaft work is inexact, the Greek symbol 6 is used instead of
d. Equation (4.28)may be then written as follows:
Wsf =

J SWSf

(4.29)

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations


4.13

139

HEAT AND ENTROPY

Heat is that form of thermal energy which crosses the boundaries of a


system without the transfer of mass as a result of a difference in temperature between the system andits surroundings. The effect
of this transfer is to increase or decrease the total amount of energy stored in a fluid.
Heat is thermal energy in transition, and like shaft work it cannot be
stored as such in a fluid. Becausethe first devices madeby humans were
to produce shaft work by adding heat, heat added to a substance is positive, and heat rejected is negative.
Entropy is that fluid property required
by the second law of thermodynamics to describe
the path of a reversible
process. Entropy is defined by the following equation:
(4.30)

q = JTds

where q is the heat transferred per unit mass andS is the entropy per unit
mass.

Process
Heat may also be expressed as
4 =

L*

84

f 42

- 41

(4.31)

where q is the heat transferred per unit mass. Note that the symbol 6 is
used in place of d to remind us that the differential of heat transfer is
inexact.
Equations (4.30) and (4.31) may be combined as follows:
q = J8q = JTds

(4.32)

Equation (4.32) is a mathematical statement; heat isthe area under the


temperature-entropy curve of Figure 4.6. As with shaft work, there is an
infinite number of ways that the heat can be transferred from point 1to
2, so that heat, like shaft work, is a path function. The relation between
temperature and entropy must be established before equation (4.32) can
be integrated.

Units
In the SI system, the joule per kilogram or newton meter per kilogram is
used for heat and the joule/kilogram kelvin is used for entropy. In the
U.S. system, the British thermal unit per pound mass is used for heat,

140

Chapter 4

Figure 4.6 Temperature-entropy plane.

and the British thermal unit/pound mass degree Rankine is used for entropy. For fluid mechanics, it will be necessary to convert the Btu to ftlbf and the Btu/lbm-"R to ft-lbf/lbm-"F (778.2 ft-lbf = 1 Btu).
4.14 STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

The steady-flow energy equation is readily derivedby the application of


the principles of conservation of energy toa thermodynamic system. The
following forms of energy are considered.
Stored in Fluid

PotentialenergyAPE

g
= - (z2 - ZI)

Kinetic
energy
AKE

gc

v=:- v:
k

(4.18)
(4.19)

nd
Dynamics
Fluid

ansfer

141

AU

Internal energy
Flow work

In Transition
Shaft work
Heat

~2

AFW = ~

- ~1
2

(4.21)

-~ plV1
2

(4.29)

SW,, = W,,

Jsq

(4.24)

(4.32)

= 9

The basic requirement for the satisfaction of the principle of conservation


of energy may be stated:

C Energy entering system

c energy stored in system


=

C energy leaving system

(4.33)

In a steady-flow system, the energy stored in the system does not change
with time, so that for any given period of time, equation (4.33) reduces
to

CinEnergy

=C
outenergy

(4.34)

Equation (4.34) may be modifiedto show the types of energy as follows:


Energy stored in enteringfluid + energy in transition added
tosystem = energyintransitionremoved fromsystem
+ energy stored in fluid leaving

(4.35)

Consider the block diagram of Figure 4.7. The fluid enters the system
through section 1 transporting with it its stored energy,

and leaves the system at section 2, removing its stored energy,

vt
g
z2 + - + U 2 + p2v2
gc
2gc
Since heat (4)added to a system is considered positive,the arrow shows
heat being added between sections 1 and 2. In a like manner,the steadyflow shaft work ( W,,) is shown to be leaving between sections 1 and 2
because work done by the fluid is considered positive.

Chapter 4

142

Transitional

wsf

tI

Steady-flow

0
3

.-C

C
.0

U,

PlV,

System

Path functions

Figure 4.7 Steady-flowenergydiagram.

Application of Figure 4.7 to equation (4.35) results in:


(4.36)

143

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

Equation (4.36) may be written as:

(4.37)
and equation (4.37) may be written as:
q = Wsf

+ APE + AKE + AU + AFW

(4.38)

Example 4.3 Test data from a steady-flow air compressorare as follows:


P I = 14.79 psia (101.97
kPa)
tl

p2 =

69.27"F
(20.71"C)

t2

99.76
psia
(687.8
kPa)

= 362.0"F
(183.3"C)

v1 = 13.24ft3/lbm(0.8265m3/kg)

v2 = 3.049ft3/lbm(0.1904m'lkg)

VI = 185.2 ft/sec (56.45 m/s)

V, = 42.63 ft/sec
(12.99

UI

= 90.96Btu/lbm(210.92kJ/kg)

m/s)

uz = 140.9Btu/lbm(327.7kJ/kg)

If the heat transferred out of the system is 16.73 Btu/lbm (38.91 kJ/kg),
and the outlet is 10 ft (3.05 m) above the inlet, find the steady-flow work
for each pound mass of air.
Solution

This example is solved by writing equation(4.38) as follows:


Wsf = q - [APE

+ AKE + AU + AFW]

(a)

US. Units
1.

Calculating the individual terms of equation (a):


q = ( - 16.73) X 778.2

(4.32)

= - 13 019 ft-lbfhbm (out ofsystem)

APE = 32.17(10 - 0)/32.17 =ft-lbf/lbm


10 (4.18)
AKE = (42.63' - 185.2')/2 X 32.17 = -505 ft-lbf/lbm(4.19)
Au = (140.9 - 90.68) x 778.2 = 39
081 ft-lbfhbm(4.21)
AFW = (99.76

3.049 - 14.79 X 13.24) X 144


= 15 602 ft-lbf/lbm

2. Substituting

the above in equation (a):

W s f = - 13019 - [IO + (-505) + 39081


= -67 207ft-lbf/lbm(workdoneonair)

+ 156021

(4.24)

144

Chapter 4

SI Units
1. Calculating the individual terms of equation (a):
4 = -38.91 X lo3 = -38910J/kg

APE = 9.807 X (3.05 - 0)/1

(4.32)

30 J/kg
(4.18)

AKE = (12.992 - 56.452)/2 X 1 =

AU

(out of system)

-509
1J/kg
(4.19)

327.7 X lo3 - 210.92 x lo3 = 116680J/kg(4.21)

A F W = 687.8 X lo3 X 0.1904 - 101.97


(4.24)
X lo3 X 0.8265 = 46679 J/kg

2. Substituting the above in equation (a):

WSf = -38 910 - [30 (- 1 509) 116 780 46 6791


= - 200890 J/kg = - 200.9 kJ/kg (work done on air)

4.15

(a)

RELATION OF MOTION AND ENERGY EQUATIONS

The equation of motion was derived in Section 4.5 without consideration


of steady-state shaft work. Had shaft work been considered,
the resulting
one-dimensional equationof motion (4.15) would have been:
WSf =

g
( 2 2 - 21) + - v:
&?c

gc

i2

v dp

+ Hf

= 0

(4.39)

(4.40)

4 = WSf

gc

(22

- Zl)

v; - v:
+ u2 - UI + i 2 v d p + 1 2 p d v

As the equations are now written, the equation of motion (4.39) contains no thermal energyterms and the energy equation(4.41) contains no
term for friction. If equation (4.39)is subtracted from equation(4.41) and
solved for Hf, the following is obtained:.

and
Dynamics
Fluid

145

For an incompressible fluid, vI =


reduces to

Hf =

~2

- ~1

v2

or dv = 0, so that equation (4.42)

-q

(4.43)

Equation (4.43) indicates that no energy is lost due to friction but is


simply converted into some other form that is either removed from the
system as heat transfer and/or increases the internal energyof the fluid.

4.16 NONFLOW VS. STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATIONS


Consider the horizontal piston and cylinder arrangement shown
in Figure

4.5. Fluid does not cross the system boundaries so that no flow work is

performed, nor can there by any change in kinetic energy. Baause the
cylinder is horizontal, there is no change in potential energy. Of the six
forms of energy considered in Section 4.14 for the steady-flow equation,
only three, internal energy, shaft work, and heat transfer, need be considered for a nonflow system.

Transitional

t
q
Path functions

Figure 4.8 Nonflow energy diagram.

146

Chapter 4
P

Steady-flow energy relations.

Figure 4.9

From Figure4.8, application of the principleof conservation of energy


leads to
q =

+ Wnf

AU

(4.44)

Noting from equation (4.21) that

AU

~2

~1

and from equation (4.27) that

Wnf

P dv

the nonflow equation may be written as

L2

(4.45)

P dv

q=uz-u1+

If equation (4.45) is subtracted from equation (4.41),


0 = W,,

v$ - v: + L 2 V d P
8
+(z2 - z d +
gc

&?c

or

(4.46)

Equation (4.46) may also be written in the following form:

-L2

v dp =

Wsf

+ APE + AKE

(4.47)

nd
Dynamics
Fluid

147

From equation (1.37), n = -(v dp)/(p dv),


and from equation(4.27), Wnf
= J p dv; using these relations and equation (4.47) results in
r2

(4.48)

Note that in the absence of potential and kinetic energy changes


the process path n is the ratio between the steady-flow work and the nonflow
work for a reversible process. If the -J v dp from equation (4.46), Ah
from equation (4.26), and JT ds from equation (4.32) are substituted in
equation (4.37), results are as follows:

-J2vdp

+ Ah =

L*

T ds
(4.49)

Equation (4.49) may be written in differential form as follows:


Sq = Tds =

-V

dp

+ dh

(4.50)

Writing equation(4.45) in differential form and noting from equation


(4.32)
that Sq = T ds:
Sq = T d s = p d v

+ du

(4.51)

Equation (4.50) was developed fromthe steady-flow energy equation and


equation (4.51) from the nonflow. Noting that by definition d h = du +
d ( p v ) = U + p dv + v dp, and substituting in equation (4.50):
Tds = -vdp

+ Ah

(4.51)

From the above it is evident that equations


(4.50) and (4.51) may be used
f o r either steady-flow or nonflow processes.

4.17 IDEAL GAS SPECIFIC HEAT AND ENERGY


RELATIONS
The purpose of this section is to develop ideal gas relations for use in
Chapter 5.

148

Chapter 4

Specific Heats
The specific heat of any substance is defined by the following equation:
c, =

(2)

(4.52)

where c, is the specific heat for process x.


For the SI system, the joule per kilogramper kelvin [J/(kg.K)]or newton meter per kilogram per kelvin is used. For the U.S. customary units,
conventional practice is to use the British thermal unit per pound mass
per degree Rankine [Btu/(lbm-"R)]. For fluid mechanics, it will be necessary to convert the Btu to ft-lbf (778.2 ft-lbf = 1 Btu).

Constant-Volume Specific Heat


Note that if equation (4.51) is solved for a constant-volume process (dv
= O),

6qu = p(0)

+ du = du

From equation (4.52),


c, =

(Z),

CV

(4.53)

(S)

(4.54)

Since the internal energy of an ideal gasis a function of temperature only,


the partial notation may be dropped and equation (4.54) may be then be
written as:
(4.55)

du = cu dT
Equation (4.55) may be used for any ideal gas process.

Constant-Pressure Specific Heat


Note that if equation (4.51) is solved for a constant-pressure process (dp
= O),

6qp =

+ dh = dh

-u(O)

From equation (4.52):


c, =

(g),

= c, =

(4.56)

(g)

(4.57)

Since the enthalpy of an ideal gas is a function of temperature only, the

and
Dynamics
Fluid

149

partial notation may be dropped and equation(4.57) may be then be written as:
d h = c, dT

(4.58)

Equation (4.58) may be used for anyideal gas process.

Ratio of Specific Heats


If the relation of equation (4.58) is substituted in equation (4.501,
Tds =

dp

-V

+ C, dT

(4.59)

For an isentropic process (ds = 0) equation (4.59) reduces to:


c, dT

v dp =

(S

constant)

(4.60)

If the relation of equation (4.55) is substituted in equation (4.51),


Tds =pdv

+ cvdT

(4.61)

For an isentropic process (ds = 0) equation (4.61) reduces to:


dv

= cv dT

-p

(S

= constant)

(4.62)

Substituting equation (4.60) and equation (4.62) in equation (1.31),


(4.63)

where k is the ratio of specific heats and is the exponent of an isentropic


process.
If the definition of enthalpy is written in differential form and from
equation (1.42) pv = R T , from equation (4.55) du = cv dT, and from
equation (4.58) d h = c, dT, then
d h = du

+ d(pv) = c, dT = cVdT + R dT

or

(4.64)
C,

C,,

Dividing equation (4.64) by cv,


CV

% - 5 = - =Rk - 1 = -

CV

CV

CV

or

(4.65)
CV

R
k- 1

150

Chapter 4

and in a like manner,


c, =

kR

(4.66)

k - l

Polytropic Specific Heat


Integrating equation (4.27) for a polytropic process usingpun =
tion ( l .36)],

[equa-

(4.67)

Writing equation (4.68) in differential form and substituting c, - c, = R

from equation (4.64) results in:


R dT
pdv=-l - n

- (C,

C,)

dT

(4.69)

l - n

Substituting cn d T f o r T ds and p dv from equation(4.69) in equation (4.61)


and noting that c,/c, = k and solving for c,,:
Tds = pdv

+ c,dT

c,dT = ("

l - n

dT

+ c,

dT
(4.70)

or
cn =

c,

- nc,
I-n

Isentropic Energy Relations


The path of frictionless adiabatic flow of an ideal gas is from equation
(1.38), pvk = a constant. If the friction term (UT dLIRh) of the equation
of motion (4.12) is dropped, and the equation is integrated between sec-

151

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

tions 1 and 2 then for frictionless flow:


(4.71)

The third term of equation (4.71) may be integrated by noting from equation (1.46) that v = vl(p1/p)lk,
so that:

i2

v dp = vlpiIk

dP

p/k

= vlpiIk

[k (
- 1L
p(k-)
~)lk]

(4.72)

l
( k - I)lk

Substituting equation (4.72) in equation (4.71):


g
gc

- (22 - Zl)

- v:
+ v,2gc

(h)
[e)

(4.73)

( k - 1)lk

+ PIVl

- l]

= 0

Substituting from the equation of state (1.42) plul = RTI and from equation (1.47) T2/TI = ( p 2 / p l ) k - 1 ) 1ink equation (4.73) results in:
(4.74)

Substituting from equation (4.66) c,, = Rk/(k


(4.58) d h = c,, dT in equation (4.74) results in

1) andfromequation

(4.75)

The same result may be arrived at from the energy equation. For an
isentropic process, q = 0, and for no shaft work, Wsf = 0, and by definition u2 - ul + p2v2 = p l v l = h2 - h l . Substituting in equation (4.37):
q = Wsf

0 =0

(22

gc

- 21) + v,- v: + U 2 - U1 + p2u2


2gc

g (22 - Zl) + v,- v: + h2


+gc

2gc

- h1

- plvl
(4.75)

Chapter 4

152

Finally, the general energy equation


(4.37) may bewritten in the following
form by substituting for h2 - hr the value of [kRl(k - 1)](T2 - T1):

(4.76)
4.18

IMPULSEMOMENTUM EQUATION

The impulse momentum equation is used to calculate the forces exerted


on a solid boundary by a moving stream. It was derived in Section 1.8
as an application of Newtons second law. This resultedin

(1.28)
F = - ( V 2 - V,)
gc
F (the summation of all forces acting) for F and from
Substituting
equation (3.10) m = pAV yields

(4.77)
In the application of equation (4.77), it must be remembered that velocity is a vector and as such has both magnitude and direction.
The
impulse-momentum equation is often used in conjunction with the continuity and energy equations to solve engineering problems. Because of
the wide variety of applications possible, some examples are given to
illustrate methods of attack.
In general, the free body method is used to compute the forces
involved on the boundaries on a control volume. The symbol F is used
for the force exerted by the boundaries on the fluid. There is an equal
but opposite force exerted by the fluid on the boundaries.
Example 4.4 Carbon dioxide flows steadily through a horizontal 6 in.
Schedule 40 wrought iron pipe at a mass rate of flow of 24 lbmlsec (11
kg/s). At section 1, the pressure is 120 psia (827 kPa) andthe temperature
100F (38C). At section 2, the pressure is 80 psia (552 kPa) andthe temperature is 109F (43C). Findthe friction force opposing the motion (see
Figure 4.10).

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations


1

153
2

4 P A

PIA, m
v1

-e

Free-body diagram of pipe

v2

Ff

Figure 4.10 Notation for Example 4.4.

Solution
This exampleis solved by the application of the impulse momentum equation (4.77), the continuity equation (3.11), and the ideal gas equation of
state (1.42).
1. Derive an equation for this application. From the free body diagram of Figure 4.10,

Solving equation (a) for F f , noting that for a pipe of uniform crosssection, A2 = A I = A :

From equation (3.11) V = mv/A, substituting in equation p),

and from equation (1.42) v = RT/p, substituting in equation (c),

= A(p1 -

P2)

m2
&A

- -(v2 -

v1)

154

Chapter

2.Common data, from Table C-3 for 6 in. Schedule 40 wrought iron
pipe, A = 0.2006 ft2 (18 650 mm2). From Table A-l for C02, M =
44.01.

US. Units
R = R,/M = 154Y44.01 = 35.11 ft-lbf/lbm

( I .43)

Solving for Ff:


Ff = 0.2006(120 X 144 - 80 X 144)

- 242 x 35.11
(109
32.17 x 0.2006
80
1155 - 53 = 1102Ibf

+ 460 -

100

x 144
120

+ 460)
x 144

( 4

SI Units
R = RJM

8314144.01 = 188.92J1kg.K

(1.43)

Solving for Ff:


Ff = 18650 x 10-6(827 X IO3 - 552 X IO3)
112 x 188.92

(43
273 - 37 + 273)
552 x IO3 827 x IO3
= 5 129 - 242 = 4 887 N

1 x650
18

( 4

Example 4.5 The vertical nozzle shown in Figure 4.11 discharges a circular jet of 86F (30C) at water at a mass flow rate of 7 lbm/sec (3.18
kg/$. The diameter of the jet is 1 in. (25.4 mm). A large circular disk
whose mass is 2.25Ibm(1.02kg) is held by the impact of the jet in a
horizontal position above the nozzle. For frictionless flow, what is the
vertical distance (22 - zl) between the disk and the nozzle?
Solution

This exampleis solved by the application


of the impulse momentumequation (4.77), the continuity equation (3.11),and the Bernoulliequation
(4.18).
1. Derive an equationfor this application. Applicationof equation (4.77)

to the free body diagram of the disk, noting that since velocity is a
vector, the horizontal component of V3 is zero, gives:

elations
Energy
Fluid
and
Dynamics

155

3
2

v1

Nozzle

Figure 4.11 Notation for Example 4.5.

Noting that for the disk that A2 = A3 and that for an open jet p2 =
(a) may be reduced to:

p3, equation
v2

mdg
-

From the continuity equation (3.11) for a circular jet:


m
vl=-=-

AIPI

4m
TDj2pl

From the Bernoulli equation (4.18), noting again that for an open jet
p2 =

p1:

Substituting equation(c) for V1 and from equation(b) for V2 in equation (d):

z2

- ZI

2g

(e)

156

Chapter

2. Common data, fromTable A-l for 86F (30C) water: pl = 62.15


1bdft3(995.6 kg/m3).

US. Units
4 x 7

- z1 =

(T

X (1112) X 62.15

) -

(2.25

SI Units
4 x 3.18

22

- z1 =

X (25.4 X

= 1.52 m

32.17)

2 x 32.17

= 4.97 ft

(T

X 995.6

(e)

) -

(1.02 x 9.807)
3.18

2 x 9.807

(e)

Example 4.6 Carbon tetrachloride flows steadily at 68F (20C) through


the 90 reducing bend shown in Figure 4.12. The mass flow rate is 125
Ibdsec (56.7 kg/s), the inlet diameter is 6 in. (152.4 mm), and the outlet
is 3 in. (76.2 mm). The inlet pressure is 50 psia (344.75 kPa), and the
barometric pressure is 14.70 psia (101.33 kPa.) For frictionless flow, find
the magnitude and direction of the force required to anchor this bend
in a horizontal position (see Figure 4.12).
Solution

This exampleis solved bythe application of the impulse momentum equation (4.77), the continuity equation (3.11), and the Bernoulliequation
(4.18). Since velocity is a vector, it is necessaryto reduce the forces into
their x and y components, as shown in Figure 4.12 (b). In the x direction
Vxl to Vx2 = 0 and in they direction, the velocity
the velocity changes from
changes from V,, = 0 to V,,. These velocities may be computed using
the continuity equation (3.11), noting that for an incompressible fluidp1
=P2=p:

and

157

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

FY

v,
(a)

P A
(W

Figure 4.12 Notation for Example 4.6.

1. Exit pressure. From the Bernoulli equation(4.18) for frictionless flow:

noting from equation (1.29) that y = pg/gc,for a horizontal bend zz


= zl, and substituting from equations (a) and
(b) for Vxl and Vy2,
respectively, in equation (c):

2. The x direction force, from equation (4.77):

158

Chapter 4

Solving equation (e) for F,, and substituting for V,, from equation
(4:

3. The y direction force, from equation (4.77):

(0

Solving equation (g) for Fy, and substituting for Vy2from equation
(b):

(h)
4. The magnitude of the resulting force may be calculated from equation
(2.43):

F = 5.

Finally, the angle of the resolved force may be computed using


0 = tan"

6.

(9

E)

Common data, from Table A-l for CCL at 68F (20C):p = 99.42
lbm/ft3 (1 592.5 kg/m3).

US. Units
1. Exit pressure p 2 :

p2 = 50 X 144

+ 32.17 8X xIT^1252
X 99.42

= 7,200 - 950 = 6,250

lbf/ft2
= 6,2501144 = 43.40 psia

2. Fx:

F,

= 144 X (50

- 14.70)

1252
+ 32.17 X 4 Xx (6/12)2
X
= 998 + 25 = 1023 lbf

99.42

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

159

3. Fy:
Fy = 144 X (43.40 - 14.70)

[=(3:2)21

4 x 1252
' 32.17 X 7~ X (3/12)2 X 99.42
=

203

+ 100 = 303 Ibf

.4. F

F
5.

d1023'

e:
0 = tan"

+ 3032 = 1067 lbf

(g)
=

16'30"

SI Units
1. Exit pressure p z :
p2

344750
1x 56.72
+ 1 X 87~'
X 1
592.5(152.4

X 10-3)4

(76.2 X

344750 - 45 506 = 299244 Pa = 299.24 kPa

2. Fx:
F, = (344750

101330)

[71(m.4

4"

IO-^)^

4 x 57.62
X (152.4 x 10-3)2 x 1592.5

+1XT
= 4440 + 114 = 4554 N
3. Fy:

Fy = (299 244 - 101 330) ~ ~ ( 7 6 X.42 1 0 - 3 ) 2 1

+1X
= 903

T X

4 x 57.62
(76.2 X 10-3)2(1 592.5)

+ 457 = 1 360 N

160

4.

F
F = d 4 5542

5.

+ 1 3602 = 4 753 N

e:

4.19 THERMAL JET ENGINES

Consider the typical thermal jet engine shown in Figure 4.13 moving at
a velocity of Vu.Air at a pressure of pa enters the inlet section whose
flow air is Ai and whose pressure is piat a mass flow rate of m,. The air
compressor is driven by the gas turbine that supplies Wsf of steady-flow
work. In the combustion chamber, fuel is supplied from the fuel tank at
a mass flow rate of mf producing q amount of heat. Products leave the
nozzle section whose exit area is Ai with a velocity F,at a pressure of
p j at a mass flow rate of ha + hf.
Treating Figure 4.13 as a "free body" diagram and applying equation
(4.77) and solving for engine thrust FT results in:

(4.78)

Noting that if inlet loss is neglected, then p a = piand for full expansion
of the nozzle p j = p a , equation (4.78) becomes:
(4.79)

In many practical applications the fuel flow rate m f is small when com-

Cornpresaor
Air

Fuel Tank

lGesTurbine
FT

Nozzle Section

mi

Figure 4.13 Typical thermal jet engine.

Fluid
Relations
Dynamics
Energy and

161

pared to the air flow rate m


,so that the engine thrust may be approximated
by
ma

FT=-(&

gc

- V,)

(4.80)

The useful power developed P, is


(4.81)

The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid,
assuming that m f is small with regard to m,, produces an ideal power
input of Pi:
(4.82)

The maximum (ideal) propulsion efficiencyEiis given by

Note that for 100% ideal efficiency, & = V, and no power is produced!
The system efficiency E, is defined as the ratio of the useful power P, to
the power supplied P, or

E, = P,
PS

(4.84)

Example 4.7 An airplane whose jet engine is shown in Figure 4.13 flies
at a constant altitude where the temperature is - 58F (- 50C) and at a
speed of 360 mph (161 d s ) . Heat in the amount of 425 Btu/lbm (989 kJ/kg)
is added to the air in the propulsion system. The system mass flow rate
is 12.5 lbdsec (5.67 kg/s) of air. Hot gases leave the gas turbineat 1292F
(700C). Assuming that the hot gas has the same properties as air and
neglecting the weight of fuel, determine (a)thrust produced, (2) maximum
propulsive efficiency, and (3) system efficiency.
Solution

This problem is solved usingthe equations developed in this section plus


(4.76) developed in Section 4.17. First, solve
the ideal gas energy equation

Chapter 4

162

for jet velocity. Writing equation(4.76) in the notation of Figure 4.13 and
solving for the jet velocity vj results in :

.=J[

2gc q -

WSf

-g (Zj gc

ZIJ

(kF
- (C -

TV)] +

v?
(4

Noting that for horizontal flight zv = zj and that the steady-flow work
Wsf produced by the turbine is required to drive the compressor, the net
Wsf is 0, and equation (a) reduces to:

1. Thrust. The thrust produced, neglecting the mass of fuel, is calculated


using equation (4.80):

2. Ideal efficiency. The maximumpropulsiveefficiency


using equation (4.83):

E.

'

is calculated

2
1 + VJVV

3. System efficiency. The system efficiency is calculated equations


using
(4.81) and (4.84):

4; Common data. From Table A-l, for air M = 28.97, and from Table
A-2, for air at -58F (-50C) k = 1.402, and at 1292F (700C) k =
1.339. Average k = 1.371.

US. Units
First solve for jet velocity:
R = R,/M = 1545/28.97 = 53.33 (ft-lbf)/(lbm-"R)

V, = 360 (mi/hr) X 5280 (ft/mi)/3600 (sec/hr)= 528 ft/sec


q = 425 (Btdlbm) X 778.2 (ft-lbf/Btu) = 330,735 ft-lbf/lbm
TV= - 58 460 = 402"R
T j = 1292 460 = 1752"R

(1.43)

nd
Dynamics
Fluid

163

J2
=

X 32.17

[330,735 -

x 5333) (1
752

1.371

1+

- 402)

528

2 107 ft/sec

1. Thrust:
FT = 12.6 [2107 - 5281 = 618 lbf
32.17

(c)

2. Idealefficiency:

E.

+ 21071528 - 0.4008 or 40%


-

3. Systemefficiency:
E, =

618 x 528
= 0.0783 or 7.8%
12.6 x 330,735

SI Units
First solve for jet velocity:
R = R,IM 314128.97
= 8
= 287 Jl(kg*K)
TV = -50 + 273 = 223 K
Tj = 700 + 273 = 973 K
989 x lo3 = 643 m/s

( 1.371 -2871 ) (973 - 223)] + 161


x

1. Thrust:
FT

5.67
(646 1

161) = 2733 N

2. Idealefficiency:
E; =

2
= 0.4005 or 40%
6431161

3.Systemefficiency:
E, =

(1.43)

2733 x
= 0.0785 or 7.9%
5.67 X 989 X lo3

164
4.20

Chapter

ROCKET ENGINES

Consider the typical rocket engine shown in Figure 4.14 moving at a


velocity of V,. Both the fuel and the oxidizer are contained within the
rocket itself and no external air enters the rocket. Products leave the
nozzle section, whose exit area is Aj,with a velocity of vj at a pressure
of pi at a mass flow rate of mj.
Treating Figure 4.14 as a free body diagram and applying equation
(4.77) and solving for engine thrust FT results in:

mjvj

FT = - + ( p i
8,

(4.85)

- pa)Aj

For full expansionin the nozzle pi = pa, so that equation (4.85) becomes:

mjVj
FT = -

(4.86)

8c

The useful power developedP,,is:

P,

FTV, =

mjvjv,

(4.87)

8c

The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid
produces an ideal power of Pi:
(4.88)

The maximum (ideal) propulsive efficiencyEiis given by:


(4.89)

r-

.
lxidizer

Combustion
Chamber

Nozzle Section

,
I

I
l

Figure 4.14 Typical rocket engine.

p . 4 1

--.-.

* c

Pa

-m

elations
Energy
Fluid
and
Dynamics

165

Example 4.8 A solid-fueled rocket of the type shown in Figure4.14 produced a jet 6 in. (152.4 mm) in diameter with a velocity of 1,475 ft/sec
(450 d s ) and a density of 0.0482 lbm/ft3(0.772 kg/m3). Therocket velocity
in level steady flight is 1,100 ft/sec (335 d s ) . Determine (1) the thrust
produced, (2) useful power, and (3) maximum propulsive efficiency.
Solution

This example is solved using


the continuity equation(3.10) and the equations derived in this section. The mass flow rate is from equation (3.10):

1. Thrust produced, from equation (4.86):

2. Useful power, from equation

(4.87):

P , = FTV,

(c)

3. Maximum propulsive efficiency, from equation

(4.89):

US. Units
mj = 0.0482 x

x (6/12)2 x 1475/4 = 13.96 lbdsec

(a)

FT= 13.96 X 1475132.17 = 640 lbf

(b)

P , = 640 X 11001550 = 1280 hp

(c)

E. = 2 x (147511100) = 0.96 or 96%

'

+ (1475/1100)2

SI Units
mj = 0.772 X T

(152.4

45014 = 6.337 kg/s

(a)

FT= 6.337 X 45011 = 2 852 N

(b)

P , = 2 852

(C)

Ei =

335 =420
955

= 955 kW

2 x (4501335)
= 0.96 or 96%
1 (4501335)2

166

Chapter 4

4.21

PROPELLERS

Although propellers for ships and aircraft cannot be designed with the
energy and impulse-momentum relations alone, application of these relations to problems leads to some of the laws that characterize their operation.

Slipstream Analysis
The stream of fluid passing through the propeller of Figure 4.15 is called
the slipstream. Fluid approaches the slipstream with a velocity of V , and
leaves with a velocity V 2 . Within the propeller boundary, the velocity is
V, and work in the amount of W , is added between sections A and B by
the propeller. The inlet and outlet pressures are p 1 and p 2 , respectively,
and are equal to each other. The pressure at section A is p A and at B is
PB

If the equation of motion written considering shaft work


(4.39)is modified for frictionlessflow and integratedfor an incompressible fluid, noting
that from equation (1.30) v = l/p,the following results:

v; - v: +--p2

- P1
- 0
(4.90)
gc
2gc
P
Writing equation (4.90)between sections 1and 2 and noting that if work
is added to a systemit has a negative sign (Section 4.14, Figure 4.7) and
that for- a horizontal slipstream z2 = z1:
W,,

g (z2
+-

-W, +

Zl)

vi: - v: +-=
p2

- p1

0
(4.91)
P
2gc
Between sections I and A where W, = 0 application of equation (4.91)
yields:

(4.92)
Between sections B and 2 where W , = 0 application of equation (4.91)
yields:
(4.93)

Adding equations (4.92)and (4.93), noting that p 1 = p2:


(4.94)

167

Fluid Dynamics and Energy Relations

islipstream boundary
I

I
I
I

I
I

I
I

v,

k B o Propell
u n d a r y er

+v

I
I

l
I
I

Y v.

Work added
Slipstream

pressure

Ab

PIY

PlY

PAY

Figure 4.15 Notation for slipstream analysis.

Between sections I and 2 where P I =


yields:
W, =

v; - v:

p2

application of equation (4.91)


(4.95)

2gc

When the fluid in the slipstream is isolated, it is notedthat between sections 1 and 2 the only force acting is that exerted by the propeller on the
fluid. This force results in the creation of the pressure difference ( p B p A ) over the propeller area A . This force must also be equalto the force
created by the change in momentum per second of the fluid between
sections 1 and 2. Therefore,
(4.77)

which reduces to:


(4.96)

Chapter 4

168

Letting equation (4.94) equal equation (4.96),

which reduces to:

v,

v
2

+ VI
2

(4.97)

The useful power of the propeller is:


(4.98)

The minimum ideal power is that required to change the kinetic energy
or
(4.99)

The maximum propeller efficiencyis obtained by dividing equation(4.98)


by equation (4.97) or

Ep =

OC

pAVp

(%

(4.100)

Substituting equation (4.97) for V, in equation (4.100) yields:


V1
Ei = VP

(4.101)

Example 4.9 A propeller 14 in. (356) mm in diameter drives a torpedo


through sea water ( p = 64 lbm/ft3 (1 026 kg/m3) at 22 knots. The ideal
propeller efficiency is 75%. Determine (1) useful power and (2) power
added to the water.
Solution

This problem is solved by using the continuity equation (3.10) and the
equations derived in this section.
1. Useful power, from equations (4.101) and (4.97):

V, = Vl/Ei

(a)

V2 = 2Vp - V I = 2V1/Ei - VI = Vl(2/Ei - 1)

(b)

and
Dynamics
Fluid

169

Substituting from equation (a) and equation (b) in equation (4.98):

P,

PAVP
(V2 - VdVI
gc

PI@( VI /E;)
[VI(2/Ei - 1) 4gc

Vl]Vl

which reduces to:

2. Power added to water, from equation (4.101):

Pp

PdE;

US. Units
From Table B.l, VI = 22 knots X 1.6878 = 37.14 ft/sec.
64 X

7~ X (14/12)* X 37.143
2 x 32.17 x 0.75
= 96,847 ft-lbf/sec
96,847
=-=
176 hp
550

1. P, =

2. Pp = 176/0.75 = 235 hp

(4

(dl

SI Units

From Table B.l, VI = 22 knots X 5.1444 X 10 = 11.32m/s.


1. P , =

1026 X

(356 X 10-3)2 X 11.323


2 x 1 x 0.75

131681 J/s
= 132kW
=

2. Pp = 13210.75
kW = 176

4.22

(dl

FLOW IN A CURVED PATH

In Section 2.11 the effects of rotating a fluid mass were explored. This
type of rotating produces a forced vortex, so called because the fluid
is forced to rotate because energy is supplied from some
external source.
When a fluid flows through a bend, it is also rotated around some axis,
but the energy required to produce this rotation is supplied from the en-

170

Chapter 4

t r""- -"

II

i
!

- 5 .

*.

*.,
X

Po

L
L""""""""-:
Figure 4.16 Notation for flow in a curved path.

ergy already in the fluid mass. This is called a "free vortex" because it
is "free" of outside energy.
Consider the fluid mass p(ro - T i ) dA of Figure 4.16 being rotated as
it flows througha bend of outer radius r,, inner radiusri, with a velocity
of V . Application of Newton's second law to this mass results in:

which reduces to:


(4.103)

Example 4.10 .Benzene at 68F (20C) flows at a rate of 8 ft3/sec (0.227


m3/s) in a square horizontal duct. This duct makes a turn of 90" with an
inner radiusof 1 ft (305 mm) and anouter radius of 2 ft (610 mm). Assume

Dynamics
Fluid
Relations
Energy and

171

frictionlessflow andcalculate the difference in pressure between the inner


and outer wall.
Solution

This example is solved by the application of equation (4.103) and the


equation of continuity (3.4). For one-dimensional incompressible flow,
from equation (3.4), V = Q/A (note that this is the flow area, not the area
shown in Figure 4.16). Substituting in equation (4.103) for V ,

Po - pi = 2

(52)
Pe2
+
ro

ri g,A

For a bend of square cross-section A = (ro - ri) and equation (a) becomes:

which reduces to:

US. Units
From Table A-l for 68F benzene (C&), p = 54.79 lbm/ft3.
2 x 54.79 x 82
Po - Pi = 32.17 x (2 + 1) x (2 - l)3 = 72.66 lbf/ft
= 72.661144 = 0.505 psi

SI Units
From Table A-l for 20C benzene (C6H6), p = 877.7 kg/m3.

Po - Pi

4.23

2 x 877.7 x 0.227
1 X (610 X 10-3 + 305 X 10-3)
X (610 X 10-3 - 305 X 10-313
= 3 481 Pa

FORCES ON MOVING BLADES

Consider the fluidjet whose area is A issuing froma nozzle witha velocity
of V , as shown in Figure 4.17. The fluid jet impinges on the blade, which
is moving at a velocity of U in the direction of the jet, and turns the jet
through an angle of 0 degrees.

172

Chapter 4

vy, = 0

Nozzle

v,,

7"
vU

FY

Figure 4.17 Notation for blade study.

Assuming that the flow is without friction, the jet enters and leaves
the blade witha velocity of ( V - U)with respect to it. In the x direction,
the velocity V,, is ( V - U)and VX2 = ( V - U)cos 8. In the y direction,
V,, is zero, and V,, = ( V - U)sin 8.
Application of Eq. (4.77) in x direction yields:

- pA(V - U)'(COS8 - 1)
gc

(4.104)

And in the y direction:

- pA(V
-

- U)'
gc

sin 8

(4.105)

nd
Dynamics
Fluid

173

The combined force from equations (4.104) and (4.105) substituted in


equation (2.43) is:

pA(V - U)(COS8 - 1)

3 [
+

PA(V

- g ~ 2sin

gc

pA(V - U)2
8c

I
(4.106)

pA(V - U)2

gc
pA(V -

U)

gc

V2 - COS

e)

2pA(V - U)sin(8/2)

gc

The useful power producedis in the x direction andis the product of -F,
(the force in the direction of blade movement and flow) computed from
equation (4.104) and the blade velocity U or

U)(COS8 - l)U
gc
(4.107)
- PA( V - U)2(1 - COS e)u
gc
The minimum power needed to change the kinetic energy of the fluid
produces an ideal power of Pi:

P,

Pi =

(-F,)U = -

pA(V

pA(V - U)V2

(4.108)

2gc
The maximum (ideal) efficiencyEiis given by

E.=P
- ,=
Pi

PA(V

- U)(1 - COS e)U/gc


pA(V - U)V212gc
= 2(1 - U/V)(I -

(4.109)

COS

e)(u/v)

If equation (4.109) is differentiated andthe results set to zero, it is found


that for maximum ideal efficiency V = 2U.
Example 4.11 A jet of liquid 14 in. (38 mm) diameter is deflected through
an angle of 80 by a single vane. The jet velocity is 35 ftlsec (10.7 &S)
and the blade moves away from the nozzle at 10 ft/sec (3.05 m/s) in the

Chapter 4

174

direction of the enteringjet. Assume frictionless flow andp = 79 lbm/ft3


(1 265 kg/m3) and calculate (1) the total force on the blade, (b) the useful
power, and (c) the ideal blade efficiency.
Solution

The example is solved by the application of the equations developed in


this section. The area is calculated using
A = mD2/4

(a)

1. The total force on the blade is calculated using equation (4.106):

F=

2pA(V - U)sin(0/2)
gc

2. The useful power is calculated using equation (4.107):


P , = PA( V - v)( 1 -

COS

(c)

0)V/g,

3. The ideal blade efficiency is calculated using equation (4.109):


Ei = 2(1 - U/V)(1 -

COS

(dl

0)( U/V).

US. Units
A = ~(1.5/12)~/4
= 0.01227 ft2

(a)

1. The total force on the blade:

F = 2 x 79 x 0.01227 x (35 -

x sin(80/2)/32.17 = 24.21lbf

(b)
2. The usefulpower:
P , = 79 X 0.01227(35 X [l - COS(~O)]
X 10/32.17
= 155.6 ft-lbf/sec = 155.6/550 = 0.29 hp

(c)

3. The idealbladeefficiency:
E; = 2(1 - 10/35) X [l - COS(~O)]
X 10/35
= 0.337 or 33.7%

(dl

SI Units
m2

A = m(38 X 10-3)2/4 = 1.134 X


1. The total force on the blade:

F = 2 X 1 265 X 1.134 X
= 107.9 N

(10.7 - 3.05)2
sin(80/2)/1
(b)

(a)

nd
Dynamics
Fluid

175

2. The usefulpower:
P,, = 1 265 X 1.134 X
X [l

- COS(~O)]

X (10.7

- 3.05)*

X 3.05/1

(c)

= 212 JIs = 0.21 kW

3. The idealbladeefficiency:

Ei = 2 X (1 - 3.0Y10.7)
= 0.337 or 33.7%

[l - COS(~O)] X (3.05110.7)

(d)

5.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is a continuation of the material on ideal gases presented in


Chapter 4. It is concerned with some of the effects of the elasticity of
ideal gases. The scope of this chapter is limited to the development of
those concepts and theoretical equations needed for the understanding of
compressible flow through pipes and flow meters.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are either familiar with
or not interested in compressibleflow.
One of the problems with this subject is the difficulty of seeing the
woods (concepts) because of the trees (complex-looking equations).Four
tables of functions are provided to reduce computational effort. This chapter may be usedas a text for tutoriaLor refresher purposes. Eachconcept
is explained and derived mathematically
as needed. The mathematics involved is at the minimum level needed for clarity of concept. The thermodynamic aspects of gas dynamics are fully explained, making it unnecessary to consult a text on that subject. There are 11 tutorial type
examples of fully solved problems.

176

Gas Dynamics

177

5.2 GAS DYNAMICS


Gas dynamicsis the branch of fluid dynamics concerned with
the motion
of gases and consequent effects. Gas dynamics combines the principles
of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. This subject is based on the
application of four fundamentals:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Newton's second laws of motion.


The law of conservation of mass.
The first law of thermodynamics.
The second law of thermodynamics.

Because the potential energy changesin ideal gas systems are usually
small compared with other energy changes, all systems in this chapter
are assumed to be horizontal, and thus z z - z1 = 0. It is further assumed
that the flow is one-dimensional and that all fluids are in the ideal gas
stare.

AREA-VELOCITY RELATIONS

5.3

In this section the differences between incompressible and compressible


flow area-velocity relations are developed.

Incompressible Fluids
Repeating the continuity equation in differential form from Section3.7,
dV
dA dp
-+"=o
+

(3.14)

For an incompressible fluid, dp = 0, so that equation (3.14) reduces to


dV =
V

dA
"

Inspection of equation (5.1) indicates the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

If area increases, velocity decreases.


If area decreases, velocity increases.
If area is constant, velocity is constant.
There are no critical values.

Chapter 5

178

Compressible Fluids
The equation of motion (4.12) for a horizontal system (dz = 0) and for
frictionless flow (7 = 0) becomes
V dV
gc

-+ v d p

Substituting the defining equation (1.30) v = llp in equation (5.2),

-V+d-V= o
gc

dp
P

(5.3)

Substituting equation (1.67) of Section 1.16, p = Egc/c2, and equation


(1.58) of Section 1.15, dp = - E dvlv, in equation (5.3) and dividing by

v2
9

-V+d -V= - dp

pv2

&V2

dV
gcv

(- E dvlv)

=o

V2(Egc/c2)

(5.4)

or

In Section 3.7 the continuity equation (3.13) was developed in the following differential form:
dV
dA
+

dv
- 0
v

(3.13)

""

Substituting the relationship for dvlv from equation(5.4) in equation (3.13)


and solving for dA results in
dvdA
A

dV
V

The ratio of actual velocity V to the speed of sound c is known as the


Mach number,M, named in honor ofErnst Mach, an Austrian physicist.
For an ideal gas from equation (1.69), c = (kgCRT)lnso that

Gas Dynamics

179

Substituting from equation(5.6) in equation (5.5) and rearrangingterms,

Analysis of equation (5.7) leadsto the following conclusions:

(1)

V < c, M

(2)

V = c, M = 1

(3)

> c, M > 1

dAIA varies
as -dVIV
dAIA
equals
zero
dAIA varies
as dVIV

Velocity subsonic
If area increases, velocity decreases. Same as for incompressible flow.
Velocity
sonic
Sonic
velocity
can exist only
where the change in area is zero,
i.e., at the end of a convergent
passage.
Velocity supersonic
If area increases, velocity
increases-reverse of incompressible flow. Also, supersonic velocity
can
exist only in the
expanding portion of a passage
after a constriction where sonic
(acoustic) velocity existed.

FRICTIONLESS ADIABATIC (ISENTROPIC) FLOW OF


IDEAL GASES IN HORIZONTAL PASSAGES
General Considerations

5.4

Frictionless adiabatic (isentropic) compressible flow


of an ideal gas must
satisfy the following requirements:
1. The ideal gas law. The equation of state for an ideal gas (1.42) is

p v = RT
2.

The process relationship. For an ideal gas undergoing an isentropic


process, from equation (1.38),
pvk = p*v: = p2v:

1ao

Chapter 5

3. Conservation of mass. The continuity equation (3.1 1) maybe ex-

pressed as
AlVl
AzV2
AV
m=-=-V

v1

-v2

4. Conservation of energy. The sum of all the energy at a section is the


same for all sections. Equation (4.75) for a horizontal passage may
be written as:

Derivation of Equations
For an ideal gas, equation (4.74) may be written as:
RkT
k - l

+ -V=' - RkTl + -V:


= - + -RkT2
2g,

2g,

V$
2gc

(5.9)

Substituting for Mach number from equation (5.6), M = V/(kgcRnl" in


equation (5.9) and simplifying results in:

which reduces to:

(5.10)

Stagnation Condition
The stagnation state exists when the velocity is zero and hencethe Mach
number is also zero (see Figure 5.1). Let To represent the temperature
when M = 0 ( V = 0): To is thestagnation temperature.In equation (5.10)
substituting TOfor Tl and T for T2 and M for M 2 results in:
T

-=

To

(q + (v)
+ (F)
+

02

M'

[l

M
'
]
"

(5.11)

181

Gas Dynamics
T

Stagnation

T'

M =O

M =l

"
"

Supersonic Flow

.""

Figure 5.1 Notation for isentropic flow.

Let p . represent the temperature when M = 0 (V = 0): p0 is the stagnation


pressure. Substituting the isentropic T - p relationship of equation (1.45),
plpo = ( T / T o ) ~ ( ~ -in' )equation
,
(5.11) results in:
W(k

E=($)

Po

- 1)

-1

= { [ 1 + ( 7k M 1)2 ]

W(k-l)

"

= [l

M(1-k)

(5.12)

Let .p represent the density when M = 0 ( V = 0): .p is the stagnation


density. The p/po relationship maybeestablishedbynoting
that the
isentropic process of equation (1.38) pvk = C may be written as a density
function, since from equation (1.30) p = l/v or p/pk = C. Substituting

Chapter 5

182

these values in equation (5.12) results in:

Critical Conditions
Critical conditionsexist when the Mach number is unity.
Let T* represent
the temperature when M = 1, where T* is the critical temperature. Substituting in equation (5.11) T* for T and M* for M results in:

(5.14)
Let p* represent the pressure whenM = 1, where p* is the critical
pressure. Substituting in equation (5.12) p* for p and 1 for M results in:
P*
-=
Po

2 (M*)2]
[1 + k-l
= [1 + -(l)]
W(1- k)

W(1- k)

k - l

2
= k + l

(-)

W(k- 1)

(5.15)

Let p* represent the pressure when M = 1, where p* is the critical density.


Substituting in equation (5.13) p* for p and 1 for M results in:
P* =
Po

2
[1 + -(M*)]
k-l
= [1 + k - l (l)]
1/(1-

k)

1 4 1 -k )

(-)k + l

V ( k - 1)

(5.16)

Let V* represent the velocity when M = 1 where V* is the critical velocity. From equation (5.6) V = M(kgcRT)ln, so that:

(5.17)
Substituting from equation (5.11) for T/To and from equation (5.14) for
TOIT*,

Gas Dynamics

183

= M ,/2(1

k + l
+ FM')
k - l

(5.18)

The critical area A* is obtainedby writing the continuity equation(3. IO)


pAV = p*A*V* as follows:

Substituting from equation (5.16) for p * / p o , equation (5.13) for


equation (5.18) for V*/V results in:

$=(&)

l/(k- 1)

I K k - 1)

(5.20)

k + l

= I[(-)(l 2
M

+ ?M2)]
k - l

( k + 1)R(k- 1)

k + l

Note that A/A* is always greater than one and that equation (5.20) has
two solutions. For every area ratio except unity, there are two Mach
numbers, one subsonic and one supersonic, that will satisfy equation
(5.20).
Writing the continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas (riz = AVp/R7')
substituting for T* from equation (5.14), for p* from equation(5.15), and
for V* from equation (1.69) results in:
W(k - 1)

.
m*

A*V*p* RT*

(*)K + 1

where m * is the maximum mass flow rate.

(5.21)

184

Chapter 5

Tabulated Values of Isentropic Flow Functions


It has been found useful to compute and tabulate certain standard isentropic functions. These functions are all dimensionlessratios and are functions of Mach number. Table 5.1 contains the following ratios.
~~

Function

Equation

M* = VlV*

5.18
5.20
5.11
5.12
5.13

AIA*
TIT0
PIP0
PIP0

In applying this table it should be noted that all data are based on the
assumption that the gas is ideal, andthe molecular weight, specificheats,
and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A-2 gives values of k for
ideal gases as a function of temperature. When the temperature range is
known before calculationsthe average value of k should be used. If one
of the temperatures is not known, use the k value for the known temperature and check for variation after the other is computed.
5.5

CONVERGENTNOZZLES

Consider the flow of an ideal gas froma large tank througha convergent
nozzle that discharges into the atmosphere or to another large tank as
shown in Figure 5.2. Stagnation conditions exist in bothtanks as well as
the atmosphere. From Section 5.3 only subsonic flow can exist in the

."""""""_

"

Supply Tank

I
I

I %1.
rl I

Receiving Tank

A,-,I

L"""""""",

Figure 5.2 Notation for convergent nozzle study.

Gas Dynamics

185

nozzle proper. Sonic flowcan exist in the nozzle exit if p04 1p . Example
5.1 illustrates how to determine the type of flow andcalculate conditions.
Example 5.1 Air discharges from the large tank shown in Figure 5.2 in
which the temperature and pressure are 100F (38C) and 115 psia (793
kPa), respectively, through a convergent nozzle whose throat diameter
is 1 in. (25.4 mm) and into a large receiving tank. Compute the pressure,
temperature, velocity, Mach number, and mass flow rate of the nozzle
jet when the pressure in the receiving tank is (a) 45 psia (310 kPa) and
(b) 95 psia (655 kPa).
Solution

This exampleis solved by the application of the principles establishedin


Section 5.4. From the notation of Figure 5.2 it is evident that the inlet
conditions are stagnation. The conditions at the outlet must be determined
by calculation.
1. Common data. From Table A-2 the value of the isentropic exponent
for air for 122F (50C) and below is 1.402 = 1.4. From Table A-l ,
M = 28.97.
2. Determine type of flow at nozzle exit using equation
(5.15). The minimum pressure that can exist in the nozzle throat is:
2
W(k-l)
1)1.4/(1.4-1)
P* = Po (E)
=p0 = 0 . 5 2 8 3 ~ ~(a)

If the receiving tank pressure po4 is less than 0.5283~0then exit flow
is sonic; if greater then it is subsonic. The pressure in the nozzle
throat for sonic flow is p*, for subsonic flow it isthe receiving tank
pressure.
3. The exit temperature is computed from equation(1.47):
(k - I)/k
(1.4- 1Y1.4
T2 = TO
= To
= TO

e)

E)

e)m

4. The exit velocity is computed using equation (5.9):

Solving for V z , noting that V . = 0,

Chapter 5

186

5. The Mach number is calculated using equation (5.6):

6. The mass flow rate is calculated using equation (3.15):

US. Units
1. From equation (1.43): R = R U N = 154Y28.97 = 53.33 (ft-lbf)/(lbm"R)
To = 100 + 460 = 560"R
A2 = ~(1/12)'/4 = 5.454 X
ftz

Part (a)
2. p2:
p04 = 45 psia

p * = 0.5283 X 115 = 60.75 psia

(4

Since the receiving tankpressure is less than p * the exit flow is sonic
and p2 = p * = 60.75 psia.
3. T2:
(b)

Tz = 560(60.75/115)2" = 467"R

4.

v2:
VZ = [7 X 32.17 X 53.33(560

- 467)]"'

= 1057 ftlsec

(c)

5. M2: Since the exit flow is sonic, M2 = 1.


6. rit:
riz = 5.454 X 10-3 X 1057

x (60.75 x 144)/(53.33 x 467) = 2.025 Ibm/sec

(e)

Part (b)
2. p 2 :
po4 = 95 psia
p* = 0.5283 X 115 = 60.75 psia

Since the receiving tank pressure is greater than p * the exit flow is
subsonic and p 2 = p04 = 95 psia.
3. T2:
T2 = 560(95/115)2" = 530"R

(b)

Gas Dynamics

4.

187

v2:

V2 = [7 x 32.17 x 53.33(560 - 530)]'" = 600 ft/sec

(c)

5 . M2:
M2 = 600/[1.4 X 32.17 X 53.33 X 5301'" = 0.532

(dl

6. m:
h = 5.454 X

X 600

x (95 x 144)/(53.33 x 530) = 1.584 lbdsec

(e)

SI Units
1. R = RUM =314/28.97
8
To

38

287.0 J/(kgl-K)

+ 273 = 311 K, A2 = ~ ( 2 5 . 4X
= 5.067 x

(1.43)

10-3)2/4

m'

Part (a)
2. p2:
p04 = 310 kPa
p * = 0.5283 X 793 = 418.9kPa

Since the receiving tankpressure is less than p * the exit flowis sonic
and p 2 = p * = 418.9 kPa.
3. T2:
T2 = 311(418.9/793)2" = 259 K

4.

(b)

v2:

V2 = [7 X 1 X 287.0(311 - 259)]'j2 = 323 d s

(C)

5. M2: Since the exit flow is sonic, M 2 = 1.


6. m:
h = 5.067 X loF4 X 323 X 481.9
X 103/(287.0 X 259) = 1.061kg/s

(e)

Part (b)
2. p2:
p04 = 655 kPa
p * = 0.5283 x 793 = 418.9
(a) kPa

Since the receiving tank pressure is greater than p * the exit flow is
subsonic and p 2 = po4 = 655 kPa.

Chapter 5

188

3. T z :
Tz = 31
1(655/793)2"

= 294 K

(b)

v2:
4.
Vz = [7 X 1 X 287.0(311 - 294)]'" = 185 &S

(c)

5. Mz:
M2

(dl

= 185/[1.4 X 1 X 287.0 X 2941'" = 0.538

6. m:
riz = 5.067 X

x 185 x 655
X' 103/(287.0 X 294) = 0.728 kg/s

5.6 ADIABATIC EXPANSION FACTOR

(e)

The adiabatic expansion factor Y is the ratio of the mass flow rate of a
compressible fluidto that of an incompressible fluid under
the same conditions. Thisfactor is important inthe flow of compressible fluidsin some
metering devices such as the flow nozzle andthe Venturi meter.
Consider conditionsat the nozzle inlet Section1 of Figure 5.2. At this
section both the area A I and the velocity VI are finite. Writing equation
(5.9) for the kinetic energy change between Sections1 and 2:
(5.22)

In Section 3.7, equation (3.17) was developed for velocity-area-pressure


continuity relations for ideal gas flow ainpassage. Writing equation(3.16)
for an isentropic process and solving for V1 results in
(5.23)

Substituting for VI from equation(5.23) in equation (5.23) and solvingfor

(5.24)

.GasDynamics

189

Substituting the value of V2 from equation (5.24) in the equation of continuity (3.11) and noting fromthe equation of state (1.42) that RTI = p l v l

From equation (1.46) v z / v l = ( ~ ~ / p and


~ ) from
/ ~ equation (1.47) T2/T1=
( ~ ~ / p ~ ) [ ~Subsituting
- I l ~ , these relations in equation (5.25):

Figure 5.3 shows the mass flow rate versus pressure ratio for a convergent nozzle. As the pressure ratio p2/pI is decreased the mass flow
rate from equation (5.26) increases until the pressure ratio pP/pl is attained. The other mathematical solutionof equation (5.26) is shown as a
dotted line. The maximum flow rate is given by equation (5.25). This is
known as chocked flow.

m*

d
3
m

Pressure ratio pJp,

Figure 5.3

Mass flow rate vs. pressure ratio for a convergent nozzle.

190

Chapter 5

Differentiating equation (5.26) with respect to ( p z / p l )and setting dm/


d(pzIp1) = 0 we have
k + l

(5.27)

For the special case of Az/A1 = 0, equation (5.27) reduces to:


(5.15)

This of course is the same result that was obtained fromthe convergent
nozzle discharging from
a large tank. When an incompressible fluid flows
without friction througha horizontal nozzlethe mass flow rate m may be
obtained by writingthe Bernoulli equation(4.17) for a horizontal passage:
(5.28)

From the continuity equation(3.11) mi = VIA1/vl= VzAZvZ.Noting that


for incompressible flow vz = V I , the incompressible mass flow is hi =
VlAI/ul = VzAZv1. Substituting in equation (5.28),
(hivllA2)' - (rizb~l/A1)~
= Vl(P1 - P z )
2gc
which reduces to
(5.29)

The adiabatic expansion factorY is defined as


riz
y=- massflow rate of a compressiblefluid
hi massflow rate of an incompressible fluid

(5.30)

Substituting equation (5.26) for riz and equation (5.29) for mi in equation
(5.30) and simplifying results in

?-\i

y=-mi

k ( p 2 / ~ 1 ) ~ ~-[ 1( P Z / P I ) [ ~ - ~ ' /~ I(Az/A)'I


[~
(k - 1)[1 - p z / ~ l l [ l- (A$A1)2(~z/~l)ukl

(5.31)

Values of the adiabatic expansionfactor Yare given in Table5.2. In this


table the diameter ratio (pbeta) is used where
(5.32)

Gas

191

The use of the expansion factor from Table 5.2 facilitates computation.
An expression for compressible flow maybe obtained by substituting
equation (5.29) for m i in equation (5.30) and solving for h,noting the
definition of P from equation (5.32)
(5.33)

Example 5.2 Nitrogen flows in a 4 in. size Schedule 40 steel pipe that
reduces to a 2 in. size Schedule 40 steel pipe. In the inlet section, the
temperature is 100F (38C) and the pressure is 100 psia (690kPa). Assume
adiabatic frictionless flow and ideal gas properties and determine (a)the
minimum pressure that can exist in the 2 in. size pipe, (b) the maximum
mass flowrate, and (c) the mass flow rate if the pressure in the 2 in. size
pipe is 70 psia (483 kPa).
Solution

This example is solved by using Table 5.2.


1. Minimum pressure. The critical pressure ratio p*/pIis obtained from

Table 5.2 at
P* =

2.

P and k:

Pl(P*/Pl)

(a)

Maximum mass flow rate. The critical adiabatic expansion factor Y*


is obtained from Table5.2 at p and k. The maximum mass flow rate
is calculated from equation(5.33):

3. The mass flow rate for p2. The adiabatic expansion factor Y is obtained from Table 5.2 at P,p z / p l , and k. The mass flow rate is calculated from equation (5.33).

4. Common data. From Table A-l for N Z ,M = 28.013. From Table A2, the value of k for N2 for 122F (50C) and below is 1.400. From
Table C-3, Schedule 40 steel pipe:

Chapter 5

192

Internal Diameter

Pipe
(mm)

size
(mm)*Section
ft3

Row area

ft
~~

1
2

4 in.

0.3355
0.1723

in.

102.3
52.52

0.08841
0.02330

8 219
2 166

D1/D2 = 0.1723/0.3355 = 52.52/102.3 = 0.5135


(5.32)

US. Units
TI = 100

+ 460 = 560"R

R = R,/M = 154Y28.013 = 55.15 (ft-lbf)/lbm-"R)

(1.43)

1. Minimum pressure:

(1.42)

VI

= RT1/pl = 55.15 x 560/(100 X 144) = 2.145 ft3/lbm

From Table5.2 at k = 1.4, p = 0.5135, p * / p l = 0.5375 (interpolated).


p* = 100

(0.5375) = 53.75 psia

(a)

2. Maximum mass flow rate:FromTable 5.2 at k = 1.4,


Y* = 0.6962.
m = 0.6962
= 7.51

0.02330

32.17(100 X 144 - 53.75


2.145(1 - 0.51354)

= 0.5135,
X

144)

Ibndsec

(b)

3. The mass flow rate for p2 = 70 psia. From Table 5.2 at k = 1.4,
= 0.5135, p2/p1 = 70/100 = 0.7, and Y = 0.8116.

x 0'02330

= 7.07

32.17(100 X 144 - 70
2.145(1 - 0.51354)

144)
(c)

lbndsec

SI Units
TI = 38

+ 273 = 311 K

R = RUM= 8 314/28.013 = 296.8 J/(kg.K)

(1.43)

1. Minimum pressure:
v1 = RTl/pl = 296.8 x 311/690 x

lo3 = 0.1338 m3/kg

(1.42)

Gas Dynamics

193

From Table 5.2 at k = 1.4, p = 0.5135, and p*/pl = 0.5375 (interpolated).


p* = 690 x (0.5375) = 370.9 kPa

(a)

rate: From Table 5.2 at k = 1.4, p = 0.5135,

2.Maximummassflow
and Y* = 0.6962.
m * = 0.6962 X 2166
x
=

2 X 1 X (690 X lo3 - 370.9 X lo3)


0.1338(1 - 0.51354)

0)

3.41kg/s

3. The mass flow rate for p2 = 483 kPa. From Table 5.2 at
= 0.5135 pdp1 = 483/690 = 0.7, and Y = 0.8116.

k = 1.4, p

h*= 0.8116 X 2166

x
= 3.21kg/s

2 X I X (690 X 103 - 483 X 103)


0.1338(1 - 0.51354)

5.7 CONVERGENT-DIVERGENTNOZZLES
Area-Pressure Relations
The mass flowrate through any section
of the convergent-divergent nozzle
shown in Figure 5.4 may be determined by modifying equation (5.26)
for
stagnation conditions (A2 = A , , A 1 = A o , A,/Ao, 0, and p1 = PO,v 1 =
vo, v2 = v
,
)
.
m = A,

J[%] p?] 1p". [

1-

e)(k-l)/k]
(5.34)

The area-pressure relations may be established by squaring equation


(5.34) and equating for sections 2 and 3:

which reduces to
(5.35)

Chapter 5

194

Throat

Supply Tank

VC4

+0

L""""""""""

Figure 5.4 Notation for convergent-divergent nozzle study.

If the velocity in the throat is sonic, then from equation (5.15):


(5.15)

Substituting equation (5.15) in equation (5.39,


(k+ l)/(&- 1)

(5.36)

Note that equation (5.36) has two solutions, one for isentropic compression (subsonic flow) and the other for isentropic expansion (supersonic
flow).

Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle


Consider the arrangement shownin Figure 5.5. The supply tankpressure
p . is maintained constant and the receiving tank pressure p m may be
lowered from p . to zero. As soon as p m is below PO,flow begins.
Path A represents the flow for any p3 higher than 1338. Since the flow
in the throat for path A is subsonic ( p M > p * ) , the flow throughout the
nozzlemust be subsonic. In the divergentsection the process is an
isentropic expansion andin the convergent section itis one of isentropic
compression. PathA , for example, represents compressible flow through
an ideal Venturi meter.
Path B represents an isentropic expansion in the divergent portion and
an isentropic compressionin the divergent sectionafter sonic flowin the

195

Gas Dynamics
Shock

X L

Figure 5.5 Pressures in a convergent-divergent nozzle.

1%

Chapter 5

throat. Except for the throat, the flow in both portions of the nozzle is
subsonic. Pressure p38 is the pressure calculated from the subsonic solution of equation (5.36).
Path C represents an isentropic expansion in the both the convergent
and divergent sections of the nozzle. The flow in the convergent section
is subsonic and in the divergent section it is supersonic. Pressure p3c is
the pressure calculated from the supersonic solution of equation (5.36).
Note that any receiving tank pressure (PM)lower than p S c will have no
effect on this process.
Path D represents any pressure between pse and p3c. The gas expands
along an isentropic path to the throat and continues along path C until
the distance x in the divergent portion of the nozzle is reached. At this
point a shock wave is formed and the pressure (and other properties)
essentially jump to point y. From point y to the exit, path D is one of
isentropic compression. The flow in the divergent portion is supersonic
to point x and subsonic from point y. Discussion of this phenomena is
continued in Section 5.9,Compression Shock Wave.

Equation (5.26) or (5.33) may be


used to calculate the mass rate of flow
through the nozzle for path A . For all other paths equation (5.21) should
be used.

Isentropic Flow Calculations


Nozzle flow calculations usually fallin the following categories:
1. Design to produce a given flow for specified conditions.
Compute the performance of a given design.
For categories 1 and 2 there are calculations for (a)expansion (path
C ) , to deliver kinetic energyfor jet propulsive devicesor for turbine
nozzle-blade stages, and (b)compression (path B ) , to deliver specified
exit conditions for diffuser devices.
3. For use as metering devices (path A ) .

2.

Four examples are used to illustrate calculation methods:


Example 5.3-l(a), design of a nozzle for full expansion.
Example 5.4-l(b), design of a diffuser.
Example 5.5-2(a) and(b), performance of a nozzle for both compression
and expansion.

Gas Dynamics

197

Example 5.3 Design an ideal convergent-divergent nozzle that is to deliver 4.5 Ibndsec (2 kg/s) of air from a large plenum chamber at 100 psia
(700 kPa) and 240F (1 16C) to another plenum chamber wherethe pressure is maintained at 10 psia (70 kPa). Determine(a) area of nozzle throat
and (b) area of nozzle exit.
Solution

This exampleis solved by the application of the mass flow rate equation
(5.21) and the use of Table 5.1.
Common data
From Table A-l for air, M = 28.97. From Table A-2, the value of k for
air at 302F (150C) and below ranges from 1.395 to 1.402 = 1.4.
p04/p0 = 10 psidl00 psia = 70 kPd700 kPa = 0.1

From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4:

PIP0
M
AIA*

0.1W4
2.10
1.8370

0.09352
2.20
2.005

0.1 (interpolated)
2.159 (interpolated)
1.938 (interpolated)

(a) Area of nozzle throat


Since the exit flow is supersonic the flow at throat must be sonic, so from
equation (5.21):

(b) Exit area

A3 = A*(A/A*) = 1.938A*

U.S.Units
To = 240

+ 460 = 700"R

R = RUM = 154Y28.97 = 53.33 (ft-lbf)/(lbm-"R)

(1.43)

198

Chapter 5

(a) Throat area

0.01554 x 144 = 2.238

(b) Exit area

A3 = 1.938 X 2.238 = 4.337 in.2

SI Units
To = 116 + 273 = 389 K
R = R U M = 8 314/28.97 = 287 J/(kg-K)

(1.43)

(a) Throat area


A* = 1.460 x 2 $87.0
389
= 1.394 x
700 X 103
= 1.394 x
x 1 x IO6 = 1 394 mm2

m'

(b) Exit area


A3 = 1.938 X 1 394 =mm2
2 701

(c)

Example 5.4 Design an ideal diffuser (Figure 5.3, convergent section)


that will meet the following specifications:

Fluid: Ideal gas k = 1.4, M = 28.


Mass flow rate: riz = 120 Ibdsec (54.4 kg/s).
Inlet conditions:
p2

10 psia

(70
kPa)

t2 = 0F

( - I8OC)

V2 = 700 ft/sec

(213 &S)

Exit conditions:
V , = 300 fdsec

(91.5m/s)

Determine (a) inlet area A2 and (b) exit area A 3 .


Solution

This example is solved by application of basic relations. The inlet Mach


number is computed using equations (5.6) and (1.69). Specific volumes

Gas Dynamics

199

are computed fromthe equation of state (1.42), areas from the continuity
equation (3.11), exit temperature from the energy equation(5.9), and exit
pressures from the isentropic process relationship equation (1.45).
1. Inlet area A2
is computed usingequations (5.6) and (1.69).
The inlet Mach number and

M2 = V21(kgcRT2)1n

(a)

The specific volume comes from equation(1.42):


v2 = RT2Ip2

(b)

The inlet area is from the continuity equation (3.11):


A2 = rizv2IV2

(4

2. Exit area As
The exit temperature is computed from equation(5.9):

The exit pressure is computed from equation(1.45):


p3 =
= p2(T3/T2)'.4'[1.4"] = P2(T3/T2)3.5
The exit specific volumeis from equation (1.42):
v3 = RT3/p3
Finally, the exit area A3 comes from equation(3.11):
A3 = rizv3IV3

US. Units
T2 = t2 = 460 = 0 + 460 = 460"R
R = R U M= 1545128 = 55.18 (ft-lbf)l(lbm-"R)
1. Inlet area A2

M2 = 7001(32.17 X 1.4 X 55.18 X 460)1'2 = 0.6544


Inlet flow is subsonic.
v2 = 55.17 X 460/(10 X 144) = 17.62 ft3/lbm
A2 = 120 X 17.621700 = 3.021 ft2

(1.43)

200

Chapter 5

2. Exit area A3
T3 = 460
p3

+ 2 x 32.171.4x -1.41 x 55.18 [7W2 - 30O2)]' = 492 "R

(d)

10(4921460)3.' = 12.65 psia

v3 = 55.18 X 4921(12.65 x 144) = 14.903 ft3/lbm

A3 = 120 X 14.9021300 = 5.961 ft2

SI Units
R = R,lM 8314128 = 297 kJ/(kg-K)
T2 =

t2

+ 460 =

- 18 + 273

255 K

R = R,IM 8314128 = 297 kJ/(kg-K)

1. Inlet area A2
M2

= 2131(1.4 X 1 X 297 X 255)ln = 0.6542

Inlet flow is subsonic.


v2 =

297 x 255170 x lo3 = 1.0819 m3kg

A 2 = 54.4 x 1.08191213 = 0.2763m'


2. Exit areaA3

1.4 - 1
[2132 - 91.52] = 273 K
1 x 1.4 x 297
= 70(273/255)3.5 = 88.74 kp~r

T3 = 255
p3

+2x

v3 = 297 X 273188.74 x lo3 = 0.9137m31kg

A3 = 54.4 x 0.9137191.5 = 0.5432 m2

Example 5.5
sions:

A convergent-divergentnozzlehas the followingdimen-

Inlet diameter
Throat diameter
Exit diameter

D1
Dz
D3

25 in.
12 in.
in. 19

(625 mm)
(300 mm)
(475 mm)

Gas Dynamics

201

Oxygen at 30 psia (207 kpa) and 68F(20C)enters this nozzle. The flow
in the throat is sonic. Determineby calculation (do not use Table 5.1)the
(a) range of Mach numbers and (b) pressure range at exit for isentropic
flow.

Solution
This example is solved by use of basic equations as requested in the
problem statement. Most of the information desired is in dimensionless
form, so the numerical unit computationsare included in the theoretical
development as appropriate.
Common data
From Table A-2, k for oxygen at 212F (100C) and below ranges from
1.386 to 1.400 = 1.4.
AI/A2 =
A3/A2 =

(25/12)2 = (625/300)2 = 4.340


= (19/12)2 = (475/300)2 = 2.507
=

For part (a), The Mach number-area relationshipis given by equation


(5.20):
!(k- 1)

1.4 - 1
+ -M2)]

rlL)(1
.4 + 1

1.4+1/2(1.4-l)

which reduces to
M = A*
-(
5 + M2 7
)
( k = 1.4)
A
For sonic velocity in the throat, AJA2 = AJA* = 4.340.
Solving equation (b)by trial and error,
M1 =

1
5+M:3
4.340
(
7
= 0.135,
3.09
)

Since the flow in the divergent section cant be supersonic,

M1 = 0.135
For exit Mach numbers, A3/A2 = A3/A* = 2.507.
Solving equation (b) by trial anderror,

1
5 + M : 3 = 0.239, 2.45
M 3 = -2,507

(4

Chapter 5

202

The value Of M3 can range from 0.238to 2.45 depending onthe exit pressure.
For part (b), the stagnation pressure-Mach number relationsare given
by equation (5.12):
-P = [ 1 + 1
( kM
- 1)
2 ]
= [ l + (1.4 - 1) M z 1.4/(1.4~
l)
Po

2
= (1 - 0.2~2135

(c)

Relating p3 and pI using equation (c):

For isentropic compression M3 = 0.239, p3max from equation (d) is

U S . Units
P3 max

= 0.973 X 30 = 29.19 psia

S I Units

P3 max = 0.973 X 207 = 201kPa


For isentropic expansion M3 = 2.45, p3
Pmin = P1

1
1

+ 0.2 x 0.139
+ 0.2 x 2.4S

from equation (d) is

= 0.064OPl

U.S. Units
P3 min

= 0.0640 X 30 = 1.92psia

S I Units
P3 min

0.0640 X 207 = 13.2 kPa

5.8 NORMAL SHOCK FUNCTIONS


Compression Shock Wave
We continue the discussion of path D (Figure 5.5) from Section5.7. When
sonic flowexists in the throat and supersonic flow begins
in the diverging
section of a convergent-divergent nozzle, andthe exit pressure p3 is between that required for isentropic compression (path B ) p3B and that for
isentropic expansion (path B ) p3c, a compression shock wave will be

Gas Dynamics

203

formed. This wave is formed to satisfy the requirements for the conservation of mass and energy. This type
of wave is associated with large and
sudden rises in pressure, density, temperature, and entropy. Figure 5.6
shows this phenomena on the T-S plane. The shock wave is so thin that
for computation purposes it may be considered as a single line,as shown
in Figure 5.4.
Temperature-Mach number-velocity relations for a normal shock are
shown in Figure 5.6.

Conservation of Energy
The formation of a shock wave does not change the total energy of the
system, so that energy relations may be established by writing equation
(5.9) in terms of temperatures before (TJ and after (T,) the shock wave.
RT,
k - 1

V:

RT,
k - 1

Ta+ = -+ - = - + - =
2gc

(5.37)

To,

2gc

A
Po4

....... H o

TO

Pv

'

Stagnation

...............................

sonic Flow

Px

b
SV

Figure 5.6 Notation for shock wave study.

204

Chapter 5

Substituting the value of acoustic velocity from equation (1.69) and for
Mach number from equation (5.6) as was done in the development of
equation (5.10) results in:
m

l+:
k - l
2
l+:
k - l

L
-

Tx

(5.38)

Conservation of Mass
The continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas rit = AVpIRT maybe
written in terms of Mach number by noting that the definition of Mach
number from equation(5.6) is M = V/(kg,RT)*.Substituting these values
in equation (3.15) for before and after the shock wave, we have

Solving for M y ,
M y = Mxp
PY

4%

(5.39)

Impulse-Momentum Concept
The impulse-momentum equation(4.76) when applied to the shock wave
of Figure 5.5 yields
(Px

-PYM

PAVX
-[Vy - V,]
gc

PYAVY
[V, gc

Vxl

(4.76)

which reduces to
(5.40)

Substituting in the equation above the definition of Mach number ofequation (5.6), V = M(kg,RT)*, and from the equation of state (1.44) p =
p1RT results in:

PY

gc

= Px

gc

Gas Dynamics

205

which reduces to

&=1
px

+ kM:

(5.41)

+ kM;

Equations (5.38), (5.39), and (5.41) involve three unknowns-T,, P,, and
My-and may be combined to yield a relationship between M, and M,
as follows. If equation (5.39) is solved for T,/Tx,
(5.42)

Equating equation (5.37) to equation (5.42),

which reduces to
I

(5.43)

Equating equation (5.41) to equation (5.43),


I

which may be reduced to


M,

d z : d z 2
k- 1

+ kM:

M,

k- 1

+ kM;

Equation (5.44) may be arranged in quadratic form and solved directly


for M;. When this is done the two solutions are
M, = M,

206

Chapter 5

M:
M,' =

+k - l
L

(5.45)

2k M: - 1
k- 1

The first solution is trivial because the Mach number mustdecrease after
a shock wave, and therefore equation (5.45) represents the physical solution. Solving equation (5.45) for My results in:
(k - 1)M:
2kM: - k

+2
+1

(5.46)

Temperature ratios are obtained by substituting M; from equation (5.46)


in equation (5.38):
*L
L
I+":
I+":
k - l
k - l
TY n
L
Tx
l+",'
2
ME + 2/(k - 1)
k- 1
l + -k - 1 1 2k
M: - 1
k- 1
(5.47)
2k
- 1
k - l
(k
l)*
M:
2(k - 1)
Pressure ratios are obtained by substituting M; from equation (5.46) in
equation (5.41):

"

pY= 1
px 1

+ kM:

+ kM,'-

+
M: + 2/(k - 1)
1 2kkM:

2k
"2-1
k-l

1-

-k+l

M
":

k+ 1
k-l

(5.48)

Density ratios may be obtained using the equation of state (1.44):


PY

(5.49)

Gas Dynamics

207

Stagnation pressure ratios may be obtained by first obtaining p~ylpo,in


terms of equations (5.12)and (5.48)and substitutingfor M,from equation

(5.46):
M(k - I )

1
.

[(k

( 2k

+ 1)/2] M?

[1 + [(k - 1)/2] M:

k+ 1

M: - -

k+
-l

(5.50)

The ratio of the stagnation pressure after the shock waveto the pressure
just before pOy/poxmay be obtained followingthe preceding method used
to obtain equation (5.50):
PS,=
Px

poy

M:

p.

( p y ) ( p ) = [l

.2
+-

W(k- I )

k 2k
- l M:
k --])l 1

+%-l(

M: - k+l
M(k- 1)

= (
'
-;
'
M
:
)

(&M:--

(5.51)

k+l

The velocity ratio across a shock wavemay be determined fromthe continuity equation (3.9)as follows
m = pxAVx = pyAVy

or

(5.52)

Entropy Increase Across a Normal Shock Wave


The entropy change of an ideal gas was derived in Section
4.16by equation
(4.59). Writing this equation in terms of differential change we have
d s = -c,- -dT
T

v dp

(4.59)

Chapter 5

208

Substituting from equation(4.66) c, = kR/(k - 1 ) and from the equation


of state of an ideal gas (1.42) v/T = Rlp in equation (4.59) results in:
(5.53)

dp
dT
= (kF1) T

"

R -P

Integrating equation (5.53) for constant specific heat ratios between the
limits of x and y results in:

S,

kR
- sx = k - 1 log,

(2) -

R log,

(5.54)

k)

Equation (5.54) may be put in dimensionless formby dividing both sides


by R and substituting for Ty/Tyfrom equation (5.47) and for pylpx from
equation (5.48) with the following result:

- S,
k
R
= -log,[
k - l
S,

( l + yk M
- l: ) ( = M :2k
( k 1)'

"1

2(k - 1 ) M'

- log,

'I

M: - 1

[k?

kk -+ l

(5.55)

Tabulated Values of Normal Shock Functions


As in the case of isentropic flow functions it has been found useful to
compute and tabulate certain standard normal shock functions. These
functions are all dimensionlessratios and are functions of the Mach number M, just upstream of the shock wave. Table5.3 contains the following
ratios.
Function
(5.46)
(5.48)
(5.47)
(5.49), (5.52)
(5.50)
(5.51)

Gas Dynamics

209

In using Table 5.3 it should be again noted as in Table 5.1 that all data
are based on the assumption that the gas is ideal and that the molecular
weight, specificheats, and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A2 gives valuesof k for ideal gasesas a function of temperature. When the
temperature range is known before calculations the average value of k
should be used. If one of the temperatures is not known use the k value
for the known temperature and checkfor variation after the other is computed.
Example 5.6 Air flows from a large tank at 104F (40C) and 116 psia
(800) kPa through a convergent-divergent nozzle into a large receiving
tank. The nozzle throat diameter is 1 in. (25 mm), and the exit diameter
is 1.292 in. (32.3 mm). A compression shock wave is formed in the divergent cone of the nozzle. Just before this wave, the pressure is 20.16
psia (139 kPa). Compute (a) the diameter where the shock wave forms,
velocity and temperaturejust before the wave, (b) velocity,temperature,
and pressure just after the wave, and (c) velocity,temperature, and pressure at nozzle exit.

Solution

This example is solved by the application of Tables 5.1 and 5.3 to the
theory developed in this section.
Common data
From Table A-l for air, M = 28.97. From Table A-2, the value of k for
air at 122F (5OOC) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.
AIA* = (&/Oz)
= (1.29211) = (32.3/25)2 = 1.669
pxIpo = 20.161116 = 139/800 = 0.1738
1. Conditions before shock wave
For a shock wave to form in the divergent section, then sonic flow must
exist in the throat or M2 = 1 = c = (kg,RT*) from equation (5.6).
From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and M = 1, T*ITo = 0.8333, substituting
in equation (5.6),
[l .4g,R~(O.8333To)] = 1 .OSO(~,RTO)~~

or

(a)
V* =

= I.OSO(g,RTo)

From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and pxIpo = 0.1738 (interpolated values):


M = M, = 1.80

(b)

VlV* = V,IV* = 1.536

(c)

AIA*

+ A,/A*

= 1.440

(d)

Chapter 5

210

From equation (d) and from geometrythe diameter is


0, = D2(AX/A*) = 1.202

(0

Substituting Eq. (a) for V* in Eq. (c),


V, = 1.536V* = 1.536~

(g)

2. Conditions just after the shock wave


From Table 5.3 at k = 1.4, M, = 1.80, and from equation (a),
M, = 0.6165

(h)

pylpx = 3.613

(9

T,/T, = 1.532

Vx/Vy = 2.359

(k)

3. Exit conditions
Examination of Figure 5.5 indicates that the path of the air just after the
shock wave is an isentropic compression to the nozzle exit.
The Machnumber just downstreamfrom the shockwave, M,, is
0.6165. From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and M, = 0.6165,
A/A* = Ay/Ay* = 1.172

(1)

The area ratio just upstream of the shock wave was foundto be
AIA* = A,/A* = 1.440

(dl

The differencebetweenthesearearatiosrepresents
the adjustment
needed to satisfy the requirements for the conservation of energy and
mass. The term A, represents the area at which critical flow wouldtake
place at the constant entropy path from just downstream of the shock
wave to exit of the nozzle.
Noting that A, = A, and dividing equation (1) by equation (d),

A*IA,* = (A,/A,*)/(A,/A*) = 1.172/1.440 = 0.8139

(m)

The area ratio at the nozzle exit is


A3/A2 = A3/A* = (&/02)2 = (1.292/1.)2 = (32.3/25)* = 1.669

(n)

Multiplying equation (m) by equation (n),


A3IA,* = (A*/A,)(AJA*) = 0.8139 X 1.669 = 1.358
From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and A3/A,* = 1.358 (interpolated),

(0)

211

Gas Dynamics

TIT0 = TJTo

0.9597
VlV* = V31V* = 0.5260
From equation (1.43,
=

p3 = py(TylT~)k[k-ll
= py(Ty/T3)1.4/[1.4=
'1~y(TylT3)~"
]

US. Units
To = 104 + 460 564"R
p, = 20.16psia (given)
R = RJM = 1545128.97 = 53.33 (ft-lbf)I(lbm-"R)
1. Conditions before shock wave
V* = c = l.OgO(32.17 x 53.33 x 564)'" = 1062ft/sec
D, = 1 x 1.2 = 1.2in.
V, = 1.536 x 1062 = 1 631 ft/sec
T, = 0.6066 X 564 = 342"R = 342 - 460 = - 118F
2.Conditions just after the shock wave

(1.43)

V, = 163212.359= 692ft/sec
Ty = 1.532 X 342 = 524"R = 524 - 460 = 64F
p, = 3.613 X 20.16 = 72.83psia
3. Exit conditions

V, = 0.5260 x 1062 = 559 ft/sec


T3 = 0.9597 X 564 = 541 = 541 - 460 = 81F
p 3 = 72.83(5411524)3.5= 81.44psia
SI Units

To = 40 + 273 = 313 K
R = R,IM = 8 314128.97= 287.0Jl(kg-K)
1. Conditions before shock wave
V* = C = 1.080(1 X 287 x 313)'" = 324 m/s
D, = 25 x 1.2 = 30 mm
V, = 1.536 X 324 = 498 mls
T, = 0.6066 X 313 = 190 K = 190 - 273 = -83C

(1.43)

212

Chapter S

2. Conditions just after the shock wave


V, = 49812.359 = 211 d s
Ty = 1.532 X 190 = 291 K = 291 - 273 = 18C
p, = 3.613 x 139 = 503 kPa

(k)

0)
(9

3. Exit conditions

V3 = 0.5260 X 324 = 170 d~


T3 = 0.9597 X 313 = 300 K = 300 - 27327C

(9)

p3 = 503(3001291)3.5 = 560 kPa

(9

(P)

Example 5.7 A convergent-divergent nozzle is tested in a system that


supplies air at a constant stagnation pressure of 100 psia (700 kPa) to a
receiving tank whose pressure can be regulated from 100 psia to atmospheric. Testingis started with the receiving tank pressure at 100 psia and
the mass flow rate through the nozzle is metered. As the receiving tank
pressure is lowered an increase in mass flow rate is observed until the
nozzle exitpressure is 90 psia (760 kPa). At this pointthe mass flowrate
remains constant as the lowering ofthe receiving tankpressure continues.
Assume isentropic one-dimensional flow through the nozzle and a constant specific heatratio of 1.4 and determinethe maximum receivingtank
pressure that can exist and still have supersonic flow in the divergent
section of the nozzle.

Solution

Examination of Figure 5.7 indicates that the maximum receiving tank


pressure for supersonic flow in the divergent section of the nozzle will
occur when a normal shock wave is formed at the nozzle exit and this
pressure will bepW4.When the mass flowrate reaches a maximum value
the there is sonic flow in the nozzle throat. The nozzle exit pressure at
this point is p3B resulting from an isentropic compression (path B ) from
the nozzle throat to the nozzle exit. Fromthe data given in the problem,
From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4 and plpo = 0.9 (interpolated),
A/A* = A3IA2 = l.626

The pressure p3x is the result of an isentropic expansion (path C) from


the nozzle throat to the nozzle exit. To obtain the this pressure we enter
Table 5.1 for the supersonic values. From Table5.1 at k = 1.4 and AlA*

Gas Dynamics

213
Shock
Wave,

Tank

I
I
I

PO4
8

Receiving
Tank

I
I

t
t

t
t
t

a
I
I

tank pressure
I
I

Figure 5.7 Notation for normal shock at nozzle exit.


= 1.626 (interpolated),

M = 1.953
P i P o = px31po = 0.1378

214

Multiplying equation (a) by equation (b),


PO,.~/PO= ( P O , . ~ / P ~ ~ ) ( ~=~0.1378
~ / P O )X 4.351 = 0.5996

or
poy4 = 059%po

U.S. Units
pw4 = 0.5996 X 100 = 59.96 psia

SI Units
pW4 = 0.5996 x 700 = 419.7 kPa

5.9 ADIABATIC FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH


FRICTION: FANNO LINE
The flow of fluids in most industrial and power piping applications may
be assumedto be adiabatic.The primary reasons for this assumptionare:
1. The piping lengths are relatively short (and hence heattransfer areas

small) with respect to large mass flowrates so that the heat transfer
is negligible.
2. The pipes are insulated.
In adiabatic flow with friction, the gas may enter the pipe either with
subsonic or supersonic velocity as shown in Figure 5.8.
In case (a) the gas enters the pipe witha subsonic velocity.The second
law ofthermodynamics requiresthat for an adiabatic process the entropy
may not decrease. The effect of friction is to limit the expansion of the
gas fromp a to p * and sonic velocity.For this reason supersonic flowcan
not exist in a pipe if the initial flow is subsonic.
In case (b) the gas enters the pipe with a supersonic velocity. Again,
the second lawof thermodynamics requires that for an adiabatic process
the entropy maynot decrease. The effect of friction is to limit the compression of the gas fromp b to p* and sonic velocity.For this reason subsonic
flow can not exist in a pipe if the initial flow is supersonic.
The limiting velocity in either case is sonic.

General Considerations
Adiabatic compressible flow of an ideal gas with friction in a constant
area duct must satisfy the following requirements:

Gas Dynamics

215

M-0

M c l

Stagnation

g ["a1 :

"

"_

I
I

"""_

M-1

Sonic flow

l
l
l

M>1
I

I
I

I
I
I

l
I
I

Entropy

I
I

'b

'a

5.

Figure 5.8 Nocation for Fanno flow study.

1. The ideal gas law. The equation of state for an ideal gas (1.42) is
pv = RT

2. Constant area duct. The flow area must be the same at all sections,
= A,.
that is, A = A l = A Z =
3. Conservation of mass. Thecontinuityequation (3.11) maybe expressed as
- e -

m. = -AV
= - AV2
=AV1
V

4.

V1

v2

Conservation of energy. The sum of all the energy at a section is the


same for all sections.

Chapter 5

216

5. Equation of motion. Writing equation (4.12) for a horizontal pipe re-

sults in:
V dV
v7
-+vdp+-dL=O
gc
Rh
6 . Constant friction factor.

(5.56)

Conventional engineering practice is to use a friction factor f to calculate friction losses in pipes. The friction factor f is defined as follows:
(5.57)

The factor defined by equation (5.57) is known as the D'Arcy-Weisbach


friction factor. There is another friction factor used in sometexts, known
as the Fanning frictionfactor. The numerical value of the Fanning friction
so that care must be used when
factor is 1/4 that of the D'Arcy- Weisbach
selecting a friction factor fromanother source.
In Section 4.5 the energy "lost" due to friction H f was defined by
equation (4.14) as follows:

Setting equation (5.57) equal to equation (4.14) and solving for T,


(5.58)

Substituting the value of 7 from equation (5.58) in equation (5.56),


-V
dV + v d p
gc

+"(-)

Rhfv2

dL = 0

Rh

which reduces to

(5.59)

Dividing equation (5.59) by p v results in:

which reduces to

(5.60)

Gas Dynamics

217

For an ideal gas from the equation of state (1.42) p v = RT. Substituting
for p v in equation (5.60),
(5.61)

Derivation of Equations
All of the terms of equation (5.61) can be expressed as functions of Mach
number. If the first term of equation (5.61) is multiplied by V/V and the
relation V = kgcRTM2 from equation (5.6) is substituted, the following
expression results:

dV=

RTgc

()
v
-

V RTgc

d V = - - -V dV - (kgcRTM2) -dV
RTgc V
RTgc
V

(5.62)

The energy equation for an ideal gas(5.9) may be written as follows:


-RkTo
=-

RkT

k -k l- l

V
+ -2gc

(5.63)

Differentiating equation(5.63),

kR d T + - V
dV
=O=-

k - l

kgcR dT
k - l

gc

+ V dV

Dividing equation (5.64) by V = kgcRTM2,

or

(5.65)
dT
T

-=

- ( k - 1)M-

Writing V = kgcRTM2 in logarithmic form, differentiating,,and solving


for dTIT,
dT

2 lo& V = loge(kgcR) + log,


dV
2 -dV = - + 2 -d M
or
V
T
M

T + 2 log, M
dT
- -- 2 - - 2 V
T

dM
M

(5.66)

Chapter 5

218

Substituting for dT/T from equation (5.66) in equation (5.65) and simplifying:
dT =
-

T V

-(k

1)MZ-dV = 2 -dV - 2 -dM


V
M
(5.67)

which reduces to
dV

-=

1
dM
[(k - 1)/2]M2

Eliminating dV/V from equation (5.62) by substitution of equation (5.67)


and simplifying results in completing the first term of equation (5.61) as
a function of Mach number:

.
-

kM
dM
[(k - 1)/2]MZ

To evaluate the middle term of equation (5.61), we start by writing the


continuity equation for an ideal gas (3.15) in logarithmic form and differentiate, noting that for a constant area duct A is a constant:
log, riz = log, A + log, V + log, p - log, R - log, T
dT
O = O + - +dV
- - O - dp
V
P
T
(5.69)

or

dp - dT- -dV
P
T
V
Substituting dT/T from equation (5.65) and dV/V from equation (5.67) in
equation (5.69) and simplifying:
"

which reduces to

'=-[ +
(k

+ 1)M2 + 1
(ki1)
-MZ

dM
M

(5.70)

Gas Dynamics

219

The last term of equation (5.61) may be converted to a Mach number


relation by substitution of V 2 = kg,RTM2:

v2 dL

"

2 0 RTg,

f (kgcRTM2) dL
2 0 RTgc

f kM2 dL
20

(5.71)

Substituting equations (5.68), (5.69), and (5.70) for the first, second, and
third terms of equation (5.61), respectively:

(5.72)
Solving equation(5.72) for f dLID,

2(1 - M')

ZdL =

2dM
k M3

dM

r
k + l

"'l2[

:(A

f (L2 - L 1 )= D

1dM

D 1 d L = j ; i2dM
S--k
--

+-

(5.73)

+
l"'

( k 1- 1 )
2
(5.74)

;I)
+

2k

l loge

[(-)M:

(k - 1)MI + 2
MI (k - 1)M: + 2

The maximum length L* is obtained at the point in the pipe where the
velocity is sonic. Substituting in equation (5.74) L* for L2 - L I , M for
M1,and 1 for M2 results in:

Chapter 5

220

( k - 1)12
( k - 1)M2
=-

(k
kM2

+2
+2

+ 1)M2

2k

1
(5.75)

Texts and reference sources that use the Fanning friction factor expr
thefirst term of equation (5.75) as 4fL*lD.
For adiabatic flow the total energy at each section isa constant whether
or not frictionis involved, so that equation (5.10) may be applied. Writing
this equation for T I = T , TZ = T*, M I = M , and M 2 = 1 results in:

or

(5.76)

Again writing the continuity equation for an ideal gas (3.15) noting from
equation (5.6)that V = M(kgcRT)lR,

Solving for p21pI = V I T 2 / V 2 T l ,


(5.77)

Substituting T2/T1 from equation (5.10) in equation (5.77),

(5.78)

Gas Dynamics

221

Substituting in equation (5.78) for p 1 = p , p 2 = p * ,


1 results in:

M, and

or

(5.79)

k+ 1
2

If equation (5.53) is written in dimensionless form and integratedbetween


limits of 1 and 2,

(5.80)

Substituting in equation (5.80) for s2 - s1 =


results in:

S*,

M1 = M, and

= 1

Chapter 5

222

- = log, R
M
S*

(5.81)

The stagnation pressure ratio is obtained by multiplying the stagnation


pressure ratio of equation (5.13) by the pressure ratioof equation (5.78):
P02
=

[l

which reduces to

(k - 1) M:
l+-

@ =M1
% [1 +-M$
( k 2Z 1 )
p02

(~+IVZ(~-I)

(5.82)

Substituting p0 for pol, p$ for p02, M for M I , and 1 for M2 in equation

(5.83)

Gas Dynamics

223

The density ratio is obtained by writing the equation of state (1.42) p =


p/RT and then substituting equation (5.78) for pZlp1 and equation (5.10)
for T1/Tz as follows:

(5.84)

Substituting in equation (5.78) forpl = p,p2 = p*, M, = M, and


1 results in:

k + l
(5.85)

and finally from the continuity equation (3.10),


m pAV = p*AV*

(5.86)

or

v - P*
"_
v* P
Tabulated Values of Fanno! Flow Functions
As in the case of isentropic flow and normal shockfunctions, it has been
found useful to compute and tabulate certain standard Fanno flow functions. These functions are all dimensionless ratios and are functions of
the inlet Mach number M. Table 5.4 contains the following ratios:

Chapter 5

224

Function

Equation(s)

TIT*

(5.76)
(5.79)
(5.83)
(5.85), (5.86)
(5.75)
(5.81)

PIP *
PO/Pt

v/v* = p*lp

fL*/D

s*/R

In using Table 5.4 it should be again noted as in Tables 5.1 and 5.3 that
all data are based on the assumption that the gas is ideal and
the molecular
weight, specificheats, and ratios of specific heats are constant. Table A2 gives valuesof k for ideal gases as a function of temperature. When the
temperature range is known before calculations the average value of k
should be used. If one of the temperatures is not known, usethe k value
for the known temperature and checkfor variation after the other is computed.

Application of Fanno Flow Functions


Figure 5.9 shows a real pipe and two imaginary pipes.
The first imaginary
pipe has the length required to pass the gas from a Mach number of M I
(inlet Mach number of the real pipe) to sonic velocity M*. The second
imaginary pipe has
the length requiredto pass the gas froma Mach number
of M2 (exit Mach number of the real pipe) to sonic velocity M*.
The length of the pipe L may be calculated as follows: The maximum
length of an imaginary pipe fLTID
is obtained from Table
5.4 [or computed
from equation (5.75)] for a Mach number of M I . In a like manner the
maximum length fL?/D is obtained for a Mach number of M2 for the
second imaginary pipe. The length L of the real pipe is then calculated
from the following:
L = -D
)-(~)]=Lt-L$
f[ ( y fLT

(5.87)

The pipe shown in Figure 5.10 is supplied by a convergent-divergent


nozzle. This nozzle
can deliver gasto the pipe at subsonic, sonicor supersonic velocities. The following examples are used to illustrate some of
the more common types of flow:

Gas Dynamics

225

+
L""""""""""*""""""""""."""-~

L,'

Figure 5.9 Notation for equation (5.87).

Example 5.8, subsonic flow.


Example 5.9, supersonic flow.
Example 5.10, formation of shock wave.
Example 5.8 The pressure and temperature of the air in the pipe of the
system shown in Figure 5.10 are 50 psia (345 kPa) and 100F (38"C),
respectively. The pipe length is 1000 ft (305 m) and the pipe diameter is
8.92 in. (227 mm). The isentropic convergent-divergent nozzle delivers
65,500 lbm/hr (8.25 kg/s) of air to the pipe. Find (a) the inlet and (b)the
exit Mach numbers. Assume a constant friction factor of 0.02.

Supply
Tank

To
Po

Receiving
Tank
PC+

Pipe

p.

I PY

Shock wave
(If formed)

Figure 5.10 Notation for nozzle-pipe system.

IC

To
P2

PCQ

Chapter 5

226

Solution
1. Inlet Mach number
From geometry,

A = nD214

From the continuity equation of an ideal gas (3.13,


V1 = rizRTlIAp1

From the definition of Mach number in equation (5.6),


M1 = VII(kgcRTl)ln

Substituting V I from equation (b) in equation (c),

2. Exit Mach number


From part (l), M I = 0.15. From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and M I = 0.15,
fLTlD = 27.93
LT = D(fLT/D)

(e)

From Eq. (5.87)

LP = LT - L
fLP/D = f(LT - L)lD
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and fLP/D, find M*.
Common data
From Table A-l for air, M = 28.97. From Table A-2, the value of k for
air at 122F (50C) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.

US. Units
To = 100

+ 460 = 560"R

R = R,/M = 1545128.97 = 53.33 (ft-lbf)l(lbm-"R)


1. Inlet Mach number

A = 1r(8.92/12)~14= 0.4340 ft2


65,00013600
$3.33
M - 0.4340(50 x 144)

x 560
= 0.15
1.4 x 32.17

(1.43)

Gas Dynamics

227

2. Exit Mach number


LT = 27.93 X (8.92/12)/0.020 = 1038 ft

(e)

f L t / D = 0.020(1038 - 1000)/(8.92/12) = 1.022

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and f L t / D = 1.022 (interpolated), M2 = 0.51.

SI Units
To = 38 + 273 = 311 K
R = R J M = 8314/28.97 = 287 J/(kg.K)

(1.43)

1. Inlet Mach number

A = ~ ( 2 2 7X 10-3)2/4 = 0.04047 m2
M1 =

287.0
8.25
0.04047 x 345 x IO3

(4

x 311
= 0.15
1.4 x 1

2. Exit Mach number


LT = 27.93 x (227 x 10-3)/0.020 =m317

(e)

f L q / D = 0.020(317 - 305)/(227 x IOT3) = 1.057

(0

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and fLP/D = 1.057 (interpolated), M:! = 0.50.
Example 5.9 The system shown in Figure 5.10 is to be designed to the
following specifications:

Supply tank temperature


Supply tank pressure
Receiving tank pressure
Mass flow rate
Pipe inlet Mach number
Pipe outlet Mach number
Average friction factor

98 "F
126.5 psia
14.5 psia
3,825
lbm/hr
(0.482
kg/s)
2.5
1.2
0.012

(37C)
kPa)
(866
(1 00 kPa)

Assume that isentropic flow exists the


in nozzle. Determine (a)
the internal
diameter of the pipe, (b) the length of the pipe, and (c) is this design
possible?

Chapter 5

228

Solution

This exampleis solved by application of Tables 5.1 and 5.4 and the theory
developed in this and preceding sections.
Common data
From Table A-l for air, M = 28.97. From Table A-2, the value of k for
air at 122F (5OOC) and below ranges from 1.401 to 1.402 = 1.4.
1. Pipe diameter
For supersonic flow to be delivered to the pipe requires that the sonic
flow exists in the nozzle throat. The throat area is then calculated from
equation (5.21) or

1.4

Po

+ 1)

Po

From Table 5.1 at k = 1.4, M1 = 2.5, A/A* = 2.637 so that


A = 2.637A*

From geometry,
D = (4Ah)ln

2. Pipe length
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and M1 = 2.5,
fL*/D = (fL*/D)l = 0.4320
LT = (fL*/D)z(D/f) = 0.4320(D/f)

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.4 and M2 = 1.2,


fL*/D = (fL*/D)2 = 0.03364
L2 = (fL*/D)z(D/f) = O.O3364(D/f)

From equation (5.87)


L = LT

- L2

(0.4320 - O.O3364)(D/f) = 0.3984(D/f)

(0

Gas Dynamics

229

3. Is design possible?
This design is possible if the receiving tank stagnation pressure is equal
to orless than pipe exit stagnation pressure 0rp03 2 pO2.From Table 5.4
at k = 1.4,
At M1 = 2.5po/pg

= pol/p$ = 2.637

At M2 = 1.2po/p$'

= p02/p$'

+ 1.030

p02/po1 = (PO~/P$')/(PO~/P$')
= 1.03012.637 = 0.3906

US.Units
To = 98 + 460 = 558"R
R = R,/M = 154Y28.97 = 53.33
(it-lbf)/(lbm-"R)
(1.43)

1. Pipe diameter

53.33
x 558
A* = 1.46 x (3825/3600)
= 0.373 i n 2
126.5
32.17
A = 2.637 X 0.373 = 0.9836 in.2
D = (4 X 0.9836/1~)'~
= 1.19 in.
2. Pipe length
L = 0.3984(1/0.012) = 33.2 in.

3. Is process possible?
Stagnation pressure at pipe exit:
p02

= 126.5 X 0.3906 = 49.4psia

Receiving tank pressure is p03 = 14.5:


P02P03

ok

SI Units
To = 37 + 273 = 310 K
R = RJM = 8314/28.97 = 287 J/(kg-K)

(1.43)

1. Pipe diameter

x 310 = 2.424 x
m2
A* = 1.46 x 0.482 $87
866 X lo3
1
A = 2.637 x 2.424 x
= 6.392 x
m*
D = (4 x 6.392 x 10-4/7r)1n = 0.02858 m = 25.45mm

(b)

230

Chapter 5

2. Pipe length
L = 0.3984(25.4510.012) = 845mm

3. Is process possible?
Stagnation pressure at pipe exit:
p02 = 866 X 0.3906 = 338 kPa

Receiving tank pressure is p03 = 100 kPa:

Example 5.10 An ideal gas ( k = 1.3) flows in the nozzle-piping system


shown in Figure 5.10. The pipe is 36.06 ft (10.99 m) long and its diameter
is 12 in. (304.8 mm). The temperature in the supply tank area is 1152"R
(640 K).The temperature at the pipe inlet is 720"R(400 K). A normal
shock occurs at a distance of 16.75 ft (5.11 m) from the pipe inlet. Determine the following: (a) Mach numberat pipe inletM , , (b) Mach number
just before shockM,, (c) Mach numberjust after shock M,, and (d) Mach
number at pipe outlet M2. Assume a constant friction factor of 0.012 and
isentropic flow through the nozzle.

Solution

To solve this examplethe use of all the gas tables is required, as well as
the application of most of the concepts presented in this chapter. The
procedure is as follows:
1. Mach number at pipe inlet M

T,/To = 72011152 = 4001640 = 0.625


The expansion through
the nozzle is isentropic therefore Table 5.1 may
be used. From Table 5.1 at k = 1.3, TITo = 0.625, M , = 2.
2. Mach numberjust before shock M,
From Table 5.4 at k = 1.3, M, = 2:
fLTlD = 0.3573
From equation (5.87)
fL,*lD = f(LT - L,)ID

US. Units
LT = 0.3573 X (12/12)10.012 = 29.78 ft
fL,*ID = 0.012(29.78 - 16.75)1(12112)
= 0.1564

Gas Dynamics

231

SI Units
LT = 0.3573 x (304.8 x 10-3)/0.012 = 9.075 m
fL,*/D = 0.012(9.075 - 5.105)/(304.8 X
= 0.1563

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.3 and fL,*/D= 0.1564,

M , = 1.5
3. Mach numberjust after shock M,,

From Table 5.3 at k = 1.3 and M, = 1.5,


M , = 0.6942

4. Mach number at pipe outlet M 2


From Table 5.4 at k = 1.3 and M , = 0.6942 (interpolated),

(c)

fL,*/D = 0.2479

From equation (5.87),


fLT/D = f ( L 9 - L,)/D

US. Units
LT = 0.2479 X (12/12)/0.012 = 20.66 ft

(c)

The length L , = L - L , = 36.06 - 16.75 = 19.31 ft.


f L q / D = 0.012(20.66 - 19.31)/(12/12)
= 0.0162

(dl

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.3 and fLT/D = 0.0162, M 2

0.9.

SI Units
LT = 0.2479 X (304.8 X 10-3)/0.012 = 6.30 m

The length L2 = L - L, = 10.99


fLq/D = 0.012(6.30
= 0.0165

- 5.11

= 5.88 m.

- 5.88)/(304.8 x

From Table 5.4 at k = 1.3 and fLT/D = 0.0165, M 2 = 0.9.

As is demonstrated in this section, the limiting Mach number for isothermal flow is l / f i . For Mach numbers less than this value the pipe

232

Chapter 5

must be heated, and for Mach numbersgreater than I / G the pipe must
be cooled. Flow in gas transmission piplines is essentially isothermal.
These lines are uninsulated and their flowing temperature is very close
to ambient temperature. Flow in these lines are at low Mach numbers
significantly less than l/G.Figure 5.11 shows relations for isothermal
flow.

General Conslderations
Isothermal compressible flow of an ideal gas with friction ina constant
area duct must satisfy the following requirements:
1. The ideal gas law. The equation of state for an ideal gas (1.42) is

p v = RT

2. The process relationship. For an ideal gas undergoing an isothermal


process, from equation (1.39) and the numerical value of the process
exponent n = 1,
PV" = PV' = plvl = ~

(5.88)

=~RT2

3. Constant-area duct. The flow area must be the same at all sections,
that is, A = A1 = A2 =
= A,,.

:1
Heating and acceleration

deacceleration

"""--"

Figure 5.11 Notation for isothermal flow.

'T

Gas Dynamics

233

4. Conservation of mass. The continuity equation (3.11) may be expressed as

5. Equation of motion.

(5.59)

6. Heat transfer. The general energy equationfor an ideal gas (4.76) in


absence of flow work,for horizontal pipe, andfor an isothermal process becqmes:
(5.89)

7. Stagnation properties. Flowing fluid properties at Mach number M


are assumed to achieve the stagnation state M = 0 by an isentropic
process so that the relations developedin Section 5.4 may be applied:

(5.11)
(5.12)

(5.13)

Pressure Loss
An equation for the calculation of pressure loss for thermal flowmay be
developed as follows. Multiplying equation (5.59) by 2gc/Vz results in:
V dV
f v2
-+vdp+--dL=O=
D 2gc
gc
vdp
2
f
2gcv
-dV+--p+-dL=O
V
v2
D

+
(5.90)

Substituting from the continuity equation (3.15) V = (r;lRT/Ap)' and


equations of state (1.42) in equation (5.90),

v = RT/p from the

Chapter 5

234

Integrating equation (5.91),

Noting again fromthe continuity equation(3.15) for isothermal flow with


VZ/VI = (mRT/Ap2)/(mRT/Ap,)= p1/p2 andsubstituting in equation
(5.92) and solving for p ; results in:
2
P2

= p? -

(h/A)2RT
gc

[2 loge

k)$1
+

(5.93)

Examination of equation (5.93) indicates that a reiterative solution is necessary to compute p2. In most cases the term 2 lo&(p1/p2) is small compared with f L / D and may be ignored for a first trial solution of p?.

Limiting Mach Number


In the derivation of equations for acoustic velocity in section 1.16, the
velocity of pressure wave was developed as
(1.67)

where the value of E depended on the process. In Section 1.15 it was


.shown inequation (1.61) that for an ideal gasthe value of the isothermal
bulk modulus was ET = p . Substituting p or E and and p = p/RT from
the equation of state (1.44) in equation (1.67) results in
(5.94)

The limiting Mach number M*T is then obtained by dividing equation


(5.94) by the acoustic velocity of an ideal gas
c = (kgCRT)from equation
(1.69) or
(5.95)

235

Gas Dynamics

Maximum Length
In Section 5.9 the continuity equation for an ideal gas (3.15) was differentiated for a constant area duct resulting in equation (5.59). Application
of this equation for constant temperature dT = 0 results in:
dVdT-="dp
P
T
or
dP

=o--

iiV
V

(5.69)

dV
---

"

(5.96)
V
Substituting in the equation of motion (5.90) v = RT/p from the equation
of state (1.42), dplp = - dV/V from equation (5.96), noting that dV/V =
d" = dM2/2M2,and solving for f dLID results in
P

(5.97)
Integrating equation (5.97) between the limits of L = 0 and L = L*= and
M and M*= = l l a ,

LJL*'& =
D o

'I
k~

Ilvk

1 - kM2 d M 2
M4
="fL*= - 1

- kM2 + log,(kM2)

(5.98)

kM2

Entropy Change
A differential equationfor entropy change of an ideal gas was developed
in Section 5.8 as equation (5.53). Writing this equation in dimensionless
form and noting for an isothermal process dT = 0, we have:

(5.99)
From equation (5.%), dVIV = -dp/p = d " ;
(5.99),
dV dp ds
- dM
R
P
V
M

substituting in equation
(5.100)

236

Chapter 5

Integrating Eq. (5.100) between the limits of 1 and 2,


(5.101)

Substituting sz (5.101) results in:

SI for s * and
~

MI = M and M2 = 1 1 4 in equation
(5.102)

Heat Transfer
Examination of equation (5.89) indicates that the heat transfer needed to
maintain isothermal flowis the change in kinetic energy. Substitution of
V* = kgcRTM2 from equation (5.6) in equation (5.89) results in:
(5.103)

Substituting q** for q and Ml = M and M2 = l / d in equation (5.103),


q*= =

[(h)'

- M2] = RT
- (1
2

kM2)

(5.104)

Note that if M is greater than 1 1 4 the pipe must be cooled to maintain


isothermal flow, andif M is less pipe must be heated.
Example 5.11 Natural gas at 68F (20C) and 348 psia (2400 kPa) enters
an 18 in. standard steel pipe with a velocity of 9.84 ftlsec (3 &S). The
pipe is a horizontal straight run 24.85 miles (40 km) long. Assume that
natural gas has the same properties as methane (CH& the flow is isothermal and that the average friction factor is 0.0129. Estimate the pressure at the end of the pipe.
Solution

This example is solved by the application of equation (5.93) as follows.


1. Compute the mass flow rate using equation (3.15):

(a)

(mlA) = VpIRT

e) g]

2. Solve equation (5.93) by trial and error:


2 2
Pz-pl"

(mlA)'
RT 2 log,
gc

For first trial, assume 2 log&llpz)

is small compared withf L / D .

Gas Dynamics

237

3.Common data: From Table C-3 for 18in. standard pipe, D = 1.438
ft (438.1 mm). From Table A-l for CH4, M = 16.043.

US. Units
T = 68 + 460 = 528"R
R = R J M = 1545h6.043 = 96.30
(ft-lbf)/(lbm-"R)
(1.43)
1. (&/A) = 9.48 x (348 x 144)/(96.30 x 528) = 9.343lbm/(ft2-sec)
2. p2:

(9.3431296*30
(348 X 144)' - 32.17
X

528 21og, (348,~:144)

0.0129(24.85 x 5280
1.438

d2.5112 X lo9 - 137,969[2


loge(50112/p2)

+ 11771

(b)

By trial and error, p2 = 48,465 lbf/ft2 = 48,465/144 = 336.6 psia


S I Units

T
R

20 + 273 = 293 K
= R,/M = 8314/16.043 = 518.2 J/(kg.K)

(1.43)

1. (&/A) = 3 X 2400 x 103/(518.2 X 293) = 47.42 kg/(m2-s)


2. p2:

438.1 x
=

By trial and error,


p2

65.76 X 1OI2 - 3.4142 X 10' 210g,

= 2314768 = 2 315 kPa

lo3)

+ 11781

238

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions

M'

= VN'

AIA'

PIP0

PIP.

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.000E-02
2.000E-02
3.000E-02
4.000E-02
5.000E-02
6.000E-02
7.000E-02
8.000E-02
9.000E-02

6.066E+01
3.033E+01
2.023E+01
1.518E+01
1.215E+01
1.013E+01
8.686E+00
7.606E+00
6.767E+00

l.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.000E-01
1.500E-01
2.000E-01
2.500E-01
3.000E-01
3.500E-01
4.000E-01
4.500E-01

6.096E+OO
4.089E+00
3.094E+00
2.503E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.842E+00
1.643E+00
1.491 E+OO

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.802E-01
9.692E-01
9.560E-01
9.406E-01
9.231 E-01
9.037E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.802E-01
9.692E-01
9.560E-01
9.406E-01
9.231 E-01
9.037E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.000E-01
6.000E-01
7.000E-01
8.000E-01
9.000E-01

1.375E+00
1.210E+00
1.107E+00
1.044E+00
1.010E+00

8.825E-01
8.353E-01
7.827E-01
7.261 E-01
6.670E-01

8.825E-01
8.353E-01
7.827E-01
7.261 E-01
6.670E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
1.100E+00
1.200E+00
1.300E+00
1.400E+00
1.500E+00
1.600E+00
1.700E+00
1.800E+00
1.900E+00

1.000E+00
1.010E+00
1.038E+00
1.086E+00
1.l
54E+00
1.245E+00
1.363E+00
1.513E+00
1.703E+00
1.g41E+OO

6.065E-01
5.461 E-01
4.868E-01
4.296E-01
3.753E-01
3.247E-01
2.780E-01
2.357E-01
1.979E-01
1.645E-01

6.065E-01
5.461 E-01
4.868E-01
4.296E-01
3.753E-01
3.247E-01
2.780E-01
2.357E-01
1.979E-01
1M5E-01

Gas Dynamics

239

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)

NA'

PIP.

PIP.

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

2.241 E+W
2.620E+00
3.100E+00
3.714E+00
4.502E+00
5.522E+00
6.852E+00
8.600E+00
1.092E+01
1.402E+01

1.353E-01
1.103E-01
8.892E-02
7.101E-02
5.61 3E-02
4394E-02
3.405E-02
2.612E-02
1.984E-02
1.492E-02

1.353E-01
1.l
03E-01
8.892E-02
7.101E-02
5.613E-02
4.394E-02
3.405E-02
2.612E-02
1.984E-02
1.492E-02

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

1.820E+01
2.389E+01
3.172E+01
4.257E+01
5.776E+01
7.922E+01
1.098E+02
1.540E+02
2.1 81 E+02
3.123E+02

1.111E-02
8.189E-03
5.976E-03
4.318E-03
3.089E-03
2.1 87E-03
1.534E-03
1.065E-03
7.31 8E-04
4.980E-04

1.111E-02
8.1 89E-03
5.976E-03
4.31 8E-03
3.089E-03
2.187E-03
1.534E-03
1.065E-03
7.318E-04
4.980E-04

4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

4.520E+02
3.364E+03
3.255E+04
4.085E+05
6.637E+06
1.394E+08
3.784E+09
1.325E+11
5.987E+12
2.615E+16

3.355E-04
4.007E-05
3.727E-06
2.700E-07
1.523E-08
6.692E-10
2.290E-11
6.102E-13
1.266E-14
2.577E-18

3.355E-04
4.007E-05
3.727E-06
2.700E-07
1.523E-08
6.692E-10
2.290E-11
6.102E-13
1.266E-14
2.577E-18

10
20
30

3.145E+20
2.191E+85
5.473E+193

1.929E-22
1.384E-87
3.694E-196

1.929E-22
1.384E-87
3.694E-196

5.50

240

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.1

M' = VN'

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.025E-02
2.049E-02
3.074E-02
4.099E-02
5.123E-02
6.148E-02
7.172E-02
8.196E-02
9.220E-02

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

AIA'

TKO

PIP,

pip0

5.991 E+01
2.996E41
1.998E+01
1.499E+01
1.200E+01
l.000E+01
8.581 E+OO
7.514E+00
6.685E+00

l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.998E-01
9.997E-01
9.996E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.995E-01
9.991 E-01
9.986E-01
9.980E-01
9.973E-01
9.965E-01
9.956E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

1.024E-01
1.536E-01
2.047E-01
2.558E-01
3.067E-01
3.575E-01
4.082E-01
4.588E-01

6.023E+00
4.042E+00
3.059E+00
2.476E+00
2.093E+00
1.825E+00
1.629E+00
1.480E+00

9.995E-01
9.989E-01
9.980E-01
9.969E-01
9.955E-01
9.939E-01
9.921 E-01
9.900E-01

9.945E-01
9.877E-01
9.783E-01
9.663E-01
9.518E-01
9.350E-01
9.161E-01
8.951 E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.802E-01
9.693E-01
9.561 E-01
9.408E-01
9.234E-01
9.042E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.092E-01
6.094E-01
7.087E-01
8.069E-01
9.041 E-01

1.365E+00
1.204E+00
1.l
04E+00
1.042E+00
1.01 OE+OO

9.877E-01
9.823E-01
9.761 E-01
9.69OE-01
9.61 1 E-01

8.723E-01
8.218E-01
7.662E-01
7.072E-01
6.462E-01

8.832E-01
8.366E-01
7.850E-01
7.298E-01
6.723E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
1.095E+00
1.188E+00
1.279E+00
1.369E+00
1.457E+00
1.544E+00
1.628E+00
1.71 1 E+OO
1.792E+00

l.OOOE+OO
1.009E+00
1.036E+00
1.080E+00
1.142E+00
1.223E+00
1.326E+00
1.454E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1 .E01 E+OO

9.524E-01
9.430E-01
9.328E-01
9.221 E-01
9.107E-01
8.989E-01
8.865E-01
8.737E-01
8.606E-01
8.471 E-01

5.847E-01
5.241 E-01
4.654E-01
4.097E-01
3.576E-01
3.095E-01
2.658E-01
2.266E-01
1.91 7E-01
1.61 2E-01

6.139E-01
5.558E-01
4.989E-01
4.443E-01
3.926E-01
3.443E-01
2.999E-01
2.593E-01
2.228E-01
1.903E-01

0.04

Gas Dynamics

241

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Row Functions (Continued)


k
.
: 1.1

M' = VN'

NA'

Tnb

P/P,

PIP,

2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.871 E+OO
1.948E+00
2.023E+00
2.096E+00
2.1 67E+00
2.236E+00
2.303E+00
2.368E+00
2.432E+00
2.493E+00

2.032E+00
2.312E+00
2.651 E 4 0
3.061 E+OO
3.560E+00
4.1 65E+00
4.901 E+OO
5.799E+00
6.896E+00
8.237E+00

8.333E-01
8.193E-01
8.052E-01
7.908E-01
7.764E-01
7.619E-01
7.474E-01
7.329E-01
7.184E-01
7.040E-01

1.346E-01
1.l
17E-01
9.21 9E-02
7.566E-02
6.179E-02
5.022E-02
4.064E-02
3.276E-02
2.630E-02
2.1 04E-02

1.61 5E-01
1.363E-01
1.145E-01
9.568E-02
7.959E-02
6.592E-02
5.438E-02
4.470E-02
3.661 E-02
2.989E-02

3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

2.553E+00
2.61 1 E+OO
2.667E+00
2.721 E+OO
2.773E+00
2.824E+00
2.874E+00
2.921 E+OO
2.967E+00
3.012E+00

9.880E+00
1.190E+01
1.438E+01
1.743E+01
2.1 19E+01
2.583E+01
3.157E+01
3.866E+01
4.743E+01
5.829E+01

6.897E-01
6.754E-01
6.614E-01
6.475E-01
6.337E-01
6.202E-01
6.068E-01
5.936E-01
5.807E-01
5.680E-01

1.679E-02
1.335E-02
1.059E-02
8.382E-03
6.619E-03
5.21 8E-03
4.106E-03
3.227E-03
2.533E-03
1.986E-03

2.434E-02
1.977E-02
1.601 E-02
1.295E-02
1.045E-02
8.41 4E-03
6.767E-03
5.436E-03
4.362E-03
3.497E-03

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

3.055E+00
3.250E+00
3.416E+00
3.556E+00
3.674E+00
3.775E+00
3.862E+00
3.936E+00
4.000E+00
4.1 04E+00

7.175E+01
2.058E+02
5.977E+02
1.731 E+03
4.949E+03
1.388E+04
3.798E+04
1.01 2E+05
2.621 E+05
1.614E+06

5.556E-01
4.969E-01
4.444E-01
3.980E-01
3.571 E-01
3.213E-01
2.899E-01
2.623E-01
2.381 E-01
1.980E-01

1.556E-03
4.559E-04
l.337E-04
3.970E-05
1.206E-05
3.765E-06
1.21 3E-06
4.043E-07
1.394E-07
1.836E-08

2.801 E-03
9.176E-04
3.007E-04
9.976E-05
3.376E-05
1.172E-05
4.186E-06
1.541 E-06
5.855E-07
9.270E-08

10
20
30

4.1 83E+00
4.472E+00
4.532E+00

8.874E+06
2.290E+12
5.746E+15

1.667E-01
4.762E-02
2.1 74E-02

2.756E-09
2.855E-15
5.125E-19

1.654E-08
5.995E-14
2.357E-17

Chapter S

242

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic How Functions (Continued)


ke1.2

M' = VN'

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.049E-02
2.098E-02
3.146E-02
4.195E-02
5.243E-02
6.292E-02
7.340E-02
8.388E-02
9.435E-02

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

NA'

'

Trr,

PIP,

P~P,

5.921 E+01
2.961 E+01
1.974E+01
1.481 E+01
1.l
86E+01
9.887E+00
8.480E+00
7.426E+00
6.607E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.995E-01
9.994E-01
9.992E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.995E-01
9.990E-01
9.985E-01
9.978E-01
9.971 E-01
9.962E-01
9.952E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

1.048E-01
1.571 E-01
2.093E-01
2.614E-01
3.132E-01
3.649E-01
4.162E-01
4.673E-01

5.953E+00
3.996E+00
3.026E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.073E+00
1.809E+00
1.61 5E+00
1.469E+00

9.990E-01
9.978E-01
9.960E-01
9.938E-01
9.91 1 E-01
9.879E-01
9.843E-01
9.802E-01

9.940E-01
9.866E-01
9.763E-01
9.633E-01
9.477E-01
9.296E-01
9.092E-01
8.867E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.802E-01
9.693E-01
9.562E-01
9.409E-01
9.237E-01
9.046E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.180E-01
6.183E-01
7.168E-01
8.134E-01
9.079E-01

1.356E+00
1.l
99E+00
1.00E+00
l
1.041E+OO
1.010E+00

9.756E-01
9.653E-01
9.533E-01
9.398E-01
9.251 E-01

8.623E-01
8.088E-01
7.505E-01
6.892E-01
6.267E-01

8.839E-01
8.379E-01
7.873E-01
7.333E-01
6.774E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90

1.000E+00
1.090E+00
1.177E+00
1.261 E+OO
1.343E+00
1.421 E+OO
1.497E+00
1.570E+00
1.641 E+OO
1.708E+00

1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.034E+00
1.075E+00
1.132E+00
1.205E+00
1.296E+00
1.407E+00
1.540E+00
1.697E+00

9.091 E-01
8.921 E-01
8.741 E-01
8.554E-01
8.361 E-01
8.163E-01
7.962E-01
7.758E-01
7.553E-01
7.348E-01

5.645E-01
5.039E-01
4.461 E-01
3.918E-01
3.41 7E-01
2.959E-01
2.547E-01
2.180E-01
1.856E-01
1.573E-01

6.209E-01
5.649E-01
5.104E-01
4.581 E-01
4.086E-01
3.625E-01
3.199E-01
2.81 OE-01
2.458E-01
2.141E-01

Do

Gas Dynamics

243

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic How Functions (Continued)


k = 1.2

M'

= VN'

NA'

Trr,

PIP0

PIP0

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.773E+00
1.835E+00
1.894E+00
1 .g51
E+OO
2.005E+00
2.057E+00
2.106E+00
2.1 54E+00
2.199E+00
2.242E+00

1.884E+00
2.103E+00
2.359E+00
2.660E+00
3.01 1E+OO
3.421 E+OO
3.898E+00
4.455E+00
5.103E+00
5.858E+00

7.143E-01
6.940E-01
6.739E-01
6.54OE-01
6.345E-01
6.154E-01
5.967E-01
5.784E-01
5.605E-01
5.432E-01

1.328E-01
1.117E-01
9.363E-02
7.826E-02
6.526E-02
5.431 E-02
4.51 2E-02
3.743E-02
3.102E-02
2.568E-02

1.859E-01
1.609E-01
1.389E-01
1.197E-01
1.029E-01
8.825E-02
7.562E-02
6.472E-02
5.534E-02
4.729E-02

3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

2.283E+00
2.322E+00
2.359E+00
2.395E+00
2.429E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.492E+00
2.521 E+OO
2.549E+00
2.576E+00

6.735E+00
7.755E+00
8.940E+00
1.032E+01
1.l91 E+01
1.376E+01
1.590E+01
1.838E+01
2.1 24E+01
2.454E+01

5.263E-01
5.099E-01
4.941 E-01
4.787E-01
4.638E-01
4.494E-01
4.355E-01
4.221 E-01
4.092E-01
3.967E-01

2.126E-02
1.758E-02
1.455E-02
1.203E-02
9.957E-03
8.242E-03
6.826E-03
5.657E-03
4.692E-03
3.895E-03

4.039E-02
3.448E-02
2.944E-02
2.514E-02
2.147E-02
1.834E-02
1.567E-02
1.340E-02
1.147E-02
9.821 E-03

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.602E+00
2.714E+00
2.803E+00
2.875E+00
2.934E+00
2.982E+00
3.023E+00
3.056E+00
3.084E+00
3.1 29E+00

2.836E+01
5.796E+01
1.l
63E+02
2.281 E+02
4.359E+02
8.108E+02
1.469E+03
2.593E+03
4.467E+03
1.238E+04

3.846E-01
3.306E-01
2.857E-01
2.484E-01
2.174E-01
1.914E-01
1.695E-01
1.509E-01
1.351 E-01
1.099E-01

3.237E-03
1.305E-03
5.440E-04
2.352E-04
1.055E-04
4.91 5E-05
2.371 E-05
1.l
83E-05
6.090E-06
1.761 E-06

8.41 7E-03
3.948E-03
1.904E-03
9.466E-04
4.855E-04
2.568E-04
1.399E-04
7.836E-05
4.507E-05
1.602E-05

10
20
30

3.162E+00
3.276E+00
3.298E+00

3.1 62E+04
2.196E+07
1.175E+09

9.091 E-02
2.439E-02
1.099E-02

5.645E-07
2.105E-10
1.761 E-l2

6.209E-06
8.631 E-09
1.602E-10

244

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.3

M
0.00

M' = VN'

NA'

Trr,

PIP0

pip0

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.072E-02
2.145E-02
3.217E-02
4.289E-02
5.361 E-02
6.433E-02
7.504E-02
8.575E-02
9.646E-02

5.853E+01
2.927E+01
1.952E+01
1.464E+01
1.172E+01
9.774E+00
8.384E+OO
7.342E+00
6.533E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.995E-01
9.993E-01
9.990E-01
9.988E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.997E-01
9.994E-01
9.99OE-01
9.984E-01
9.977E-01
9.968E-01
9.959E-01
9.948E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.072E-01
1.606E-01
2.138E-01
2.668E-01
3.196E-01
3.719E-01
4.239E-01
4.754E-01

5.886E+00
3.952E+00
2.994E+00
2.426E+00
2.054E+00
1.793E+00
1.602E+00
1.459E+00

9.985E-01
9.966E-01
9.940E-01
9.907E-01
9.867E-01
9.820E-01
9.766E-01
9.705E-01

9.935E-01
9.855E-01
9.744E-01
9.604E-01
9.435E-01
9.241 E-01
9.023E-01
8.784E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.803E-01
9.694E-01
9.563E-01
9.41 1 E-01
9.240E-01
9.051 E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.264E-01
6.267E-01
7.245E-01
8.195E-01
9.1 14E-01

1.348E+00
1.193E+00
1.097E+00
1.040E+00
1.009E+00

9.639E-01
9.488E-01
9.315E-01
9.124E-01
8.917E-01

8.525E-01
7.962E-01
7.354E-01
6.722E-01
6.084E-01

8.845E-01
8.392E-01
7.895E-01
7.367E-01
6.823E-01

1.oo
1.l0
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

l.000E+00
1.085E+00
1.l67E+00
1.245E+00
1.320E+00
1.391 E+OO
1.458E+00
1.523E+00
1.583E+00
1.641E+OO

1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.032E+00
1.070E+00
1.123E+00
1.189E+00
1.271 E+OO
1.369E+00
1.484E+00
1.61 8E+00

8.696E-01
8.464E-01
8.224E-01
7.978E-01
7.728E-01
7.477E-01
7.225E-01
6.976E-01
6.729E-01
6.487E-01

5.457E-01
4.854E-01
4.285E-01
3.757E-01
3.273E-01
2.836E-01
2.446E-01
2.100E-01
1.797E-01
1.533E-01

6.276E-01
5.735E-01
5.21 1 E-01
4.709E-01
4.235E-01
3.793E-01
3.385E-01
3.01 1 E-01
2.671 E-01
2.363E-01

ea

245

Gas Dynamics

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.3

M' = VN'

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.696E+00
1.747E+00
1.796E+00
1.842E+00
1.885E+00
1.926E+00
1.965E+00
2.001 E+OO
2.036E+00
2.068E+00

3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

AIA'

Tlr.

PJP~

PIP.

1.773E+00
l.g51E+OO
2.1 56E+00
2.388E+00
2.654E+00
2.954E+00
3.295E+00
3.681 E+OO
4.1 16E+00
4.607E+00

6.250E-01
6.019E-01
5.794E-01
5.576E-01
5.365E-01
5.161E-01
4.965E-01
4.777E-01
4.596E-01
4.422E-01

1305E-01
1.l
08E-01
9.393E-02
7.955E-02
6.731 E-02
5.692E-02
4.813E-02
4.070E-02
3.442E-02
2.913E-02

2.087E-01
1.841 E-01
1.621 E-01
1.427E-01
1.255E-01
1.103E-01
9.693E-02
8.520E-02
7.490E-02
6.587E-02

2.099E+00
2.128E+00
2.155E+00
2.181
E+OO
7.259E+00
2.205E+00
2.228E+00
2.250E+00
2.271 E+OO
2.290E+00
2.309E+00

5.160E+00
5.781 E+OO
6.478E+00
8.133E+00
9.1 1OE+OO
1.020E+01
1.142E+01
1.277E+01
1.427E+01

4.255E-01
4.096E-01
3.943E-01
3.797E-01
3.658E-01
3.524E-01
3.397E-01
3.275E-01
3.1 59E-01
3.047E-01

2.466E-02
2.090E-02
1.773E-02
1.506E-02
1.280E-02
1.090E-02
9.288E-03
7.929E-03
6.778E-03
5.803E-03

5.796E-02
5.103E-02
4.496E-02
3.965E-02
3.499E-02
3.092E-02
2.734E-02
2.421 E-02
2.146E-02
1.904E-02

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.326E+00
2.402E+00
2.460E+00
2.506E+00
2.543E+00
2.573E+00
2.598E+00
2.61 8E+00
2.635E+00
2.662E+00

1.594E+01
2.739E+01
4.596E+01
7.522E+01
1.201 E+02
1.872E+02
2.853E+02
4.258E+02
6.231 E+02
1.266E+03

2.941 E-01
2.477E-01
2.105E-01
1.806E-01
1.563E-01
1.363E-01
1.l98E-01
1.060E-01
9.434E-02
7.605E-02

4.977~03
2363E-03
1.l
69E-03
6.01 1 E-04
3.210E-04
1.775E-04
1.014E-04
5.965E-05
3.606E-05
1.41 7E-05

1.692E-02
9.542E-03
5.551 E-03
3.329E-03
2.055E-03
1.303E-03
8.467E-04
5.63OE-04
3.822E-04
1.863E-04

10
20
30

2.681 E+OO
2.746E+00
2.759E+00

2.416E+03
2.042E+05
2.943E+06

6.250E-02
1.639E-02
7.353E-03

6.055E-06
1.835E-08
5.684E-10

9.689E-05
1.119E-06
7.730E-08

Chapter 5

246

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.4

= VN'

NA'

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.095E-02
2.191E-02
3.286E-02
4.381 E-02
5.476E-02
6.570E-02
7.664E-02
8.758E-02
9.851 E-02

0.10
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

M'

TKO

PiPo

PIP,

5.787E+01
2.894E+01
1.930E+01
1.448E+01
1.159E+01
9.666E+00
8.292E+00
7.262E+00
6.461 E+OO

l.WOE+OO
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.997E-01
9.995E-01
9.993E-01
9.990E-01
9.987E-01
9.984E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.997E-01
9.994E-01
9.989E-01
9.983E-01
9.975E-01
9.966E-01
9.955E-01
9.944E-01

1.000E+00
l.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

1.094E-01
1.639E-01
2.1 82E-01
2.722E-01
3.257E-01
3.788E-01
4.313E-01
4.833E-01

5.822E+00
3.910E+00
2.964E+00
2.403E+00
2.035E+00
1.778E+00
1.590E+00
1.449E+00

9.980E-01
9.955E-01
9.921 E 4 1
9.877E-01
9.823E-01
9.761 E-01
9.690E-01
9.61 1 E-01

9.930E-01
9.844E-01
9.725E-01
9.575E-01
9.395E-01
9.188E-01
8.956E-01
8.703E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.803E-01
9.694E-01
9.564E-01
9.413E-01
9.243E-01
9.055E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.345E-01
6.348E-01
7.318E-01
8.251 E-01
9.146E-01

1.340E+00
1.l
88E+00
1.094E+00
1.038E+00
1.009E+00

9.524E-01
9.328E-01
9.107E-01
8.865E-01
8.606E-01

8.430E-01
7.84OE-01
7.209E-01
6.560E-01
5.913E-01

8.852E-01
8.405E-01
7.916E-01
7.400E-01
6.870E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
1.081 E+OO
l.158E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.300E+00
1.365E+00
1.425E+00
1.482E+00
1.536E+00
1.586E+00

1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.030E+00
1.066E+00
1.l
15E+00
1.l
76E+00
l.250E+00
1.338E+00
1.439E+00
1.555E+00

8.333E-01
8.052E-01
7.764E-01
7.474E-01
7.184E-01
6.897E-01
6.614E-01
6.337E-01
6.068E-01
5.807E-01

5.283E-01
4.684E-01
4.124E-01
3.609E-01
3.142E-01
2.724E-01
2.353E-01
2.026E-01
1.740E-01
1.492E-01

6.339E-01
5.817E-01
5.31 1 E-01
4.829E-01
4.374E-01
3.950E-01
3.557E-01
3.197E-01
2.868E-01
2.570E-01

Do

Gas Dynamics

247

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.4

M' = V N *

AIA'

Tlr,

PIP0

PIP0

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.633E+00
1.677E+00
1.71 8E+00
1.756E+00
1.792E+00
1.826E+00
1.857E+00
1.887E+00
1.91 4E+00
1.940E+00

1.688E+00
1.837E+00
2.005E+00
2.193E+OO
2.403E+00
2.637E+OO
2.896E+00
3.1 83E+00
3.500E+00
3.850E+00

5.556E-01
5.313E-01
5.081 E-01
4.859E-01
4.647E-01
4.444E-01
4.252E-01
4.068E-01
3.894E-01
3.729E-01

1.278E-01
1.094E-01
9.352E-02
7.997E-02
6.840E-02
5.853E-02
5.01 2E-02
4.295E-02
3.685E-02
3.165E-02

2.300E-01
2.058E-01
1.841 E-01
1.646E-01
1.472E-01
1.317E-01
1.179E-01
1.056E-01
9.463E-02
8.489E-02

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

1.964E+00
1.987E+00
2.008E+00
2.028E+00
2.047E+00
2.064E+OO
2.081 E+OO
2.096E+00
2.1 11E+OO
2.125E+00

4.235E+00
4.657E+00
5.121E+00
5.629E+00
6.1 84E+00
6.790E+00
7.450E+00
8.169E+00
8.951 E+OO
9.799E+00

3.571 E-01
3.422E-01
3.281 E-01
3.147E-01
3.019E-01
2.899E-01
2.784E-01
2.675E-01
2.572E-01
2.474E-01

2.722E-02
2.345E-02
2.023E-02
1.748E-02
1.51 2E-02
1.31 1 E-02
1.l
38E-02
9.903E-03
8.629E-03
7.532E-03

7.623E-02
6.852E-02
6.165E-02
5.554E-02
5.009E-02
4.523E-02
4.089E-02
3.702E-02
3.355E-02
3.044E-02

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.138E+00
2.1 94E+00
2.236E+00
2.269E+00
2.295E+00
2.31 6E+00
2.333E+00
2.347E+00
2.359E+00
2.377E+00

1.072E+01
1.656E+01
2.500E+01
3.687E+01
5.31 8E+01
7.513E+01
1.041 E+02
1.41 8E+02
1 .g01 E+02
3.272E+02

2.381 E-01
1.980E-01
1.667E-01
1.41 8E-01
l.220E-01
1.058E-01
9.259E-02
8.163E-02
7.246E-02
5.814E-02

6.586E-03
3.455E-03
1.890E-03
1.075E-03
6.334E-04
3.855E-04
2.416E-04
1.554E-04
1.024E-04
4.739E-05

2.766E-02
1.745E-02
1 .134E-02
7.578E-03
5.1 94E-03
3.643E-03
2.609E-03
1.904E-03
1.414E-03
8.150E-04

10
20
30

2.390E+00
2.434E+00
2.443E+00

5.359E+02
1.538E+04
1.l44E+05

4.762E-02
1.235E-02
5.525E-03

2.356E-05
2.091 E-07
l.254E-08

4.948E-04
1.694E-05
2.269E-06

248

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.5

M' = UN'

AIA'

Tlr,

PIP.

P/Po

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.l
18E-02
2.236E-02
3.354E-02
4.471 E-02
5.588E-02
6.705E-02
7.821 E-02
8.937E-02
1.005E-01

5.725E+01
2.863E+01
1.909E+01
1.433E+01
1.147E+01
9.562E+00
8.203E+00
7.1 84E+00
6.393E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.994E-01
9.991 E-01
9.988E-01
9.984E-01
9.980E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.997E-01
9.993E-01
9.988E-01
9.981 E-01
9.973E-01
9.963E-01
9.952E-01
9.939E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.117E-01
1.672E-01
2.225E-01
2.774E-01
3.317E-01
3.855E-01
4.385E-01
4.908E-01

5.760E+00
3.870E+00
2.934E+00
2.380E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.764E+OO
1.579E+00
1.439E+00

9.975E-01
9.944E-01
9.901 E-01
9.846E-01
9.780E-01
9.703E-01
9.615E-01
9.518E-01

9.925E-01
9.833E-01
9.706E-01
9.546E-01
9.354E-01
9.135E-01
8.890E-01
8.623E-01

9.950E-01
9.888E-01
9.803E-01
9.695E-01
9.565E-01
9.415E-01
9.246E-01
9.060E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.423E-01
6.425E-01
7.387E-01
8.305E-01
9.1 76E-01

1.332E+00
1.l
83E+00
1.092E+00
1.037E+00
1.009E+00

9.412E-01
9.174E-01
8.909E-01
8.621 E41
8.316E-01

8.337E-01
7.722E-01
7.070E-01
6.407E-01
5.751 E-01

8.858E-01
8.417E-01
7.936E-01
7.432E-01
6.91 6E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70

1.000E+00
1.078E+00
1.l
50E+00
1.21 9E+00
1282E+00
1.342E+00
1397E+00
1.448E+00
1.496E+00
1.54OE+00

1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.029E+00
1.063+00
1.108E+00
1.l
65E+00
1.232E+00
1.31 E
1+OO
1.402E+00
l.504E+00

8.000E-01
7.678E-01
7.353E-01
7.030E-01
6.71 1E-01
6.400E-01
6.098E-01
5.806E-01
5.525E-01
5.256E-01

5.120E-01
4.526E-01
3.975E-01
3.474E-01
3.023E-01
2.621 E-01
2.267E-01
1.957E-01
1.686E-01
1.452E-01

6.400E-01
5.894E-01
5.407E-01
4.942E-01
4.504E-01
4.096E-01
3.718E-01
3.370E-01
3.052E-01
2.763E-01

1.80
1.90

Gas Dynamics

249

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k = 1.5

M' = VN'

AIA'

Tlr,

PIP,

PIP.

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.581 E+OO
1-619E+00
1.655E+00
1.687E+00
1.71 8E+00
1.746E+00
l3772E+0O
1.797E+00
1.820E+00
1.841 E+OO

1.61 9E+00
1.747E+00
1.889E+00
2.046E+00
2.21 8E+00
2.407E+00
2.613E+00
2.838E+OO
3.082E+00
3.347E+00

5.000E-01
4.756E-01
4.525E-01
4.306E-01
4.098E-01
3.902E-01
3.717E-01
3.543E-01
3.378E-01
3.223E-01

1.250E-01
1.076E-01
9.265E-02
7.982E-02
6.884E-02
5.943E-02
5.137E-02
4.447E-02
3.856E-02
3.349E-02

2.500E-01
2.262E-01
2.047E-01
1.854E-01
1.680E-01
1.523E-01
1.382E-01
1.255E-01
1.l41 E41
1.039E-01

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

1.861 E+OO
1.879E+00
1.896E+00
1.912E+00
1.927E+00
1 .g41
E+OO
1.955E+00
1.967E+00
1.979E+00
1.990E+00

3.633E+00
3.943E+00
4.278E+00
4.638E+00
5.025E+00
5.441 E+OO
5.886E+00
6.363E+00
6.874E+00
7.41 9E+00

3.077E-01
2.939E-01
2.809E-01
2.686E-01
2.571 E-01
2.462E-01
2.358E-01
2.261 E-01
2.169E-01
2.082E-01

2.913E-02
2.539E-02
2.21 6E-02
1.939E-02
1.699E-02
1.491 E-02
1.31 2E-02
1.l 56E-02
1.021 E-02
9.028E-03

9.467E-02
8.638E-02
7.890E-02
7.21 7E-02
6.608E-02
6.059E-02
5.562E-02
5.1 13E-02
4.705E-02
4.336E-02

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.000E+00
2.043E+OO
2.076E+00
2.1 01E+OO
2.121 E+OO
2.137E+00
2.150E+00
2.161 E+OO
2.169E+00
2.183E+00

8.000E+00
1.151E+01
1.620E+01
2.233E+01
3.017E+01
4.004E+01
5.226E+01
6.721 E+01
8.526E+01
1.324E+02

2.000E-01
1.649E-01
1.379E-01
1.168E-01
1.000E-01
8.649E-02
7.547E-02
6.639E-02
5.882E-02
4.706E-02

8.000E-03
4.488E-03
2.624E-03
1.593E-03
1.000E-03
6.469E-04
4.299E-04
2.926E-04
2.035E-04
1.042E-04

4.000E-02
2.721 E-02
1.902E-02
1.364E-02
1.000E-02
7.480E-03
5.696E-03
4.408E-03
3.460E-03
2.21 5E-03

10
20
30

2.193E+00
2.225E+00
2.231 E+OO

1.973E+02
2.934E+03
1.465E+04

3.846E-02
9.901 E-03
4.425E-03

5.690E-05
9.706E-07
8.663E-08

1.479E-03
9.803E-05
1.958E-05

Chapter 5

250

TABLE 5.1 IsentropicFlow Functions (Continued)


k = 5/73

M'

= VN'

AIA*

TKO

PIP0

pip0

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

0.000E+00
1.l
55E-02
2.309E-02
3.464E-02
4.618E-02
5.771 E-02
6.924E-02
8.076E-02
9.228E-02
1.038E-01

5.625E+01
2.813E+01
1.876E+01
1.408E+01
1.127E+01
9.398E+00
8.062E+00
7.061 E+OO
6.284E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.997E-01
9.995E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.984E-01
9.979E-01
9.973E-01

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.997E-01
9.993E-01
9.987E-01
9.979E-01
9.970E-01
9.959E-01
9.947E-01
9.933E-01

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.996E-01
9.992E-01
9.988E-01
9.982E-01
9.976E-01
9.968E-01
9.960E-01

0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.153E-01
1.726E-01
2.294E-01
2.857E-01
3.413E-01
3.961 E-01
4.500E-01
5.029E-01

5.663E+00
3.806E+00
2.888E+00
2.345E+00
1.989E+00
1.741 E+OO
1.560E+00
1.424E+00

9.967E-01
9.926E-01
9.868E-01
9.796E-01
9.709E-01
9.608E-01
9.494E-01
9.368E-01

9.917E-01
9.815E-01
9.674E-01
9.498E-01
9.288E-01
9.048E-01
8.782E-01
8.493E-01

9.950E-01
9.889E-01
9.803E-01
9.695E-01
9.566E-01
9.417E-01
9.250E-01
9.067E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

5.547E-01
6.547E-01
7.494E-01
8.386E-01
9.222E-01

1.320E+00
1.176E+00
1.088E+00
1.035E+00
1.008E+00

9.231 E-01
8.929E-01
8.596E-01
8.242E-01
7.874E-01

8.186E-01
7.533E-01
6.851 E 4 1
6.167E-01
5.502E-01

8.869E-01
8.437E-01
7.970E-01
7.482E-01
6.987E-01

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.so
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
1.072E+00
l.139E+00
1.201 E+OO
1.257E+00
1.309E+00
1.357E+00
1.401 E+OO
1.441 E+OO
1.478E+00

1.000E+00
1.007E+00
1.027E+00
1.058E+00
1.098E+00
1.1 48E+00
1.208E+00
1.275E+00
1.352E+00
1.437E+00

7.500E-01
7.126E-01
6.757E-01
6.397E-01
6.048E-01
5.714E-01
5.396E-01
5.093E-01
4.808E-01
4.539E-01

4.871 E-01
4.286E-01
3.753E-01
3.272E-01
2.845E-01
2.468E-01
2.139E-01
1.851 E-01
1.603E-01
1.388E-01

6.495E-01
6.015E-01
5.554E-01
5.116E-01
4.704E-01
4.320E-01
3.963E-01
3.635E-01
3.334E-01
3.058E-01

00

Gas Dynamics

251

TABLE 5.1 Isentropic Flow Functions (Continued)


k- 5/3

M' = VN'

NA'

Trr,

PIP,

P/P.

2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

1.512E+00
1.543E+00
1.571 E+OO
1.598E+00
1.622E+00
1.644E+00
1.664E+00
1.683E+00
1.701E+OO
1.717E+00

1.531 E+OO
1.634E+00
1.746E+00
1.868E+00
1.998E+00
2.139E+00
2.290E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.623E+00
2.806E+00

4.286E-01
4.049E-01
3.827E-01
3.619E-01
3.425E-01
3.243E-01
3.074E-01
2.915E-01
2.768E-01
2.629E-01

1.202E-01
1.043E-01
9.058E-02
7.878E-02
6.863E-02
5.990E-02
5.238E-02
4.589E-02
4.029E-02
3.545E-02

2.806E-01
2.576E-01
2.367E-01
2.177E-01
2.004E-01
1.847E-01
1.704E-01
1.574E-01
1.456E-01
1.348E-01

3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

1.732E+00
1.746E+00
1.759E+00
1.771E+OO
1.782E+00
1.793E+00
1.802E+00
1.81 1
E+OO
1.820E+00
1.828E+00

3.000E+00
3.206E+00
3.424E+00
3.654E+00
3.897E+00
4.1 53E+00
4.422E+00
4.705E+00
5.003E+00
5.314E+00

2.500E-01
2.379E-01
2.266E-01
2.160E-01
2.060E-01
1.967E-01
1.880E-01
1.797E-01
1.720E-01
1.647E-01

3.125E-02
2.761 E-02
2.444E-02
2.1 68E-02
1.927E-02
1.71 6E-02
1.532E-02
1.370E-02
1.227E-02
1.102E-02

1.250E-01
1.160E-01
1.079E-01
l.004E-01
9.353E-02
8.725E-02
8.150E-02
7.621 E-02
7.134E-02
6.687E-02

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

1.835E+00
1.867E+00
1.890E+00
1.908E+00
1.922E+00
1.933E+00
1 .g41
E+OO
1.949E+00
1.955E+00
1.964E+00

5.641 E+OO
7.508E+00
9.800E+00
1.256E+01
1.584E+01
1.969E+01
2.414E+01
2.925E+01
3.507E+01
4.900E+01

1.579E-01
1.290E-01
1.071 E-01
9.023E-02
7.692E-02
6.630E-02
5.769E-02
5.063E-02
4.478E-02
3.571 E-02

9.906E-03
5.981 E-03
3.758E-03
2.445E-03
1.641 E-03
1.132E-03
7.995E-04
5.769E-04
4.242E-04
2.41 OE-04

6.274E-02
4.635E-02
3.507E-02
2.710E-02
2.133E-02
1.707E-02
1.386E-02
1.139E-02
9.475E-03
6.749E-03

10
20
30

1 .g71
E+OO
1.993E+00
1.997E+00

6.631 E+01
5.075E+02
1.699E+03

2.913E-02
7.444E-03
3.322E-03

1.448E-04
4.781 E-06
6.362E-07

4.971 E-03
6.423E-04
1.915E-04

Chapter 5

252

Table 5.2 Adiabatic Expansion Factor Y

Beta

Specific

Ratio

Heat Ratio

0.00

0.1 0

0.20

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.10

1.40
1.50
1.67

Critical
Val
p4Jp1
0.6065
0.5847
0.5645
0.5457
0.5283
0.51 20
0.4871
0.6065
0.5847
0.5645
0.5457
0.5283
0.51 20
0.4872
0.6067
0.5849
0.5647
0.5459
0.5285
0.5122
0.4873
0.6070
0.5851
0.5649
0.5462
0.5288
0.51 25
0.4876
0.6074
0.5856
0.5654
0.5467
0.5293
0.51 30
0.4882

IS

Y*
0.6837
0.6895
0.6949
0.7000
0.7050
0.7097
0.7170
0.6837
0.6894
0.6949
0.7000
0.7050
0.7096
0.7170
0.6835
0.6893
0.6947
0.6998
0.7048
0.7095
0.71 68
0.6833
0.6890
0.6944
0.6996
0.7045
0.7092
0.71 65
0.6827
0.6885
0.6939
0.6991
0.7040
0.7087
0.71 61

Ac batic Er ansion F %orY

PJP,
0.60

PJP,
0.70
0.7633
0.7021 0.7821
0.7229 0.7981
0.7409 0.81 20
0.7568 0.8241
0.7709 0.8347
0.791 0 0.8498
0.7632
0.7021 0.7820
0.7228 0.7981
0.7409 0.81 20
0.7568 0.8240
0.7709 0.8347
0.791 0 0.8498
0.7630
0.701 8 0.781 8
0.7225 0.7978
0.7406 0.81 17
0.7565 0.8238
0.7706 0.8344
0.7907 0.8496
0.7625
0.701 3 0.7813
0.7220 0.7974
0.7401 0.81 13
0.7560 0.8234
0.7701 0.8341
0.7903 0.8492
0.761 7
0.7004 0.7805
0.721 2 0.7967
0.7393 0.8106
0.7552 0.8227
0.7693 0.8334
0.7895 0.8486

PJPl

PJP,

0.80
0.8450
0.8580
0.8689
0.8783
0.8865
0.8936
0.9037
0.8450
0.8580
0.8689
0.8783
0.8865
0.8936
0.9037
0.8448
0.8578
0.8687
0.8781
0.8863
0.8934
0.9035
0.8444
0.8574
0.8684
0.8778
0.8860
0.8932
0.9033
0.8438
0.8568
0.8678
0.8773
0.8855
0.8927
0.9028

0.90
0.9238
0.9305
0.9361
0.9408
0.9449
0.9485
0.9535
0.9238
0.9305
0.9361
0.9408
0.9449
0.9485
0.9535
0.9237
0.9303
0.9359
0.9407
0.9448
0.9484
0.9534
0.9235
0.9302
0.9358
0.9405
0.9447
0.9482
0.9533
0.9231
0.9298
0.9354
0.9402
0.9444
0.9480
0.9530

PJP,

l.oo

1.om0

Gas Dynamics

253

Table 5.2 Adiabatic Expansion Factor Y (Continued)


Beta

:al

Ratio

es

Y'
0.6806
0.5877 0.6864
0.5676 0.691 8
0.5489 0.6970
0.531 5 0.7019
0.51 53 0.7066
0.4905 0.7140
0.61 37 0.6760
0.5921 0.681 8
0.5721 0.6872
0.5536 0.6924
0.5363 0.6974
0.5201 0.7020
0.4954 0.7094
0.6219 0.6672
0.6006 0.6730
0.5809 0.6785
0.5625 0.6836
0.5454 0.6886
0.5294 0.6933
0.7008
0.6641
0.6699
0.6753
0.6805
0.6854
0.6902

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.625

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50

il 0.6976
0.6513
0.70

0.6570
0.6625
0.6677
0.6727
0.6774

Adiabatic D 'ansion FactorY


PdPl

PdPl

PdPl

PdPl

PdP1

1.oo
0.6966
0.7175
0.7357
0.751 7
0.7659
0.7863
0.6884
0.7094
0.7278
0.7441
0.7585

0.6939
0.7292

0.6882

0.6651

0.7170
0.7393

0.7772
0.7935
0.8075
0.81 98
0.8306
0.8460
0.7506
0.7699
0.7865
0.8008
0.8133
0.8244

0.8542
0.8654
0.8750
0.8833
0.8906

0.9283
0.9341
0.9390
0.9432
0.9469

0.8486
0.8601
0.8700
0.8785
0.8860

0.9251
0.931 1
0.9362
0.9405
0.9444

0.7557
0.7728
0.7876
0.8006
0.8121
0.8286
0.7305
0.7505
0.7677
0.7828
0.7960
0.8076
0.8244
0.7083
0.7290
0.7470
0.7627
0.7765
0.7889
0.8066

0.8374
0.8495
0.8599
0.7126
0.8690
0.8770
0.7440
0.8883
0.7653
0.8189
0.8333
0.8456
0.7071
0.8562
0.8655
0.7238
0.7387
0.8736
0.8851
0.7603
0.8007
0.8161
0.8292
0.6844
0.8406
0.701
6
0.8506
0.8593
0.871 9

0.91 86
0.9250
0.9305
0.9352
0.9394
0.9452
0.9084
0.91 62
0.9228
0.9284
0.9333
0.9375
0.9435
0.8973
0.9059
0.9131
0.9193
0.9247
0.9294
0.9361

1.OOO(

Chapter 5

254

TABLE 5.2 Adiabatic Expansion Factor Y (Continued)


Beta

Specific
Heat Ratio

P
0.75

k
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00

p'lp,
0.6482

0.5750

0.6441
0.80

0.85

0.90

0.95

1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.OO
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.67

Adiabatic Ex ansion Factor Y

Critical
Ratio
Values

0.5927
0.5776
0.5544

0.6495

0.7184

0.6699
0.6421
1
0.7599

0.7213

PJPl
Y4
0.60
0.6389
0.6447 0.6279
0.6502 0.6091
0.6554 0.5915
0.6622
0.6603
0.6651 0.5596
0.6955
0.6726 0.5359
0.7185
0.6220 0.6638
1.10
0.6277
0.6332 0.6258
0.6384 0.6087
0.6433
0.6481 0.6653
0.6556 0.6890
0.5980 0.6857
0.6037 0.6670
0.6090
0.6142 0.6331
0.6191 0.6177
0.6239 0.6033
0.6313 0.5809
0.6458
0.5614
0.5670 0.7012
0.5722 0.6850
0.5773
0.5822 0.6556
0.5868
0.5942 0.621
0.4963 0.7743
0.5015
0.5065 0.7463
0.51 13 0.7335
0.5158
0.5202 0.7097
0.5272 0.6917

PdPl

PdPt

0.70
0.80
0.6865 0.7824
0.7078 0.7986
0.7263 0.81 25
0.7426 0.8246
0.7571 0.6797
0.8353
0.7700 0.8447
0.7886 0.8582
0.6560 0.7559
0.6779 0.7732
0.6971 0.7882
0.7141 0.801 3
0.81 29
0.7292 0.6491
0.7428 0.8231
0.7627
0.61 17
0.6341 0.7346
0.6540 0.7509
0.6717 0.7653
0.6877 0.7781
0.7021
0.7234

0.5860
0.6043
0.6209
0.6361
0.6587

0.5344

PdPl

0.90
0.8857
0.8951
0.9030
0.9098
0.91 58
0.921 0
0.9283
0.8683
0.8788
0.8878
0.8955
0.9022
0.9081

PdPl

1.oo

0.8528
0.8632
0.8722 1.om0
0.8801
0.8871 0.7895

Gas Dynamics

255

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions

1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
l.25
1.30
l.35
1.40
1.45

1 .000E+00
9.524E-01
9.091 E-01
8.696E-01
8.333E-01
8.000E-01
7.692E-01
7.407E-01
7.1 43E-01
6.897E-01

l.OOOE+OO
03E+OO
1.l
1.21OE+OO
1.323E+00
1.440E+00
l.563E+00
1.690E+00
1.823E+00
1.960E+00
2.1 03E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.OOOE+W
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

1.OOOE+OO
1.103E+00
1.21 OE+OO
l.323E+00
1.440E+00
1.563E+00
l.690E+00
1.823E+00
1.960E+00
2.103E+00

1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.988E-01
9.964E-01
9.91 9E-01
9.851 E-01
9.759E-01
9.640E-01
9.494E-01
9.321 E-01

1.649E+OO
l.735E+OO
1.829E+OO
1.930E+00
2.038E+00
2.152E+00
2.272E+00
2.398E+00
2.530E+00
2.667E+OO

1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

6.667E-01
6.250E-01
5.882E-01
5.556E-01
5.263E-01
5.000E-01
4.762E-01
4.545E-01
4.348E-01
4.1 67E-01

2.250E+00
2.560E+00
2.890E+00
3.240E+00
3.61 OE+OO
4.000E+00
4.41 OE+OO
4.840E+00
5.290E+00
5.760E+00

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00

2.250E+O0
2.560E+00
2.890E+00
3.240E+00
3.61 OE+OO
4.000E+00
4.41 OE+OO
4.840E+00
5.290E+00
5.760E+00

9.122E-01
8.653E-01
8.1 00E-01
7.482E-01
6.820E-01
6.1 34E-01
5.446E-01
4.772E-01
4.129E-01
3.527E-01

2.81OE+OO
3.1 12E+00
3.436E+00
3.781 E+OO
4.146E+00
4.533E+00
4.939E+00
5.367E+00
5.81 4E+00
6.282E+00

2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50

4.000E-01
3.333E-01
2.857E-01
2.500E-01
2.222E-01

6.250E+00
9.000E+00
1.225E+01
1.600E+01
2.025E+01

1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

6.250E+00
9.000E+00
1.225E+01
1.600E+01
2.025E+01

2.975E-01
1.057E-01
2.791 E-02
5.538E-03
8.31 6E-04

6.771 E+OO
9.514E+OO
1.276E+O1
1.651 E+01
2.076E+O1

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

2.000E-01
2.500E+01
1.667E-01
3.6OOE+Ol
1.429E-01
4.900E+01
1.250E-01
6.400E+01
1 1 E-01 8.1 00E+01
1.l

1.000E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

2.500E+01
3.600E+01
4.900E+01
6.400E+01
8.100E+01

9.505E-05
5.559E-07
1.133E-09
8.169E-13
2.100E-16

2.551 E+O1
3.65OE+Ol
4.95OE+Ol
6.45OE+Ol
8.1 5OE+Ol

10.00
20.00
30.00

1.000E-01
5.000E-02
3.333E-02

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

l.000E+02
4.000E+02
9.000E+02

1.938E-20
5.543E-85
3.326E-193

l.005E+02
4.005E+02
9.005E+02

1.OOOE+02
4.000E+02
9.000E+02~

256

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions (Continued)


k=l.l

1.oo

1.OOOE+OO

1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45

9.526E-01
9.099E-01
8.712E-01
8.360E-01
8.038E-01
7.743E-01
7.471 E-01
7.221 E-01
6.989E-01

1.000E+00
1.107E+00
1.220E+00
1.338E+00
1.461 E+OO
1.589E+00
1.723E+00
1.862E+00
2.006E+00
2.1 55E+00

1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.018E+00
1.027E+00
1.036E+00
1.044E+00
1.053E+00
1.061E+OO
1.070E+00
1.079E+00

1.000E+00
1.097E+00
1.l98E+00
1.302E+00
1.41 OE+OO
1.522E+00
1.636E+00
1.754E+00
1.874E+00
l.998E+00

1.000E+00
9.998E-01
9.989E-01
9.964E-01
9.921 E-01
9.856E-01
9.768E-01
9.656E-01
9.51 9E-01
9.358E-01

1.71OE+OO
1.804E+OO
1.906E+OO
2.015E+OO
2.1 32E+00
2.255E+00
2.384E+00
2.520E+00
2.662E+00
2.810E+00

1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

6.773E-01
6.386E-01
6.048E-01
5.750E-01
5.487E-01
5.252E-01
5.042E-01
4.853E-01
4.682E-01
4.527E-01

2.31 OE+OO
2.634E+00
2.980E+00
3.347E+00
3.734E+00
4.143E+00
4.572E+00
5.023E+00
5.494E+00
5.987E+00

1.088E+00
l.l
05E+00
1.l
24E+00
1.l43E+00
1.l63E+00
1.l
84E+00
1.205E+00
1.228E+00
1.251 E+OO
1.275E+00

2.124E+OO
2.383E+00
2.651 E+OO
2.928E+00
3.21 1E+OO
3.500E+00
3.794E+00
4.092E+00
4.393E+00
4.696E+00

9.174E-01
8.744E-01
8.242E-01
7.686E-01
7.093E-01
6.483E-01
5.869E-01
5.267E-01
4.687E-01
4.1 38E-01

2.964E+OO
3.289E+OO
3.637E+OO
4.008E+OO
4.401 E+OO
4.81 7E+OO
5.254E+00
5.713E+OO
6.1 94E+00
6.697E+OO

2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50

4.385E-01
3.837E-01
3.466E-01
3.203E-01
3.009E-01

6.500E+00
9.381 E+OO
1.279E+01
1.671 E+01
2.1 17E+01

1.300E+00
1.439E+00
1.603E+00
1.791 E+OO
2.003E+00

5.000E+00
6.517E+00
7.977E+00
9.333E+00
1.057E+01

3.627E-01
1.707E-01
7.1 26E-02
2.751 E-02
1.01 4E-02

7.222E+OO
1.017E+01
1.366E+01
1.768E+01
2.225E+01

5.00
6.00
7.00
9.00

2.863E-01
2.661 E-01
2.531 E-01
2.443E-01
2.381 E-01

2.614E+OI
3.767E+01
5.129E+OI
6.700E+01
8.481 E+01

2.241 E+OO
2.790E+00
3.439E+00
4.1 88E+00
5.036E+00

1.167E+01
1.350E+01
1.491 E+01
1.600E+01
1.684E+01

3.655E-03
4.722E-04
6.446E-05
9.651 E-06
1.606E-06

2.735E+01
3.91 6E+01
5.312E+01
6.923E+OI
8.749E+OI

10.00
20.00
30.00

2.336E-01
2.1 85E-01
2.156E-01

1.047E+02
4.190E+02
9.428E+02

5.984E+OO
2.095E+01
4.589E+01

1.750E+01
2.000E+01
2.054E+01

2.974E-07
1.228E-12
4.956E-16

1.079E+02
4.301 E+02
9.672E+02

8.00

Gas Dynamics

257

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions (Continued)


k = 1.2

1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45

1.OWE+OO
9.528E-01
9.106E-01
8.726E-01
8.383E-01
8.071 E-01
7.787E-01
7.527E-01
7.288E-01
7.067E-01

l.000E+00
l.l
12E+00
l.229E+00
l.352E+00
1.480E+00
l.614E+00
l.753E+00
1.897E+00
2.047E+00
2.203E+00

l.OWE+W
1.01 8E+00
1.035E+00
1.052E+00
1.069E+00
1.086E+00
1.l
02E+00
.l 19E+00
.l
1.l
36E+00
1.l
53E+00

1.OOOE+OO
1.092E+00
l.l
87E+00
l.285E+00
1.385E+00
l.486E+00
1.590E+00
1.696E+00
1.803E+00
1.91 1
E+OO

l.OOOE+W
9.998E-01
9.989E-01
9.965E-01
9.924E-01
9.861 E-01
9.777E-01
9.671 E-01
9.542E-01
9.391 E-01

1.772E+OO
l.873E+OO
1.982E+OO
2.1OOE+OO
2.224E+OO
2.356E+OO
2.495E+OO
2.641 E+OO
2.793E+00
2.951 E+OO

1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

6.864E-01
6.501 E-01
6.186E-01
5.91 2E-01
5.671 E-01
5.458E-01
5.268E-01
5.099E-01
4.947E-01
4.81 OE-01

2.364E+00
2.702E+00
3.062E+00
3.444E+00
3.847E+00
4.273E+00
4.720E+00
5.189E+00
5.680E+00
6.193E+00

1.l
70E+00
1.205E+00
1.241 E+OO
1.279E+00
1.31 9E+00
1.360E+00
1.402E+00
1.446E+00
1.492E+00
1.540E+00

2.020E+00
2.242E+00
2.466E+00
2.692E+00
2.918E+00
3.143E+00
3.366E+00
3.588E+00
3.806E+00
4.020E+00

9.220E-01
8.822E-01
8.362E-01
7.856E-01
7.320E-01
6.767E-01
6.21 3E-01
5.667E-01
5.139E-01
4.636E-01

3.1 16E+OO
3.464E+OO
3.836E+00
4.232E+00
4.652E+00
5.096E+00
5.563E+OO
6.053E+OO
6.567E+00
7.1 04E+OO

2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50

4.686E-01
4.21 4E-01
3.904E-01
3.690E-01
3.536E-01

6.727E+00
9.727E+00
1.327E+01
1.736E+01
2.200E+01

1.590E+00
1.867E+00
2.192E+00
2.565E+00
2.988E+00

4.231 E+OO
5.21 lE+OO
6.056E+00
6.769E+00
7.364E+00

4.1 62E-01
2.298E-01
1.198E-01
6.096E-02
3.093E-02

7.664E+OO
1.081 E+O1
1.453E+O1
1.883E+O1
2.37OE+Ol

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

3.421 E-01
3.267E-01
3.1 70E-01
3.106E-01
3.061 E-01

2.71 8E+01
3.91 8E+01
5.336E+01
6.973E+01
8.827E+01

3.460E+W
4.551 E+OO
5.841 E+OO
7.329E+00
9.016E+00

7.857E+00
8.609E+00
9.136E+00
9.514E+00
9.791 E+OO

1.586E-02
4.408E-03
1.343E-03
4.498E-04
1.644E-04

2.91 5E+01
4.176E+O1
5.666E+O1
7.386E+O1
9.335E+01

10.00
20.00
30.00

3.029E-01
2.923E-01
2.903E-01

1.090E+02
4.363E+02
9.81 7E+02

1.090E+01
4.065E+01
9.024E+01

l.OOOE+Ol
1.073E+01
l.088E+01

6.499E-05
9.665E-08
1.81 8E-09

1.l
51 E+02
4.591 E+02
1.032E+03

258

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions (Continued)


k = 1.3

l.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45

1.OOOE+OO
9.530E-01
9.1 12E-01
8.739E-01
8.403E-01
8.100E-01
7.825E-01
7.575E-01
7.346E-01
7.136E-01

1.OOOE+OO
1.l
16E+00

1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
3.00

1.237E+00
1.365E+00
1.497E+00
1.636E+00
1.78OE+OO
1.930E+00
2.085E+00
2.246E+00

l.OOOE+OO
1.026E+00
1.051E+OO
1.075E+00
1.i00E+00
1.l
24E+00
1.l
48E+OO
72E+00
1.l
97E+00
1.l
1.222E+00

1.000E+00
1.088E+00
1.l
78E+00
l.269E+00
1.362E+00
1.456E+00
1.55OE+OO
1.646E+00
1.742E+00
1.838E+00

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.989E-01
9.966E-01
9.926E-01
9.866E-01
9.786E-01
9.685E-01
9.563E-01
9.421 E-01

1.832E+OO
1.g41 E+OO
2.058E+00
2.1 83E+OO
2.31 6E+00
2.457E+00
2.605E+OO
2.760E+00
2.922E+00
3.09OE+OO

6.942E-01
6.599E-01
6.304E-01
6.048E-01
5.825E-01
5.629E-01
5.455E-01
5.301 E-01
5.163E-01
5.040E-01

2.413E+00
2.763E+00
3.137E+00
3.532E+OO
3.950E+00
4.391 E+OO
4.855E+00
5.341 E+OO
5.850E+00
6.381 E+OO

1.247E+00
1.299E+00
1.353E+OO
1.409E+00
1.467E+00
1.527E+00
1.591 E+OO
1.656E+00
1.725E+00
1.796E+00

1.935E+00
2.127E+00
2.318E+00
2.507E+00
2.693E+00
2.875E+00
3.052E+00
3.225E+00
3.392E+00
3.554E+00

9.261 E-01
8.891 E-01
8.466E-01
8.001 E-01
7.51 OE-01
7.006E-01
6.499E-01
6.000E-01
5.515E-01
5.050E-01

3.265E+OO
3.635E+OO
4.031 E+OO
4.452E+00
4.899E+00
5.370E+00
5.866E+OO
6.387E+00
6.933+00
7.503E+00

4.00
4.50

4.929E-01
4.51 1 E-01
4.241 E-01
4.058E-01
3.927E-01

6.935E+00
1.004E+01
1.372E+01
1.796E+01
2.276E+01

1.869+00
2.280E+00
2.763E+00
3.318E+00
3.946E+00

3.71 O+OO
4.404E+00
4.965E+00
5.41 2E+00
5.768E+00

4.61 OE-01
2.822E-01
1.677E-01
9.933E-02
5.939E-02

8.098E+OO
1.l
44E+01
1.539E+Ol
1.996E+01
2.513E+01

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

3.832E-01
3.704E-01
3.625501
3.573E-01
3.536E-01

2.81 3E+01
4.057E+01
5.526E+01
7.222E+01
9.143E+01

4.648E+00
6.271 E+OO
8.189+00
1.040E+01
1.291 E+01

6.053E+00
6.469E+00
6.749E+00
6.943E+00
7.084E+00

3.61 3E-02
1.422E-02
6.098E-03
2.827E-03
1.404E-03

3.092E+01
4.431 E+O1
6.014E+01
7.84OE+Ol
9.910E+01

10.00
20.00
30.00

3.51 OE-01
3.426E-01
3.410E-01

1.l
29E+02
4.520E+02
1.01 7E+03

1.571 E+01
5.994E+O1
1.337E+02

7.188E+00
7.541 E+OO
7.61 OE+OO

7.402E-04
8.945E-06
6.232E-07

1.222E+02
4.875E+02
1.096E+03

3.50

Gas Dynamics

TABLE 5.3

259

Normal Shock Functions (Continued)


k = 1.4

1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45

1.OOOE+OO
9.531 E-01
9.1 18E-01
8.750E-01
8.422E-01
8.126E-01
7.860E-01
7.61 8E-01
7.397E-01
7.196E-01

1.000E+00
1.120E+00
1.245E+00
1.376E+00
1.51 3E+00
1.656E+00
1.805E+00
1.960E+00
2.1 20E+00
2.286E+00

1.000E+00
1.033E+00
1.065E+00
1.097E+00
1.l28E+00
1.l
59E+00
1.l
91 E+OO
1.223E+00
1.255E+00
l.287E+00

1.000E+00
l.O84E+OO
1.169E+00
1.255E+OO
1.342E+00
1.429E+00
1.51 6E+00
1.603E+00
1.690E+00
1.776E+00

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.989E-01
9.967E-01
9.928E-01
9.871 E 4 1
9.794E-01
9.697E-01
9.582E-01
9.448E-01

1.893E+OO
2.008E+OO
2.133E+OO
2.266E+00
2.408E+OO
2.557E+OO
2.71 4E+00
2.878E+OO
3.049E+OO
3.228E+OO

1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
l.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

7.01 1 E-01
6.684E-01
6.405E-01
6.1 65E-01
5.956E-01
5.774E-01
5.61 3E-01
5.471 E-01
5.344E-01
5.231 E-01

2.458E+00
2.820E+00
3.205E+00
3.61 3E+00
4.045E+00
4.500E+00
4.978E+00
5.480E+00
6.005E+00
6.553E+00

1.320E+00
1.388E+00
1.458E+00
1.532E+00
1.608E+00
1.688E+00
1.770E+00
1.857E+00
1.947E+00
2.040E+00

1.862E+00
2.032E+00
2.198E+00
2.359E+00
2.516E+00
2.667E+00
2.812E+00
2.951 E+OO
3.085E+00
3.212E+00

9.298E-01
8.952E-01
8.557E-01
8.1 27E-01
7.674E-01
7.209E-01
6.742E-01
6.281 E-01
5.833E-01
5.401 E-01

3.413E+OO
3.805E+OO
4.224E+OO
4.67OE+OO
5.142E+OO
5.64OE+OO
6.1 65E+OO
6.71 6E+OO
7.294E+OO
7.897E+00

2.50
3.00
4.00
4.50

5.1 30E-01
4.752E-01
4.51 2E-01
4.350E-01
4.236E-01

7.1 25E+00
1.033E+01
1.41 3E+01
1.850E+01
2.346E+01

2.1 38E+00
2.679E+00
3.315E+00
4.047E+00
4.875E+00

3.333E+00
3.857E+00
4.261 E+OO
4.571 E+OO
4.812E+00

4.990E-01
3.283E-01
2.1 29E-01
1.388E-01
9.1 70E-02

8.526E+OO
1.206E+01
1.624E+01
2.1 07E+01
2.654E+01

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

4.152E-01
4.042E-01
3.974E-01
3.929E-01
3.898E-01

2.900E+01
4.1 83E+01
5.700E+01
7.450E+01
9.433E+01

5.800E+00
7.941 E+OO
1.047E+01
1.339E+01
1.669E+01

5.000E+00
5.268E+00
5.444E+00
5.565E+00
5.651 E+OO

6.172E-02
2.965E-02
1.535E-02
8.488E-03
4.964E-03

3.265E+O1
4.682E+01
6.355E+Ol
8.287E+01
1.048E+02

10.00
20.00
30.00

3.876E-01l
3.804E-01l
3.790E-01l

1.l
65E+02
4.665E+02
1.050E+03

2.039E+01
7.872E+01
1.759E+02

5.714E+00
5.926E+00
5.967E+00

3.045E-03
1.078E-04
1.453E-05

1.292E+02
5.1 55E+02
1.l
59E+03

3.50

Chapter 5

260

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions (Continued)

1.oo

1.OOOE+OO

1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
l.35
1.40
1A5

9.533E-01
9.123E-01
8.761 E-01
8.438E-01
8.150E-01
7.890E-01
7.655E-01
7.442E-01
7.248E-01

1.OOOE+OO
1.23E+00
l
1.252E+00
1.387E+00
1.528E+00
1.675E+00
1.828E+00
1.987E+00
2.1 52E+00
2.323E+00

1.000E+00
1.039E+00
1.078E+00
1.l16E+00
1.l
54E+00
1.l
93E+00
1.231 E+OO
l.270E+00
1.309E+00
1.349E+00

1.000E+00
1 .O8OE+00
1.l
61 E+OO
1.242E+00
1.324E+00
1.404E+00
1.485E+00
1.565E+00
1.644E+00
1.723E+00

l.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.990E-01
9.968E-01
9.930E-01
9.875E-01
9.801 E-01
9.709E-01
9.600E-01
9.473E-01

1.953E+OO
2.075E+00
2.207E+00
2.348E+00
2.498E+OO
2.656E+OO
2.821 E+OO
2.995E+00
3.1 76E+00
3.364E+OO

1.50
1.60
l.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

7.071 E-01
6.759E-01
6.494E-01
6.266E-01
6.069E-01
5.898E-01
5.747E-01
5.61 5E-01
5.497E-01
5.393E-01

2.500E+00
2.872E+00
3.268E+00
3.688E+00
4.1 32E+00
4.600E+00
5.092E+00
5.608E+00
6.148E+00
6.71 2E+OO

1.389E+00
1.472E+00
1.558E+00
1.648E+00
1.742E+00
1.840E+00
1.942E+00
2.049E+00
2.159E+00
2.275E+00

1.800E+00
1 .g51E+OO
2.097E+00
2.238E+OO
2.372E+00
2.500E+00
2.622E+00
2.738E+00
2.847E+00
2.951 E+OO

9.331 E-01
9.006E-01
8.637E-01
8.237E-01
7.81 6E-01
7.384E-01
6.951 E-01
6.523E-01
6.1 06E-01
5.703E-01

3.56OE+OO
3.973E+OO
4.414E+OO
4.884E+OO
5.382E+00
5.907E+00
6.461 E+OO
7.041 E+OO
7.649E+00
8.285E+00

2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50

5.299E-01
4.953E-01
4.734E-01
4.588E-01
4.486E-01

7,3OOE+OO
1.060E+01
1.450E+01
1.900E+01
2.41 OE+Ol

2.394E+00
3.062E+00
3.847E+00
4.750E+00
5.772E+00

3.049E+OO
3.462E+00
3.769E+00
4.000E+00
4.175E+00

5.31 8E-01
3.691 E-01
2.547E-01
1.773E-01
1.253E-01

8.948E+OO
1.267E+01
1.708E+Ol
2.21 6E+01
2.792E+O1

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

4.41 2E-01
4.31 3E-01
4.253E-01
4.21 4E-01
4.186E-01

2.980E+01
4.300E+01
5.86OE+Ol
7.660E+01
9.700E+01

6.914E+00
9.556E+00
1.268E+O1
1.628E+01
2.036E+01

4.31OE+OO
4.500E+00
4.623E+OO
4.706E+00
4.765E+00

9.01 8E-02
4.928E-02
2.877E-02
1.776E-02
1.l
50E-02

3.437E+O1
4.928E+O1
6.691 E+O1
8.726E+01
1.l
03E+02

10.00
20.00
30.00

4.1 67E-01
4.104E-01
4.092E-01

1.l
98E+02
4.798E+02
1.080E+03

2.492E+01
9.692E+01
2.1 69E+02

4.808E+00
4.950E+00
4.978E+00

7.743E-03
5.270E-04
1.058E-04

1.361 E+02
5.430E+02
1.221 E+03

Gas Dynamics

261

TABLE 5.3 Normal Shock Functions (Continued)


k = 5/3

M,

PdP,

PJPZ

1.oo
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
l.30
l.35
1.40
l.45

1.OOOE+OO
9.535E-01
9.131 E-01
8.776E-01
8.463E-01
8.1 84E-01
7.935E-01
7.71 1 E-01
7.509E-01
7.325E-01

l.OOOE+OO
1.128E+00
1.263E+00
1.403E+00
l.550E+00
1.704E+00
1.863E+00
2.029E+00
2.201 E+OO
2.379E+00

1.OOOE+OO
1.050E+00
1.099E+00
1.l47E+00
1.l96E+00
1.244E+00
1.293E+00
l.343E+00
1.393E+00
1.445E+00

1.000E+00
1.075E+00
1.149E+00
1.223E+OO
1.297E+00
1.369E+00
1.441 E+OO
1.51 1 E+OO
l.580E+00
1.647E+00

1.000E+00
9.999E-01
9.990E-01
9.969E-01
9.934E-01
9.882E-01
9.81 3E-01
9.728E-01
9.627E-01
9.51 1 E-01

2.055E+00
2.1 89E+00
2.333E+OO
2.487E+OO
2.650E+00
2.822E+00
3.002E+00
3.191 E+OO
3.388E+00
3.592E+00

l.50
l.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40

7.158E-01
6.866E-01
6.620E-01
6.41 OE-01
6.229E-01
6.073E-01
5.936E-01
5.817E-01
5.71 1 E-01
5.61 7E-01

2.564E+00
2.951 E+OO
3.364E+00
3.802E+00
4.265E+00
4.753E+00
5.266E+00
5.804E+00
6.367E+00
6.954E+00

l.497E+00
1.604E+00
1.71 6E+00
1.833E+00
1.955E+00
2.083E+00
2.216E+00
2.355E+00
2.499E+00
2.650E+00

1.71 3E+00
1.840E+00
1.960E+00
2.074E+00
2.181 E+OO
2.282E+00
2.376E+00
2.465E+00
2.548E+00
2.625E+00

9.381 E-01
9.087E-01
8.754E-01
8.395E-01
8.01 9E-01
7.634E-01
7.248E-01
6.866E-01
6.493E-01
6.131 E-01

3.805E+OO
4.254E+OO
4.733E+OO
5.243E+OO
5.784E+00
6.354E+00
6.954E+OO
7.584E+OO
8.244E+00
8.934E+00

2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50

5.534E-01
5.227E-01
5.036E-01
4.91 OE-01
4.822E-01

7.567E+00
1.l
01 E+01
1.507E+O1
1.976E+01
2.508E+01

2.806E+00
3.678E+00
4.704E+00
5.885E+00
7.221 E+OO

2.697E+00
2.993E+OO
3.204E+OO
3.358E+00
3.473E+00

5.782E-01
4.283E-01
3.1 77E-01
2.384E-01
1.81 6E-01

9.653E+00
1.369E+O1
l.847E+01
2.398E+01
3.024E+01

5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00

4.758E-01
4.674E-01
4.623E-01
4.589E-01
4.566E-01

3.1 02E+01 8.714E+00


4.478E+01
1.21 7E+01
6.1 04E+Ol
1.625E+01
7.981 E+01
2.096E+01
1.01 1 E+02 2.630E+Ol

3.560E+00
3.680E+00
3.756E+00
3.807E+OO
3.843E+00

1.406E-01
8.831 E-02
5.854E-02
4.059E-02
2.920E-02

3.722E+O1
5.340E+01
7.253E+O1
9.459E+01
1.l
96E+02

10.00
20.00
30.00

4.550E-01
4.497E-01
4.487E-01

3.870E+00
3.956E+00
3.972E+00

2.167E-02
2.885E-03
8.684EL04

1.476E+02
5.889E+02
1.324+03

1.248E+02
5.001 E+02
1.l
26E+03

3.226E+01
1.264E+02
2.834+02

Chapter 5

262

TABLE 5.4 FannoLineFunctions


k = l

T T

0.00

0.09

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

1.000E+02
5.000E+01
3.333E+01
2.500E+01
2.000E+01
1.667E+01
1.429E+01
1.250E+01
11 E+01
1.l

6.066E+01
3.033E+01
2.023E+01
1.51 8E+01
1.21 5E+01
1.01 3E+01
8.686E+00
7.606E+00
6.767E+00

1.000E-02
2.000E-02
3.000E-02
4.OOOE-02
5.000E-02
6.000E-02
7.OOOE-02
8.OOOE-02
9.OOOE-02

9.990E+03
2.491 E+03
03E+03
1.l
6.176E+02
3.930E+02
2.71 2E+02
1.978E+02
1.502E+02
76E+02
1.l

4.105E+OO
3.41 2E+00
3.007E+00
2.720E+00
2.497E+00
2.31 5E+00
2.1 62E+00
2.029E+00
1.912E+OO

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

1.000E+01
6.667E+00
5.000E+00
4.000E+00
3.333E+00
2.857E+00
2.500E+00
2.222E+00

6.096E+00
4.089E+00
3.094E+00
2.503E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.842E+00
1.643E+00
1.491 E+OO

1.00OE-01
1.5OOE-01
2.000E-01
2.5OOE-01
3.000E-01
3.5OOE-01
4.000E-01
4.500E-01

9.439E+01
3.965E+01
2.078E+01
1.223E+O1
7.703E+00
5.064E+00
3.41 7E+Ob
2.341 E+OO

1.808E+00
1.408E+00
l.l
29E+00
9.1 75E-01
7.490E-01
6.1 1 1 E-01
4.963E-01
3.998E-01

0.50

0.90

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00

2.000E+00
1.667E+00
1.429E+00
1.250E+00
11E+OO
1.l

l.375E+00
l.21 OE+W
1.107E+00
1.044E+00
1.01 OE+OO

5.000E-01
6.000E-01
7.000E-01
8.000E-01
9.000E-01

1.61 4E+00
7.561 E 4 1
3.275E-01
62E-01
1.l
2.385E-02

3.181 E-01
1.908E-01
1.01 7E-01
4.31 4E-02
1.036E-02

1.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
9.091 E-01
1.000E+00
8.333E-01
1.000E+00
7.692E-01
1.OOOE+OO
7.143E-01
1.000E+00
6.667E-01
1.000E+00
6.25OE-01
1.000E+00
5.882E-01
l.000E+00
5.556E-01
l.000E+00
5.263E-01
1

1.000E+00
1.01 OE+OO
1.038E+00
1.086E+OO
l.l
54E+00
1.245E+00
1.363E+00
1.51 3E+00
1.703E+00
.W1 E+OO

1 .000E+00 0.000E+00
00E+00
1.l
1.707E-02
1.200E+00
5.909E-02
1.l
64E-01
1.300E+00
1.831 E-01
1.400E+00
2.554E-01
1.500E+00
3.306E-01
1.600E+00
1.700E+00
4.073E-01
1.800E+00
~.
4.842E-01
1.900E+00
5.607E-01

0.000E+00
9.690E-03
3.768E-02
8.264E-02
1M5E-01
2.1 95E-01
3.100E-01
4.144E-01
5.322E-01
6.631 E-01

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07

0.08

0.60
0.70

0.80

PIP'
0

pJpo*
m

VN' = p'lp
0.000E+00

~~~~

f L*/D
OD

S'/R
m

Gas Dynamics

263

TABLE 5.4 Fanno Line Functions (Continued)

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

5.OOOE-01
4.762E-01
4.545E-01
4.348E-01
4.167E-01
4.OOOE-01
3.846E-01
3.704E-01
3.571 E-01
3.448E-01

2.241 E+OO
2.620E+OO
3.100E+OO
3.71 4E+00
4.502E+00
5.522E+00
6.852E+00
8.600E+00
1.092E+01
l.402E+01

6.363E-01
7.106E-01
7.835E-01
8.549E-01
9.245E-01
9.926E-01
1.059E+00
24E+OO
1.l
1.l
87E+00
1.248E+00

8.069E-01
9.631 E-01
32E+OO
1.l
1.312E+OO
1.505E+00
1.709E+00
1.924E+00
2.1 52E+00
2.390E+00
2.640E+00

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
l.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

l.000E+00

3.333E-01
3.226E-01
3.1 25E-01
3.030E-01
2.941 E-01
2.857E-01
2.778E-01
2.703E-01
2.632E-01
2.564E-01

1.82OE+Ol
2.389E+01
3.1 72E+01
4.257E+01
5.776E+O1
7.922E+01
1.098E+02
1.540E+02
2.181 E+02
3.123E+02

1.308E+00
1.367E+00
1.424E+00
1.480E+00
1.534E+00
1.587E+00
l.639E+00
1.690E+00
1.739E+00
1.788E+00

2.901 E+OO
3.1 74E+OO
3.457E+00
3.751 E+OO
4.056E+00
4.372E+00
4.699E+00
5.037E+00
5.385E+00
5.744E+OO

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.OOOE+OO
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00
1.000E+00

2.5OOE-01
2.222E-01
2.000E-01
1.81 8E-01
1.667E-01
1.538E-01
1.429E-01
1.333E-01
1.250E-01
1.111E-01

4.520E+02
3.364E+03
3.255E+04
4.085E+05
6.637E+06
1.394E+08
3.784E+09
1.325E+11
5.987E+12
2.61 5E+16

1.835E+00
2.058E+00
2.259E+00
2.443E+00
2.61 1E+OO
2.767E+OO
2.91 2E+00
3.048E+00
3.175E+00
3.407E+00

6.1 14E+00
8.1 21 E+OO
l.039E+01
1.292E+01
1.571 E+01
1.875E+01
2.205E+01
2.561 E+01
2.942E+01
3.780E+01

10
20
30

1.000E+00
l.000E+00
1.000E+00

1.OOOE-01
5.000E-02
3.333E-02

3.145E+20
2.191 E+85
5.468E+193

3.61 5E+W
4.994E+00
5.804E+00

4.720E+01
1.965E+02
4.461 E+02

Chapter 5

264

(Continued)

Table 5.4 FannoLineFunctions

k = 1.1

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07

1.050E+00
l.050E+00

oa

OD

0.09

1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00
1.050E+00

1.025E+02
5.123E+01
3.41 6E+01
2.562E+01
2.049E+01
1.708E+01
1.464E+01
1.281 E+01
1.l
38E+01

5.991 E+O1
2.996E+O1
1.998E+01
1.499E+01
1.200E+01
1.000E+01
8.581 E+W
7.51 4E+00
6.685E+00

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.049E+00
1.049E+00
1.048E+00
1.047E+00
1.045E+00
1.044E+00
1.042E+00
1.039E+00

l.024E+Ol
6.827E+00
5.1 18E+00
4.092E+00
3.408E+00
2.91 9E+00
2.552E+00
2.266E+00

6.023E+OO
4.042E+W
3.059E+00
2.476E+00
2.093E+00
1.825E+00
1.629E+00
1.480E+00

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90

1.037E+00
1.031 E+OO
1.025E+00
1.017E+00
1.009E+00

2.037E+00
1.693E+00
1.446E+00
1.261 E+OO
1.l
16E+00

1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90

1.OOOE+OO
9.901 E-01
9.795E-01
9.682E-01
9.563E-01
9.438E-01
9.309E-01
9.174E-01
9.036E-01
8.895E-01

1.000E+00
9.046E-01
8.247E-01
7.569E-01
6.985E-01
6.477E-01
6.030E-01
5.634E-01
5.281 E-01
4.964E-01

0.08

0.80

O.OOOE+OO
1.025E-02
2.049E-02
3.074E-02
4.099E-02
5.123E-02
6.148E-02
7.1 72E-02
8.196E-02
9.220E-02

00

9.081 E+03
2.264E+03
1.003E+03
5.61 2E+02
3.571 E+02
2.463E+02
1.796E+02
1.364E+02
1.068E+02

4.093+00
3.400E+00
2.995E+00
2.707E+00
2.485E+00
2.303E+00
2.1 50E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.900E+00

2.047E-01
2.558E-01
3.067E-01
3.575E-01
4.082E-01
4.588E-01

8.565E+01
3.592E+01
1.879E+01
1.103E+Ol
6.936E+W
4.549E+00
3.062E+00
2.093E+00

1.796E+W
1.397E+00
1.l
18E+00
9.068E-01
7.388E-01
6.01 6E-01
4.877E-01
3.920E-01

1.365E+OO
l.204E+00
1.104E+OO
1.042E+00
1.01 OE+OO

5.092E-01
6.094E-01
7.087E-01
8.069E-01
9.041 E-01

1.439E+OO
6.705E-01
2.887E-01
1.01 9E-01
2.078E-02

3.1 13E-01
1.858E-01
9.853E-02
4.158E-02
9.928E-03

l.WOE+W
1.009E+00
1.036E+00
1.080E+00
1.142E+00
1.223E+00
1.326E+00
1.454E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1 .e01
E+OO

1.OWE+OO
O.WOE+W
1.095E+00
1A8E-02
1.l 88E+00
5.050E-02
1.279E+00
9.885E-02
1.369E+00
1.544E-01
1.457E+00
2.138E-01
2.749E-01
1.544E+00
3.362E-01
1.628E+00
1.71 1 E+OO 3.969E-01
1.792E+00
4.563E-01

1.024E-01
l.536E-01

O.OOOE+W
9.168E-03
3.541 E-02
7.709E-02
1.329E-01
2.01 6E-01
2.824E-01
3.742E-01
4.764E-01
5.882E-01

Gas Dynamics
Table 5.4

265

Fanno Line Functions (Continued)


k = 1.1

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

8.75OE-01
8.603E-01
8.454E-01
8.304E-01
8.1 52E-01
8.000E-01
7.848E-01
7.695E-01
7.543E-01
7.392E-01

4.677E-01
4.417E-01
4.1 79E-01
3.962E-01
3.762E-01
3.578E-01
3.407E-01
3.249E-01
3.1 02E-01
2.965E-01

2.032E+00
2.31 2E+00
2.651 E+OO
3.061 E+OO
3.560E+00
4.165E+00
4.901 E+OO
5.799E+00
6.896E+00
8.237E+00

1B71E+OO
1.948E+00
2.023E+00
2.096E+00
2.1 67E+00
2.236E+00
2.303E+00
2.368E+00
2.432E+00
2.493E+00

5.140E-01
5.698E-01
6.237E-01
6.754E-01
7.251 E-01
7.726E-01
8.182E-01
8.617 E a l
9.034E-01
9.432E-01

7.089E-01
8.380E-01
9.748E-01
1.l
19E+00
1.270E+00
1.427E+00
1.590E+00
1.758E+00
1.g31 E+OO
2.1 09E+00

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

7.241 E-01
7.092E-01
6.944E-01
6.798E-01
6.654E-01
6.512E-01
6.371 E-01
6.233E-01
6.098E-01
5.964E-01

2.837E-01
2.71 7E-01
2.604E-01
2.499E-01
2.399E-01
2.306E-01
2.217E-01
2.1 34E-01
2.055E-01
1.980E-01

9.880E+00
1.190E+01
1.438E+01
1.743E+01
2.1 19E+01
2.583E+01
3.157E+01
3.866E+01
4.743E+01
5.829E+01

2.553E+00
2.61 1E+OO
2.667E+00
2.721 E+OO
2.773E+00
2.824E+00
2.874E+00
2.921 E+OO
2.967E+00
3.01 2E+00

9.812E-01
1.017E+00
1.052E+00
1.085E+00
1.l
17E+00
1.l
47E+00
l.176E+00
1.204E+00
1.230E+00
1.256E+00

2.291 E+OO
2.476E+00
2.666E+00
2.858E+00
3.054E+00
3.252E+00
3.452E+00
3.655E+00
3.859E+OO
4.066E+00

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
9.00

5.833801
5.217E-01
4.667E-01
4.1 79E-01
3.750E-01
3.373E-01
3.043E-01
2.754E-01
2.500E-01
2.079E-01

1.909E-01
1.605E-01
1.366E-01
1.l
75E-01
1.021 E-01
8.936E-02
7.881 E-02
6.997E-02
6.25OE-02
5.066E-02

7.175E+01
2.058E+02
5.977E+02
1.731 E+03
4.949E+03
1.388E+04
3.798E+04
1.01 2E+05
2.621 E+05
1.61 4E+06

3.055E+00
3.25OE+OO
3.41 6E+00
3.556E+00
3.674E+00
3.775E+00
3.862E+00
3.936E+00
4.000E+00
4.1 04E+00

1.280E+00
1.386E+00
1.472E+00
1.543E+00
1.601 E+OO
1.649E+00
1.689E+00
1.723E+00
1.752E+00
1.798E+00

4.273E+OO
5.327E+00
6.393E+00
7.456E+00
8.507E+00
9.538E+00
1.054E+01
1.l
52E+01
1.248E+01
1.429E+01

10
20
30

1.75OE-01
5.OOOE-02
2.283E-02

4.1 83E-02
1.118E-02
5.036E-03

8.874E+06
2.290E+12
5.746E+15

4.1 83E+00
4.472E+00
4.532E+00

l.832E+00

1.600E+Ol
2.846E+01
3.629E+01

8.00

1.953E+00
1.977E+00

266

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.4 Fanno Line Functions (Continued)


k - 1.2

Til-*

0.00
0.01
0.02

l.l
00E+OO
1.l
00E+00
1.l
OOE+OO

0.03

PIP'
m

PdPo'

V N ' = p*/p

fL*tD

s*m
m

0.09

1.100E+00
1.l
00E+00
1.100E+00
1.100E+00
1.099E+00
1.099E+00
1.099E+00

1.049E+02
5.244E+01
3.496E+01
2.622E+01
2.097E+01
1.748E+01
1.498E+01
1.31 1 E+01
1.165E+01

5.921 E+01
2.961 E+01
1.974E+01
1.481 E+01
1.186E+01
9.887E+00
8.480E+00
7.426E+00
6.607E+00

0.000E+00
1.049E-02
2.098E-02
3.146E-02
4.195E-02
5.243E-02
6.292E-02
7.340E-02
8.388E-02
9.435E-02

8.324E+03
2.075E+03
9.188E+02
5.142E+02
3.271 E+02
2.256E+02
1.644E+02
1.248E+02
9.772E+01

4.081 E+OO
3.388E+00
2.983E+00
2.696E+00
2.473E+00
2.291 E+OO
2.138E+00
2.005E+00
1.888E+00

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.099E+00
1.098E+00
1.096E+00
1.093E+00
1.090E+00
1.087E+00
l.083E+00
1.078E+00

1.048E+01
6.984E+00
5.234E+00
4.182E+00
3.480E+00
2.978+00
2.601 E+OO
2.307E+00

5.953E+00
3.996E+00
3.026E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.073E+00
1.809E+00
l.615E+00
1.469E+00

1M8E-01
1.571 E-01
2.093E-01
2.614E-01
3.1 32E-01
3.649E-01
4.162E-01
4.673E-01

7.837E+01
3.281 E+01
1.71 3E+01
1.004E+01
6.298E+00
4.121 E+OO
2.768E+00
1.887E+00

1.784E+00
1.385E+00
1.l
07E+00
8.964E-01
7.290E-01
5.926E-01
4.794E-01
3.846E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

1.073E+00
1.062E+00
1.049E+00
1.034E+00
1.01 8E+00

2.072E+00
1.71 7E+00
1.463E+00
1.271 E+OO
1.l21 E+OO

1.356E+00
99E+00
1.l
1.100E+00
1.041 E+OO
1.01 OE+M

5.180E-01
6.183E-01
7.168E-01
8.134E-01
9.079E-01

1.294E+00
5.999E-01
2.570E-01
9.01 6E-02
1.828E-02

3.048E-01
1.811E-01
9.557E-02
4.01 3E-02
9.530E-03

1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
9.813E-01
9.615E-01
9.41OE-01
9.197E-01
8.98OE-01
8.758E-01
8.534E-01
8.308E-01
8.082E-01

1.000E+00
9.005E-01
8.1 72E-01
7.462E-01
6.85OE-01
6.31 7E-01
5.849E-01
5.434E-01
5.064E-01
4.732E-01

1.000E+00
1.009E+00
1.034E+00
1.075E+00
1.l
32E+00
1.205E+00
1.296E+00
1.407E+00
1.540E+00
1.697E+00

1.000E+00
l.O9OE+00
1.l
77E+00
1.261E+OO
1.343E+00
1.421E+OO
1.497E+00
1.570E+00
1.641 E+OO
1.708E+00

0.000E+00
1.277E-02
4.367E-02
8.500E-02
1.320E-01
1.81 7E-01
2.323E-01
2.825E-01
3.316E-01
3.791 E41

0.000E+W
8.7OOE-03
3.339E-02
7.225E-02
1.237E-01
1.865E-01
2.594E-01
3.41 4E-01
4.31 6E-01
5.291 E41

0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07

0.08

Gas Dynamics

267

TABLE 5.4 Fanno Line Functions (Continued)


k = 1.2

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

7.857E-01
7.634E-01
7.412E-01
7.194E-01
6.98OE-01
6.769E-01
6.563E-01
6.362E-01
6.1 66E-01
5.975E-01

4.432E-01
4.1 60E-01
3.913E-01
3.688E-01
3.481 E41
3.291 E-01
3.1 16E-01
2.954E-01
2.804E-01
2.665E-01

1.884E+00
2.103E+OO
2.359E+00
2.660E+00
3.01 1E+OO
3.421 E+OO
3.898E+00
4.455E+00
5.103E+00
5.858E+00

1.773E+00'
1.835E+00
1.894E+00
1.g51 E+OO
2.005E+00
2.057E+00
2.1 06E+00
2.1 54E+00
2.1 99E+00
2.242E+00

4.247E-01
4.683E-01
5.099E-01
5.493E-01
5.868E-01
6.222E-01
6.557E-01
6.874E-01
7.173E-01
7.456E-01

6.332E-01
7.432E-01
8.584E-01
9.783E-01
1.l
02E+00
1.230E+00
1.361 E+OO
1.494+00
1.630E+00
1.768E+00

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

5.789E-01
5.609E-01
5.435E-01
5.266E-01
5.1 02E-01
4.944E-01
4.791 E-01
4.643E-01
4.501 E-01
4.363E-01

2.536E-01
2.416E-01
2.304E-01
2.1 99E-01
2.1 01 E-01
2.009E-01
1.923E-01
1.842E-01
1.765E-01
1.694E-01

6.735E+00
7.755E+00
8.940E+00
1.032E+01
1.l91 E+01
1.376E+O1
1.590E+Ol
1.838E+01
2.124E+01
2.454E+01

2.283E+00
2.322E+OO
2.359E+00
2.395E+00
2.429E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.492E+00
2.521 E+OO
2.549E+00
2.576E+00

7.724E-01
7.977E-01
8.215E-01
8.441 E-01
8.655E-01
8.857E-01
9.048E-01
9.229E-01
9.401 E-01
9.563E-01

1.907E+00
2.048E+00
2.191 E+OO
2.334E+00
2.477E+00
2.622E+00
2.766E+00
2.91 1 E+OO
3.056E+00
3.200E+00

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50

4.231 E41
3.636E-01
3.143E-01
2.733E-01
2.391 E-01
2.1 05E-01
1.864E-01
1.66OE-01
1.486E-01
1.209E-01

l.626E-01

1.340E-01
1.l
21 E-01
9.505E-02
8.1 50E-02
7.059E-02
6.1 68E-02
5.433E-02
4.819E-02
3.863E-02

2.836E+01
5.796E+01
1.163E+02
2.281 E+02
4.359E+02
8.108E+02
1.469E+03
2.593E+03
4.467E+03
1.238E+04

2.602E+00
2.714E+00
2.803E+00
2.875E+00
2.934E+00
2.982E+00
3.023E+00
3.056E+00
3.084E+00
3.1 29E+00

9.718E-01
1.038E+00
1.090E+00
1.l
30E+00
1.163E+00
1.l
90E+00
1.21 2E+00
1.230E+00
1.245E+00
1.268E+00

3.345E+00
4.060E+00
4.757E+00
5.430E+00
6.077E+00
6.698E+00
7.292E+00
7.861 E+OO
8.404E+00
9.424E+00

1.000E-01
2.683E-02
1.209E-02

3.162E-02
8.1 9OE-03
3.665E-03

3.162E+04
2.196E+07
1.175E+09

3.1 62E+00
3.276E+00
3.298E+00

l.344E+00

8.00
9.00
10
20

30

1.286E+00
1.356E+00

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.4 Fanno Line Functions (Continued)


k = 1.3

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

1.15OE+OO
1.l
50E+00
1.15OE+OO
1.150E+00
l.l
50E+00
1.150E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00
1.149E+00

1.072E+02
5.853E+01
5.362E+01
2.927E+01
3.574E+01
1.952E+O1
2.681 E+01 1.464E+Ol
2.144E+01
1.l
72E+01
1.787E+01
9.774E+00
1.531 E+01 8.384E+00
1.340E+01
7.342E+00
1.l91 E+01
6.533E+00

O.OWE+OO
1.072E-02
2.145E-02
3.21 7E-02
4.289E-02
5.361 E-02
6.433E-02
7.504E-02
8.575E-02
9.646E-02

7.684E+03
1.91 6E+03
8.479E+02
4.744E+02
3.01 7E+02
2.081 E+02
1.51 6E+02
1.l
51 E+02
9.006E+01

4.069E+00
3.376E+OO
2.971 E+OO
2.684E+00
2.461 E+OO
2.280E+00
2.1 26E+00
1.994E+00
1.877E+00

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.148E+OO
1.146E+00
1.143E+00
1.139E+OO
1.135E+00
1.129E+00
1.123E+00
1.116E+00

1.072E+01
7.137E+OO
5.346E+00
4.270E+00
3.551 E+OO
3.036E+00
2.649E+00
2.348E+00

5.886E+00
3.952E+00
2.994E+00
2.426E+00
2.054E+00
1.793E+00
1.602E+00
1.459E+00

1.072E-01
1.606E-01
2.138E-01
2.668E-01
3.196E-01
3.71 SE-01
4.239E-01
4.754E-01

7.22OE+Ol
3.01 8E+01
1.573E+01
9.201 E+OO
5.759E+00
3.760E+00
2.520E+00
1.71 4E+00

1.773E+00
1.374E+00
1.097E+00
8.863E-01
7.1 96E-01
5.839E-01
4.714E-01
3.775E-01

0.50

0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90

1.l
08E+00
1.091 E+OO
1.071 E+OO
1.049E+00
1.025E+00

2.106E+OO
1.741 E+OO
1.479E+00
1.280E+00
1.125E+00

1.348E+00
1.l
93E+00
1.097E+00
1.040E+00
1.009E+00

5.264E-01
6.267E-01
7.245E-01
8.195E-01
9.1 14E-01

1.l
72E+00
5.409E-01
2.305E-01
8.045E-02
1.623E-02

2.985E-01
1.767E-01
9.280E-02
3.878E-02
9.164E-03

1.oo

1.OOOE+OO

1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70

9.733E-01
9.457E-019.1 74E-01
8.887E-01
8.598E-01
8.309E-01
8.022E-01
7.739E-01
7.460E-01

1.000E+00
8.969E-01
8.1 04E-01
7.368E-01
6.734E-01
6.1 82E-01
5.697E-01
5.269E-01
4.887E-01
4.546E-01

1.000E+00
l.008E+00
1.032E+00
1.070E+00
l.l
23E+00
1.189E+00
1.271E+OO
1.369E+00
l.484E+00
1.61 8E+00

1.000E+00
1.085E+00
1.l
67E+00
1.245E+00
1.320E+00
1.391 E+OO
1.458E+00
1.523E+00
1.583E+00
1.641 E+OO

0.000E+00
22E-02
1.l
3.816E-02
7.388E-02
1.142E-01
1.564E-01
1.990E-01
2.408E-01
2.81 4E-01
3.203E-01

0.000E+OO
8.278E-03
3.160E-02
6.798E-02
1.l58E-01
1.735E-01
2.400E-01
3.141 E-01
3.948E-01
4.81 3E-01

l.eo
l.90

OD

Gas Dynamics

TABLE 5.4

269

FannoLineFunctions (Continued)
k = 1.3
-

VN*=p*Ip

fL'D

s*m

1.773E+00
1.g51E+OO
2.156E+00
2.388E+00
2.654E+00
2.954E+00
3.295E+00
3.681 E+OO
4.1 16E+00
4.607E+00

1.696E+00
1.747E+00
1.796E+00
1.842E+00
1.885E+00
1.926E+00
1.965E+00
2.001 E+OO
2.036E+00
2.068E+00

3.573E-01
3.924E-01
4.255E-01
4.567E-01
4.860E-01
5.135E-01
5.394E-01
5.636E-01
5.864E-01
6.077E-01

5.728E-01
6.686E-01
7.68OE-01
8.707E-01
9.759E-01
1.083E+00
l.l
93E+00
1.303E+W
1.41 5E+00
1.528E+OO

2.332E-01
2.214E-01
2.104E-01
2.002E-01
1.908E-01
1B19E-01
1.736E-01
1.659E-01
1.586E-01
1.51 8E-01

5.160E+W
5.781 E+W
6.478E+00
7.259E+00
8.1 33E+00
9.1 1 OE+OO
1.020E+01
1.142E+01
1.277E+01
1.427E+01

2.099E+00
2.128E+00
2.1 55E+00
2.1 81 E+OO
2.205E+00
2.228E+00
2.250E+00
2.271 E+OO
2.290E+00
2.309E+00

6.277E-01
6.465E-01
6.642E-01
6.808E-01
6.964E-01
7.1 10E-01
7.248E-01
7.379E-01
7.501 E-01
7.617E-01

1.641 E+W
1.755E+OO
1.868E+00
1.982E+00
2.096E+00
2.209E+00
2.322E+00
2.435E+00
2.547E+00
2.658E+00

3.382E-01
2.848E-01
2.421 E-01
2.077E-01
l.797E-01
1.567E-01
1.377E-01
l.219E-01
1.085E-01
8.745E-02

1.454E-01
1.l
86E-01
9.841 E-02
8.286E-02
7.065E-02
6.091 E-02
5.302E-02
4.654602
4.1 17E-02
3.286E-02

1.594E+01
2.739E+01
4.596E+01
7.522E+01
1.201 E+02
1.872+02
2.853E+02
4.258E+02
6.231 E+02
1.266E+03

2.326E+W
2.402E+00
2.460E+00
2.506E+00
2.543E+OO
2.573E+00
2.598E+00
2.618E+00
2.635E+00
2.662E+00

7.726E-01
8.189E-01
8.543E-01
8.81 9E-01
9.037E-01
9.212E-01
9.355E-01
9.472E-01
9.570E-01
9.722E-01

2.769E+W
3.31OE+OO
3,828E+00
4.320+00
4.788E+00
5.232E+00
5.654E+00
6.054E+00
6.435E+00
7.143E+00

7.188E-02
1.885E-02
8.456E-03

2.681 E-02
6.865E-03
3.065E-03

2.416E+03
2.042E+05
2.943E+06

2.681 E+W
2.746E+00
2.759E+00

9.832E-01
1.020E+00
1.027E+00

7.79OE+OO
1.223E+01
1.489E+01

Tff

PIP'

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

7.188E-01
6.921 E-01
6.663E-01
6.412E-01
6.1 7OE-01
5.935E-01
5.71OE-01
5.493E-01
5.285E-01
5.085E-01

4.239E-01
3.962E-01
3.71OE-01
3.482E-01
3.273E-01
3.082E-01
2.906E-01
2.745E-01
2.596E-01
2.459E-01

3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

4.894E-01
4.71OE-01
4.535E-01
4.367E-01
4.206E-01
4.053E-01
3.906E-01
3.766E-01
3.632E-01
3.504E-01

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
10
20
30

p&;

Chapter 5

270

TABLE 5.4 FannoLineFunctions

(Continued)

k = 1.4

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09

1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.200E+00
1.l99E+00
1.l99E+00
1.199E+00
1.198E+00
1.198E+00

5.787E+01
2.894E+01
1.930E+01
1.448E+01
1.l
59E+01
9.666E+00
8.292E+00
7.262E+00
6.461 E+OO

0.000E+00
1B95E-02
2.191 E-02
3.286E-02
4.381 E-02
5.476E-02
6.570E-02
7.664E-02
8.758E-02
9.851 E-02

1.095E42
5.477E+01
3.651 E+01
2.738E+01
2.190E+01
1.825E+01
1.564E+Ol
1.368E+01
1.21 6E+01

7.1 34E+03
1.778E+03
7.871 E+02
4.404E+02
2.800E+02
1.930E+02
1.407E+02
1.067E+02
8.350E+01

4.058E+00
3.365E+00
2.96OE+OO
2.673E+00
2.450E+00
2.269E+00
2.1 15E+00
1.983E+00
1.866E+00

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.l
98E+00
1.l
95E+00
1.l
90E+00
1.185E+00
1.179E+00
1.l
71 E+OO
1.163E+00
1.153E+00

1.094E+01
7.287E+00
5.455E+00
4.355E+00
3.61 9E+00
3.092E+00
2.696E+00
2.386E+00

5.822E+00
3.91OE+OO
2.964E+00
2.403E+00
2.035E+00
1.778E+00
1.590E+00
1.449E+00

1.094E-01
1.639E-01
2.182E-01
2.722E-01
3.257E-01
3.788E-01
4.31 3E-01
4.833E-01

6.692E+01
2.793E+01
1.453E+01
8.483E+00
5.299E+00
3.452E+00
2.308E+00
1.566E+00

1.762E+00
1.364E+00
1.086E+00
8.766E-01
7.105E-01
5.755E-01
4.638E-01
3.706E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70

1.l
43E+00
1.l
19E+00

0.90

1.093E+00
1.064E+00
1.033E+00

2.138E+00
1.763E+00
1.493E+00
1.289E+00
1.129E+00

1.340E+00
1.l
88E+00
1.094E+00
1.038E+00
1.009E+00

5.345E-01
6.348E-01
7.31 8E-01
8.251 E-01
9.146E-01

1.069E+00
4.908E-01
2.081 E-01
7.229E-02
1.451 E-02

2.926E-01
1.724E-01
9.01 8E-02
3.752E-02
8.824E-03

l.oo
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1B O
1.90

1.000E+00
9.662E-01
9.31 7E-01
8.969E-01
8.621 E-01
8.276E-01
7.937E-01
7.605E-01
7.282E-01
6.969E-01

1.OOOE+OO
8.936E-01
8.044E-01
7.285E-01
6.632E-01
6.065E-01
5.568E-01
5.1 30E-01
4.741 E-01
4.394E-01

1.000E+00
1.008E+00
1.030E+00
1.066E+00
1.l
15E+00
1.176E+00
1.250E+00
l.338E+00
l.439E+00
l.555E+00

1.000E+00
1.081 E+OO
1.l
58E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.300E+00
1.365E+00
1.425E+00
1.482E+00
1.536E+00
1.586E+00

0.000E+00
9.935E-03
3.364E-02
6.483E-02
9.974E-02
1.361 E41
1.724E-01
2.078E-01
2.41 9E-01
2.743E-01

0.000E+00
7.894E-03
2.999E-02
6.420E-02
1.088E-01
l.623E-01
2.233E-01
2.909E-01
3.639E-01
4.41 6E-01

0.80

00

Gas Dynamics

271

TABLE 5.4 FannoLineFunctions

(Continued)

k = 1.4

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

6.667E-01
6.376E-01
6.098E-01
5.831 E-01
5.576E-01
5.333E-01
5.1 02E-01
4.882E-01
4.673E-01
4.474E-01

4.082E-01
3.802E-01
3.549E-01
3.32OE-01
3.1 11 E-01
2.921 E-01
2.747E-01
2.588E-01
2.441 E-01
2.307E-01

1.688E+00
1.837E+00
2.005E+00
2.1 93E+00
2.403E+00
2.637E+00
2.896E+00
3.1 83E+00
3.500E+00
3.850E+00

1.633E+00
1.677E+00
1.71 8E+OO
1.756E+00
1.792E+00
1.826E+00
1.857E+00
1.887E+00
1.91 4E+00
l.940E+00

3.050E-01
3.339E-01
3.609E-01
3.862E-01
4.099E-01
4.320E-01
4.526E-01
4.718E-01
4.898E-01
5.065E-01

5.232E-01
6.081 E-01
6.956E-01
7.853E-01
8.768E-01
9.695E-01
1.063E+00
1.l
58E+00
1.253E+00
1.348E+00

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

4.286E-01
4.1 07E-01
3.937E-01
3.776E-01
3.623E-01
3.478E-01
3.341 E-01
3.21OE-01
3.086E-01
2.969E-01

2.182E-01
2.067E-01
1 .g61 E-01
l.862E-01
1.77OE-01
1.685E-01
1.606E-01
1.531 E-01
1.462E-01
1.397E-01

4.235E+00
4.657E+M)
5.121 E+OO
5.629E+OO
6.184E+00
6.790E+00
7.450E+00
8.169E+OO
8.951 E+OO
9.799E+00

1.964E+OO
1.987E+00
2.008E+00
2.028E+00
2.047E+00
2.064E+00
2.081E+OO
2.096E+00
2.1 11 E+OO
2.1 25E+00

5.222E-01
5.368E-01
5.504E-01
5.632E-01
5.752E-01
5.864E-01
5.970E-01
6.068E-01
6.161E41
6.248E-01

1.443E+00
1.538E+OO
1.633E+00
1.728E+00
1.822E+00
1.91 5E+00
2.008E+00
2.1 00E+00
2.1 92E+00
2.282E+00

4.00
4.50
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.857E-01
2.376E-01
2.000E-01
1.702E-01
1.463E-01
1.27OE-01
1.111E-01
9.796E-02
8.696E-02
6.9n~-o2

1.336E-01
1.083E-01
8.944E-02
7.501 E-02
6.376E-02
5.482E-02
4.762E-02
4.1 73E-02
3.686E-02
2.935E-02

1.072E+01
1.656E+01
2.500E+01
3.687E+01
5.31 8E+01
7.51 3E+01
1.041 E+02
1.41 8E+02
1 .g01 E+02
3.272E+02

2.138E+00
2.1 94E+00
2.236E+00
2.269E+00
2.295E+00
2.316E+00
2.333E+00
2.347E+00
2.359E+00
2.377E+00

6.331 E41
6.676E-01
6.938E-01
7.140E-01
7.299E-01
7.425E-01
7.528E-01
7.612E-01
7.682E-01
7.790E-01

2.372E+OO
2.807E+00
3.219E+00
3.607E+00
3.974E+00
4.31 9E+00
4.646E+00
4.955E+00
5.248E+00
5.791 E+OO

l0
20
30

5.71 4E-02
1.481 E-02
6.63OE-03

2.39OE-02
6.086E-03
2.714E-03

5.359E+02
1.538E+04
1.l
44E+05

2.390E+OO
2.434E+00
2.443E+00

7.868E-01
8.126E-01
8.176E-01

6.284E+W
9.641 E+OO
65E+01
1.l

5.50

Chapter 5

272

0.09

1.250E+00
1.250E+00
l.250E+00
l.250E+OO
1.250E+00
1.249E+00
1.249E+00
1.248E+00
1.248E+00
1.247E+00

1.l
18E+02
5.590E+01
3.726E+O1
2.795E+01
2.235E+01
1.863E+01
l.596E+01
1.396E+01
1.241 E+01

5.725E+01
2.863E+01
1.909E+01
1.433E+01
1.147E+O1
9.562E+00
8.203E+00
7.1 84E+00
6.393E+00

0.000E+00
1.l
18E-02
2.236E-02
3.354E-02
4.471 E-02
5.588E-02
6.705E-02
7.821 E-02
8.937E-02
1.005E-01

6.659E+03
1.660E+03
7.344E+02
4.1 08E+02
2.61 2E+02
1.800E+02
1.31 1 E+02
9.948E+01
7.781 E+01

4.047E+OO
3.354E+00
2.949E+00
2.662E+00
2.439E+OO
2.258E+00
2.1 04E+00
1.972E+00
1.855E+00

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.247E+00
1.243E+00
1.238E+00
1.231 E+OO
1.222E+00
1.213E+00
1.202E+OO
1.190E+00

1.l
17E+01
7.433E+00
5.562E+00
4.438E+00
3.686E+00
3.147E+00
2.741 E+OO
2.424E+00

5.760E+00
3.870E+00
2.934E+00
2.380E+00
2.01 7E+00
1.764E+00
1.579E+OO
1.439E+00

17E-Ol
1.l
1.672E-01
2.225E-01
2.774E-01
3.31 7E-01
3.855E-01
4.385E-01
4.908E-01

6.235E+O1
2.598E+01
1.350E+01
7.863E+00
4.902E+00
3.1 87E+00
2.1 26E+00
1.439E+00

1.751 E+00
1.353E+00
l.076E+OO
8.672E-01
7.01 7E-01
5.674E-01
4.565E-01
3.641 E-01

0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90

1.176E+00
1.147E+00
1.l
14E+OO
l.O78E+OO
1.040E+00

2.169E+00
1.785+00
1.508+00
1.298E+00
1.133E+OO

1.332E+00
1.183E+00
1.092E+00
1.037E+00
l.009E+OO

5.423E-01
6.425E-01
7.387E-01
8.305E-01
9.176E-01

9.802E-01
4.479E-01
1.891 E-01
6.536E-02
1.306E-02

2.868E-01
1.684E-01
8.771 E-02
3.633E-02
8.508E-03

1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

1.000E+00
9.597E-01
9.1 91 E-01
8.787E-01
8.389E-01
8.000E-01
7.622E-01
7.257E-01
6.906E-01
6.57OE-01

1.000E+00
8.906E-01
7.989E-01
7.21 1E-01
6.542E-01
5.963E-01
5.456E-01
5.01 1 E-01
4.61 7E-01
4.266E-01

1.000E+00
l.O08E+OO
l.029E+00
1.063E+00
1.108E+00
l.165E+00
1.232E+00
1.31 1E+OO
1.402E+00
1.504E+00

1.000E+00
1.078E+00
1.l
50E+00
1.21 9E+00
1.282E+00
1.342E+00
1.397E+00
1.448E+00
1.496E+00
1.540E+00

0.000E+00
8.863E-03
2.988E-02
5.736E-02
8.790E-02
1.195E-01
1.508E-01
1.812E-01
2.103E-01
2.377E-01

O.OOOE+OO
7.545E-03
2.853E-02
6.082E-02
1.026E-01
1.524E-01
2.089E-01
2.71 OE-01
3.377E-01
4.082501

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07

0.08

0.80

00

00

00

OD

273

Gas Dynamics

TABLE 5.4 FannoLineFunctions

(Continued)
k = 1.5

TTT'
pdp,'

PIP'

viv*=p*/p

fL*/D

s*m

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

6.250E-01
5.945E-01
5.656E-01
5.382E-01
5.123E-01
4.878E-01
4.647E-01
4.429E-01
4.223E-01
4.029E-01

3.953E-01
3.672E-01
3.419E-01
3.190E-01
2.982E-01
2.794E-01
2.622E-01
2.465E-01
2.321 E-01
2.1 89E-01

1.61 9E+W
1.747E+00
1.889E+00
2.046E+00
2.21 8E+00
2.407E+00
2.61 3E+00
2.838E+OO
3.082E+00
3.347E+00

1.581E+W
1.61 9E+00
1.655E+OO
1.687E+00
1.71 8E+00
l.746E+00
1.772E+00
1.797E+00
1:820E+00
1.841 E+OO

2.636E-01
2.877E-01
3.103E-01
3.313E-01
3.508E-01
3.690E-01
3.858E-01
4.01 5E-01
4.160E-01
4.296E-01

4.81 9E-01
5.58OE-01
6.362E-01
7.1 58E-01
7.967E-01
8.783E-01
9.605E-01
l.043E+W
1.l
25E+00
1.208E+00

3.00
3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90

3.846E-01
3.674E-01
3.51 1E-01
3.358E-01
3.21 3E-01
3.077E-01
2.948E-01
2.826E-01
2.71 lE-01
2.603E-01

2.067E-01
1.955E-01
1.852E-01
l.756E-01
1.667E-01
1.585E-01
1.508E-01
1.437E-01
1.37OE-01
1.308E-01

3.633E+W
3.943E+00
4.278E+00
4.638E+00
5.025E+00
5.441 E+OO
5.886E+00
6.363E+00
6.874E+00
7.41 9E+00

1.861 E+OO
1.879E+00
l.896E+00
1.91 2E+OO
1.927E+00
1.g41 E+OO
1.955E+00
1.967E+00
1.979E+00
1.990E+00

4.422E-01
4.539E-01
4.648E-01
4.750E-01
4.846E-01
4.935E-01
5.01 8E-01
5.096E-01
5.169E-01
5.238E-01

1.290E+W
1.372E+00
1.453E+00
1.534+00
1.61 4E+00
1.694E+00
1.773E+00
1.851 E+OO
1.928E+00
2.004E+00

4.00
4.50
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.5WE-01
2.062E-01
1.724E-01
1.460E-01
1.25OE-01
1.081 E-01
9.434E-02
8.299E-02
7.353E-02
5.882E-02

1.25OE-01
1.009E-01
8.305E-02
6.947E-02
5.893E-02
5.058E-02
4.388E-02
3.841 E-02
3.39OE-02
2.695E-02

8.000E+W
1.l
51 E+01
1.620E+01
2.233E+O1
3.01 7E+Ol
4.004E+01
5.226E+01
6.721 E+01
8.526E+Ol
1.324E+02

2.0WE+W
2.043E+00
2.076E+OO
2.101 E+OO
2.1 21 E+OO
2.1 37E+00
2.150E+00
2.1 61 E+OO
2.1 69E+00
2.1 83E+00

5.302E-01
5.572E-01
5.775E-01
5.931 E-01
6.052E-01
6.149E-01
6.227E-01
6.291 E-01
6.344E-01
6.426E-01

2.079E+W
2.443E+00
2.785E+00
3.1 06E+00
3.407E+00
3.690E+00
3.956E+00
4.208E+00
4.446E+00
4.886E+00

10
20
30

4.808E-02
l.238E-02
5.531 E-03

2.193E-02
5.562E-03
2.479E-03

1.973E+02
2.934E+03
1.465E+04

2.1 93E+W
2.225E+00
2.231 E+OO

6.485E-01
6.679E-01
6.71 6E-01

5.285E+OO
7.984E+00
9.592E+00

5.00

Chapter 5

274

TABLE 5.4 FannoLineFunctions (Continued)


k = 513

T P

PIP'

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09

1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.333E+00
1.332E+00
1.332E+00
1.331 E+OO
1.330E+00
1.330E+00

1.155E+02
5.773E+01
3.848E+01
2.886E+01
2.308E+01
1.923E+01
1.648E+01
1.442E+01
1.281 E+01

0.1 0
0.1 5
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45

1.329E+00
1.323E+00
1.316E+00
1.306E+00
l.294E+00
1.281 E+OO
1.266E+00
1.249E+00

1.l
53E+01
7.669E40
5.735E40
4.571 E+OO
3.793E+00
3.234E+00
2.81 3E+00
2.484E+00

0.50
0.60
0.70

1.231 E+OO
1.190E+00
1.146E+00
1.099E+00
1.050E+00

2.219E40
1.81 8E+00
1.529E+00
1.31 OE+OO
1.l
38E+00

1.OOOE+OO

1.000E+00
8.861 E41
7.910E-01
7.1 04E-01
6.414E-01
5.819E-01
5.301 E-01
4.848E-01
4.448E-01
4.094E-01

0.08

0.80
0.90
1.oo
1.10
l.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90

9.501 E-01
9.009E-01
8.529E-01
8.065E-01
7.619E-01
7.1 94E-01
6.791 E-01
6.41 OE-01
6.051 E-01

00

PdPo*

VN' = p*/p

fL*m

OD

5.625E+Ol
2.81 3E+01
1.876E+Ol
1.408E+01
1.127E+01
9.398E+00
8.062E+00
7.061 E+OO
6.284E+00

0.000E+00
1.155E-02
2.309E-02
3.464E-02
4.61 8E-02
5.771 E-02
6.924E-02
8.076E-02
9.228E-02
1.038E-01

5.992E+03
1.493E+03
6.607E+02
3.695E+02
2.348E+02
1.61 8E+02
1.178E+02
8.934E+01
6.985E+01

4.030E+00
3.337E+00
2.932E+00
2.645E+00
2.422E+00
2.240E+00
2.087E+00
1.955E+00
1.838E+00

5.663E+W
3.806E+00
2.888E+00
2.345E+00
1.989E+00
1.741 E+OO
1.560E+00
1.424E+00

1.153E-01
1.726E-01
2.294E-01
2.857E-01
3.41 3E-01
3.961 E-01
4.500E-01
5.029E-01

5.594E+Ol
2.326E+01
1.204E+01
6.996E+00
4.347E+00
2.81 6E+00
1.873E+00
1.263E+00

1.734E+00
1.337E+00
1.061 E+OO
8.522E-01
6.877E-01
5.545E-01
4.448E-01
3.538E-01

1.320E+00
1.088E+00
1.035E+00
1.008E+00

5.547E-01
6.547E-01
7.494E-01
8.386E-01
9.222E-01

8.571 E41
3.888E-01
1.629E-01
5.592E-02
1.110E-02

2.779E-01
1.621 E-01
8.389E-02
3.452E-02
8.030E-03

1.000E+00
1.007E+00
1.027E+00
1.058E+00
1.098E+00
1.148+00
1.208E+00
l.275E+00
1.352E+00
1.437E+00

1.000E+00
1.072E+00
1.l
39E+00
1.201 E+OO
1.257E+00
1.309E+00
1.357E+00
1.401 E+OO
l.441 E+OO
1.478E+00

0.000+00

0.000E+00
7.026E-03
2.640E-02
5.591 E-02
9.375E-02
1.384E-01
1.886E-01
2.433E-01
3.01 6E-01
3.627E-01

1.l
76E+W

00

7.429E-03
2.489E-02
4.750E-02
7.239E-02
9.786E-02
1.229E-01
1.470E-01
1.699E-01
1.913E-01

OD

Gas Dynamics

275

TABLE 5.4 Fanno Line Functions (Continued)


k =5/3

TIT'

PIP'

p&<

V N ' = p'lp

fL'/D

s'lR

2.00
2.1 0
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

5.71 4E-01
5.398E-01
5.1 02E-01
4.825E-01
4.566E-01
4.324E-01
4.098E-01
3.887E-01
3.690E-01
3.506E-01

3.78OE-01
3.499E-01
3.247E-01
3.02OE-01
2.816E-01
2.63OE-01
2.462E-01
2.309E-01
2.169E-01
2.042E-01

1.531 E+OO
l.634E+00
1.746E+00
1.868E+00
1.998E+00
2.139E+00
2.290E+00
2.451 E+OO
2.623E+00
2.806E+00

1.51 2E+W
1.543E+00
1.571 E+OO
1.598E+00
1.622E+OO
1.644E+00
1.664E+00
1.683E+OO
1.701 E+OO
l.717E+00

2.1 13E-01
2.299E-01
2.471 E-01
2.631 E-01
2.778E-01
2.914E-01
3.040E-01
3.156E-01
3.264E-01
3.363E-01

4.261 E-01
4.91 1E-01
5.574E-01
6.246E-01
6.923E-01
7.604E-01
8.285E-01
8.965E-01
9.643E-01
1.032E+OO

3.00

3.90

3.333E-01
3.1 72E-01
3.021 E-01
2.88OE-01
2.747E-01
2.623E-01
2.506E-01
2.397E-01
2.294E-01
2.1 97E-01

1.925E-01
1.817E-01
1.71 8E-01
1.626E-01
1.542E-01
1.463E-01
1.391 E-01
1.323E-01
1.260E-01
1.202E-01

3.000E+00
3.206E+OO
3.424E+00
3.654E+00
3.897E+00
4.1 53E+00
4.422E+00
4.705E+00
5.003E+00
5.31 4E+00

1.732E+OO
1.746E+00
1.759E+00
1.771E+OO
1.782E+00
1.793E+OO
1.802E+00
1.B1 1 E+OO
1.820E+00
1.828E+00

3.456E-01
3.541 E-01
3.621 E41
3.695E-01
3.764E-01
3.828E-01
3.888E-01
3.943E-01
3.996E-01
4.045E-01

1.099E+00
1.l
65E+OO
1.231 E+OO
1.296E+00
1.36OE+OO
1.424E+00
1.487E+00
1.549E+00
1.61 OE+OO
1.670E+00

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
9.00

2.1 05E-01
1.720E-01
1.429E-01
1.203E-01
1.026E-01
8.84OE-02
7.692E-02
6.751 E-02
5.970E-02
4.762E-02

1.147E-01
9.217E-02
7.559E-02
6.306E-02
5.338E-02
4.574E-02
3.962E-02
3.464E-02
3.054E-02
2.425E-02

5.641 E+OO
7.508E+00
9.800E+00
1.256E+01
1.584E+01
1.969E+01
2.414E+01
2.925E+01
3.507E+01
4.900E+01

1.835E+00
1.867E+00
1.89OE+OO
1.908E+00
l.922E+00
1.933E+00
1.g41 E+OO
1.949E+00
1.955E+00
1.964E+00

4.091 E41
4.281 E-01
4.424E-01
4.532E-01
4.617E-01
4.684E-01
4.737E-01
4.781 E-01
4.81 8E-01
4.873E-01

1.730E+00
2.01 6E+00
2.282E+00
2.531 E+OO
2.763E+00
2.980E+00
3.1 84E+00
3.376E+00
3.557E+00
3.892E+00

10
20
30

3.883E-02
9.926E-03
4.430E-03

1.g71 E-02
4.981 E-03
2.219E-03

6.631 E+01
5.075E+02
1.699E+03

l.g71E+OO
1.993E+00
1.997E+00

4.914E-01
5.046E-01
5.070E-01

4.1 94E+00
6.230E+00
7.438E+00

3.1 0
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70

3.80

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Standard dimensionless numbers are developed for use in model testing
by two methods. The first is the force ratio method and the second is
Buckinghams II theorem. A very formal procedure and formatfor using
the later method is provided in the event that the reader could use it in
some practical application.
This chapter may be skipped by readers who are either familiar with
or have no interest in this subject.
This chapter may be used as a text for tutorial or for refresher purposes.
Algebra is highest level
of mathematics needed.There are 14 tutorial-type
examples of fully solved problems.

6.2 DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS


Modem fluid mechanicsis based ona combination of theoretical analysis
and experimentaldata. Very often, the engineer is faced withthe necessity
of obtaining dependable, practicalresults in situations wherefor various
reasons the flow phenomenacannot be described mathematically and experimental data must be considered. The generation and use of dimensionless parameters provide a powerful and useful tool in
(1) reducing the
(2) establishing
number of variables requiredfor an experimental program,
276

Dimensionless

277

the principles of model design and testing,(3) developing equations, and


(4) converting data from one system of units to another. Dimensionless
parameters may be generated by (1) physical equations, (2) principles of
similarity, and (3)dimensional analysis.
All physical equations should be dimensionally correct, so that a dimensionless parameter may be generated by simply dividing oneside of
the equation by the other, as will be illustrated. The principles of similarity
are used to develop dimensionless parameters for model-prototype relations to insure geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity by consideration of dimensions, velocities, and
forces involved betweenthe two.
Dimensional analysis is the mathematics of dimensions and quantities.
Two formal methodsare used, the Lord Rayleighs and the Buckingham
II theorem. Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919), who was bornJohn William Strut
in Essex, England, popularized the principle of dynamic similarity by
introducing in 1899 a generalization of the principle. Edgar Buckingham
(1867-1940) was a physicist at the National Bureau of Standards. In a
series of papers publishedin 1914 and 1915 he broughtto American notice
the uses of dimensional analysis and presented his Il theorem.

6.3

PHYSICAL EQUATIONS

Good engineering practice demands that all physical equations be dimensionally consistent. All terms in an equation must have the same
dimensions. Dissimilar quantities cannot be added or subtracted when
forming a true physical equation. For example,
coffee

+ eggs + bacon + toast = breakfast

may be true, but this is not the type of relationship being considered.
Dimensionless parameters may be derived by simply dividingone side
of any physical equation bythe other. A minimum of two dimensionless
parameters will be formed, one being the inverse of the other.
Example 6.1 What two dimensionless numberswill be formed by dividing the equation for the velocity of sound by itself?
Solution
c =

(1.68)

(4

Chapter 6

278

N2

N1 = NF'

Both N I and N Zare velocity.ratios.


6.4

MODELS VS. PROTOTYPES

There are many times whenfor economic or other reasons it is desirable


to determine the performance of a structure or machine by testinganother
structure or machine. This type of testing is called model testing. The
structure or machine being tested is called the model and the structure
whose performance is to be predicted is called the prototype. A model
may be smaller than, the same size as, or larger than the prototype.
Model experiments on airplanes, rockets, missiles, pipes, ships, canals,
turbines, pumps, and other structures and machines have resulted in savings that more than justified the expenditure of funds for the design, construction, and testingof the model. Under somesituations, the model and
prototype may be the same piece of equipment, for example, the calibration of a flow meter with water in a laboratory to predict its performance when metering steam. Many manufacturers
offluidmachinery
have test equipment that is limited to one or two fluids andare forced to
test with what they have available inorder to predict performanceunder
other conditions.
6.5 GEOMETRIC SIMILARITY
Geometric similarityexists between model andprototype when the ratios
of all corresponding dimensions in the model and prototype are equal.
These ratios may be written:

Figure 6.1 shows a pipe whose length isL , internal diameter isD , and
absolute surface roughness is E. Standard values of E and EIDare given
in Table C-3for wrought steel and iron pipe, Table C-4 for 250 psi cast
iron pipe, and Table C-5for seamless copper water tube.

Dimensionless

279

f
is the average absolute
surface roughnessof the
piping material

Figure 6.1 Notation for geometric similarity.

Example 6.2 It is desired to use a smaller pipeas a modelfor a standard


30-in. pipe. Availableare sections of 3-in. schedule 40 wrought steel pipe,
10-in. 250psi cast iron pipe, and l-in. type K seamless copper water tube.
For geometric similarity, which section should be used
as the model?
What should be the length of the model if the prototype length is 100 ft
(30.48 m)?
Solution

1. Common data
~

Internal diameter
Roughness
Source

ble size Pipe


30 in. Std.
3 in. Schedule 40
10 in. 250 psi
1 in. Type K

c-3
c-3
c-4
c-5

ft

(mm)

2.438
0.2557
0.8517
0.08292

(742.9)
(77.82)
(259.5)
(25.28)

EID

lo6

61S 3
588.6
998.0
60.30

Chapter 6

280

2. Criteriu for selection


There are three length variables to be consider for geometric similarity:
L, D , and E. These variables may be reduced to two length ratios, with
the common denominator being the internal pipe diameter D . The numerical values of
the first of these ratios EID is available from piping
tables
as already shown.

Model

3 in. Schedule 40 steel


Pipe
10 in. 250 psi cast iron
Pipe
1 in. Type K copper
water tube

(do),,,
X lo6

(EID), X IO6 (EID)mI(EID)p

588.6

61.53

10

988.0

61 .S3

16

60.30 .S3

61

The only way that the first two pipes could be used for geometric
similarity would be to machine their internal surfaces to achieve the required relative smoothnessEID of 61.53. The seamlesscopper water pipe,
on the other hand, has almost
the required relative smoothness and should
be used.
3. Model length
For similarity, the LID ratio of the model must equalthe LID ratio of the
prototype, or:
(LID), = 100/2.438 = (30.48)/(742.9 X
L , = (L/D)pDm = 410,

= 41

(a)
(b)

US. Units
L , = 41 x 0.08292 = 3.40 ft
S I Units

L,,, = 41 x 25.28 x lou3 = 1.04 m

6.6

(b)

KINEMATIC SIMILARITY

Kinematicsimilarity exists betweenmodeland prototype when their


streamlines are geometrically similar. Comparison
of the velocity profiles
of Figure 6.2 (a) with(b) and (c) indicates that (a) and (b) have kinematic
similarity, but (a) and (c) and (b) do not.

281

Dimensionless Parameters

(b)

(c)

Figure 6.2 Notation for kinematic similarity.

Some of the more common kinematic similarityratios are:


Acceleration
Velocity

am

L,T,-~ L,T,-~
-CL, L,T,"

ar = - -

(6.3)

v, L,T,-'
V , = - = -= L,T,"
V,
L,T,"

Volume flow rate

Qr =

Qm
LLT,"
= -- L?T,"
Qp

JZT,"

Example 6.3 Ethanol at 68F (20C) is to flow in a tube with a 12 in. (300
mm) inside diameter and with an average velocity of 0.05 ft/sec (15 mm/
S). To predict the performance of the 12 in. (300 mm)
tube, a geometrically
similar 4 in. (75 mm) tube is to be tested using 104F (40C) benzene. If
the flow in the 12 in. (300 mm tube) is laminar (kinematic viscosity determines the velocity gradient), at what average velocity shouldthe benzene flow in the 3 in. (75 mm) tube for kinematic similarity?

Chapter 6

282

Solution

When kinematic viscosity determines the velocity gradient, then for kinematic similarity

Substituting equation (a) in equation (6.4),


V, = L,T;'

L , ( V , L ; ~ )= V,L;I =

=
VP

(?)(?)

From the definition of kinematic viscosity of equation (1.71),


(c)

v = gcph

Subsisting equation(c) in equation (b), noting that the characteristiclength


is the diameter, and solving for V,,,:

US. Units
From TableA- 1:
Ethanol at 68F
Benzene at 104F

,,p =

49.44 ibm/ft3

p
,
, =

53.55 lbm/ft3

23.87 x

lbf-sec/
ft2
p
,
,
, = 10.36 x
lbfsec/ft2

pp =

V,,, = 0.05(10.36 X 10-6/23.87 X 10-6)(49.44/53.55)(12/3)


= 0.08 ft/sec

(b)

SI Units
From Table A-l:
Ethanol at 20C

pp = 791.9 kg/m3

Benzene at 40C

p
,, = 857.7 kg/m3

Vm

pp = 1 143 x

Pa-s

p
,
,
, = 496 x 10-6 Pa.s

15(496 X 10-6/1 143 X 10-6)(791.9/857.7)(300/75)


= 24 mmls

(dl

283

Dimensionless

6.7

DYNAMIC SIMILARITY

To maintain geometric and kinematic similarity, it is necessary to have


dynamic or force similarity. Consider the model-prototype relations for
the flow around the object shown in Figure 6.3.
For geometric similarity,

For kinematic similarity,


Am
-U=
-=
UAp

UBm

(6.4)

Vr

UBp

F1

Figure 6.3 Notation for dynamic acceleration.

284

Chapter 6

Consider nextthe forces acting on pointC of Figure 6.3 without specifying their nature. From the geometric similarityof their vector polygons
and Newton's law, whichof course applies to both model andprototype.
for dynamic similarity,

For dynamic similarity, these force ratios must be maintained on all


corresponding fluid particles throughout
the flow pattern. From the force
polygon of Figure 6.3, noting that forces are vectors (the symbol c, denotes vector addition), it is evident that

Examination of equation (6.7)as well as the force polygon of Figure


(6.3)leads to the conclusion that if three of the four terms are known,
the other may be determined. This leads to a more general conclusion
that dynamic similaritymay becharacterized by an equalityof force ratios
numbering one less than the total number of forces involved. Any force
ratio may be eliminated depending uponthe quantities which are desired
in the equations. For total model-prototype force ratio, comparisons of
force polygons yield

Fluid Forces
The fluid forces that are considered here are those acting on a fluid element whose mass = pL3, area = L2, length = L , and velocity = (LIT).
Inertia force

Fi =

(mass) X (acceleration) - ( p L 3 ) ( L / P )
proportionality constant
gc
(6.9)
gc

Viscous force

F,

(viscous shear stress) X (shear area)

(6.10)

Dimensionless
Gravity force
Fg

285

(mass) x (accleration due to gravity)


proportionality constant

(6.11)

FP = (pressure) X (area) = pL2


(6.12)
(mass) x (rotational acceleration)
Centrifugal force
F,,, =
proportionality constant

Pressure force

Elastic force

FE = (modulus of elasticity) x (area) = EL2

Surfacetension forceF,
Vibratory force

(6.14)

= (surfacetension) X (length) = uL

(6.15)

(mass) x (acceleration) - (pL3)(L/P)


- proportionality constant
gc

F -

(6.16)

If all of these fluid forces were acting on a fluid element,


F,

Fim * FW * Fgm * Fpm * Fmm * F E m * Fum * Ffm - Fim


Fip * Fpp * Fgp * Fpp * Fop * FE^ * Fop * Ffp
Fip
(6.17)

Fortunately, in most practical engineering problems, not allof the eight


forces are involved because they may not be acting, may be
of negligible
magnitude, or some may be in oppositionto each other in such a way as
to compensate. In each application of similarity, a good understandingof
the fluid phenomena involved is necessary to eliminate the irrelevant,
trivial, or compensating forces. When the flow phenomenaare too complex to be readily analyzed, or are not known, then only experimental
verification withthe prototype or results from a model test will determine
what forces should be considered in future model testing.

Standard Numbers
With eight fluid forces that can act inflow situations, the number of
dimensionless parameters that can be formed from
their ratios is 56. How-

Chapter 6

286

ever, conventional practice is to take the ratio of the inertia force to the
other fluid forces, because the inertia force is the vector sum of all ofthe
other forces involved in a given flow situation. Results obtained by dividing the inertia force by each of the other forces are shown in Table
6.1 compared with the standard numbers that are used in conventional
practice.
Example 6.4 A seaplane is to take off at 80 mph (129 km/h). At what
speed should a 1/60 model be towed to insure similarity of inertia and
gravity forces?
Solution

From Table 6.1 it is evident that for similarity of the inertia and gravity
forces the Froude number of the model and the prototype must be the
same or
V
=

(G),,,
=
= (G),

which reduces to

US. Units
V,,, = 0.1291 x 80 = 10.33mph

SI Units
V,,, = 0.1291 X 129 = 16.65km/h
6.8 VIBRATION
In the flow of fluids aroundobjects and inthe motion of bodies immersed
in fluids, vibration may occur because of the formation of a wake caused
by alternate shedding of eddies in a periodic fashion or by the vibration
of the object or the body. The Strouhal number S is the ratio of the velocity
of vibration L7 to the velocity of the fluid V. Since the vibration may be
fluid induced or structure induced, two frequencies mustbe considered,
the wake frequency f,, and the natural frequency of the structure f,,.
Fluid-induced forces are usually of small magnitude, but as the wake
frequency approaches the natural frequencyof the structure, the vibratory
forces increase very rapidly. When f, = f,,, the structure will go into

Dimensionless

287

resonance and fail. This imposeson the model designerthe requirement


of matching to scale the natural frequency characteristicsof the prototype.
All further discussions of model-prototype relations are made under the
assumption either that vibratory forces are absent or that they are taken
care of in the design of the model or in the test program.

6.9 SIMILARITY OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

This section considers the flow of incompressible fluids around object,


an
the motion of immersed bodies in incompressible fluids, andthe flow of
incompressible fluids in conduits. It includes, for example, a submarine
traveling under water but not partly submerged. It also includes aircraft
moving in atmospheres that may be considered incompressible.
In these situations, the gravity force, although acting on all fluid particles, does not affect the flow pattern. Except for rotating machinery,
which is considered in a later section, centrifugal forces are absent. By
definition of an incompressible fluid,elastic forces are zero. Since there
is no liquid-gas interface, surface tension forces are absent. This leaves
inertia, viscous, and pressure forces acting. With these forces acting, the
flow can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters. Usingstandard numbers, these are the Reynolds number and the Euler number.

Reynolds Number
This number was named in honor of Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), an
English engineer who developed it analytically and verified itby experiments. In Section 6.7, Table 6.1, the Reynolds number was derived as:

R =

inertia force - pLV


viscous force
Kgc

"

(6.18)

Noting fromthe definition of kinematic viscosity in equation


(1.71) that
can now write:

p = vp/gc, we

(6.19)

Euler Number
This number was named in honor of Leonhard Euler (1707-1783). Conventional practice (Table 6.1) is to use the pressure coefficient, which is

Chapter 6

288

twice the inverse of the Euler number:


Pressure cofficient = C , =

2 X pressure force - 2 Apg,


inertia force
PV2

"

(6.20)

The force created by the pressure loss is


(6.21)

Force = Ap(area) a F = ApL2


which, substituted in equation (6.20), becomes
2Fgc = Force coefficient = C F = 2(F/L2)gc

(6.22)

pL2V

PV2

Example 6.5 A submarine is to move submerged through sea water at


a speed of 10 knots. (a) At what speed should a 1/20 model be towed in
fresh water? (b) If the thrust of the model is found to be 45,000 lbf (200
kN), what power will be required to propel the submarine? Assume the
following for sea water:
pp = 64.18

lbm/ft3

(1028 kg/m3)

pp =39.40 x 1O"j lbf-sedft'

(1.886 X

Pa.$

For fresh water, assume:


pm = 62.31 lbm/ft3

(998.3 kg/m3)

p m = 20.92 x IOm6 lbf-sec/ft2

(1.002 x

Pa-s)

Solution
1. Speed
For dynamic similaritythe Reynolds numberof the model must equalthat
of the prototype, so that
(6.18)

or

2. Power
For dynamic similaritythe force coefficient of the model must equalthat
of the prototype, so that
(6.22)

Dimensionless

289

or

The power required to propel the submarine is computed using equation


(4.87):

P, = FpV,

(C)

US.Units
From Table B.l, V, = 10 x 1.6878 = 16.88 ft/sec.
1.Model towing speed
64.18
20.92
20

(G)(T)(

x
39.40 x

2. Power required to propel the submarine


FP

16.88
20
64.18

= 45,000

(G)(T)*(G)

= 155,023

P, = 155,023 x 16.88 = 2.616~lo6ft-lbf/lbm


= 2.617X lO6/55O = 4,757

hp

SI Units
From Table B.l, V, = 10~0.51444= 5.144 m/s.
1. Model towing speed

2. Power required to propel the submarine


F, = 200 000 1 028 20
5.144 = 688 201
N

(K)

(E)

(i)'

P, = 687149 x 5.144 = 3 534693 W = 3 534 kW

6.10 SIMILARITY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

This section considers the flow of compressible fluids around anobject,


the motion of immersed bodies in compressible fluids, and the flow of
compressible fluids in conduits. It does not consider the flow of compressible fluids in rotating machinery and aircraft during takeoffor after
landing.

Chapter 6

290

From the discussion given in Section 6.9, it is evident


that the only
difference between compressible and incompressible flow is the elastic
force. This meansthat the ratio of the inertia to elastic forces, or Cauchy
number, must now be considered in addition to the Reynolds number.
The Cauchy number was namedto honor Baron Augustin Louisde Cauchy (1789-1857), a French engineer turned mathematician who contributed greatly to the analysis of wave motion.
In Section 5.3the Mach number for an ideal gas was defined by equation (5.6) as:

Conventional practice is to use the square root of the Cauchy number or


Mach number. From Table 6.1the Mach number may be derived as

M =

inertia force
elastic force

V
m

(6.23)

Although equations (5.6) and (6.23)are identical in result, equation (6.23)


presents an elementary physical understanding
of the Mach number phenomena.
Example 6.6 A Gin. valve installed in a Schedule 80 wrought iron pipe
is designed to receive 12,400 Ibm/hr (1.56 kg/s) of hydrogen at 100 psia
(690kPa) and 122F (50C). This value is to be tested with air under
dynamically similar conditions. When air is supplied at 122F (20"C),the
(a) the velocity
pressure loss is found to be 5 Ibf/in.2 (34.5 kPa). Determine
of air supplied, (b) the air pressure, and (c) the estimated pressure loss
expected with the designed flow of hydrogen.

Solution

In this example
the model andprototype are the same pieceof equipment,
the 6-in. valve. It is the prototype when hydrogen is flowing, and the
model when air is flowing. For dynamic similarity the model-prototype
relationship must satisfy the following:
Mach number similarity
Reynolds number similarity
Euler number similairty(pressure coefficient)
1. The air velocity for Mach number similarity
The velocity of the prototype may be computed from
the continuity equation (3.15) for an ideal gas:

Dimensionless Parameters

291

*PTP
v, = -

(a)

APPP

Mm

( m T ) m =

(d&)p

(6.23)

Noting that T, = Tp,

2. The air pressure for Reynolds number similarity


From equation (6.19),

PLV

For an ideal gas fromthe equation of state (1.44) p = p/RT, substituting


for p in equation (c),

Noting that L , = LP and again that T,,, = T,

3. The pressure loss for Euler similarity


(6.20)

For an ideal gas, p = p/RT, and substituting in equation (6.20),

Solving equation (e) for b p p , noting that T, = Tp,

4. Common data
From Table C-3, for 6-in. pipe, Schedule 80, A , = 0.1810 ft2 (16830

mm2).

292

Chapter 6

US. Units
T, = T,,, = 122

+ 460 = 582"R

From Table A-l, for H ZM, = 2.016, and for air M,,, = 28.97.
From Table A-2 for H z at 122"F, k, = 1.399 and p
,
,
= 0.196 x
lbf-seclft2. For air at 122"F, k,,, = 1.401 and p,, = 0.410 x
Ibf-sec/
ft2.
From equation (1.43),
R = R,IM
R,,, = 1545128.97 = 53.33ft-lbfI(lbm-'R)
R, = 154512.016 = 766.4ft-lbf/(lbm-"R)
1. Velocity of the model V,,,
x 766.4 x 582 = 589.5 ft/sec
v, = (12,400/3600)
0.1810(144 x 100)

J(-)
1.402 (-)
53.33
1.399
766.4

Vm = 589.5

= 155.7 ft/sec

2. Model air pressure p,,,


589.5
53.33
0.410

Pm

= loo

(E)(%)
(0.196 X 10"j = 55.11 psia

(dl

3. Prototype pressure loss bp,


Ap, = 5

9.05 psia

SI Units
Tp =

Tm =

50

+ 273 = 323K

From Table A-l, for H Z M, = 2.016, and for air M,,, = 28.97. From
Table A-2 for H Z at 50"C, k, = 1.399 and pp = 9.4 x
Pass. For air
at 50"C, km = 1.401 and p,, = 1.96 x
Pavs.
From equation (1.43),
R = R,IM

R,,,

8314128.97 = 287.0 J/(kg*K)

R, = 831412.016 = 4124 Jl(kg.K)

Dimensionless Parameters

293

1. Velocity of the model V,,,

v, =

16
830

1.56 x 4124 x 323


= 178.9 mls
X
X 690 X lo3

V,,, = 178.9

J(=)r=)
1.399

4124

= 47.23 mls

2. Model air pressure pm

3. Prototype pressure loss hp,


Ap, = 34.5

(g)*(%)(=)
690

287.0

62.71

kPa

6.11 CENTRIFUGAL FORCES


This section covers the flow of fluids in such centrifugal machinery as
compressors, fans, and pumps.It is now necessaryto consider centrifugal
forces in addition to pressure, inertia, viscous, and elastic forces. This
means that the ratio of inertia to centrifugal forces must be considered.
Since centrifugal force is really a special case of the inertia force, their
ratio as shown in Table 6.1 is a velocity ratio.
Consider the fluid machine shown in Figure 6.4. The
absolute velocity
of the fluid as it leaves the machine is V and wD/2 isthe tangential velocity
of the machine. The velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of the fluid
velocity to machine tangential velocity.
For kinematic similarity, this
ratio
must be the same at all corresponding points of geometrically similar
models and prototypes.
From the derivation of Section 6.7, thisis also the ratio of the inertia
to centrifugal forces. Conventional practice is to state this ratio in the
following form:
velocity
fluid
V
=tangential
velocity
wD/2
v = -V
DN

centrifugal force

where N is the rotational speed and V is the velocity ratio.

(6.24)

Chapter 6

294
Absolute fluid

the runner

Tangential velocity

W
Figure 6.4 Notation for velocity ratio.

Substituting equation(6.24) for V in equation (6.23), we obtain for Mach


number:
(6.25)
Making the same substitution for Reynolds numberin equation (6.18),
noting that the characteristic length is D ,
(6.26)
Example 6.6 A centrifugal compressor is to compress methane delivered
to it at atmospheric pressure and 122F (5OOC). The compressor has an

Dimensionless

295

impeller diameter of12 in. (300 mm)and rotates at 100 rps. It is proposed
to test a geometrically similar 3-in.(75 mm) compressor withair. The air
source is 32F (OOC) and 5 atmospheres. At what speed shouldthe model
be tested for dynamic similarity?
Solution

Thisexample is solvedby first determining the rotationalspeed for


Reynolds number similarity and then checkingto see that the air source
pressure is sufficient to obtain Mach number similarityat the calculated
model rotational speed.
1. Determine rotational speed for Mach number similarity
(6.25)
or

2. Check air pressurefor Reynolds number similarity

From equation (1.44) for an ideal gas p = p/RT and substituting in


equation (b),

or

U.S. Units
Tp = 122

+ 460 = 582"R

T, = 32

+ 460 = 492"R

Table A-l for CH4, MP = 16.043; for air M, = 28.97. From Table A-2
lbf-sec/ft2;for air
for CH4 at 122"F, k p = 1.293 and p p = 0.248 x

Chapter 6

296

at 32"F, km = 1.401 and


(1.43):

= 0.360 X

lbf-sec/ft2.
From
equation

R = R,/M
R , = 154Y28.97 = 53.33ft-lbf/(lbm-"R)

R, = 1545A6.043 = 96.30ft-lbfl(1bm-"R)
1. Determine rotational speed for Machnumber similarity

(Y)d(EiiJ(G)(582)
1.401
53.33
492

N m = loo

285rPs

2. Check air pressure for Reynoldsnumber similarity


Pm

0.360
100
285
0.248
= 3.8 at mos
= 1x

492
53.33

Air can be throttled down from 5 atmospheres.

SI Units
Tp = 50

+ 273 = 323 K

T, = 0

+ 273 = 273 K

From Table A-l for CH4, M, = 16.043; for air M , = 28.97. From Table
Pass; for air at
A-2, for CH4 at 20"C, kp = 1.293and p, = 11.9 x
O T , km = 1.401 and p
,
,
= 17.2 x
Pass.Fromequation (1.43):

R = R,IM
R , = 8314128.97 = 287.0 J/(kg-K)
RP = 8314116.043 = 518.2 J/(kg.K)

1. Determine rotational speedfor Mach number similarity

0 ) d(E&ic2)(323)
1.401
287.0
273

Nm = loo

= 285rPs

2. Check air pressure for Reynolds number similarity


Pm =

x
273
287.0
11.9 x 10-6)

(F)*(%)( (518.2)(323)
17.2
100

= 3.8 atoms

Air can be throttled down from 5 atmospheres.

297

Dimensionless Parameters

6.12 SIMILARITY OF LIQUID SURFACES


This sectionconsiders flow at liquid-gas interfaces. It includes ships, seaplanes during take-off, submarines partly submerged,
piers, dams, rivers,
spillways, harbors, etc. Resistance at liquid surfaces is due to surface
tension and wave action. Since wave action is due to gravity, we now
consider the remaining force ratios discussed in Section 6.7.
Surface tension, as was stated in Chapter 1, enables the fluid to support
a very small tensile force. It is generally a minor property in fluid mechanics and exerts a negligible effect on wave formation
except when the
waves are small, say less than 1 in. (25 mm). Thus, the effects of surface
tension on a model might be considerable, but not on the prototype. To
avoid this type of scale effect surface tension should be considered.
The ratio of inertia to surface tension forces is known as the Weber
number, in honor of Moritz Weber(1871-1951), a professor of naval mechanics at the Polytechnic Institute of Berlin, who first formulated this
number. From the derivation in Section 6.7,
W =

inertia force
- pLV2
surface tension force
ug,

(6.27)

The effect of wave resistance is very important in obtaining similarity


at liquid surfaces. The ratio of the inertia to gravity forces is usually
considered in its square root form. In this form, it is called the Froude
number, in honor of William Froude (1810-1879), an Englishman who
developed many towing-tank techniques, particularly the conversion of
wave and boundary layer resistance from model to prototype scale. It is
one of the ironies of history that Froudes nameis inseparably associated
a number, the first of which he did not originate
with a law of similarity and
and the second of which he never used. His very great contribution to
boundary layer research is relatively unknown outside the field of naval
architecture. From the derivation of Section 6.7,
F =

inertia force - V
Jgravity
force
6

(6.28)

As will be seen in the two examplesto follow, it is usually impractical


to obtain complete dynamic similarityin model-prototype arrangements
when liquid surfaces are involved.

Example 6.7 An ocean vessel 500 ft (152.4 m) long isto travel at a speed
of 15 knots. A 1/25 model of this ship is to be tested in a towing tank
using sea water at design temperature. Determine (a) the model speed

298

Chapter 6

required for wave resistance similarity, (b) viscousor skin friction similarity, (c) surface tension similarity, and (d) the model size required for
complete dynamic similarity.
Solution

The model speed for wave resistance requires equality of Froude numbers. The speed for skin frictionrequires Reynolds number similarity and
for surface tension similarity requires Weber number equality.
1. Wave resistance similarity

V
=

or
V,,, = V,

(&)p

= 15

&

3 knots

2. Skin friction similarity (same fluid-same temperature)


=

R,

or
= 15(1)(7)(1)

= 375 knots

3. Surface tension similarity (same fluid-same temperature)


pLV2

pLV2

(x),,,
(x)
=

WP

or

4. Complete similarity

For Reynolds and Froude number similarity, setting equation (b) equal
to equation (a),

Dimensionless Parameters

299

which reduces to

For the same fluid, L,/L, = 1, or model and prototype must be the
same size. No practical way has been foundto model for complete similarity. Engineeringpractice is to model for wave resistance and to correct
by calculation for skin friction resistance.
Example 6.8 A U256 model of a reservoir is drained in 5 min by opening
the sluice gate. How long should it take to empty the prototype?
Solution

Since, from priordiscussion, complete dynamic similaritycannot be obtained, it is evident in this case that although viscous forces must be
present the dominatingforces are inertia and gravity and
the Froude number should be used for similarity. From equation (6.28),

From equation (6.4),


V, = L,T,

or

(g), (h),
=

Substituting equation (b) in equation (a),

or

6.13 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS


Dimensional analysisis the mathematics of dimensions and quantities and
provides procedural techniques whereby the variables that are assumed
to be significant in a problem can be formed into dimensionless parameters, the number of parameters being less than the number of variables.
This is a great advantage because fewer experimental runs are then re-

Chapter 6

300

quired to establish a relationship between the parameters than between


the variables. While the user is not presumed to have any knowledge of
the fundamental physical equations, the more knowledgeable the user,
the better the results. If any significant variableor variables are omitted,
then the relationship obtained from dimensional analysis will not apply
to the physical problem.On the other hand, inclusion of all possible variables will result in losingthe principal advantageof dimensional analysis,
that is, the reduction of the amount of experimental data required to establish relationships. Two formal methods of dimensional analysis are
used, the Method of Lord Rayleigh and Buckingham's I
I theorem.
Dimensions used in mechanicsare mass M , lenth L, time T , and force
F. Corresponding engineering units for these dimensions are the pound
(kilogram), the foot (meter), the second (second), and the pound force
(Newton). Any system in mechanics can be defined bythree fundamental
dimensions. Twosystems are used, the force (FLT)and the mass (MLT).
In the force system mass is a derived quantity, and in the mass system
force is a derived quantity. Force and mass are related by Newton's law:
F = (M/g,)LT-* and (Mlg,) = FL" p.Note that any quantity containing
a mass dimension must also contain
the proportionality constant g,. Table
6.2 shows some common variables and their units and dimensions.

6.14 LORD RAYLEIGH'S METHOD

The method developed by Lord Rayleigh uses algebra to determine interrelationships between variables. While this method may be used for
any number of variables, it becomes relatively complex and is not generally used for more than four. This method is most easily described by
the next two examples.
Example 6.9 In laminar flow, the unit shear stress T is some function of
the fluid dynamic viscosityp,the velocity gradientd U , and the distance
between laminae dy. Develop a relationshipusing the LordRayleigh
method of dimensional analysis.
Solution
1. Write a functional relationship of the variables:
2. Write a dimensional equation in the FLT or MLT system obtaining
data from Table 6.2:

(FL-*) = f(FL-2T)u(LT-')b(L)"

(b)

Dimensionless Parameters

301

3. Solve the dimensional equation for exponents:


7

Force F
Length L
Time T

CL

dU

dY

Solution

l =
a + O + O
-2 = - 2 ~ b + C
O =
a - b + O

a =

b =
b=

-C

c = -1

4. Insert exponents in functional equation (a):

The functional relationshipcannot be obtained from dimensional analysis. Only physical analysis andlor experiments can determine
this. From
the physical analysis of Section 1.18, equation (1.70),

Example 6.10 The velocity of sound c in a gas depends upon fluid density
p, pressure p , and dynamic viscosityp.Develop a relationship usingthe
Lord Rayleigh method'of dimensional analysis.

Solution

1. Write a functional relationship of the variables


c = f[(P~gc)"Pb~"1

(4

2. Write a dimensional equation in the FLT or MLT system obtaining


data from Table 6.2:
(FL")

f(ML-3)"(ML"T-Z)b(ML-1T"l)c

(b)

3. Solve the dimensional equationfor exponent:


c

Mass M
LengthL
Time T
M + L
L - T
M

P/&

O =
a
- 1 = -3a
O =
0

Solution

b + c
- b - c
-2b - C
-1 = -2a
+ 0 +0
-1 = - 3 a
+ b + O
-1 = -3(112) + b + 0
o =
112 - 112 + c

a = 112

b=

- 112

c = o

302

Chapter 6

4. Insert exponents in functional equation (a):

Note that this analysis rejected viscosity, showingthat the velocity of


sound is involved in a frictionless process. Again we cannot determine
the functional relationship from dimensional analysis alone. From
the
physical analysis of Section 1.16, equation (1.68),

For an ideal gas from equation


(1.62), E, = kp, and substitutingin equation
( 4,

compared with

fm

from dimensional analysis.

6.15

THE BUCKINGHAM II THEOREM

The Buckingham ll theorem serves the same purpose as the method of


Lord Rayleigh for deriving equations expressing one variable in termsof
its dependent variables. The ll theorem is preferred when the number of
variables exceeds four. Applicationof the theorem results in the formation
of dimensionless parameters called IT ratios. These ratios have no relation
to 3.1416. Application of this theorem is illustrated in the following example.
Example 6.11 Experiments are to be conducted with gas bubbles rising
in a still liquid. Consider a gas bubble of diameter D rising in a liquid
whose density is p, surface tension U, viscosity p, rising with a velocity
of V in a gravitational fieldof g. Find a set of parameters for organizing
experimental results.
Solution

This exampleis solved as an integral partof the remainder of the text of


this section.

Dimensionless Parameters

303

Application of the Buckingham ll Theorem


Step 1. Organize Data

a. List all the physical variables involved accordingto type: geometric,


kinematic, or dynamic (see Table 6.2).
b. Choose either the FLT or MLT system of dimensions.
c. Select a "basic group" of variables characteristic of the problem as
follows: BG, a geometric variable;Bk, a kinematic variable; andB D ,
a dynamic variable (if three dimensions are used).
d. Assign A numbers to the remaining variables, starting with A 1 .
Type

Description
Dimensions
Number
Symbol

Geometric
Kinematic
Dynamic
Kinematic
Dynamic
Dynamic

D
V
p/gc
g
U

Basic group
Bubble
diameter
Bubble
velocity
Liquid
density
Remaining variables
Acceleration of gravity
Surface tension
Liquid
viscosity

L
LTML-3

BG
Bk
BD

LT-'
MT-~
ML"T-'

A1
AZ
A3

(6.29)

Note that the number of ll ratios is equalto the number of A numbers


and thus equal to the number of variables less the number of fundamental
dimensions in a problem.
b. Using the algebraic method of balancing exponents by writing dimensional equations, determine the value of exponents x, y, and z for
each ll ratio. Note that for all ll ratios, ZM = 0, ZL = 0 , ZT = 0, and
if the FLT system is used, ZF = 0.

n1 = ( B G Y 1 ( B ~ ) Y 1 ( B ~ ) Z 1=( A(DY'(v)Y'(p/gc)Z'(g)
1)
( M " L o p )= (Lx1)(Ly'T-y1)(W1L-321 )(LT-')

304

Chapter 6

n1

0 =

O = x 1 - 2

x1

o = o

n1

o = o

0 =

0 = x2

o = o

n~

x2

o = o

z1

+ o

y2

+
-

+ o

22

3z2
0
3(-1)

PkC

z3

y ] = -2
X] =
1

+ l

PkC

- y 2 +

- 2

+ y3 - 3z3
o = o -y3+ 0
0 = x3 - 2 - 3(-1)
0 = x3

Solution

Z ] + O
y1 - 321
1
- y 1 +
0 - 2

Mass, M
Length L
Time T

o = o + o

Mass, M
Length L
Time T

Mass, M
Length L
Time T

PkC

Solution

+ l

z2= -1

y2

0
- 2
0

= -2
x2= - 1

Solution

+ l

z3=

- 1
+0

y3= - 1
x3 = - 1

+ o

-1

Step 3. Convert ll Ratios to Conventional Practice

One statement of the Buckingham ll theorem is that any ratio may


be taken as a function of all of the others, or

Dimensionless

305

f(&, n2, n3,*

=0

(6.30)
Equation (6.30) is mathematical shorthand for a functional statement. It
could be written, for example, as
n2

fml , n3,

,K )

* *

(d)

Equation (d) states that 112 is some function of l l ~and l l ~ sthrough ll,,,
but it is not a statement of what functionll2 is of the other ll ratios. This
can only be determined by physical and/or experimental analysis. Thus
we are free to substitute any function in equation (6.29); for example, II,
may be replaced with 2 l l i or ll,, with all:.
The procedures set forth in this section are designed to produce ratios
containing the same terms as those resulting from the application of the
principles of similarity so that the physical significance may be understood. However, any other combinations might have been used. The only
real requirement for a basic group is that it contain the same number
of terms as there are dimensions in a problem and that each of these
dimensions be represented in it.
The maximum number of combinations C or ll ratios that can be obtained fromV independent variablesin B fundamental dimensionsis given
by
V!
(6.31)
C(V,B + 1) =
( b 1)!(V - B - l)!

Solution of equation (6.31) for B = 3 fundamental dimensionsresults in


the following:
V Variables

5
6
7
8

C Combinations

5
15
35
70

9
10

210

This tabulation indicates the importance of selecting the variables that


make upthe basic group. It is notthat the other solutions are incorrect,
they are just as
valid as the conventional ratios, but their relationto force
ratios may not be so easily seen. In the force ratios of Section 6.7, the
inertia force was always used in combination with the other forces. It
would have beenjust as correct to use any of the other forms.

306

Chapter 6

The ll ratios derived for this example may be converted into conventional practice as follows:

ll, = D&?
V2
This is recognized from Section6.7, Table 6.1, as the inverse of the square
of the Froude number F, and
ll2

DVp
W

is the inverse of the Weber number W, and

is the inverse of the Reynolds number R.


Let

U1

m 2 ,

Then
V = K(Dg)

where

K = f(W,R)
(g)
Equation (g) tells us that the experimental program must include
the variation of the three ll ratios instead of the six original variables.
To conserve space, the format for dimensional analysis shownin Table
6.3 will be used throught the balance of this book.
6.16 PARAMETERS FOR FLUID MACHINERY
Dimensional Analysis
Consider any fluid machine (turbine, pump, compressor, fan, etc.) handling a fluid at a volume rate of flow of Q, density p, viscosity p, bulk
modulus of elasticity of E , and with an energy transfer rate (head) per
unit mass of H . The power developedor supplied isP,the characteristic
machine diameter is D, and the machine operates at a rotational speed
of N . Determine the parameters that define machine characteristics.
Application of the Buckingham II theorem is shown in Table 6.4. Let

n1 = m

2 ,

H,, r24, ns)

Dimensionless

307

Then
(6.32)

Development of Pump Laws from Dimensional Analysis


The so-called pump lawsare used by engineers for similarity relations in
fluid machinery applications. For incompressible fluids, Mach number is
not a parameter, and for geometrically similar machines and
for the same
fluids, Reynolds number and density are constant, so that

Q
n, = D3N

(6.33)

or

First Law

Discharge (volumetric flowrate) varies directly withthe speed and as


the cube of the diameter, as shown in equation (6.33).
n2

D=N*

or

(6.34)

H = f(DZN2)

(Note that g, is a constant.)


Second Law

Head (energy transfer per unit mass) varies directly with the square
of the speed and diameter, as shown in equation (6.34).
rI3

D5N3p

or

f(DSN3)

(6.35)

(g, and p constant)

Third Law

Power varies directly with the cube of the speed and the fifth power
of the diameter, as shown in equation (6.35).
Example 6.12 A centrifugal pump has the following characteristics.

Capacity
Speed
Head
Power
Impeller diameter

500 gpm
1750 rpm
60 ft-lbf/lbm
15 bhp
8 in.

(3.155 x

m3/s)

(29.17 rps)
(180 J/kg)
(11bkW)
(200 mm)

308

Chapter 6

The pump is driven by a constant-speed motor. In a certain application,


the capacity is to be reduced to 21 1 gpm (1.331 X IOe3) by changing the
impeller.
Determine (a) the required impeller diameter, (b) the head developed,
and (c) power required with the new impeller.
Solution

This example is solved by applicationof the pump laws.


(a) First law
Discharge (volumetric flow
rate) varies directly withthe speed andas the
cube of the diameter, using equation (6.33):

(b) Second law


Head varies directly with the square of the speed and diameter, as in
equation (6.34):

(c) Third Zuw


Power varies directly with the cube of the speed and the fifth power of
the diameter, as shown in equation (6.35):

US. Units
D2 = 8(211/500) = 6 in.
H2 = 60(6/8)2 = 33.75 ft-lbfhbm
Pz = 15(6/8)5 = 3.56 bhp
SI Units

D2 = 200(1.331 x 10-3/3.155 x 10-3)1/3 = 150 mm


H2 = 180(150/200)2 = 101 J k g
Pz = 11(150/200)5 = 2.61 bkW

Dimensionless

309

Concept of Specific Speed


It is desired to develop a parameter for comparing pump performance
under the following conditions:
1. Incompressible fluid.This eliminates the bulk modulus of elasticity
E and 115, the Mach number.
2. Identical fluid properties. This eliminates density and viscosity as
well as l&, the Reynolds number.
3. Optimum efficiency. This means identical velocity ratios and eliminates II,, the velocity ratio.
4. In terms of head rather thanpower input.This eliminates power and
I I 3 , the power coefficient.
5. Independent of size. This eliminates impeller diameter
D . Under these
conditions, the only remaining variables are Q , H , and N . Let N ,
(specific speed) be some function of these, and use the method of
Lord Rayleigh for dimensional analysis:
N s = Qa(gcHlbN

or
L o p = (L3T-1)a(L2T-2)C(T-1)

Solved for the exponents a = 1/2, b = -3/4,


(6.36)

Equation (6.36) is the dimensionless formof specific speed. American


engineering practice is to drop the proportionality constant g, and define
specific speed as follows:
(6.37)

For Pumps

.The specific speedof a pump impeller is the speed in revolutions per


would operate to develop
minute at which a geometrically similar impeller
1 ft of head when displacing 1 gallon per minute of the same fluid or
NSPUS =

"PR
FT3I4

(6.38)

310

Chapter 6

Design specific speeds for pumps ranges from 500 to 15,000 depending
on the type of impeller as follows:
speed
of specific
Range

Type

500 to 3,500
3,500 to 10,000
10,OOO to 15,000

Radial flow
Mixed flow
Axial flow

Maximum efficiency occurs at an impeller specific speedof about 2,500.


Note that this specijic speed is not dimensionless. In obtaining data from
foreign publications make sure
of theunits used to compute thespecijic speed.
Example 6.13 How many stagesare necessary for a pump to deliver 220
gallons per minute (0.01388 m3/s) against a head
of 600 ft (182.88 m), when
operating at a speed of 3,600 revolutions per minute(60 rps) if the NSPUS
of 2,500 is desired?
Solution

This problem is solved by noting that the head per stage must be that
necessary to produce a impeller specific speed of 2,500. Solve equation
(6.37) for H .

US.Units
Himpeller
=

() NSPUS

43

For Turbines

All of the conditions for pumps apply except that in the case of hydraulic turbines interest is in power developedrather than fluid displace-

Dimensionless

311

ment. The power output of a hydraulic turbine is

where eh is the hydraulic efficiency.


Substituting from equation(6.39) for Q in equation (6.37):
N, =

N-h
~ 3 1 4

(6.40)

~ 5 1 4

For constant specific weight,density, and efficiency, equation(6.40) becomes


(6.41)

The specific speed of a hydraulic turbine is the speed in revolutions per


minute (RPM) at which a geometrically similar hydraulic turbine would
operate to develop 1 brake horsepower (BHP) undera head of 1 ft of the
same fluid.
(6.42)

Note again that this specific speed is not dimensionless. In obtaining data
from foreign publications make sure of the units used to compute the specific
speed.
Some characteristics of hydraulic turbines are:

Type
Impulse wheels
Reaction turbines
Axial flow turbines

Specific
speed
0 to 4.5
10 to 100
80 to 200

Head, ft Average
efficiency,
over 800
15 to 800
below 100

82
90

90

Example 6.14 Water supply is available at a height of 15 m. It is desired


to develop 37 500 kW with a hydraulic turbine operating at 1 rps. What
type of turbine should be selected?

312

Chapter 6

Solution

Since data on specific speeds in SI units are not available it is necessary


to convert to U.S. units using Table B.1.

= 151.3048 = 49.21 ft

N=Ix60=ijOrpm
Po = 37 500 X 1000/745.70 = 50,288 hp
Calculate the specific speed:
NSTUS=

RPMFTsi4

- 60= 103
49.2lSi4

(6.42)

From the above characteristics of hydraulic turbines witha head of 49 ft


and a specific speed of 103, an axial flow turbine should be selected.

Dimensionless Parameters

313

Table 6.1 Standard Numbers

I-

Foroe
Ratio

Inertia
Vibration

;1

Equations

17
5

Conventional Practioe
I Symbol I Name
Form

pL'V'/ g
pLVE

pL2V2/gc

Result

L'r'
V2

9
V

Strouhal

Table 6.2 Dimensions and Units of Common Variables

314

0
0,

>

Dimensionless Parameters

-ac,
a
c

a,

v)

h
.-

ti

a,

.-E,
n

cu

Q n

315

2 5
%

316

(U

c
a
c
o

.-

(U

CV

2.

c
0
m

a$ P

CV

Chapter 6

Table A-l Critical and Saturated Properties of Selected Fluids


Table A-2 Properties of Selected Gases
Table A-3Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water

317

318

Appendix A

Fluid Properties
319

320

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

322

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

323

324

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

LI

325

326

Fluid Properties
327

328

Fluid Properties

330

Appendix A

P
n

..

Fluid Properties
331

332

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

333

334

N C

21
N
.

Appendix A

Fluid Properties
335

336

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

337

338

r
l.

e5

1#f139

88888

88888

WKWWf

Appendix A

Appendix Tables A-2 and A-3 follow on pages 340-372

339

88888
+++++
wwwww

0J"V-Y

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0

342

l
N N N N N

3833%
""-

d o o r

Appendix A

N N N N N

99499

N N N N N

49949

--.-(UN

99999

rnrn0rnN

wwulww

88M6R

uiviviff

wwwww

rn.-Qrn~

N"Cnu5

pIwq0,

wwwww

Fluid Properties

343

344

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

N N

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0

N N N N N

F!!

Q9

" " F

wwwww

E6882 % % R $ %

????Q ???Q?

wwwww

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0

.-cum

m m b
"?m232

cucuNNcu

g8

P????
S ? ? ? ?S ?c v c u
- N N N N
mmlu-0

345

346

"". "

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

""(U

94494

U)(UPW(U

w w w w w
? " N O 9
"
"
P
-

81888R
7--.-7
" " r

0 0 0 0 0

" " F

0 0 0 0
00
0 0 0
00
0 0 0
00
0 0 0
00
0 0 0
00
0 0 0

Fluid Properties

" " F

" C "

.
.

347

. . . .

" . - V

348

ti

b
6
a

"

.
"

"

%3%S$
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

C " "

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

C " "

l
cjcjeinioi

Appendix A

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

Fluid Properties

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0

"

"

"

"

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

" " F

PEBE

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

" " F

ivmt5

349

r a m 0 0
.-OkNPI

"""?c!
0 0 0 0 0

Appendix A

Fluid Properties
351

352

e5s3g
" C . -

" " F

0 0 0 0 0

!%W83

???S? S????
r

Appendix A

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Fluid Properties

cr
c

0 0 000000 0 0

353

0 0 0 0 0

354

1..

0 0 0 0

C C "

0 0 0 0

"

"

. . . . .

Appendix A

. . . . .

" " r

"

. . . . .
. . . . .

. - C " . -

Fluid Properties

"

i
0

wm
&
&m
Qm
&?

" C "

0 0 0 0 0

0'

1
I

355

88888
0 0 0 0 0

356

0
IC

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

357

. " . .

7 " "

"cucucu

Q9999

98235

wwwww

"

. . . . .

"

"

"

. . . . .

. . . .

""

0 0 0 0

8888

Fluid Properties

0 0 0 0 4

359

360

"

"

. " . .

IDIDWIDW

b b b b b

22222

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

" " V

z z z z z wz wz wz wz wz zw zw zw zw
wwwww

" V C

Q 0 0 0

uido'mm

rirrirrirrirrir

Appendix A

RRRRR
22222
0 0 0 0 0

Fluid Properties

361

362

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

363

364

wM
""

lDu?lD8

NNOI
b b b b
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

Appendix A

Fluid Properties

3sqrn"

"-F=
. . .
"

.-rnbcub
C " "

-7-

ZK
0 0

. .

" " F

. . .

. .

"

"

"

365

. . . . .

366

q
$wwc?ln
" " F

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

8+ 8+ 8+ 8+ 8+
Ulwwww

F
"
"

O Q ?

rC?s.!.

Appendix A

F
"
"

0 0 0 0 0

85830

Fluid Properties

U,

0"
L

(D31$""

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

$!@g$

367

368

$!!$$

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Appendix A

369

Fluid Properties

Table A-3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water


lF I plbrmrt.' I Z-pvmT I p l b f - d l V f P k c
1.F I plbmm) I Z-pvlRT I p l b f 4 I vV/sec
1 psia
32
62.42
3.737E-05
100
4.841E-05 1.423E-06
62.00
101.74)
61 .g61 4.628E-051 1.398E-05
101.74) 0.002998
0.99601
2.145E-07
0.002546
200
0.9993 2.528E-07
300
0.00221
1
1 .OOOO 2.963E-07
0.001954
400
600
0.001585
800
0.001333

1.0001 3.422E-07
1.0003 4.374E-07
1.0004 5.336E-07

1000
0.001
150
1200
0.001012

1.0004 6.286E-07
1.0004 7.216E-07

1400
0.000903

10 psia
1.926E-05
5.472E-05
32
5.472E-04 62.42
1.926E-05 3.737E-05
7.385E-06
100
61.35
1.432E-05 7.510E-06
4.892E-04
7.26OE-O61(193.21)1
60.2614.268E-041 6.604E-061 3.525E-06
2.302E-031(193.21)1 0.026031
0.98841
2.490E-071
3.078E-04

1.0005 6.115E-07
14.696 psia
1.926E-051
7.432E-06
3.396E-06

32
100
200

I 1 I 1 I

3.166E-061(26l.O2)l
2.211E-04 (261.02)l

62.42 0.002736 3.736E-05 1.926E-05


62.000.0024201.423E-057.385E-06
60.130.0021176.337E-063.391E-06
57.901 0.0019581 4.144E-061 2.303E-06
0.11751
0.96531 2.844E-071
7.791E-05

800

1000
1200

32
100
200
300

[327.82)1
[327.62)1
400
600
800
1000
1200

0.1014
300 psia

32
100
200

62.03

300

57.34

400
(417.35)
(417.35)
600
800

54.381 0.0073411 2.8778-061 1.702E-06


0.43721
0.91311 3.254E-071 2.395E-05
2.540E-05
0.4238
4.280E-05
0.3270
8.336E-05
800
0.2709
1.5078-04
0.9924 0.1344
l000
8.725E-05
1.752E-04
0.2321
0.9959 0,1155
1200
1.143E-04
.2.291E-04 7.221E-07
0.9978
0.181 1
0.9972 8.129E+00 1.444E+03
1400
8.122E-07 2.890E-04
0.9989 0.09042
1400
400 psia
32
62.50
1.917E-05
3.7271-05 1.920E-05
0.01641 62.46
100
62.07 0.01934
7.376E-06
1.423E-05 7.360E-06
0.01451
3.396E-06
200
6.346E-06 3.393E-06
0.01269 60.17
300
2.154E-06
57.37
3.838E-06 2.154E-06
0,01157
400
1.637E-06
2.730E-06 1.636E-06
0.01092 53.68
1.508E-06
51.71
2.601E-06 1.581E-06 (444.6(
0.8613 0.8625 3.513E-07 1.312E-05
3.399E-07 1.687E-05
0.8863 0.6482
(444.6(
600
0.6774 0.9360 4.328E-07 2.056E-05
4.339E-07 2.798E-05
0.9531 0.4969
800
14E-05
0.5509
5.332E-07 3.1
0.9680
5.333E-07 4.188E-05
0.9763

56.371 0.0037841 3.437E-061


0.22571
0.94501 3.034E-071
3.385E-07
4.362E-07
6.291E-07
6.291E-07

52.94

0.01085

0.4097
0.3498

1000

0.2721

1400

1.962E-061(381.80)1
4.325E-051(381.60)1
5.375E-05
400
0.9641 0.2026
600
8.724E-05
0.9852 0.1609

1000
8.298E-07 5.792E-05
0.9867
1200 1200
7.2338-07 7.607E-05
0.9924 0.3059
1400
8.136E-07 9.619E-05
0.9956

4.327E-05
5.695E-05
7.209E-05

3.346E-07 0
4.350E-07 0.
5.335E-07 0
6.295E-07 0.
7.227E-07 0

3.724E-05 0
1.423E-05
6.350E-06 0
3.641 E-06
2.733E-06 0
2.424E-06 0

6.302E-07
7.240E-07
8.143E-07

0
0
0

Appendix

370

Table A-3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)

I Z=pWRT I U l b f - d l

v~/sac
taF
p l b d
Z=pvlRT p I b f d I v ( r h
500 psia
1000 psia
32
62.54 0.02731
1.914E-05 323.721E-05
0.05455 3.705E-05
62.62 1.904E-05
100
62.07
1.423E-05 7.376E-06
0.02417
62.19 0.04826
100 1.423E-05 7.362E-06
200
60.20 0.02114
3.396E-06 2006.354E-06
0.04221 6.372E-06
60.31 3.3998-06
300
57.41 0.01926
2.155E-06 3003.646E-06
0.03842
57.54 2.160E-06
3.862E
400
0.01618 2.736E-06
53.73 1.638E-06 400
0.03624
53.91 1.643E-06
2.753E
'467.01)l
50.631
0.017901 2.294E-06) 1.458E-06)(544.58)1
46.321 0.036111 1.912E-061 1.326E-06
2.2381 0.74741 3.971E-071 5.710E-06
:467.01)] 1.078051] 0.84061 3.608E-071 1.077E-051(544.58)1
0.86326
600
0.9180
1.609E-05 600
4.318E-07
1.947
0.8142
7.061E-06
4.264E
600
0.9598 5.332E-07
0.694569
2.470E-05 600
1.455
5.341E-07 1.181E-05
0.9167
1000 0.566512
0.9776
3.446E-05 1000
6.307E-07
1.206
6.335E-07 1.691E-05
0.9544
1200
0.9870
0.512636
4.546E-05 1200
7.246E-07
1.039
0.9737
2.255E-05
7.264E
1400
0.9924
0.455021
5.763E-05
8.151E-07
0.9845
0,91735
1400
2.873E-05
8.192E
1500 psia
2000 psia
62.74
32
3.690E-05 1.692E-05
0.08168 32
0.1087
62.85 1.681E-05
3.675E
0.07229
62.27 7.358E-06
100
62.38
100
1.4248-05
7.344E-06
1.424E200
3.403E-06 2006.390E-06
0.06320
60.42
0.08417
60.50 3.408E-06
6.406E
300
2.165E-06 300
3.679E-06
0.05754
57.64
0.07654
57.77 2.170E-06
3.697E
400
400
1.626E-060.07205
2.733E-06
0.05419
54.08
54.23 1.653E-06
2.786E
0.05594
42.63 1.270E-06 6001.663E-06
42.88
1.271E-06
1.694E
(596.90)
3.821E-06(635.80)
4.284E-07
36.99 0.6610 1.507E-05
3.608 1.244E-05
0.07865
(596.90)
600
3.571
4.296E-07 3.872E-06
0.6657(635.80)
0.5774
5.311 2.796E-06
4.615E
800
7.514E-06 600
5.369E-07
0.6700
2.299 5.358E-06
5.421E
1000
0.9310
1.654
0.9072 6.427E-07
2.537 8.151E-06
l000
1.106E-05
1200
7.329E-07
0.9604 1200
1.581 1.492E-05
2.137
1.11lE-05
7.381E
1400
0.9767
1.367
1.431 E-05
6.289E2500 psia
3000 psia
32
62.93
1.872E-05 323.661E-05
0.1357
0.1625
63.05 1.660E-05
3.646E
100
62.46
7.331E-06
1.425E
60.68
200
60.61
0.1050
6.4278-06
3.418E-06
6.446E
3.412E-06
200
300
2.177E-06 300
3.9158-06
0.0955
57.87 2.182E-06
3.933E
0.1074
54.55 1.664E-06
400
54.41
0.0898
1.658E-06 4002.804E-06
2.821E
43.44
600
1.273E-06 600
1.719E-06
0.0912
1.29ZE-06
1,746E
0.1496 34.98
29.17 1.228E-06
1.228E-06 (695.33)
1.335E-06
0.1064
1.113E
1668.10)
2.131E-06 (695.33)
5.068E-07
0.4866
7.651
1.633E-06
5.968E(668.10)
3.194E-06
5.642E600
4.361
5.507E-07 4.063E-06
0.7643 800
5.259E-06
6.573E
0.9340
7.510E-07 7.329E-06
0.9208
3.297
1200
2.709
1200
6.640E-06
7.442E-07
2.840
1400
1.144E-05
8.345E-07 9.524E-06
0.9616
2.348
8.407E
4000 psia
5000 psia
0.2159
32
63.29
1.640E-05 323.619E-05
1.827E-05
3.594E
7.300E-06 1001.427E-05
0.1909
0.2386
62.89
62.89 7.306E-06
100
1.426E
6.485E-06
0.1670 200
6.525E-06 3.443E-06
0.2088
60.98
60.98
3.422E-06
200
0.1519
58.82
300
58.22
300
2.194505
3.970E-05
2.193E-06
4.009E
400
1.685E-06
2.894E
0.1415
600
44.82
1.294E-06 600
1.803E-06
1.314E-06
1.865E
6.205E-07 2.101E-06
0.5613 8009.502
1.526E-06
6.026E
800
2.994E-06
7.092E
1000
5.708
4.347E-06
7.875E
1200
0.9398
8.704E
1400
1400
7.152506
8.545E-07 5.741E-06
3.644
t'F

pRr"

"
-

Fluid

371

Table A-3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)
tOC

(8.98)
(6.98)
25
50
100
200
300

pWm5

Z-pv/RT
0.01Bar(1kPa)
999.80 7.934E-06

0.007271

0.003781

p Pa%

v m71s

1%

pWmJ

.OOOO

0.002482

1.01325
(101,325 kPa)
Bar
999.83
997.06 7.385E-04
25

958.39
0.59750
0.46645

300

400
500
600
700

0.25156

0
25

1000.29

50
100

700

50
100
200
(212.42)
(212.42)
300

1.314E-02 3.261E-05
600
1
1.0000 3.261E-05
0.024816
1.642E-02 3.655E-05
700
0.022266
1.0000 0.002227
.OOOO
5 Bar (500 kPa)
1.782E-06 1.782E-03
0
8.039E-04
1.791E-03
25
8.934E-07 8.908E-04
997.24 3.644E-03

3.2168-05 1.278E-04
0.9995
0.9997 0.22567 1.620E-04
10 Bar (1 MPa)

179.92
(179.92)

m7/s

1.314E-03
1.642E-03 3.655E-05 1

3.966E-03
1.791E-06
8.932E-07
50
5.536E-07
5.471E-04 5.5378-07
6.876E-04 988.03
2.946E-07
3.784E-04 6.469E-04 974.86
1.959E-07 1.793E-04 2.785E-03 915.31
6.139E-04 2.823E-042.946E-07 (151.87)
5.282E-06
0.9847 1.228E-05 2.055E-05(151.87)
0.9728
0.9948 1.618E-05
2.3537 200
3.469E-05
1.607E-05 6.828E-06
0.9877
1.9137
1.058E-05
300
2.029E-05 5.284E-05
0.9976 0.38398
400
1.509E-05
0.9935 1.6200
2.445E-05 7.487E-05
0.9987 0.32657
2.032E-05
2.857E-05 1.005E-04
0.9993 0.28418

50
75
(100.00)
(100.00)
200

1.789E-06
7.289E-05 997.02
8.932E-07
6.863E-05
5.948E-07
0.9968 0.068150
1.539E-04
1.579E-04 1.062E-05
0.9986 0.058150
2.122E-04
0.9995 0.045818
3.536E-04
5.369E-04 2.030E-05 0.
2.445E-05 7.595E-04
0.9999 0.032192 400
0.9999 0.028027 1.019E-03
500 1.019E-02
2.857E
2.857E-05

400
500

800
700

2-pvlRT
p Paa
0.1 Bar (10 kPa)
1.789E-06 1.789E-03
0
7.934E-05 1.789E-03
999.78
1.428E-03 1.428E-06
7.736E-06 999.89
25
8.905E-04
"
0.9993 9.385E-06
0.007740 1.213E-03 (45.82)
989.82
5.888E-04
0.9995
9.87lE-06 1.358E-03 (45.82)
1.049E-05
0.9997 0.006707 1.585E-03 1.063E-05
50
0.9970 0.067250
1.235E-05 2.127E-03
0.9998 0.005808
100
1.234E-05
3.539E-03 1.621E-05
200
0.9999 0.0045801.620E-05
5.370E-03 2.030E-05
300
1.0000
0.037813

1.790E-03
7.286E-03 997.47
5.472E-04
2.826E-04

600
1.2437
3.855E-05
700
1.1149

15Bar (1SMPa)
0
1.789E-06
7.930E-03
25
8.905E-04
8.929E-07 8.906E-04
5.536E-07
0
988.64
8.784E-03 5
988.42
2.827E-04
2.947E-07
100
6.056E-03 958.81

2.624E-05
3.280E-05

1000.03
8.907E-04
5.4718-04
2.824E-04

3
3

1.409E-05

2.025E-05
2.444E-05
2.858E-05

3.263E-05 0
3.657E-05 0.

1.788E-06 1.789E-03
8.926E-07
1.093E-02 997.69
5.536E-07 5.473E-04
2.948E-07
9.0828-03 959.05

887.15 5.391E-031 1.494E-041 1.684E-071(198.33)1 866.6917.954E-031 1.349E-0411.556E-Of


5.14451
0.92961 1.507E-051 2.929E-061(198.33)1
7.59201
0.9080l
1.572E-051
2.071E-06
200
7.5510
0.9097
1.579E-06
2.091E-07
1.593E-05 3.280E-06
0.9429
4.8566
300
5.8950
0.9619
2.019E-05
3.425E-06
5.210E-06 2.020E-05
0.9751 3.8771
400
4.9262
0.9801
2.441
E-05
4.955E-06
2.442E-05 7.487E-06
0.9869 3.2617
500
4.2526
0.9885
2.858E-05
6.721E-06
2.858E-05 1.012E-05
0.9924
2.8241
1.309E-05
600
3.7486
0.9930
3.265E-05
8.710E-06
0.9953 3.264E-05
2.4932
1.639E-05 700
0.9971 3.659E-05
2.2331
20 Bar (2 MPa)
1000.791 1.585E-021 1.787E-031
997.92 1.456E-02 8.904E-04
5.474E-04
988.86
2.829E-04
959.28
1.059E-02 865.08
1.256E-04
849.85
10.041
7.971

400
500

6.614

800

5.010

700

4.479

0
1.786E-06
8.915E-07 8.898E-04
1.820E-02 998.14
8.923E-07
25
5.539E-07 5.479E-04
1.695E-02 989.08
5.536E-07
1.3566-02 5 0
2.836E-04 2.956E-07
1.513E-02 959.52
2.949E-07
1.211E-02 100
1.554E-07 1.345E-04 1
1.548E-07 1.339E-04 865.47 200
1.424E-07 1.189E-04
1.305E-02 835.19
1.478E-07
1.050E-02 (223.99)
1.330E-06 1.663E-05
1.814E-06 (223.99)
1.621E-05 12.508
0.8888
1.964E-06 1.986E-05
0.9345 10.113
300
2.009E-05 2.52OE-06
0.9485
2.439E-05 2.929E-06
0.9664
3.689E-06 2.440E-05 8.327 400
0.9733
2.861E-05 4.005E-06
0.9807
500
7.144
5.024E-06 2.860E-05
0.9845 5.693
3.270E-05 5.209E-06
0.9882 8.278
600
3.268E-05 6.523E-06
0.9906
3.666E-05 6.537E-06
0.9926
700
5.608
3.665E-05 8.182E-06
0.9941

372

'

Table A-3 Density and Viscosity of Steam and Compressed Water (Continued)
tc

~Z = P V ~ T
50 Bar (5 MPa)

pa.6

v mz/s

1000.31 3.965E-02 1.780E-03 1.779E-06


3.640E-02 8.898E-04
998.26
8.914E-07
990.16 3.386E-02 5.479E-04 5.533E-07
960.68 3.022E-02 2.836E-04 2.952E-07
867.35 2.640E-02 l.345E-04 l.551 E-07

25
50
100
200

"
-

(263.98)
300
400

14.586

500
600

0.9607 2.867E-05 1.966E-06


0.9763 3.281E-05 2.582E-06
0.9853 3.679E-05 3.256E-06

12.709

700

25

11.299
150 Bar (15 MPa)
1007.28 1.181E-01 1.759E-03 1.746E-06
1003.67 1.086E-01 8.881E-04 8.849E-07

50

994.43 1.011E-01 5.495E-04 5.526507

100

965.25 9.024E-02 2.863E-04 2.966E-07


874.60 7.854E-02 1.336E-04 1.528E-07
725.90 7.812E-02 8.832E-05 1.217E-07

200
300

25
50
100
200
300

(342.19)
400
500
600

l
1001.48 7.257E-02 8.889E-04 8.876E-07

992.31 6.757E-02 5.487E-04 5.530E-07


962.98 6.030E-02 2.849E-04 2.959E-07

871.03 5.257E-02 1.357E-04 1.558E-07

715.58 5.2838-02 8.642E-05 1.208E-07

688.63 5.386E-021 8.153E-05 1.184E-07


55.4801
0.6685 2.036E-05 3.670E-07

200 Bar ( 2 0 MPa)

25
50

1.749E-03 1.732E-06
1.571E-01
1005.84 1.445E-01 8.874E-04 8.822E-07
996.53 1.346E-01 5.504E-04 5.523E-07

100
200

967.48 1.200E-01 2.876E-04 2.973E-07


878.10 1.043E-01 1.381 E-04 1.573E-07

300

735.00 1.029E-01 9.006E-05 1.225E-07


491.200 1.381E-01 5.594E-05 1.139E-07
2.729E-05 1.603E-07
0.3984
170.25

2.9276-05 6.088E-07
0.8743

500

40.15

0.9271 3.345E-05 8.331E-07

34.94

0.9559 3.746E-05 1.072E-06

600
700

1009.73

100.54
71.93

2.582E-07
0.7792 2.982E-05 4.146E-07
0.8539 3.391E-05 5.834E-07

0.1959 1.739E-03
1012.14 1.718E-06

0.1802 8.868E-04 8.798E-07

25

58.12
0.8935 3.788E-05 7.600E-07
49.84
300 Bar (30 MPa)
0.1955 1.73lE-03 1.706E-06
1014.53
0.1799 8.864E-04 8.775E-07
1010.11

250 Bar (25 MPa)


1007.99

700

48.08

ZPpvmT
pa*
v mz16
100 Bar (10 MPa)
1004.81 7.894E-02 1.769E-03 1.761E-06
pkgld

500
600

603.50 8.752E-02 6.930E-05 1.148E-07 (365.80)


96.72
0.5461 2.276E-05 2.353E-07 (365.80)
400
63.89
0.7557 2.491E-05 3.899E-07

(342.19)

25

777.52 2.594E-02 9.993E-05 1.285E-07


25.355
0.7955 1.813E-05 7.150E-07 (311.03)
22.073
0.8563 1.986E-05 8.997E-07 (31 1.03)
17.299
0.9304 2.438E-05 1.409E-06 400

(263.98)

700

tc

0.1679 5.513E-04
998.60
5.521E-07

50

1000.66

0.1675 5.523E-04 5.519E-07

l00

969.68

0.1497 2.889E-04 2.979E-07

100

971.86

0.1494 2.902E-04 2.986E-07

200

881.40

1.580E-07

300

743.300

0.1272 9.167E-05 1.233E-07

400

166.630

500

89.900

0.4829 2.900E-05 1.740E-07


0.7793 3.061E-05 3.405E-07

600
700

70.900
60.080

0.8750 3.45OE-05 4.866E-07


0.9265 3.838E-05 6.388E-07

50

1.588E-07
200
884.70
1.393E-04
0.1299 0.'1294
0.1259 9.318E-05 1.241E-07
300
750.90
4.383E-05 1.224E-07
0.2247
400
358.05

1.405E-04

2.751E-07
0.7092 3.520E-05 4.024E-07
0.7601
5.316E-07

3.171E-05

500
600

25

1012.22

0.2513 8.860E-04 8.7538-07

25

1014.30

50

1002.69
974.00

0.2340 5.533E-04 5.518E-07


0.2087 2.915E-04 2.993E-07

50

1004.70

5.517E-07

100

976.12

700

115.26
87.48

73.23
400 Bar (40 MPa)
1019.23

350 Bar (35 MPa)


0.2730 1.722E-03 1.693E-06
1016.89

1.682E-06

1.714E-03

8.858E-04

5.543E-04

0.1805 1.416E-04
887.90
1.595E-07

200

891.00

300

758.00

0.1746 9.461E-05 1.248E-07

300

784.60

0.1978 9.598E-05 1.25EE-07

400

474.90

400

523.70

6.129E-05 1.170E-07
0.2459

500

144..43

0.2372 5.578E-05 1.175E-07


0.6791 3.319E-05 2.298E-07

500

177.97

600

105.15

0.8260 3.602E-05 3.426E-07

600

123.81

0.6299 3.516E-05 1.976E-07


0.8017 3.698E-05 2.987E-07

700

86.78

0.8980 3.955E-05 4.558E-07

700

100.71

0.8843 4.025E-05 3.997E-07

200

3.893E-05

8.733E-07
0.2379 2.928E-04 3.000E-07
0.2056 1.428E-04 1.603E-07

100

2.596E-05

B.l

INTRODUCTION

This appendix is concerned with


the dimensions, unitssystems, and conversion factors needed for the study of fluid mechanics and its applications. A brief history of weights and measures is included,
as well as
descriptions of dimensions, the SI unit system, the U.S. customary system, and last but not least, conversion factors.
The reader who needs only conversion factors should turn to Table
B.l at the end of this appendix. The table is arranged so that common
units can be converted to either the U.S. or SI unit suitable for use in
making calculations employing the equations given in this book.
Section B.4 is intended to provide background information on the SI
system for the reader who is unfamiliar with this system. Those readers
who are proficient in the metric system but not the SI should read this
section.
Section B.5 briefly describes the relation of the U.S. customary units
to English units and to SI units.

8.2

BACKGROUND

The ancient Sumerians (6500-3000 B.C.) devised a numerical system in


order to keep accounts for their temple communities. Their system was
373

374

Appendix B

partly decimal and partly sexagesimal, with


10 and 6 used in an alternating
fashion. This survives today in our division of the circle into 360 parts,
and we still use the sexagesimal basis for angular measurement. TheSumerians were the first to use the notion of 12 subdivisions by dividingthe
day into 30 smaller units to give a total of 360 divisions for one 24-hour
cycle.
Ancient linear units were derived from proportions
of the human body.
The most important of these were the cubit (length of the forearm), the
digit (width ofthe finger), the foot, and the fathom (the distance between
a mans outstretched arms). Sixteen Roman digits made a Roman foot,
but the foot was also subdivided into 12 parts called unciae, which later
became inches. The Romans retained the cubit but rated it at 24 digits.
In the course of time, this became the English yard, which is really a
double cubit. For longer distances, the Romans used a unit of 5000 ft,
which they called mille passus (1000 paces), or a mile.
The oldest weighing apparatus known is a prehistoric Egyptian balance
with limestone weights dating back to 5000 B.C. For several thousand
years, weighing seemsto have beenrestricted to gold and silver and
other
items of great value, whilefor ordinary commercialpurposes, goods were
either counted or measured by volume.We still buy oranges by
the dozen
instead of the pound. The first coins were nothing more than pieces of
previous metal stamped with
a mark of some kindto indicate their weight
and fineness. The pound is still both a monetary unit anda unit of mass
measure. A treatise written at the beginning of the fourteenth century on
English weights and measures begins:
By consent of the whole realm the Kings measure was made so that
an English penny which is called Sterling, round without clipping, shall
weigh thirty-two grainsof dry wheat fromthe middle of the ear; twenty
pence make an ounce andtwelveouncesmake
a poundandeight
pounds makea gallon of wine and eight gallons of wine make
a bushel
of London.
As technology grewin the nineteenth century, there was a great need
for international standardization. In 1872 an international meeting was
held in France and was attended by representatives of 26 countries, including the United States. Out of this meeting came the international
treaty, the Metric Convention, which was signed
by17 countries, including the United States, in 1875. The treaty (a) set up metric standards
for length and mass, (b) established the International Bureau of Weights
and Measures (abbreviated from
the French as BIPM: PM for the French
Poids et Mesures, meaning weights and measures), (c) established the
General Conference of WeightsandMeasures(CGPM),whichmeets

Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Unit

Factors

375

every 6 years, and (d) set up an International Committee of Weights and


Measures (CIPM), which meetsevery 2 years and which implementsthe
recommendations of the General Conference anddirects the activities of
the International Bureau.
8.3 DIMENSIONS

Dimensions represent physical quantities, and units describe their magnitudes. The inch, foot, cubit, yard, fathom, rod, chain, mile, and meter
all describe different magnitudesof the physical quantity whose dimension
is length.In the study of fluid mechanics,interest centers on the following
dimensions:
Dimension
Length
Time
Mass
Force

L
T
M
F

Dimensions for other physical quantities may be established by application of the above dimensions to the definition of the physical quantity,
as shown by the following examples.

Physical quantity
Velocity
Acceleration
Force
Mass

Derivation
Definition
Lengthhime
Velocityltime
Mass-acceleration
Forcelacceleration

LIT = LT"
LT"IT = L T w 2
M s L T - ~= MLT-2 = F
FILT-2 = FL"T2 = M

From this table isitevident that force and massare related by Newton's
second law of motion, so that, in any consistent dimensional system, if
one is chosen as a fundamental dimension,the other is a derived dimension. Two dimensional systems are used in fluid mechanics, the force
system, FLT, and the mass system, MLT. Again, one may derive dimensions for physical quantities by applying themto the definition of the
physical quantity, as shown in the following examples.

Appendix B

376

Physical
Definition
quantity

Force
system
Mass
system

Pressure

Forcelarea

Work

Force-length

F.L = FL

Power

Workltime

FLIT = FLT-

Masslvolume

FL" P / L 3 =
FL-4P
FL" T2/T =
FL" T

Density

'

Mass flow

Massltime

MLT-~IL~

FIL2 = FL-2

ML-~T-~
M L T - ~ - L=
M L T~ML2TW2/T=
ML2T-3
MIL3 = ML-'
MIT = MT"

8.4 SI UNITS
The 1960 Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures defined
an international systemof units, the Syst&meInternationale d'Unites (designated as SI in all languages). This system, with six base units, was
adopted by the official representatives of the 36 participating nations,
including the United States. The seventh base unit, the mole, was adopted
by the fourteenth CIPM in 1972. Since 1964, it has beenthe policy of the
U.S. National Bureauof Standards to use these SI units in its publications,
except where communications mightbe impaired. At present, the American National Standards Institute, the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and most
other American professional engineering societies are requiring that SI
units-be included in their codes and standards along with the U.S. customary units as new documents are being prepared or old ones revised.
The SI system includes three classes of units: base units, supplementary units, and derived units. The seven base units are as follows:
~~

Name
quantity
Physical
Length
kg
Mass
Time
Electric current
Temperature
Luminous intensity
mol of substance
Amount

Symbol
of unit
meter
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
candela
mole

m
S

A
K
cd

377

Dimensions, Unit Systems, Conversion Factors

The base units are defined as follows:


1. Unit of length is the meter, which is the length equal to 1 650 763.73
wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between levels 2pI0and 5ds of the krypton-86 atom. Note: In
conformance withSI practice, one writes the number of wavelengths
in groups of three digits without commas.
2. Unit of mass is the kilogram, which is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, located at the BIPM headquarters.
3. Unit of time is the second, which 5s the duration of 9 192 631 770
periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the
two hyperfine levelsof the ground state of the cesium-l33 atom.
4. Unit of electric current is the ampere, which is that constant current
which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite
length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 meter apart
in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal
to 2 x
newtons per meter of length(newton is a derived unit).
5. Unit of thermodynamic temperature is the kelvin, which is the fraction U273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple pointof
water.
6. Unit of luminous intensity is the candela, which is the luminous intensity, in the perpendicular direction, of a surface of 1/600000 square
meter of a blackbody at the temperature of freezing platinum under
a pressure 101 325 newtons per square meter.
7. Unit of substance is the mole, which is the amount of substance of
a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are
atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12.
The two supplementary units are:
Physical quantity
Plane angle
Solid angle

Name of unit

Symbol

radian
steradian

rad
sr

of interest in the
There are 15 derived units with special names. Those
field of fluid mechanics are
Frequency
Force
Pressure and stress
Work, energy, quantity of
heat
wattPower

hertz
newton
pascal
joule

1 HZ = 1 S - '
1 N = Ikg-m/s2
1 pa = 1 N/m2
1 J = 1 N.m
1 W = 1 J/s

Appendix B

378

Unnamed SI units of special interest in fluid mechanics have been


derived.

nation
a Unit quantity
Physical

Prefix

Area
m2
Volume
m3
meter
Angular velocity
Velocity
Acceleration
Rotational frequency
Momentum
Density
Dynamic viscosity
-Kinematicviscosity
Surface tension
Specific heat capacity
Specific energy

square meter
cubic
radians perradts
second
meters
secondper
meterstsecond
squared
revolutions per second
kilogram-meter
second
perkg-mts
kilogram
cubic
per
meter
kg/m2
pascal-second
square meters per second
newtonstmeter
joules per kilogram-kelvin
J/(kg.K)
joules per Jtkg
kilogram

m/S
m/S2

s-

Pa-s
m2/s
N/m

The SI system requires no conversionfactors, since all physical quantities are described in terms of the base units. Decimal multiples and
submultiples of SI units are formed by means ofthe prefixes givennext.
Factor by which unit is
multiplied
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
C

m
P (mu)
n
P
f
a

One trillion times


One billion times
One million times
One thousand times
One hundred times
Ten times
One tenth of
One hundredth of
One thousandth of
One millionth of
One billionth of
One trillionth of
One thousand trillionth
One million trillionth
of

Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit

379

Prefixes are to be used only with base units, except in the case of the
SI mass unit, which contains the prefix symbol k. Multiples and submultiples of mass are formed by adding the prefixes to the word gram:
for example, milligram (mg) insteadof microkilogram (pkg).
The symbol of a prefix is considered to be combined with the unit
symbol to which it is directly attached, forming with it a symbol for a
new unit, which can be provided with a positive or negative exponent
and which can be combined withother unit symbols to form symbolsfor
compound units. Compound prefixes should not be used; for example,
write nm (namometer) insteadof mpm. Considerthe following examples:
1 cm3
1

( 1 0 - ~ m ) ~= iod6m3
= (10-6s)"
= 106s"
=

1 mm2/s = (io-3m)2/s = 10-6m2/s


Some units not in the SI system have such widespread use and play
such an important rolethat they must be retained for general use. Those
of interest to the field of fluid mechanics are:

SI units

Value
Symbol
Name
min
Minute
Hour
Day
Degree
Minute
Second
Liter
ton
Metric

h
d
0

l
I1

1 min = 60 S
l h = 60min = 3600s
I d = 24h = 86400s
1" = (d180) rad
1' = (1/60)6 = ( d l 0 800)rad
1" = (1/60)' = (d648 000)rad
1C = 1 dm3 =
m3
1 t = IO3 kg

Other units of interest that are to be temporarily accepted for international use are:

Nautical mile
Knot
Bar
Standard atmosphere

1 nautical mile = 1 852 m


1 nautical mile per hour = (1 852/3 600) m/s
1 bar = 0.1MPa = lo5 Pa
1 atm = 101325 Pa

Appendix B

380

CGS units of interest with special names that are not to be used internationally are:

Erg
Dyne
Poise
Stoke

1 erg = 10 J
1 dyn =
N
1 P = 1 dyn-s/cm2 = 0.1 Pass
1 St = 1 cm2/s =
m2/s

dYn
P
St

Other units of interest that are not to be used internationally are:

Torr
Kilogram-force
Calorie

torr
kgf
cal

1 torr = (101 325)/(760) Pa


1 kgf = 9.806
675
N
1 cal = 4.186 8 J

B.5 U S . CUSTOMARY UNITS AND RELATION TO SI UNITS


In the United States the units of weights and lengths commonly employed
are identical for practical purposes with the corresponding Englishunits,
but the capacity units differ from those now in use in the British Commonwealth, the U.S. gallon being defined as 231 cubic inches, and the
bushel as 2150.42* cubic inches, whereas the corresponding British Imperialunits are, respectively, 277.42 cubicinchesand 2219.36 cubic
inches.

Length
By agreement in 1959 among the national standards laboratories of the
English-speaking nations 1 yard was fixed as 0.9144 meters, whence 1
foot equals 0.9144/3, or 0.3048 meters; and 1 inch equals 0.3048 X 100/
12, or 2.54 centimeters.

* The standardU.S.bushel is the Winchester bushel, whichis in cylindricalform,


18.5 in. in diameter and 8 in. deep. The exact capacity is (~/4)(18.5)~(8)
= 684.5
cubic inches (2150.420 172 in.3).

Dimensions, Unit Systems, Conversion Factors

381

Time
The second used in the United States is identical to the SI second.

Mass
The same 1959 agreement that fixed the value of length of the meter also
fixed the value of the pound mass (lbm) as 453.592 37 grams. This same
value wasalso adopted by the Sixth International Steam Table Conference
in 1967 and is the exact conversion for SI units.

382

Appendix B

Table B-l ConversionFactors


Acoeleration

MULTIPLY
I
by
appropriate
factor

U.S. Unit
to

OBTAIN

feet per second per second


kilometers per hour per second
meters per second per second
miles per hour per second
standard gravity

feet
per second
per second
1
9.1 134x10-'
3.2808
1.4667
3.21 74x1O1

SI Unit
meters
per second
per second
3.048~1
0-1
0-1
2.7778~1
1
4.4704~1
0-1
9.8067

Area

OBTAIN

square miles
square millimeters

2.7878~1O7
1.0764~1
0-5

square yards

25900x1OS"
lx10-6
8.3613~10-~

Density
US. Unit
MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
pound mass per
OBTAIN L cubic foot
6.2428~10'
grams per cubic centimeter
6.2428~10-~
kilograms Der cubic meter
O3
pound mass per cubic inch
pound mass per cubic foot
pound mass per U.S. gallon
slugs per cubic foot

7.4805
3.2174~10'

SI Unit

kilogram per
cubic meter
1x103
1
2.7680~10~ 1.728~1
1.6018~10~ 1
1.1983~10~
5.1538~10~

Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit

383

Table B-l Conversion Factors (Continued)


Energy (work, heat)
MULTIPLY
by appropriate
foot-pound
factor
to
unit
thermal
British
calorie
foot-pound
(newton-meter)
I joule

7.7817~10~
3.0880

7.3756~10-l

newton-meter)
x103
1.0551
4.1 868
1.3558
I 1

Energy,specific

SI Unit

MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to

British thermal unit per pound


calorie per
gram
foot-poundforce
Der
Dound
ioule Der kilooram

7.7817~10~
1.4007~1O3

3.3455~10"

2.326~10'

2.9891

Energyhassnltemperature
Gas Constant, Specific Entropy and Specific Heat
MULTIPLY

SI Unit

by appropriate factorto
OBTAIN

U.S. Unit
foot-pound force
per pound mass
perdegree
Rankine

barxcubiccentimeter
gram x kelvin
British thermal units
w u n d mass xdearees Rankine
foot-poundforce
pound mass xdegree Rankine
joule
kilogram x kelvin

1.8588~10'
7.7817~10'

joule per
kilogram
per
keIvin

1x1o2
4.1868~1O3

5.3803

1.8588~10"

384

Appendix B

Table B-l

ConversionFactors (Continued)

Flow Rate, Mass

MULTIPLY

by appropriate factorto
OBTAIN

kilograms
persecond
1x1 0-3
1 2.2046

per minute
per hour
persecond

3 . 6 7 4 3 ~ 0-'
1
6.1239x1 0"

1.6687xlO-*
2.7778~1
4.5359~10-

per second

1.4594~10'
3.2174~10'

grams persecond
per second
kilograms

pounds
mass

SI Unit U.S. Unit


poundsmass
persecond
22046x1 0-3

slugs

Flow Rate, Volume

Force

MULTIPLY
by appropriatefactor to
OBTAIN
dyne
Newton
pound force
poundal

U.S. Unit

SI Unit

pound force

Newton

2.2481~10-~
2.2481x10-'
1
3.1081~10-~

l~lO-~
1

4.4482
1.3826x10-'

Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit

385

Table B-l Conversion Factors (Continued)


Length

I 4

by appropriate
faclor b
ORTAIN
.- _.. - L

--

centimeters
~~

feet
inches

meters

32808x1 0-*
1
8.3333~10"

nautical
miles
(international)

3.2808~1
O3
3.2808
5.280~1
O3
3.2808~10-"
8.0781~1
O3

yards

kilometers
meters
miles
millimeters

Mass

1x10-2
3.048~10"
2 . 5 4 ~ O-'
1
1x1 o3
1

1 .B093x1
o3
1x1012352x1 O3
0"
9.1 44x1

Appendix B

Table B-l ConversionPactors (Continued)

by appropriatefacbrto

I MULTIPLY

U.S. Unit

by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN

atmospheres, standard

water

SI Unit

pound force

Pascals

per squareinch
1.4696~10'

bars
inches of

1 . 0 1 3 2 5 ~O5
1

1.4504~10'

1XI 05

at 39.1 6 "F(3.98 " C)

3.6128x1 Ot

2.4908~10'

at 68 "F(20 "C)

3.6005~10~

2.4886~10'
2 . 9 8 9 0 ~O3
1

"

feet of

at 39.1 6 "F(3.98 C)

4.3354~10"

water

at 68 "F(20 "C]

4.3278~10" 2.9839~1

mercury
at32 "F

centimeters

0C

millimeters

1
4.91 15x10"

inches

O3

.3332xG3

Ot

1.3332~10' 1.9337~1

1.4504~10"

pounds force per square


foot
pounds force per square inch

6.9444~101

4.7880~10'
6.8948~1
O3

Pascals

1.9337~10"

3.3884~10'

Systems,
Conversion
Dimensions,
Factors
Unit
Table'B-l

387

Conversion Factors (Continued)

Specific Volume

MULTIPLY
by appropriate factorb

OBTAIN

I
L

cubiccentimeter .Deraram
cubic inch per pound mass
cubicfoot per poundmass
cubic meter per kilogram

U.S.gallon per poundmass


Surface Tension

MULTIPLY
by appropriate factor to
v
OBTAIN
pounds force per foot
Newton per meter

US. Unit
cubic foot per
pound mass
1.6018~1
o-~
5.7870~10"
1

1.6018~10'
1.3368~10-~

U.S. Unit
pound
force
per foot
1
6.8522~1
0-2

SI Unit
cubic meter
per kilogram
1x1 03 . 6 1 2 7 ~ O-'
1
6.2428~1
o 1
8.3454xlO-'

I SI Unit
I Newton per
meter
1.4594~10'
1

Appendix B

388

Table B-l Conversion Factors (Continued)


Vkawity, Dynamic

by appropriate factorbo

Viscosity, Kinematic

~~

~~~~~

MULTIPLY

by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN ___)

SI Unit

square feet

square meters

1.0764~1
0-S

centistokes 1x1

second
per feet
square

U.S. Unit

square meters persecond

per second per second


0-

9.2903~10-

1.0764~10
1

Volume

MULTIPLY SI Unit

U.S. Unit

by appropriate factor to
OBTAIN

barrels
(42

___)

U.S. gallons)

cubic feet

cubic feet

5.6146

cubicmeters

1.5899~10
2.831 7x10-2

cubic inches

5.7870~1O

1.6387~1O-

cubic meters

3.531 5x10

Gallons, Imperial

1.6054~10

4.5461 x1 0-3

Gallons, U.S.liquid(231in.3)
liters

1.3368x10-

3.7854~10-3

3.531 5x1 0-2

1x10-3

Table C-l Properties of Areas


Table C-2 Values of Flow Areas A and Hydraulic Radius R h for Various
Cross Sections
Table C-3 Properties of Wrought Steel and Stainless Steel Pipe
Table C-4 Properties of 250 psi Cast Iron Pipe
Table C-5 Properties of Seamless Copper Water Tube
Table C-6 Allowable Stress Values for Selected Piping Materials

389

390

Appendix C

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing

CI

391

392

Appendix C

393

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing


Table C-2 Values of Flow Areas A and Hydraulic Radius R h for
Various Cross Sections

$ 3 1

Flowing

h10 = 1
ISquareb-D

1
:-A 1
h 1
--a 2

a-26.34'
a-30.

A = bD

RA bD/l(b
+D)

A-D'

RA= Dl4

1
I I
I -

A-(b+Zh)h
&-(b+%)hl(b+4.472h)
A = ( 6 + 1.732h)h
R I = ( b + 1.732h)h/(b+4h)
A ( 6 + 1.5h)h
&-(b+l.Bh)h/(b+3.606h)

A-(b+h)h
R A ( 6 h)h/(b 2.828h)

e=m
e - 46
8-60

e-9o

R.
A
A

0.26798'
0.4142h'

RI

A = 0.5774h'

Rk

RI

h'

---

0.1294h
0.191Sh
0.2500h
0.3536h

Appendix C

3%

Appendix C

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing


397

398

v)
v)

Q)

cd

.M

31

Appendix C

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing


399

400

Appendix C
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0-0- 0

NmlOPImocum
N
. b-W. '9 m. 0- o? '?
d m m c u " 0 m
mmmmmmmOI

c c " " "

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing

.E
O

.c
D

403

cu

405

c?

!
1

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing

2
l-

g.!.!-

Em
tj

cu

2
W

v)

cu
I
m

Properties of Areas, Pipes, and Tubing

l-

2
m
v)
N

v)

cu

c-:

v)

cd
0

I
cu
4

cu

r
(

cu
r(

407

Appendix C

408

Table C-6 Typical Maximum Allowable Stress Values for Selected


Piping Materials"
Material

Grade

Temperature,
"F

Stress,
psi

Temperature,
"C

Carbon steel-specification A-106


-20 to12,000
600
-29 to 316
37 11,600700
1
427
9,000
800
B
-20 to 600
15,000
-29 to 316
371
14,300
700
427
10,800
800
Low and intermediate alloy steel-specification A-335
C-~Mo
P1
-20 to
13,700
800
- 29 to 427
fCr-4Mo
P2
-20 to
13,700
800
-20 to 427
800427
13,400
900482
12,500
1000538
6,200
l4Cr-fMo-Si
1 P1
-20 to15,000
800
-29 to 427
900482
13,100
1000538
6,500
1100593
3,000
1Cr-4Mo
P12
-20 to15,000
700
-29 to 371
800427
14,700
900482
13,100
1000538
6,500
1100593
2,800
24Cr-1Mo
P22
-20 to 15,000
800
-29 to 427
13,000
900482
1000538
7,800
1100593
4,200
Stainless steel-specification A-213
18Cr-1ONi-Cb
Tp 347
-20 to 100
18,700
-29 to 38
200
93
17,200
300149
16,000
15,000
400204
500260
14,000
13,400
600316
700
37
12,900
1
12,700
800427
12,600
900482
12,500
1000538
9,100
1100593
6,100
1200649 .
A

Stress,
MPa
82.7
80.0
62.0
103.4
98.6
74.5
94.4
94.4
92.4
86.2
42.7
103.4
90.3
44.8
20.7
103.4
101.3
90.3
44.8
19.3
103.4
89.6
53.8
29.0
128.9
118.6
110.3
103.4
96.5
92.4
88.9
87.6
86.9
86.2
62.7
42.1

Stress values are for the solution of text problems only. For actual piping design ANSI
B31.1 "Power Piping" values must be used.

Absolute
pressure, 5
temperature, 7-9
viscosity, 34-35
Acceleration of fluid masses
rotation, 92-97
static, 87
translation, 87-92
Acoustic velocity, 32-34
definition, 32
Adiabatic expansion factor Y,
definition, 190
table, 252-254
Adiabatic flow withfriction,
214-231

Air compressor, 143-144,160


Allowable stress values, selected
piping materials table, 408
American PetroleumInstitute
Gravity (API), 18-20
Archimedes, 97

Area-velocity relations,
compressible fluids, 178-179
incompressible fluids, 177-178
Areas, properties of table,
391-393

Atmosphere
pressure, 5
standard U.S., 64-69
table, 103-104
Average velocity, 110
Barometer, 53-55
Barometric pressure, 5
BaumC gravity (Be), 18-20
Benedict, Robert P., 7
Bernoulli, Daniel, 130
Bernoulli equation, 130
Blades
efficiency, ideal, 174-175
forces on, 171-174
409

410

Index

Bourdon tube gage, 51-53


Buckingham, Edgar, 277
Buckingham ll theorem,
302-306

Bulk modulus of elasticity


definition, 27
ideal gases, 29
liquids, 29-30
Buoyancy, 97-102
Buoyant force, 98-99
Capillarity, 38-41
Cast iron pipe, table, 404
Cauchy, Baron Augustin Louis
de, 290
Cauchy number, 313
Cavitation, 42-44
velocity, 42
Celsius, Anders, 8
Celsius temperature, 8-10
Centrifugal force, 285, 293-296
Centroids of plane areas, 70
Circle, properties of, 390
Coefficient
force, definition, 288
pressure, definition, 288
Compressed water, density and
viscosity of, table,
370-372

Compressibility factor of
compressed water and
steam, table, 370-372
Compressible flow, similarity of,
289-293

Compression shock wave,


202-2 14

Compressors, 143-144,160,
294-296

Continuity equation, 118-123


ideal gas, 123
Convergent-divergent nozzles,
192-203, 209-2 14

isentropic flow calculations,


196-202

Convergent nozzles, 184-188


Conversion factors, table
382-388

Copper water tube, table,


405-406

Corresponding states, principle


of, 25
Critical flow, 182-183
Critical properties of selected
fluids, table, 317-338
dAlembert, Jean, 87
dAlemberts principle, 87
DArcy-Weisbach friction
factor, 216
Density
compressed water and steam,
table, 370-372
definition, 16
Design equations for pipes,
83-86

Diameter, equivalent, 127-129


Dimensional analysis
Buckingham ll theorem,
302-306

fluid machinery, 306, 316


format for, 315
Rayleigh method, 300-302
Dimensionless parameters,
276-3 16

Dimensions, 314, 375-376


of common variables, table,
314

Dynamic similarity, 283-384


Dynamic viscosity, 34-35
Efficiency
blade, 174-175
jet engine, 161
propellers, 168
rocket engine, 164
system, jet engine, 161

411

Index

Elastic force, 285


Elastic solid, 2
Ellipse, properties of, 391
Energy
definition, 12-16
equation, 140-145
internal, 134- 135
isentropic, 150-152
kinetic, 14-15,133-134
potential, 12-14
specific, 133
Engines
rocket, 164
thermal jet, 160-163
Enthalpy, 136
Entropy, 139-140
Equations
Bernoulli, 130
continuity, 118-123
energy, 140-144
Eulers 125
fluid statics, 47-48
ideal gas, 22-24
impulse and momentum,
15-16,152-168

motion, 124-126,129-132
physical, 277-278
real gas, 24-25
Redlich-Kwong, 25-27
Equations of state
ideal gas, 22-24
real gas, 24-25
Redlich-Kwong, 25-27
Equivalent diameter, 127-129
Euler, Leonhard, 106,125,277
Eulers
equation, 125
number, 287-288
Exosphere, 64
Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel, 7
Fahrenheit, temperature, 7-9

Fanning frictionfactor, 216


Fanno line
applications, 214-224
definition, 214-231
equations, 217-223
functions, table, 262-275
Flotation, 97-92
Flow
analysis methods, 115
areas of selected cross
sections, table, 393
curved path, 169-170
incompressible, similarity of,
287-289

Newtonian, 2
non-Newtonian, 2
one dimensional, 111
rate, mass, 118-123
rate, volumetric, 109-110
similarity of compressible,
289-293

similarity of incompressible,
287-289

steady, 106-108
three dimensional, 111
two dimensional, 111
unsteady, 106-108
work, 135- 136
Fluid
dynamics, 124-175
forces, 284-285
ideal, 2
kinematics, 105-123
machinery parameters,
306-311

Newtonian, 2
properties, table, 317-371
statics, 46-104
Foot, definition, 380
Force@)
buoyant, 98-99
centrifugal, 285, 293-296

Index

412

[Force(s)]
coefficient, definition, 288
curved surfaces, liquid, 77-81
elastic, 285
fluid, 284-285
gravity, 285
inertia, 284
moving blades, 171-174
plane areas, liquid, 71-76
pressure, 285
relation to mass, 10
shear, 2
surface tension, 285
vibratory, 285
viscous, 284
Free-body analysis, 99-100
Frequency
structure, 286
wake, 286
Friction factor
DArcy-Weisbach, 216
Fanning, 216
Froude
number, definition, 297
William, 297
Gage pressure, 6
Gallon, definition, 380
Gas dynamics, 176-275
Gas turbine, 160
Gasses
definition, 3
properties of selected, table,
339-368

Geometric similarity, 278-280


Gravity
definition, 11-12
force, 285
specific, 17-20, API, 18-20,
Baum6, 18-20
Half
circle, properties of, 390

[Half]
ellipse, properties of, 391
parabola, properties of, 392
Heat, 139-140
History of units, 373-375
Hydraulic radius
definition, 127
description, 127-129
selected cross sections, table,
393

Hydrometers, 18-20,101-102
Ideal
jet engine, efficiency, 161
plastic, 2
rocket engine, efficiency, 164
Ideal fluid, 2
Ideal gas(es)
bulk modulus of elasticity, 29
continuity equation, 123
equation of state, 22-24
isentropic
energy relations, 150-152
flow, 179-184
process, 2
isobaric
process, 21
specific heats, 148-149
isometric
process, 22
specific heat, 148
isothermal process, 21
polytropic
process, 20-21
specific heart, 150
pressure-height relations,
62-64

processes, 20-22
ratio of specific heats,
149-150

sonic velocity, 34
specific heat, 148-150
viscosity, 36

413

Index

Impulse and momentum, 15-16,


152-168, 204-297
Inclined manometers, 57-58

Incompressible flow, similarity


Of, 287-289
Inertia force, 284
Internal energy, 134-135
International Practical
Temperature Scale, 7-8
Ionosphere, 64
Isentropic
energy relations, 150-152
flow
functions, 184
pipes, limiting flowrate,
191-193

pipes, limiting pressure,


191-193

table, 238-249
ideal gases, 179-184
process, 21
Isobaric process, 21
Isometric process, 22
Isothermal
flow with friction, 231-237
process, 21
Jet engine, 160-163
efficiency, ideal, 161
system efficiency', 161
thrust, 161
useful power, 161
Kelvin, Lord, 8
Kelvin temperature, 8-10
Kilogram, 377, 381
Kinematic similarity, 280-282
Kinematic viscosity, 35-36
Kinetic energy, 14-15,133-134
correction, 115-1 18

Lagrange, Joseph Louis, 106


Liquid(s)
bulk modulus of elasticity,
29-30

force
curved surfaces, 77-81
location, 74-77
plane areas, 71-76
viscosity, 36
Mach, Emst, 178
Mach number, definition, 178
Manometers
applications, 58-62
general, 54-62
inclined, 57-58
U-tube, 55-56,91-92
well-type, 56-58
Mass flow rate, 118-123
Mass, definition, 10, 377, 381
Mesosphere, 64
Meter, definition, 377
Model prototype relations
compressor, 294-296
definition, 278
linear, 297-299
pipes, 279-282
reservoir, 290-293
seaplane, 286
submarine, 288-289
valve, 299
Mole, definition, 377
Momentum and impulse, 15-16,
152-168

Motion and energy equations,


144-145

Newton, definition, 10
Newton's second law of motion,
10-16

Newtonian fluid, 2
Nonflow shaft work, 137-138

414

Index

Non-Newtonian fluid, 2
Normal shock functions, 202,
214

table, 255-261
Normal shock wave, entropy
increase, 207-208
Nozzles
convergent, 184- 188
convergent-divergent,
192-203,

209-2

14

Observed pressure, 6
One dimensional flow, 111
Parabola, properties of, 392
Pascal, Blaise, 47
Phase, 3-4
Physical equations, 277-278
Pipe flow with friction
adiabatic, 214-231
isothermal, 231-237
Pipe properties
cast iron, table,404
seamless copper water tube,
table, 405-406
stainless steel, table, 394-403
wrought steel, table, 394-403
Piping
allowable stress values for
selected materials, table,
408

design equations for, 83-86


schedule numbers, 84-86
stress in, 77-81
thin wall, 81-82
Plastic, ideal, 2
Poiseuille, Jean Louis, 36
Polytropic processes, 20-21
Potential energy, 12-14, 133
Power, useful, jet engine, 161

Pressure
atmospheric, 5
barometric, 6
coefficient, definition, 288
definition, 5
force, 285
gage, 6
height relations
ideal gases, 62-64
incompressible fluids,49-51
sensing devices, 51-62
standard atmospheric, 5
vapor, 42-44
Propellers, 166-169
Properties
fluid mechanics, table, 45
selected fluids, table, 317-371
selected gases, table, 339-368
Proportionality constant, 10-1 1
Prototypes, 278
Pump laws, 307-308
Quarter circle, properties of, 391
Quarter ellipse, properties of,
391

Radius, hydraulic, 127-129


Rankine temperature, 8-10
Rankine, William J., 8
Rayleigh, Lord, 277
Rayleighs method, 300-302
Real gas, equation of state, 24
Rectangle, properties of, 390
Redlich-Kwong equation of
state, 25-27
Reynolds number, 287
Reynolds, Osborne, 287
Rocket engines, 164-165
Saturated properties of selected
fluids, table, 317-338
Saybolt viscosity, 36-38

415

Index

Schedules, piping, 84-86


Second, definition, 377, 381
Shear force, 2
Shear stress, unit, 2
Shock wave, compression,
202-214

SI units, 4-5, 376-380


Similarity
compressible flow, 289-293
dynamic, 283-284
geometric, 278-280
incompressible flow,287-289
kinematic, 280-282
liquid surfaces, 297-299
Slipstream analysis, 166-168
Solid, elastic, 2
Sonic velocity, 32-34
Specific
energy, definition, 133
enthalpy, 136
flow work, 135-136
gravity
American Petroleum
Institute, 18-20
BaumC, 18-20
definition, 17-20
gases, 18
liquids, 18-20
heat
constant pressure, 148-149
constant volume, 148
polytropic, 150
ratio, 149-150
internal energy, 134-135
kinetic energy, 133-134
potential energy, 133
speed
general, 309-312
hydraulic turbines, 310-311
pumps, 309-310
volume, definition, 17
weight, definition, 16

Stagnation, 180-181
Stainless steel pipe, table,
394-403

Standard atmosphere, U. S.,


64-69

table, 103-104
Standard numbers, 285-286
table, 313
Steady flow
definition, 106-108
energy equation, 140-144
shaft work, 138
Steam, density and viscosity of
table, 370-372
Steel pipe properties, table,
394-403

Stokes, George Gabriel, 36


Stratosphere, 64
Streamlines, 108
Streamtubes, 108
Stress
allowable for selected piping
materials, table, 408
pipes, 81-86
tensile in pipes, 81
unit shear, 2
Strouhal number, 286
Structure frequency, 286
Strut, John William, 277
Surface tension, 5 , 38-39, 285
Syst8me Internationale dUnites,
4-5

Temperature
absolute, 7-9
Celsius, 8-10
Fahrenheit, 7-10
Kelvin, 8-10
Rankine, 8-10
Tensile stress in pipes, 81
Thermosphere, 64
Thin wall pipes, 81-82.

416

Index

Thompson, William, 8
Three dimensional flow,111
Time, definition, 377, 381
Tomcelli, Evangelista, 53
Triangle, properties of, 3.90
Troposphere, 64
Tubing, copper water tube,
405-406

Turbine, gas, 160


Two dimensional flow, 111
Unit shear stress, 2
Units of common variables,
table, 314
Units, history of, 373-375
Unsteady flow, 106-108
U. S. Customary Units, 381
U. S. units, 4-5
U-tube manometers, 55-56,
91-92

Vacuum, 6
Vapor pressure, 42-44
Vapors, 3
Velocity
acoustic, 32-34
average, 110

[Velocity]
cavitation, 42-44
profile, 109-115
sonic, 32-34
Vibration, 28
Vibratory force, 285
Viscosity
compressed water and steam,
table, 370-372
dynamic, definition, 34
gases, 36
kinematic, definition, 35
liquid, 36
Saybolt, 36-38
Viscous force, 284
Volume, specific, 17
Volumetric flow rate, 109-110
Wake frequency, 286
Weber, Moritz, 297
Weber number, definition, 297
Weight, 10, 16-17
Well-type manometers, 56-58
Work, 12-16,135-138
Wrought steel pipe properties,
table, 394-403
Yard, definition, 380